WorldWideScience

Sample records for contaminated field site

  1. Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: field measurements and geochemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Julie; Guérin, Valérie; Bataillard, Philippe; van der Lee, Jan; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2010-09-01

    Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  3. Woodlouse locomotor behavior in the assessment of clean and contaminated field sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayley, M.; Baatrup, E. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biological Sciences; Bjerregaard, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1997-11-01

    Specimens of the woodlouse Oniscus asellus were collected at four clean field sites and from a recently closed iron foundry heavily contaminated with zinc, lead, chromium, and nickel. Each of the 30 woodlice per group was housed individually and acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 2 d on a humid plaster of paris substrate. Thereafter, the locomotor behavior of each animal was measured for 4 h employing automated computer-aided video tracking. Linear discriminant analysis of five locomotor parameters revealed average velocity and path length as the principle components separating the polluted site and control animals. Post hoc analysis of the discriminant variable for animals from all five sites showed that the animals from the polluted site where significantly hyperactive when compared to all controls. Further, control animals collected from sites separated by several hundred kilometers were remarkably similar in their locomotor behavior. This preliminary study highlights the potential utility of quantitative analysis of animal locomotor behavior in environmental monitoring.

  4. Activities of the senspol and NICOLE network concerning field investigation at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, C.C.D.F. von [GeoDelft, AB Delft (Netherlands); Alcock, S. [Cranfield Univ. of Silsoe, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    At a European level several networks can be identified aimed at developments and exchange of knowledge relevant to sustainable management of the subsurface. Based on the common interests in the field of site characterisation and monitoring the SENSPOL and NICOLE networks have established links resulting in cooperation in several project-activities. In this presentation two projects will be addressed: - Seville technicalmeeting (Aznacollar mining site). - Bridging gaps between sensor developers and (end) users in a pragmatic approach (GAPS-project). The goal of the Seville technical meeting was to apply the latest sensing technologies at a site contaminated by metal mining activities, to properly evaluate the advances and limitations in the monitoring of contaminated sites for sustainable land management and to determine further steps to commercial exploitation. Some 17 different instruments have been brought including: - Electrochemical sensors using different forms of anodic stripping voltammetry and constant current chronopotentiometry combined with several types of screen printed electrodes. - An amperometric biosensor using screen printed electrodes, which measures toxicity by inhibition effects on urease and its sensitive to Hg(II), Ag(I), Cu(I) and to a lesser extent to Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) and a selectrochemical DNA biosensor measuring overall toxicity. - A luminescent bacterial sensors for measuring the bioavailable fraction of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg, and a bioluminescent fiber optic sensor for Hg and As. - Toxicity testing instruments (Checklight 'ToxScreen Multi-Shot Test, ToxAlert {sup registered} 100 and ToxAlert {sup registered} 10) - A fieldprobe for pH, EC, TDS measurement - A lead automatic analyser AQUAMET using a ion-selective electrode. - Pulse-neutron borehole device in which interaction of neutrons with the surrounding medium can be used to monitor changes. In a two-day field session on the mining site participants were provided

  5. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  6. [The assessment of radionuclide contamination and toxicity of soils sampled from "experimental field" site of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A; Kriazheva, E Iu

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale maps (1:25000) of soil contamination with radionuclides, lateral distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, Fe and Mn water-soluble compounds and soil toxicity in "Experimental field" site of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site were charted. At present soils from studied site (4 km2) according to basic sanitary standards of radiation safety adopted in Russian Federation (OSPORB) do not attributed to radioactive wastes with respect to data on artificial radionuclide concentration, but they do in compliance with IAEA safety guide. The soils studied can not be released from regulatory control due to radioactive decay of 137Cs and 90Sr and accumulation-decay of 241Am up to 2106 year according to IAEA concept of exclusion, exemption and clearance. Data on bioassay "increase of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer biomass production in aqueous extract from soils" show that the largest part of soils from the studied site (74%) belongs to stimulating or insignificantly influencing on the algae reproduction due to water-soluble compounds effect. Toxic soils occupy 26% of the territory. The main factors effecting the algae reproduction in the aqueous extracts from soil are Fe concentration and 90Sr specific activity: 90Sr inhibits but Fe stimulates algae biomass production.

  7. Use of a commercial ranging system in field surveys of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worth, G.M.; Crowell, J.M.; Meddles, A.D.; Jarrett, J.D.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; Moyer, C.

    1984-01-01

    Now, the adaptation of a commercial ranging and tracking system interfaced to these instruments and to an advanced computer graphics system promises another major improvement to the automation of data collection. Contour maps with radiation isopleths and the x-y position of up to eight instrument operators superimposed thereon can be displayed in near real time. A bidirectional data link offers a further improvement in simulation of, and training for, field surveys since previously collected or computer simulated radiation data as a function of position can be transmitted back to the same survey instrument and displayed to the operator in a manner indistinguishable from real-time data. Additionally, simulated instrument malfunctions such as low battery, detector failure, or total failure can be commanded to occur to evaluate operator response to unusual occurrences under the stress of field conditions. This training mode will greatly improve the ability to simulate situations and to train and evaluate operations personnel while eliminating the need to use special sites and potentially hazardous contamination simulants as are used now

  8. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  9. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.

    1996-01-01

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  10. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  11. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may

  12. Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T; Belykh, E; Geras'kin, S; Majstrenko, T

    2012-07-01

    In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg(-1), correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the "Experimental field" and the "Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the "Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contaminated sites: memory loss experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of 50 years, the district of Zurich has financed four projects to catalogue contaminated sites. One lesson is that as soon as there is a new register, the older one fades, so any data that did not get transferred is lost. Several concrete case studies were also presented: - The Glattbrug case, where heavy contamination was discovered to be caused by a carbolineum plant that had been registered at the wrong place and was completely forgotten only 40 years after its closure. - A case where contaminated municipal waste slag was used as compost by wine-growers, and where it was impossible afterwards to find any reliable data concerning the amount or location of compost deliveries. - The Toessegg remediation case, where a number of steel barrels filled with acidic tar were buried above an important aquifer and below grassland. It took the combination of the local level delivering knowledge and the higher political level delivering power to come to action. - The Harwald case, which shows a gap between risk assessment on the one hand and the implementation of results of such risk assessments on the other hand. All of these cases reveal power game between state officials, representatives of the industry, technical experts, politics and the common man. Information may be out there, but not in the right place or not with the right people. It was thus pointed out that RK and M preservation is not only a scientific or a technical problem, but at least as much a social, political, economic, issue. Differences in institutional interests, rivalry, politics and power imbalances play a major role. An important lesson was thus that one may improve the process of archiving, but one also needs to improve the distribution of information and its correct use. The principle of subsidiarity, which delegates power to the lowest competent authority, was judged to be helpful in potentially solving some of these problems, since the international and national level may be too

  14. Field studies to determine acceptable levels of contamination at former UK nuclear testing sites, Maralinga and Emu in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Maralinga and Emu regions of South Australia were used between 1953 and 1961 for the UK nuclear weapon development program. Two types of trials were conducted - the major trials involved the detonation of fission weapons and the minor trials dealt with weapon design and operational safety. In 1986, as a result of the findings of the Royal Commission on Nuclear Testing in Australia, the UK and Australian governments agreed to set up a Technical Assessment Group (TAG) with one American, two Australian and two British members to review the Maralinga-Emu situation. TAG was to advise on a series of clean-up options and their associated costs and examine land-use options ranging from unrestricted use by the traditional Aboriginal land owners to options involving various degrees of administrative and physical control. In its interim report, presented in May 1986, TAG observed that the existing data base was inadequate and suggested a series of field and laboratory studies that would partly correct this situation. Six of these studies were concerned with redefining the existing levels of contamination and establishing acceptable levels of contamination for a range of land-use options. This paper discusses the rationale, organisational support, scope and experimental protocol adopted for each of the six studies

  15. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site

  16. Nutrient and pesticide contamination bias estimated from field blanks collected at surface-water sites in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Quality Networks, 2002–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2017-08-14

    Potential contamination bias was estimated for 8 nutrient analytes and 40 pesticides in stream water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at 147 stream sites from across the United States, and representing a variety of hydrologic conditions and site types, for water years 2002–12. This study updates previous U.S. Geological Survey evaluations of potential contamination bias for nutrients and pesticides. Contamination is potentially introduced to water samples by exposure to airborne gases and particulates, from inadequate cleaning of sampling or analytic equipment, and from inadvertent sources during sample collection, field processing, shipment, and laboratory analysis. Potential contamination bias, based on frequency and magnitude of detections in field blanks, is used to determine whether or under what conditions environmental data might need to be qualified for the interpretation of results in the context of comparisons with background levels, drinking-water standards, aquatic-life criteria or benchmarks, or human-health benchmarks. Environmental samples for which contamination bias as determined in this report applies are those from historical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality networks or programs that were collected during the same time frame and according to the same protocols and that were analyzed in the same laboratory as field blanks described in this report.Results from field blanks for ammonia, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus were partitioned by analytical method; results from the most commonly used analytical method for total phosphorus were further partitioned by date. Depending on the analytical method, 3.8, 9.2, or 26.9 percent of environmental samples, the last of these percentages pertaining to all results from 2007 through 2012, were potentially affected by ammonia contamination. Nitrite contamination potentially affected up to 2.6 percent of environmental samples collected between 2002 and 2006 and

  17. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, C. M

    2004-01-01

    ... can be used in other situations dealing with surface soil contamination. This project included field demonstrations of rhizosphere-enhanced bioremediation of petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POLs...

  18. A quantum cascade laser infrared spectrometer for CO2 stable isotope analysis: Field implementation at a hydrocarbon contaminated site under bio-remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimbaud, Christophe; Noel, Cécile; Chartier, Michel; Catoire, Valéry; Blessing, Michaela; Gourry, Jean Christophe; Robert, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Real-time methods to monitor stable isotope ratios of CO2 are needed to identify biogeochemical origins of CO2 emissions from the soil-air interface. An isotope ratio infra-red spectrometer (IRIS) has been developed to measure CO2 mixing ratio with δ(13)C isotopic signature, in addition to mixing ratios of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O). The original aspects of the instrument as well as its precision and accuracy for the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of CO2 are discussed. A first application to biodegradation of hydrocarbons is presented, tested on a hydrocarbon contaminated site under aerobic bio-treatment. CO2 flux measurements using closed chamber method is combined with the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of the CO2 emission to propose a non-intrusive method to monitor in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In the contaminated area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature δ(13)C suggesting that CO2 comes from petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation. This first field implementation shows that rapid and accurate measurement of isotopic signature of CO2 emissions is particularly useful in assessing the contribution of contaminant degradation to the measured CO2 efflux and is promising as a monitoring tool for aerobic bio-treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Field test of plutonium and thorium contaminated clay soils from the Mound Site using the ACT*DE*CON Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Swift, N.A.; Church, R.H.; Neff, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    A treatability test was run during the summer and fall of 1997 to demonstrate the effectiveness of ACT*DE*CON for removing plutonium and thorium from the clay soils around Mound. ACT*DE*CON is a proprietary solution patented by Selentec. The process utilized a highly selective dissolution of the contaminants by the use of a chemical wash. The pilot scale process involved pretreatment of the soil in an attrition scrubber with ACT*DE*CON solution. This blended solution was then passed through a counter-current extraction chamber where additional contact with ACT*DE*CON solution occurred, followed by a rinse cycle. During this process sand was added to aid contact of the solution with the soil particles. The sand is removed during the rinse step and reused. The chelating agent is separated from the contaminant and recycled back into the process, along with the reverse osmosis permeate. The resulting solution can be further treated to concentrate the contaminant. Three different types of environmental soils were tested -- plutonium and thorium contaminated soils with the natural clay content, and plutonium contaminated soils with a high percentage of fine clay particles. The goal of these tests was to reduce the plutonium levels from several hundreds of pCi/g to between 25 and 75 pCi/g and the thorium from a couple hundred pCi/g to less than 5 pCi/g. The results of these four tests are presented along with a discussion of the operating parameters and the lessons learned relating to full scale implementation at Mound as well as other potential applications of this process

  20. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  1. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  2. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  3. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  4. An Integrated Experimental-Modelling Procedure Applied to the Design of a Field Scale Goethite Nanoparticle Injection for the Remediation of Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, C.; Tosco, T.; Sethi, R.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoremediation is a promising in-situ technology for the reclamation of contaminated aquifers. It consists in the subsurface injection of a reactive colloidal suspension for the in-situ treatment of pollutants. The overall success of this technology at the field scale is strictly related to the achievement of an effective and efficient emplacement of the nanoparticles (NP) inside the contaminated area. Mathematical models can be used to support the design of nanotechnology-based remediation by effectively assessing the expected NP mobility at the field scale. Several analytical and numerical tools have been developed in recent years to model the transport of NPs in simplified geometry and boundary conditions. The numerical tool MNMs was developed by the authors of this work to simulate colloidal transport in 1D Cartesian and radial coordinates. A new modelling tool, MNM3D (Micro and Nanoparticle transport Model in 3D geometries), was also proposed for the simulation of injection and transport of NP suspensions in generic complex scenarios. MNM3D accounts for the simultaneous dependency of NP transport on water ionic strength and velocity. The software was developed to predict the NP mobility at different stages of a nanoremediation application, from the design stage to the prediction of the long-term fate after injection. In this work an integrated experimental-modelling procedure is applied to support the design of a field scale injection of goethite NPs carried out in the framework of the H2020 European project Reground. Column tests are performed at different injection flowrates using natural sand collected at the contaminated site as porous medium. The tests are interpreted using MNMs to characterize the NP mobility and derive the constitutive equations describing the suspension behavior in the natural porous medium. MNM3D is then used to predict NP behavior during the field scale injection and to assess the long-term mobility of the injected slurry. Finally

  5. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  6. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  7. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, Andrea J.; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  8. Vadose zone characterisation at industrial contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Dahan, Ofer; Dassargues, Alain; Vanclooster, Marnik; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. To overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in ...

  9. Quebec's new contaminated sites policy : special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Quebec's new contaminated site policy sets out a broad new set of requirements with which industry will have to comply. The new policy entitled 'Politique de protection des sols et de rehabilitation des terrains contamines' is much more comprehensive and detailed than its 1988 predecessor and contains many new elements. The policy seeks to maintain soil and groundwater quality criteria and focuses on the protection of clean commercial and industrial sites through pollution prevention actions. It also takes into account progress which has been made since the inventory of contaminated sites across Quebec. It considers the characteristics of each site and the problems posed by ongoing disposal of contaminated soils in landfills and advances in treatment technologies. The issue of who is responsible for contaminated sites is addressed and the requirements for responsible parties are described in detail. Risk assessment was also introduced as a tool for remediation planning in some cases. The new policy stresses prevention, and attempts to clearly outline site characterization and remediation duties for new and existing industries that pose potential risk of soil and groundwater contamination. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  11. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Management of radiation contaminated sites: public policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.; Brenot, J.; Hubert, P.

    1999-01-01

    The present document is interested in the management of radio-contaminated sites whom pollution comes essentially from some leftover old controlled practices and more precisely from mining activities relative to uranium and radium and thorium industries. The contaminations coming from atmospheric nuclear explosions and post accidental situations do not come into the field of this document. The management of contaminated sites is tackled in the aspect of radiation protection of populations living near or that could be there in the future. (N.C.)

  13. Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jizhong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold

  14. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  15. Field and analytical data relating to the 1972 and 1978 surveys of residual contamination of the Monte Bello Islands and Emu atomic weapons test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Duggleby, J.C.

    1980-12-01

    Radiation surveys of the Monte Bello Islands test site in Western Australia, and the Emu test site in South Australia, were carried out in 1972 and 1978. The results have been published in ARL reports ARL/TR--010 and ARL/TR--012. The detailed field and analytical data which formed the basis of those publications are given

  16. Phytoremediation options for radioactively contaminated sites evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of the most important site and environmental radioactive contamination problems encountered. ► The potential role of different phytomanagement options is discussed and illustrated with examples. ► The phytomanagement options considered are: soil phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, wetlands and alternative land use. - Abstract: The application of nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for industrial, medical and research purposes have caused significant contamination of certain sites and their environment, which could result in health problems for several centuries if nothing is undertaken to remedy these situations. Except for the immediate environment of the facility, where decontamination activities may be feasible and affordable, the contamination often extents over a vast area and decontamination would be costly and could result in vast amounts of waste. Therefore, more realistic yet efficient remediation options should be searched for of which phytomanagement is among the potential options. A number of phytomanagement approaches will be discussed

  17. National Policies for cleaning up contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.; Jörgens, H.; Lenschow, A.; Liefferink, D.

    2014-01-01

    Policies for the remediation of contaminated sites emerged relatively late as a subfield of environmental protection. The policy area is adjacent to other policies, such as waste policy, which often includes provisions on how to deal with waste dumps, as well as soil and groundwater protection

  18. Contaminants at DOE sites and their susceptibility to bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Skeen, R.S.; Brouns, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    Contaminants at DOE sites encompass a range of common industrial pollutants. However, the prevalence of contaminant mixtures including organics, metals, and radionuclides is relatively unique to DOE's facilities. Bioremediation has been shown to be effective for destruction of many of the organic pollutants. The technology also has promise for application to many of the metals and radionuclides; however, field demonstrations for these applications have not yet been attempted. Because of the complexity of biodegradation of even a single-compound class, little has been done to develop or demonstrate in situ bioremediation technologies for multicompound combinations. The current bioremediation demonstration on CCl 4 and nitrates within the VOC-Arid Integrated Demonstration is one the first efforts to address inorganic and organic co-contaminants simultaneously. Additional research, technology development, and field demonstrations are needed to evaluate the applicability of in situ bioremediation to DOE's most common contaminant mixtures

  19. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering

  20. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  1. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  2. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Nanna I.; Binning, Philip J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L.; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  3. Open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoda, Koichi; Shinozuka, Takashi

    1995-06-01

    An open-field test site with measurement equipment, a turn table, antenna positioners, and measurement auxiliary equipment was remodelled at the CRL north-site. This paper introduces the configuration, specifications and characteristics of this new open-field test site. Measured 3-m and 10-m site attenuations are in good agreement with theoretical values, and this means that this site is suitable for using 3-m and 10-m method EMI/EMC measurements. The site is expected to be effective for antenna measurement, antenna calibration, and studies on EMI/EMC measurement methods.

  4. Resuspension of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated field sediment: release to the water column and determination of site-specific K DOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L; Lohmann, Rainer; Burgess, Robert M; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G

    2011-02-01

    Sediments from the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund site (Massachusetts, USA), contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were resuspended under different water column redox conditions: untreated, oxidative, and reductive. The partitioning of PCBs to the overlying water column was measured with polyethylene samplers and compared to partitioning without resuspension. Greater concentrations of total aqueous (freely dissolved + dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-associated) PCBs were found in all resuspended treatments for PCBs with mid-range K(OW)s, but no difference was observed in total aqueous concentrations among different redox conditions. The magnitude of increased concentrations depended on resuspension time and congener K(OW), but ranged from approximately one to eight times those found without resuspension. In a parallel study, DOC was flocculated and removed from smaller-scale NBH sediment resuspensions. In situ K(DOC)s were determined and used to calculate freely dissolved and DOC-associated fractions of the increase in total aqueous PCB concentrations due to resuspension. The importance of DOC-associated PCBs increased with increasing K(OW). In situ K(DOC)s were approximately one to two orders of magnitude greater than those calculated with a commonly used linear free energy relationship (LFER). The present study demonstrates that resuspension of contaminated sediments releases PCBs to the water column, of which a significant fraction are DOC-associated (e.g., 28, 65, and 90% for PCBs 28, 66, and 110, respectively). Results also imply that site-specific PCB K(DOC)s are superior to those calculated with generic LFERs. © 2010 SETAC.

  5. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  6. An overview of sites contaminated by radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses contamination of land and water by radioactive material which is a subject that has been receiving widespread media attention, and has become the cause of much public anxiety. The contaminated sites can be divided broadly into three groups: Those that are quite old, relatively small in size, and the legacy of non-nuclear industrial activities involved with natural radioactivity, mostly in the early part of the century; the chain of uranium extraction plants used during and shortly after World War II, and the plants and laboratories that comprise the Department of Energy (DOE) research and weapons production complex today. It is the latter group that is the focus of greatest public attention at the present time

  7. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  8. Passive remediation strategies for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.; Eccles, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA is becoming increasingly aware of costs and the limited success of existing remediation strategies. Research teams within the US EPA believe that if passive remediation can be successfully demonstrated, it is a candidate for best available technology. Passive remediation, however, must be demonstrated through the use of monitoring techniques, which demonstrate: contaminants are not moving in the dissolved, adsorbed or free product phase; and contamination is biodegrading in-place. This paper presents a concise monitoring and analysis strategy for passive remediation. Specifically, the paper presents the accuracy, precision and operating range of neutron moderation techniques as a low cost, real-time screening tool to measure the migration of the dissolved phase in soil moisture, the stabilized adsorbed phase and free product movement. In addition, the paper identifies the capillary pressure range through which the dissolved phase will move and identifies techniques for satisfying the risk analysis that movement is not taking place. The rationale for passive remediation taking place is confirmed through a discussion of gas ratios associated with bacterial assimilation of hydrocarbons. Gas ratios which are relatively constant above ground are highly inverted in the subsurface at contamination sites. The use of frequent screening of a vertical geologic profile using least cost techniques and the infrequent analysis of soil gas ratios provides the required data upon which the public will accept passive remediation as best available technology at a particular site. The paper points out that neutron moderation is a high candidate vadose zone monitoring device and identifies alternative techniques using resistivity and dielectric constants, which are in the developmental stage. The economic implications for passive remediation are enormous relative to the excavation and remediation strategies which are currently in use

  9. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  10. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balba, T. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most prevalent contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater are petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper presented bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons as one of the most promising treatment technologies. Petroleum hydrocarbons are categorized into four simple fractions: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes. Bioremediation refers to the treatment process whereby contaminants are metabolized into less toxic or nontoxic compounds by naturally occurring organisms. The various strategies include: use of constitutive enzymes, enzyme induction, co-metabolism, transfer of plasmids coding for certain metabolic pathways, and production of biosurfactants to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. Three case studies were presented: (1) bioremediation of heavy oils in soil at a locomotive maintenance yard in California, involving a multi-step laboratory treatability study followed by a field demonstration achieving up to 94 per cent removal of TPH in less than 16 weeks, (2) bioremediation of light oils in soil at an oil refinery in Germany where a dual process was applied (excavation and in-situ treatment), achieving an 84 per cent reduction within 24 weeks, and (3) bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil in Kuwait which involved landfarming, composting piles, and bioventing soil piles, achieving an 80 per cent reduction within 12 months. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  11. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  12. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites; Contamination radioactive, quelles actions pour les sites pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  13. A Coupled model for ERT monitoring of contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuling; Zhang, Bo; Gong, Shulan; Xu, Ya

    2018-02-01

    The performance of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) system is usually investigated using a fixed resistivity distribution model in numerical simulation study. In this paper, a method to construct a time-varying resistivity model by coupling water transport, solute transport and constant current field is proposed for ERT monitoring of contaminated sites. Using the proposed method, a monitoring model is constructed for a contaminated site with a pollution region on the surface and ERT monitoring results at different time is calculated by the finite element method. The results show that ERT monitoring profiles can effectively reflect the increase of the pollution area caused by the diffusion of pollutants, but the extent of the pollution is not exactly the same as the actual situation. The model can be extended to any other case and can be used to scheme design and results analysis for ERT monitoring.

  14. Land contamination. Technical guidance on special sites: nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.; Steeds, J.; Slade, N.

    2001-01-01

    Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 sets out a regulatory regime for the identification and remediation of land where contamination is causing unacceptable risks to defined receptors. The Environment Agency has a number of regulatory roles under this regime. Where land is designated as a Special Site, as defined in the Contaminated Land (England) Regulations 2000, the Agency will act as the enforcing authority. It is expected that a similar regime will be introduced in Wales during 2001, but the reader should check whether definitions of Special Sites in the Welsh regulations are the same as in the English ones. The Environment Agency's approach to carrying out its regulatory responsibilities is set out in its Part RA Process Documentation,, available on the Agency website (www.environment-agency. gov.uk). This documentation sets out how the Agency intends to carry out its responsibilities under Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990, which came into force in England on 1 April 2000

  15. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer; Flesch, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  16. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Andres D. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Hernandez, Florencio E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2014-08-28

    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  17. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L. [HDR Engineering Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  18. Comparison of field screening techniques with fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, C.; Turriff, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison of four field screening techniques. Field screenings, is an important part of conducting cost-effective and comprehensive site investigations. Regulators limit the use of field screening in lieu of laboratory analyses, in part, because there is little information on the accuracy and precision of field screening techniques. The results here represent a step forward towards a better understanding of the accuracy and practicality of field screening methods. The authors hope that the role of field screening in site investigation will increase as this type of information becomes more available. Innovative techniques for homogenizing soils were used to allow simultaneous analysis of hydrocarbon contaminated soils using field GCs, immunoassays, ''jar headspace'' and ''Lab in a Bag.'' The results shown here illustrate the variability of field screening results and the importance of good method development and operator competency. Certainly more work in this area is needed to truly characterize field screening techniques

  19. Strategies for the management of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butter, K. R.; Fellingham, L. R.; Holdroyd, S. D.; Smith-Briggs, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated land is a small but growing field of activity. Worldwide the activity has been dominated by the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling sites and areas affected by major nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl and Khystym. To date most of the sites in or associated with the UK have been small in scale and have generally involved natural radionuclides. However, with the decommissioning of large areas of many old nuclear industry sites and those associated with the development and production of nuclear weapons and the operations of nuclear submarines, the scale of these operations is set to rise very significantly. This paper addresses key considerations in managing the rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites. It illustrates their significance through examples ranging in scale from a few hectares to tens of thousands of square kilometres. The first example deals with a former waste storage and processing area at Harwell Laboratory. The second covers a risk reduction rehabilitation programme at the former British nuclear weapons test site at Maralinga in Australia. The third assesses the potential for cost-effective countermeasures to reduce aggregate doses received outside the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear reactor site

  20. Radioactive contamination of former Semipalatinsk test site area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'ev, O.I.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear weapon infrastructure elimination activities and related surveys of radioactive contamination are virtually accomplished at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). The radioecological surveys accompanied closure of tunnels which were used for underground nuclear testing at Degelen technical field and elimination of intercontinental ballistic missile silo launchers at Balapan technical field. At the same time a ground-based route survey was carried out at the Experimental Field where aboveground tests were conducted and a ground-based area survey was performed in the south of the test site where there are permanent and temporary inhabited settlements. People dwelling these settlements are mainly farmers. The paper presents basic results of radiological work conducted in the course of elimination activities. (author)

  1. BIOREMEDIATION TREATABILITY STUDIES OF CONTAMINATED SOILS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediationis used frequently at sites contaminated with organic hazardous chemical where releases from processing vessels and the mismanagement of reagents and generated waste have contributed to significant impairment of the environment. At wood treater sites, process reagen...

  2. Contaminated site risk and uncertainty assessment for impacts on surface and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak

    available between sites and choosing between the need for further investigation or remediation. This is a question of prioritizing the sites that pose the greatest risk, and it is a matter of making decisions under uncertainty. Both tasks require a structured assessment of the risk posed by the contaminated...... sites. In a conventional risk assessment of a contaminated site, risk is evaluated by assessing whether a concentration guideline is exceeded at a specific point of compliance in the water resource of interest. If the guideline is exceeded, it is concluded that the site poses a risk. However......, a contaminated site may pose a threat to multiple water resources, or multiple contaminated sites may threaten a single water resource. For more advanced risk assessments, it is therefore relevant to develop methods that can handle this challenge. In this thesis, four contributions are made to the field...

  3. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

    2009-11-01

    The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

  4. Radiological risk assessment of a radioactively contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted at a radioactively contaminated site under current site use conditions and based on the available preliminary radiological characterization data for the site. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Methods for the analysis and remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, M.; Bemporad, E.; Berardi, S.; Marino, A.; Paglietti, F.

    2008-01-01

    In Italy, in recent years, the number of contaminated sites has multiplied disproportionately. In essence, contamination is caused by accidental spills or intentional discharge of pollutants into the soils or waters from industrial activities, or non-controlled deposits of urban and/or industrial waste, mostly part toxic and harmful. Contaminated sites clearly pose risks to human health and the environment; hence the need to remediate these sites. The remediation of soil and water and the restoration of degraded areas are complex operations requiring specific technical and scientific know-how, including knowledge of the methodologies and tools required to tackle problems arising during the different phases of the remediation process. These include, in particular: - health and environmental risk assessment procedures for the quantification of risks to human health (general population and workers) and the environment from a contaminated site; - remote sensing and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which are a fundamentally important IT support for each phase of planning and management of remediation interventions; - criteria for the management of sites contaminated by asbestos, a highly carcinogenic and therefore hazardous substance that was widely used in the past due to its particular mechanical and thermal characteristics; - analysis of the issues relating to waste management in contaminated sites; - relationship between safety procedures for workers and the general population. Identification of the best available techniques for an efficient, integrated management of contaminated sites, which will also take into account the health protection of workers and of the general population living near such sites

  6. Sorption of BTX mixtures to contaminated and uncontaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchrin, C.G.; Koshy, K.; Wojtenko, I.

    1995-01-01

    Both adsorption and desorption studies are being performed examining benzene, toluene, and meta-xylene (BTX) as single components, binary mixtures, and trinary mixture onto both existing contaminated soils as well as some uncontaminated reference soils. The contaminated soils were obtained from an oil refinery site and another industrial site in New Jersey. The oil refinery site soil did not exhibit significant amounts of either benzene, toluene or xylene but was contaminated with other compounds while the other industrial site soil was contaminated with toluene among other compounds. The organic carbon content of the soils ranged from 0.14 to 2.91 percent. Preliminary adsorption studies showed BTX to strongly sorb to these soils. The adsorption studies onto the reference soils also demonstrated the effect of organic matter on adsorption. Sequential batch desorption studies show the BTX to desorb quickly, reaching equilibrium within 48 hours. Long-term uptake and release were not noted with these soil/contaminant systems

  7. Characterization of subsurface sediments at a site of gasoline contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, D.J.; Krauter, P.W.; Jovanovich, M.C.; Lee, K.; Nelson, S.C.; Noyes, C.

    1992-02-01

    The Dynamic Underground Stripping Project combines monitored steam injection and electrical heating to treat in situ a gasoline plume resulting from leakage of an underground storage tank. A preliminary field demonstration of this system was performed at an uncontaminated site (Clean Site) a few hundred feet away with similar geology to that at the Gasoline Spill (GS) area. This paper describes characterization efforts at both sites and highlights what we rearmed at the Clean Site that helped us plan our operations more effectively at the GS. To validate the success of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project, we require a detailed understanding of the physical, geological, hydrological, chemical, and biological nature of the demonstration sites and how these parameters change as a result of the Dynamic Stripping processes. The characterization process should also provide data to estimate the masses of contaminants present and their spatial distribution before and after the remedial process to (1) aid in the planning for placement of injection and extraction wells, (2) provide physical data to develop conceptual models, (3) validate subsurface imaging techniques, and (4) confirm regulatory compliance

  8. Field surveying of radionuclide contamination in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Ammann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements of radionuclides after an accidental contamination of forests assume the capacity for identification of a number of nuclides in varying source geometries. The continuous redistribution of radionuclides in forests through natural processes implies a decrease of prevailing surface contamination of trees and an increase in activity density on the ground. Portable gamma spectrometers have long been based on Na(I) detectors which, due to their low energy resolution, are not the tool for analysis of contamination from accidental releases of fission and activation products in the first days or weeks after a deposition. Data of airborne radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were used for demonstration of initial and later distribution of radionuclides as sources of air Kerma in forests. Forest model (FDMF, PV. 6.0) of the RODOS system was used for the assessment of time-dependent Kerma rate from different forest compartments. The results show the fast reduction of activities of short-lived nuclides and their contributions to the Kerma rate in the first weeks and months. The results also give an estimate for the time needed until a gamma spectrometer with a low energy resolution would give useful information about long-lived radioactivity on the forest floor. An example is given on a portable high resolution semiconductor spectrometer that has suitable characteristics for field surveying also during occurrence of a great number of radionuclides contributing to the gamma spectrum. The needs for further research of a recently deposited radionuclide contamination on forest vegetation and soil, and the efforts for improvement of portable radiation meters and their use in management planning and radioecological research on contaminated forests are discussed. (au)

  9. Study of radionuclide contamination at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, O.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the contamination technical areas of the former Semipalatinsk test site is discussed in details. It is concluded, that radioactive contamination of the Degelen technical area caused by underground nuclear tests is mainly retained within tunnels and cavities. Investigation showed that many tunnel portal areas here are contaminated by radioactive substances. Areas of significantly high contamination levels are also found at the Balapan technical area mainly around borehole sleeves. A serious source of radioactive contamination is tritium in used boreholes and high content of radionuclides produced due to the fission of nuclear device and activation of rocks at crater rim around the Atom lake

  10. Assessment of Soil, Surface-Water, and Ground-Water Contamination at Selected Sites at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelan, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... From shortly after World War II into the 1970's, chemical-warfare agents, high-explosive munitions, and industrial chemicals were tested and disposed of at J-Field by open-pit burning and by high-explosive demolition...

  11. Intermediate-field transport of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.; Kim, C.L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-06-01

    This report is about ''intermediate-field'' transport or the migration of contaminants from arrays of discrete waste packages or sources. In constructing nuclear waste repositories in rock, it may be necessary to place a waste package across a rock fracture, or a rock fracture may develop some time after waste packages have been emplaced. To predict the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminant species from a line of waste packages facing a rock fracture may be important, because such fractures may now be considered a preferential pathway for released radionuclides to re-enter the biosphere. In land disposal of hazardous wastes, individual barrels may contain especially toxic material whose dispersion special attention. We have published analytic solutions for the multidimensional advective transport of contaminants from arrays of waste packages and multiple areal sources into a planar fracture. The results show a near region in which the concentrations vary greatly in the direction transverse to ground-water flow, an intermediate region in which the array can be treated as an infinite plane source of dissolving species, and a far-field region in which the array can be treated as a plane source of finite extent. The array equations have been developed for both porous and fractured media. In this paper we summarize and compare the work with multiple areal sources facing a planar fracture and an array of point sources in porous media. 5 refs., 5 figs

  12. Measurement techniques for radiological characterization of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    1996-09-18

    Once the decision is taken to characterize a contaminated site, appropriate measurement techniques must be selected. The choice will depend on the available information, on the nature and extent of the contamination, as well as on available resources (staff and budget). Some techniques are described on the basis of examples of characterization projects (e.g. Olen area in Belgium).

  13. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  14. Source Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel Contaminated Sites, Technical Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This report assesses the degree to which various types or engineered source-reduction efforts at selected fuel-contaminated sites have resulted in decreasing concentrations of fuel constituents dissolved in groundwater...

  15. Geological characterization of contaminated sites near the city of Horsens, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    characterization of three contaminated sites situated in urban and semi-urban areas around the city of Horsens in corporation with authorities. The existing data from the three field sites include lithological profiles from boreholes. In order to increase the data density, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  16. Oil and gas site contamination risks : improved oversight needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    British Columbia has seen record levels of activities in the oil and gas sector. Upstream petroleum processes include exploration, well completion and production. Site contamination can occur during all of these activities, resulting in potential environmental and human health impacts. Although well operators are responsible by law for site restoration, there is a potential risk that some operators will not fulfill their responsibilities, thereby leaving the province liable for the site restoration costs. In British Columbia, the BC Oil and Gas Commission (OGC) is responsible for managing these risks through oversight activities designed to ensure that industry meets its obligations. The OGC also manages the orphan sites reclamation fund. This report presented an audit of the OGC in order to determine if it is providing adequate oversight of upstream oil and gas site contamination risks. The audit examined whether the agency responsibilities are clear and whether the OGC is fully aware of the environmental and financial risks associated with upstream oil and gas site contamination. The audit also examined if the OGC has established appropriate procedures to oversee the risks and to inform the public of how effectively site contamination risks are being managed. The report presented the audit background, audit expectations, findings, conclusions and recommendations. It was concluded that the OGC's oversight of the environmental and financial risks associated with oil and gas site contamination needs improving. tabs., figs.

  17. Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-03-01

    To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites.

  18. Noninvasive characterization of the Trecate (Italy) crude-oil contaminated site: links between contamination and geophysical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiani, Giorgio; Binley, Andrew; Kemna, Andreas; Wehrer, Markus; Orozco, Adrian Flores; Deiana, Rita; Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo; Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Zschornack, Ludwig; Godio, Alberto; JafarGandomi, Arash; Deidda, Gian Piero

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of contaminated sites can benefit from the supplementation of direct investigations with a set of less invasive and more extensive measurements. A combination of geophysical methods and direct push techniques for contaminated land characterization has been proposed within the EU FP7 project ModelPROBE and the affiliated project SoilCAM. In this paper, we present results of the investigations conducted at the Trecate field site (NW Italy), which was affected in 1994 by crude oil contamination. The less invasive investigations include ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys, together with direct push sampling and soil electrical conductivity (EC) logs. Many of the geophysical measurements were conducted in time-lapse mode in order to separate static and dynamic signals, the latter being linked to strong seasonal changes in water table elevations. The main challenge was to extract significant geophysical signals linked to contamination from the mix of geological and hydrological signals present at the site. The most significant aspects of this characterization are: (a) the geometrical link between the distribution of contamination and the site's heterogeneity, with particular regard to the presence of less permeable layers, as evidenced by the extensive surface geophysical measurements; and (b) the link between contamination and specific geophysical signals, particularly evident from cross-hole measurements. The extensive work conducted at the Trecate site shows how a combination of direct (e.g., chemical) and indirect (e.g., geophysical) investigations can lead to a comprehensive and solid understanding of a contaminated site's mechanisms.

  19. The value of DCIP geophysical surveys for contaminated site investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    an old factory site by combining traditional geological, hydrological, and contaminant concentration data with DCIP surveys. The plume consisted of xenobiotic organic compounds and inorganics. The study assesses benefits and limitations of DCIP geophysics for contaminated site investigations. A 3D......Geophysical methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology to map lithology, hydraulic properties, and contaminant plumes with a high ionic strength. Advances in the Direct Current resistivity and Induced Polarization (DCIP) method allow the collection of high resolution three...... water and below the streambed. Surface DCIP surveys supported the characterization of the spatial variability in geology, hydraulic conductivity and contaminant concentration. Though DCIP data interpretation required additional borehole data, the DCIP survey reduced the number of boreholes required...

  20. Plutonium-contaminated fragments at the Taranaki site at Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Cooper, M.B.; Duggleby, J.C.; Mika, J.F.; Williams, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    A detailed assessment is presented of the distribution of plutonium-contaminated fragments and sub-millimetre particles in the vicinity of the Taranaki site at the former U.K. Atomic Weapons Test Range at Maralinga in South Australia. The area which is contaminated with fragments has been divided into three general regions with the designations 'heavily contaminated', 'moderately contaminated' and 'plumes'. The average surface density, activity and estimated total number of fragments are presented for each region. Average surface densities of all fragments with americium-241 activities greater than 2 kBq are estimated to be 33, 7 and 2 m -2 for the 'heavily contaminated', 'moderately contaminated' and 'plumes' regions respectively. The total number of such fragments is estimated to be in excess of three million which accounts for a total plutonium activity of approximately 0.8 TBq. The implications of these results for a rehabilitation program are discussed

  1. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared

  2. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km 2 , the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km 2 or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km 2 are posted as surface contamination and 10 km 2 are posted as underground contamination

  3. Comparison of microbial contamination at various sites along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at investigating and comparing the microbial contamination levels at various sites in the Plankenburg and Diep Rivers in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sampling of sites along the Plankenburg River started in June 2004 and continued for a period of 1 year until June 2005. Sampling of the Diep ...

  4. Problems of the assessment of contaminated mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichterey, K.; Gehrcke, K.; Kuemmel, M.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany there are numerous relics of former mining activities with enhanced levels of radionuclides of the uranium/radium series. Of special importance are the relics of uranium and other non-ferrous ore mining in the three Federal States of Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. The majority of these relics is situated in densely populated areas. This gives rise to the question whether measures have to be taken to protect the population from detrimental health impacts. Public concern often concentrates on radioactivity. Health impacts may, however, originate from chemically hazardous substances, too. Such substances like, for instance, arsenic, often accompany radioactive contamination in mining relics. Also, mining safety, landscape conservation and other aspects may play a significant role in the decision-making process, especially for large and complex mining sites. This is, however, outside the scope of the present paper, which is confined to the discussion of problems associated with the assessment of mining sites contaminated with both enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides and chemically toxic/carcinogenic substances. Sites with mixed contaminants like mining relics may cause special problems in the assessment of hazards to human health. Different scientific approaches and historic developments led to considerable differences in existing regulations. Both, on the national and international scale efforts are made towards a harmonization. Having reviewed studies carried out in Germany we arrived at the conclusion that generation of a common risk scale for all kinds of hazards seems to be a too challenging problem to be solved within a foreseeable time scale. It is reasonable, at least in principle, to define a unified metric for carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation and harmful chemicals. Even this needs a lot of research work as a basis for adaptations in the legal systems. What seems to be reasonable and in our opinion is much more

  5. Field manual for reclamation of salt contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, M.J.; Lesky, M.; Warren, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Saltwater is often produced with crude oil and must be separated from it at a processing facility prior to deep-well injection. Increasing volumes of saltwater have led to pipeline corrosion and an increasing frequency of saltwater spills. A field manual for treating saltwater-contaminated soil was prepared by the Production Research Department of Esso Resources Canada Limited and Husky Oil Operations Limited. The purpose of the manual is to provide field and plant operations with a practical guide for reclaiming brine spills on mineral (agricultural) soil. The manual covers background scientific theory about how saltwater affects the soil, initial steps for treating new spills, site assessment, and reclamation program design, implementation and monitoring. A sample spill site assessment form is included. 8 refs

  6. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2017-01-01

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 2.5 million potentially contaminated sites in Europe. Of these, approximately 340,000 sites are thought to be contaminated to a degree that may require remediation (Joint Research Center, 2014). Until recently, remediation was considered...... to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment...

  7. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations

  8. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: Results from a pilot-scale on-site trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, Kieran; Cundy, Andrew B.; Hopkinson, Laurence; Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E.; Purdie, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m 3 (ca. 4 tonnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kW h/m 3 , and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or <0.4 Bq/g above background activities). The data show the potential of this method as a low-cost, on-site tool for remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations.

  9. Field demonstration of technologies for delineating uranium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Schwing, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Perry, D.L.; Morris, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort is the evaluation of field screening tools capable of acquiring high resolution information on the distribution of uranium contamination in surface soils in a cost-and-time efficient manner. Consistent with this need, four field screening technologies have been demonstrated at two hazardous waste sites at the FERMCO. The four technologies tested are wide-area gamma spectroscopy, beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). One of the important findings of this demonstration was just how difficult it is to compare data collected by means of multiple independent measurement techniques. Difficulties are attributed to differences in measurement scale, differences in the basic physics upon which the various measurement schemes are predicated, and differences in the general performance of detector instrumentation. It follows that optimal deployment of these techniques requires the development of an approach for accounting for the intrinsic differences noted above. As such, emphasis is given in this paper to the development of a methodology for integrating these techniques for use in site characterization programs as well as the development of a framework for interpreting the collected data. The methodology described here also has general application to other field-based screening technologies and soil sampling programs

  10. Decontamination analysis of a radiologically contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a post-exercise analysis of decontamination options for the NUWAX-83 exercise site. Held in May 1983, the purpose of NUWAX-83 was to evaluate the ability of federal, state and local officials to respond to an accident involving nuclear weapons. A computer program, called DECON, was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and used to conduct the decontamination analysis in November 1983. DECON was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are demonstrated in this paper contribute to its potential usefulness as a planning tool for site restoration. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: 1) using a Quick-Vac option, under which exterior surfaces are vacuumed before it rains; 2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; 3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; 4) requiring that specific methods be used on selected surfaces; 5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and 6) varying clean-up standards according to expected human exposure to the surface

  11. Decontamination analysis of a radiologically contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of decontamination options at the NUWAZX-83 exercise site. Held in May 1983, the purpose of the exercise was to evaluate the ability of federal, state and local officials to respond to a radiological accident involving nuclear weapons. A computer program developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory was used to conduct the decontamination analysis. The program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are demonstrated in this paper contribute to its potential usefulness as a planning tool for site restoration. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) using a Quick-Vac option, under which exterior surfaces are vacuumed before it rains; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring that specific methods be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying clean-up standards according to expected human exposure to the surface

  12. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  13. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  14. Consideration of natural attenuation. In remedation contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    Upon the proposal submitted by ist Standing committee 5 (Contaminated Sites Committee - ALA) the Federal / State Working Group on Soil protection employed an ad hoc subcommittee dealing with considering natural attenuation in remediating contaminated sites and preparing an inter-State position paper. In the present position paper the way how to consider natural attenuation in practical remediation of contaminated sites is described. The systematic approach outlined allows an understandable decision-finding. A way is shown how the competent soil protection authorities may exercise discretion and in the framework of checking the appropriateness of measures may decide on the implementation of MNA based on a MNA concept (MNA = monitored natural attenuation). It is, however, also explained that when carrying out MNA a decision always made in an individual case is concerned which should be made in a close agreement between the obligated party and the authority.

  15. Contaminated Sites by Residues from Romanian Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelian, F.; Georgescu, D.; Vacariu, V.; Popescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Romania, the mining industries of ferrous ore, non-ferrous ore, bauxite, coal, chemical fertilisers, the extraction of natural gas and oil, etc. have a considerable weight in economy. The study lets us know that in these industries, in different by-products and waste from the process, some radionuclides come out. The preliminary data, which are determined in these industries, are compared with those data, which are published by the countries from EU. There were determined uranium, radium and thorium from ore and sterile (ferrous, non-ferrous, bauxite, talc, clay, asbestos, barytine, salt, coal and bituminous schist). Also, there have been determined the radium and the uranium content of waters from non-uraniferous mining sites. The level of radioactive noxa has been informative determined in each mine. The level of the concentrations requires a systematic research and an assessment of the risk and the impact against the environment, the workers, and the public. (author)

  16. Monitored Natural Recovery at Contaminated Sediment Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    extracted metal  SERDP  Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program  SWAC  spatially weighted average concentration  TBT   tributyltin   TTBT... tributyltin ( TBT ) in both field and laboratory settings. Organotins are used as marine antifouling agents and in the manufacture of plastics and other...endpoints as  evidence of risk reduction in the Black River, Ohio.  4‐11  HIGHLIGHT 4‐2. Biotransformation of  tributyltin  to tin in a  freshwater system

  17. Regulatory control in the rehabilitation of contaminated sites in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Suman, H.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this paper is concerning the regulatory control set by the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) for the contaminated sites with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in the oil industries in the northeast of Syria. These sites lie in a desert region with poor population density and low occupancy. The decision was made to use the activity concentration of 226 Ra per unit mass as a measure to identify the need for cleanup. Two limits were set for this purpose so that contamination concentration above the higher limit is defined as waste that has to be excavated from the site, while contamination concentration between the two limits can be dealt with on site. Contamination concentration below the lower limit was looked at as acceptable. Remediation plan to transfer the contaminated soil, with radium concentration over the higher limit, to an engineered disposal pit was adopted. Proper stabilisation measures and environmental monitoring programme were requested by the AECS and considered as essential parts of the remediation plan. (author)

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 573 comprises the two corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-02-GMX Alpha Contaminated Are-Closure in Place and 05-45-01-Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton- Clean Closure. The purpose of this CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 573 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action activities were performed at Hamilton from May 25 through June 30, 2016; and at GMX from May 25 to October 27, 2016, as set forth in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices. Verification sample results were evaluated against data quality objective criteria developed by stakeholders that included representatives from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) during the corrective action alternative (CAA) meeting held on November 24, 2015. Radiological doses exceeding the final action level were assumed to be present within the high contamination areas associated with CAS 05-23-02, thus requiring corrective action. It was also assumed that radionuclides were present at levels that require corrective action within the soil/debris pile associated with CAS 05-45-01. During the CAU 573 CAA meeting, the CAA of closure in place with a use restriction (UR) was selected by the stakeholders as the preferred corrective action of the high contamination areas at CAS 05-23-02 (GMX), which contain high levels of removable contamination; and the CAA of clean closure was selected by the

  19. Discriminative Random Field Models for Subsurface Contamination Uncertainty Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, M.; Abriola, L. M.; Miller, E. L.; De Paolis Kaluza, C.

    2017-12-01

    Application of flow and transport simulators for prediction of the release, entrapment, and persistence of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and associated contaminant plumes is a computationally intensive process that requires specification of a large number of material properties and hydrologic/chemical parameters. Given its computational burden, this direct simulation approach is particularly ill-suited for quantifying both the expected performance and uncertainty associated with candidate remediation strategies under real field conditions. Prediction uncertainties primarily arise from limited information about contaminant mass distributions, as well as the spatial distribution of subsurface hydrologic properties. Application of direct simulation to quantify uncertainty would, thus, typically require simulating multiphase flow and transport for a large number of permeability and release scenarios to collect statistics associated with remedial effectiveness, a computationally prohibitive process. The primary objective of this work is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that employs measured field data to produce equi-probable stochastic representations of a subsurface source zone that capture the spatial distribution and uncertainty associated with key features that control remediation performance (i.e., permeability and contamination mass). Here we employ probabilistic models known as discriminative random fields (DRFs) to synthesize stochastic realizations of initial mass distributions consistent with known, and typically limited, site characterization data. Using a limited number of full scale simulations as training data, a statistical model is developed for predicting the distribution of contaminant mass (e.g., DNAPL saturation and aqueous concentration) across a heterogeneous domain. Monte-Carlo sampling methods are then employed, in conjunction with the trained statistical model, to generate realizations conditioned on measured borehole data

  20. Field testing a soil site field guide for Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. Jones

    1991-01-01

    A site quality evaluation decision model, developed for Allegheny hardwoods on the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, was field tested by International Paper (IP) foresters and the author, on sites within the region of derivation and on glaciated sites north and west of the Wisconsin drift line. Results from the field testing are presented...

  1. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  2. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  3. Sites in the United States contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbarst, A.B.; Blom, P.F.; Chan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the century that radioactive materials have been mined, processed, produced, and utilized, many sites across the US have become contaminated. Such sites include bases and installations of the Department of Defense, weapons production and research facilities of the Department of Energy, properties under the authority of other Federal agencies, privately-owned and governmental facilities that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Agreement States, and sites licensed by or the responsibility of states. This review reports on aspects of work by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others to identify sites contaminated with radioactive materials. It also describes the principal programs that have been instituted to deal with them

  4. Mapping of contaminated sites using mobile gamma spectrometry: Marcassin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, F.; Demongeot, S.; Crosland, E.; Foissard, B.

    2015-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As part of the development of a tool for use in a nuclear emergency, post-accident situations and contaminated sites, the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has designed an instrument for mapping natural and artificial radioactivity in soil using in situ gamma spectrometry. The development of this mobile system is based on various studies initiated by IRSN. The tool, named MARCASSIN (Moyen Autoporteur pour la Realisation de Cartographies de l'Activite Sur Sites contamINes, or automotive resource for mapping radioactivity at contaminated sites), has already been used to characterise various types of sites: contaminated soil (Fukushima), old open-pit mines (centre of France) and environmental sites (Paris region). Mounted on a quad-type vehicle, the instrument is composed of a spectrometer, a radiation meter and a global positioning system. Using coordinates and nuclear data, results are given in the form of mapping indicating type of radionuclides, radioactivity level, dose rate and contamination distribution in real-time. To improve detection level above sites where radioactivity levels are low, the system also is capable of processing data. Two of these methods are as follows: the first, 're-meshing', improves the estimate of soil radioactivity by increasing measurement statistics. The results agree with the reference values (soil samples measured in the laboratory), even for normal environmental levels of radioactivity. The second method, for which a patent is pending, is based on a deconvolution of mapping data. Re-processing deducts the impulse response of MARCASSIN from the radiation flux measurements in order to restore the value sought, which is the soil emission rate by radiological energy or activity. A theoretical example demonstrates the possibilities of this method. (authors)

  5. Remedial technology for contaminated natural gas dehydrator sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosen, B.J.; Korreck, W.M.; Armstrong, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water and soil contamination at many of Michigan's oil and gas well sites has been attributed to natural gas dehydration processes. Since water was once thought to be the only by-product from the dehydration process, condensate from the process was discharged directly to the ground for several years. This condensate was later found to contain benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX), and the process of discharging condensate to the ground was stopped. Many oil and gas well sites had become impacted from the process during this time. Although condensate is no longer discharged to the ground, soil and water contamination still remains at many of these sites. In the last few years, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources has targeted over 90 well sites for assessment of contamination associated with gas dehydration. The results of many of these assessments indicate that soil and ground water have been impacted, and the State of Michigan has mandated cleanup of these sites. Remedial technologies which have been used to contain and/or clean up the sites include excavation and product removal, soil venting, purge and treat, and enhanced biodegradation. This paper is a discussion of the technology, implementation, and results from each of these methods

  6. In Situ Analytical Characterization of Contaminated Sites Using Nuclear Spectrometry Techniques. Review of Methodologies and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Past and current human activities can result in the contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals. The sources of contamination are various. The most important sources for radionuclide release include global fallout from nuclear testing, nuclear and radiological accidents, waste production from nuclear facilities, and activities involving naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Contamination of the environment by heavy metals mainly originates from industrial applications and mineralogical background concentration. Contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals can present a risk to people and the environment. Therefore, the estimation of the contamination level and the identification of the source constitute important information for the national authorities with the responsibility to protect people and the environment from adverse health effects. In situ analytical techniques based on nuclear spectrometry are important tools for the characterization of contaminated sites. Much progress has been made in the design and implementation of portable systems for efficient and effective monitoring of radioactivity and heavy metals in the environment directly on-site. Accordingly, the IAEA organized a Technical Meeting to review the current status and trends of various applications of in situ nuclear spectrometry techniques for analytical characterization of contaminated sites and to support Member States in their national environmental monitoring programmes applying portable instrumentation. This publication represents a comprehensive review of the in situ gamma ray spectrometry and field portable X ray fluorescence analysis techniques for the characterization of contaminated sites. It includes papers on the use of these techniques, which provide useful background information for conducting similar studies, in the following Member States: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania

  7. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  8. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected plants to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using lettuce (Latuca saliva) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments at two facilities in California. At some sites, terrestrial plants were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to plants, phytophagous insects, and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Observations of seed germination and growth were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the lettuce and field-collected plants was evaluated by comparing plant contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Whole-body contaminant concentrations in insects collected on some of the plants in the field were also considered in evaluating the potential for toxicity to insectivorous birds. The study indicated that contaminant uptake was occurring in the field-collected and bioassay plants but not the insects. Site factors in addition to soil contaminant concentration influenced the potential for plant toxicity and bioaccumulation

  9. Methodology for contaminated sites of military activity territories restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Yushchenko, Yu. V.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Major part of Eastern Europe countries meet environmental problems related to sites of military activity. Major part of these sites is characterised with degradation of natural landscapes and contamination of geological environment with toxic and hazardous waste representing actual and potential danger for population and environment. Actual danger is caused with localisation of toxic waste, hazardous materials and waste which are preventing normal land use. Potential danger is related to successive dispersion of contamination in biosphere as well as origin of new derivatives and products having toxic and hazardous properties. The list of such sites and objects comprises bases of land, air and naval forces. These objects include a network of infrastructures: storages of fuels and lubricants (surface, underground), filling stations, pipe lines, reparation stations, garages, decontamination stations, underground storages of different purposes, depots (for ammunition, chemical products), hospitals, constructions, firing grounds (tank, artillery, aircraft bombing etc.) and waste disposal sites. Special programs aimed at military industries and bases contaminated sites remediation have been carrying out in developed countries (USA, United Kingdom, Germany etc.). This experience was used in the frames of joint programs having been founded in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Chesh Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania etc.). (author)

  10. Perspectives on innovative characterization and remediation technologies for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalick, W.W. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Contaminated soil and groundwater have been the subject of legislative attention in the U.S. for about 20 years. Major strides in implementing cleanup programs have been accomplished. From complex abandoned hazardous waste sites to underground petroleum storage tanks to (more recently) Brownfields redevelopment, much assessment and remediation work have been carried out. This paper describes some of the data on the kinds of contamination, media, and technologies deployed to deal with problems at these sites. In addition, it highlights technology partnerships that have evolved to demonstrate and verify site measurement and clean-up technologies and to assure a more robust set of clean-up options. Finally, the advent of the Internet has increased access to a considerable body of publicly available information on the cost and performance of these technologies that might be of interest. (author)

  11. Comparative analysis of on site bioremediation: Alternatives for petroleum contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.E.; Tremaine, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Protection Systems, Inc. has developed a low maintenance, highly effective method to remediate petroleum and hazardous waste contamination of soils. This method combines the use of a slow release chemical oxygen source, along with nutrient amendments for the degradation of contaminants that require oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor. This method has been used successfully in bench and field experiments on creosote. The authors have performed laboratory experiments on diesel fuel. This paper describes rapid (site closure in 2.5 months in cold weather) field degradation of relatively freshly spilled diesel fuel using native bacteria and tailored nutrient amendments

  12. Field sampling for monitoring migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-11-01

    Initial research on compositing, field designs, and site mapping oriented toward detecting spills and migration at commercial low-level radioactive or chemical waste sites is summarized. Results indicate that the significance test developed to detect samples containing high levels of contamination when they are mixed with several other samples below detectable limits (composites), will be highly effective with large sample sizes when contaminant levels frequently or greatly exceed a maximum acceptable level. These conditions of frequent and high contaminant levels are most likely to occur in regions of a commercial waste site where the priors (previous knowledge) about a spill or migration are highest. Conversely, initial investigations of Bayes sampling strategies suggest that field sampling efforts should be inversely proportional to the priors (expressed as probabilities) for the occurrence of contamination

  13. Transforming Ecosystems: When, Where, and How to Restore Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Farag, Aïda M; Cadotte, Marc W; Clements, William H; Smith, James R; Ulrich, Cheryl P; Woods, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems. PMID:26033665

  14. In Situ Magnetic Susceptibility Variations at Two Contaminated Sites: Brandywine, MD and Bemidji, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Y. Y.; Kessouri, P.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Johnson, T. C.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C. D.; Bekins, B. A.; Slater, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical methods are widely used monitoring tools for investigating subsurface processes. Compared to more traditional methods, they are low cost and minimally invasive. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) is a geophysical technique particularly sensitive to the presence of ferri/ ferro-magnetic particles such as iron oxides (e.g., magnetite, hematite and goethite). These oxides can be formed through microbially mediated redox reactions, inducing changes in the soil properties that can be observed by MS measurements. Monitoring MS changes over time provides indications of iron mineral transformations in the ground. These transformations are of particular interest for the characterization of contaminated sites. We acquired borehole MS measurements from two contaminated sites: Brandywine, MD and Bemidji, MN. Active remediation was applied at Brandywine, whereas natural attenuation has been geophysically monitored at Bemidji since 2011 using MS log measurements. High MS values were observed at both sites within the contaminated area only. We hypothesize that this is due to iron reducing bacteria reducing Fe-(III) to Fe-(II) and utilizing contaminants and/or amendments injected as a carbon source. At Bemidji, elevated MS readings were observed in the smear zone and correlate to the presence of magnetite. Furthermore, time-lapse MS observations at Bemidji indicate a decay in signal amplitude over time suggesting further redox transformation into less magnetic particles. For both field examples presented here, we observe variations in magnetic susceptibility within the contaminated areas that can be linked with redox reactions and mineral transformations occurring during the degradation of organic contaminants.

  15. Integrated fate and toxicity assessment for site contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Finster, Molly; Douglas, R.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the fate and toxicity of environmental contaminants is essential to framing practical management decisions. Forms and bioavailable concentrations often change over time due to natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. For some sites, hundreds of contaminants may be of initial interest, and even small projects can involve a substantial number of contaminants. With multiple assessments common, attention to effectiveness and efficiency is important, and integrating fate and toxicity information provides a valuable way to focus the analyses. Fate assessments help identify what forms may be present where and when, while toxicity information indicates what health effects could result if people were exposed. The integration process is illustrated by an application for the Hanford site, to support long-term management decisions for the cesium and strontium capsules. Fate data, health-based benchmarks, and related toxicity information were effectively combined to indicate performance targets for chemicals and radionuclides identified for capsule leachate that could migrate to groundwater. More than 50 relevant benchmarks and toxicity context were identified for 15 of the 17 study contaminants; values for chronic drinking water exposure provided the common basis for selected indicators. For two chemicals, toxicity information was identified from the scientific literature to guide the performance targets. (authors)

  16. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  17. Considering bioavailability in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leita L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many years of research have demonstrated that instead of the total concentration of metals in soil, bioavailability is the key to understand the environmental risk derived by metals, since adverse effects are related only to the biologically available forms of these elements. The knowledge of bioavailability can decrease the uncertainties in evaluating exposure in human and ecological risk assessment. At the same time, the efficiency of remediation treatments could be greatly influenced by availability of the contaminants. Consideration of the bioavailability processes at contaminated sites could be useful in site-specific risk assessment: the fraction of mobile metals, instead of total content should be provided as estimates of metal exposure. Moreover, knowledge of the chemical forms of heavy metals in soils is a critical component in the evaluation of applicability of different remediation technologies such as phytoremdiation or soil washing.

  18. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  19. Ecological risk assessment for radiological and chemical contaminants at a site with historical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Janes, A.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    An Ecological Risk Assessment was carried out for a uranium conversion facility in Ontario, located on a site with a history of contamination. The ERA assessed risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota from exposure to radionuclides and non-radionuclides in soil and groundwater associated with the site. The results indicated no undue risk to aquatic biota from radionuclides. Small potential risks were identified for terrestrial biota at limited locations associated with this industrial site. Recommendations are provided for follow-up risk-informed activities. (author)

  20. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site-generic...... assessments poorly reflect the fate of frequent soil contaminants such as chloroethenes as they exclude the groundwater compartment and assume that the main part escapes to the atmosphere. Another important limitation of the generic impact assessment models is that they do not include the formation......The environmental impacts from remediation can be divided into primary and secondary impacts. Primary impacts cover the local impacts associated with the on-site contamination, whereas the secondary impacts are impacts on the local, regional and global scale generated by the remediation activities...

  1. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Chilton, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  2. Field demonstrations of passive detectors for screening of alpha contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.E.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous sites around the country, DOE and otherwise, that are faced with the daunting task of remediating radiologically contaminated soils and groundwaters. Some of these sites, such as the Nevada Test Site and the Rocky Flats Plant, have contaminants that have been dispersed over wide areas. The costs of the characterization phase alone for such remediation programs can be prohibitive. Therefore there are pressing needs for testing and evaluation of new technologies for screening for radiological contaminants that may offer significant advantages in capital costs, ease of use, sensitivity, ruggedness, and/or reliability. This work reports on laboratory and Field tests of two types of passive alpha detectors, electret ionization chambers (EIC's) and alpha track detectors (ATD's), that have been commercially developed for indoor radon measurements. Previous work documented calibration and measurement protocols developed for these detectors for indoor surface contamination measurements

  3. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  4. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration

  5. Profiling of plants at petroleum contaminated site for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasi, Raymond Oriebe; Atagana, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu

    2018-03-21

    The paucity of information in the literature on the characteristics of plants that could be used for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC)-contaminated sites was the principal reason for this study. The aim of the study was to identify indigenous plants growing in PHC-impacted soil in Umuahia in eastern-Nigeria that have the ability to phytoremediate soils contaminated with hydrocarbons under tropical monsoon climate conditions. A total of 28 native plant species from different families growing in and around hydrocarbon-impacted soil in the vicinity of vandalized pipelines carrying petroleum products were collected and studied for their ability to grow in a hydrocarbon-impacted soil and remove the PHC from the impacted soil. Some of the plants demonstrated the ability to grow in soil with high levels of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), which shows that they may be tolerant to hydrocarbons in soil and could potentially phytoremediate a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana, Chloris barbata, Pasparlum vaginatum, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Cosmos bipinnatus, Eragrostis atrovirens, Cyperus rotundus, and Uvaria chamae showed tendencies to phytoremediate contaminated soil. By using bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) as a measure of phytoremediation, results showed that C. odorata, A. africana, and U. chamae demonstrated the highest potentials to phytodegrade hydrocarbons in soil.

  6. Characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Characterization of the contaminated site is essential before embarking on a programme for its remediation and ultimate restoration. Reliable and suitable data must be obtained regarding the distribution and physical, chemical and nuclear properties of all radioactive contaminants. Characterization data is necessary for assessing the associated radiation risks and is used in support of the required engineering design and project planning for the environmental restoration. In addition, continuing characterization can provide information regarding efficiency of the cleanup methods and influence possible redirection of work efforts. Similarly, at the end of the remediation phase, characterization and ongoing monitoring can be used to demonstrate completion and success of the cleanup process. The suggested methodology represents a contribution attempting to solve the issue of preremediation characterization in a general manner. However, a number of difficulties might make this methodology unsuitable for general application across the diverse social, environmental and political systems in the IAEA Member States. This TECDOC covers the methodologies used to characterize radioactively contaminated sites for the purpose of remediating the potential sources of radiation exposure and assessing the hazards to human health and the environment

  7. Ecological risk assessment of a site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, M.E.; Feniak, N.A.; Willes, R.F.; Moore, C.E.; Mucklow, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aquatic and terrestrial health risks associated with petroleum contamination on a decommissioned military base, contaminated with products ranging from Bunker C oil to aviation fuel, were assessed using a methodology whereby an analytical measurement of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) could be correlated with compositional characterization and thus with toxicity. The constituents of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination represent wide ranges of physical-chemical properties, environmental fate, and toxicity. The composition of TPH can vary greatly, dependent on the sources or fuel types and the interaction of age as well as site- and chemical-specific characteristics in determining the impact of weathering processes. Therefore, a bulk sum analysis of TPH cannot be related to toxicity without characterization of its composition and association of the constituents, and therefore composition, with actual toxicity data. To address this need, the constituents of TPH were represented by surrogate chemicals, with selection based on structure-activity relationships and available toxicity data. Toxicological profiles were developed from governmental regulations and on the published literature for both the aquatic and terrestrial media. Risk characterization consisted of a comparison of water concentration limits and exposure limits, developed for each surrogate, to estimated surrogate concentrations throughout the site. The concentrations of surrogates were extrapolated from TPH composition characterization analyses, conducted at a select number of sampling locations, to bulk sum analyses of TPH at related sampling locations

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  10. Proteomic analysis of Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) exposed to metal contamination in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Emma L.; Taylor, Daisy A.; Nair, Sham V.; Birch, Gavin; Hose, Grant C.; Raftos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used proteomics to assess the impacts of metal contamination in the field on Sydney Rock oysters. Oysters were transplanted into Lake Macquarie, NSW, for two weeks in both 2009 and 2010. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified changes in protein expression profiles of oyster haemolymph between control and metal contaminated sites. There were unique protein expression profiles for each field trial. Principal components analysis attributed these differences in oyster proteomes to the different combinations and concentrations of metals and other environmental variables present during the three field trials. Identification of differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins associated with cytoskeletal activity and stress responses were the most commonly affected biological functions in the Sydney Rock oyster. Overall, the data show that proteomics combined with multivariate analysis has the potential to link the effects of contaminants with biological consequences. - Highlights: ► Sydney Rock oyster haemolymph was analysed by proteomics after metal exposure in 3 field trials. ► 2-DE analysis was used to compare protein profiles between control and contaminated sites. ► Different protein expression profiles were revealed per field trial. ► Principal components analysis attributed profiles to different suites of metals and environmental variables per trial. ► The study highlights the need to do multiple field trials and to combine proteomic and enviro. data. - This study used proteomics to analyse impacts of metal contamination on Sydney Rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) haemolymph in multiple field trials.

  11. Characterization and Remediation of Contaminated Sites:Modeling, Measurement and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. C.; Poyer, I. C.; Christ, J. A.; Zhang, C. Y.; Jawitz, J. W.; Werth, C. J.; Annable, M. D.; Hatfield, K.

    2008-05-01

    The complexity of natural systems makes it impossible to estimate parameters at the required level of spatial and temporal detail. Thus, it becomes necessary to transition from spatially distributed parameters to spatially integrated parameters that are capable of adequately capturing the system dynamics, without always accounting for local process behavior. Contaminant flux across the source control plane is proposed as an integrated metric that captures source behavior and links it to plume dynamics. Contaminant fluxes were measured using an innovative technology, the passive flux meter at field sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids or DNAPLs in the US and Australia. Flux distributions were observed to be positively or negatively correlated with the conductivity distribution, depending on the source characteristics of the site. The impact of partial source depletion on the mean contaminant flux and flux architecture was investigated in three-dimensional complex heterogeneous settings using the multiphase transport code UTCHEM and the reactive transport code ISCO3D. Source mass depletion reduced the mean contaminant flux approximately linearly, while the contaminant flux standard deviation reduced proportionally with the mean (i.e., coefficient of variation of flux distribution is constant with time). Similar analysis was performed using data from field sites, and the results confirmed the numerical simulations. The linearity of the mass depletion-flux reduction relationship indicates the ability to design remediation systems that deplete mass to achieve target reduction in source strength. Stability of the flux distribution indicates the ability to characterize the distributions in time once the initial distribution is known. Lagrangian techniques were used to predict contaminant flux behavior during source depletion in terms of the statistics of the hydrodynamic and DNAPL distribution. The advantage of the Lagrangian techniques lies in their

  12. Off-site contamination at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setaro, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    An upgrade of the radioactive liquid waste system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had been under way for the past several years. One of the upgrades involves the construction of a Monitoring and Control Station (MCS) which will receive waste from an analytical chemistry building prior to the waste being discharged to the main waste processing area. The MCS was located in a radiologically clean area adjacent to the analytical chemistry facility and no monitoring of personnel was necessary. On December 29, 1992, workers became contaminated and left the site prior to the discovery of the contamination. The construction workers were not employees of the Facility Management Contractor, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, but were subcontractor employees answering to the Construction Manager, a different prime contractor

  13. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Binning, Philip John; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-01-01

    the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found...... to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models...... that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert...

  14. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring

  15. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...... by 95% in the upper samplers. Dosage and mixing of Fe-WTR in the soil proved to be difficult in the deeper part of the field, and pore water concentrations of arsenic was generally higher. Despite water logged conditions no increase in dissolved iron or arsenic was observed in the amended soil. Our...... field scale amendment of contaminated soil was overall successful in decreasing leaching of As, Cr and Cu.With minor improvements in the mixing and delivery strategy, this stabilization method is suggested for use in cases, where leaching of Cu, Cr and As constitutes a risk for groundwater...

  16. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, titled Geotechnical Considerations for Radiological Hazard Assessment of WIPP on January 17-18, 1980. During this conference, it was realized that a field trip to the site would further clarify the different views on the geological processes active at the site. The field trip of June 16-18, 1980 was organized for this purpose. This report provides a summary of the field trip activities along with the participants post field trip comments. Important field stops are briefly described, followed by a more detailed discussion of critical geological issues. The report concludes with EEG's summary and recommendations to the US Department of Energy for further information needed to more adequately resolve concerns for the geologic and hydrologic integrity of the site

  17. Management of radio-contaminated sites analysis of various public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.; Brenot, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing public implemented in several countries in the field of the management of site contaminated by radionuclides. An analysis of decision-aiding tools will be made with an emphasis on the making of diagnostic, the choice of the radiation protection principles, the possible recommendations on optimization, the quantitative criteria and levels of action set up and the setting-up of long term monitoring. The management of sites contaminated by radionuclides also requires to express qualitatively and quantitatively the two notions of residual health risk and acceptable risk. This comes ahead of the definition of levels and modes of action. The adequacy between the principles announced and their concrete implementation will be studied in depth for some countries. The following questions will be dealt with. Who are the responsibles for such policies? Who are the different actors and operators of the public policy? Is the public involved in the decision making process? How assessment and decision go off? What are the gaps between the expected results and those obtained? What are the hindering points? Are the principles put forward implemented? Presently decision-aiding tools must fit with the reality of any system of risk management in which officials, public representatives and individuals participate in order to define and implement the solutions. This paper will focus on radioactive contamination but it will also address other types of contamination, such as chemical ones, as some countries make no distinction according to the nature of the contamination. (author)

  18. Mercury pollution in Asia: a review of the contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Feng, X B; Qiu, G L; Shang, L H; Li, Z G

    2009-09-15

    This article describes the mercury contaminated sites in Asia. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury (Hg), responsible for over half of the global emission. Based on different emission source categories, the mercury contaminated sites in Asia were divided into various types, such as Hg pollution from Hg mining, gold mining, chemical industry, metal smelting, coal combustion, metropolitan cities, natural resources and agricultural sources. By the review of a large number of studies, serious Hg pollutions to the local environment were found in the area influenced by chemical industry, mercury mining and gold mining. With the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain), economic (e.g. swift growth) and social factors (e.g. high population density), more effort is still needed to understand the biogeochemistry cycle of Hg and associated health effects in Asia. Safer alternatives and cleaner technologies must be developed and effectively implemented to reduce mercury emission; remedial techniques are also required to restore the historical mercury pollution in Asia.

  19. Remediation and restoration of a thorium and radium contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the remediation and restoration of approximately 130,000 square metres of derelict land in East London, contaminated with radioactive and chemical substances. The land had been the location of a chemical plant operated under different owners for about ninety years. The plant was demolished in the 1970's and lay derelict for approximately 10 years. This site was bought by developers in the late 1980's with the intention of constructing a residential complex, and therefore had to be cleared of contamination such that it could be released for unrestricted use. This paper provides an overview of the initial radiological status of the site, the methodology and safety measures adopted for the decontamination operations with emphasis placed on the various radiological monitoring and sampling regimes and techniques employed for: a) providing on-going evaluation of the decontamination progress, b) the radiological characterisation of the waste arisings in order to identify various available disposal routes, c) ensuring safety for both operators and members of the public during decontamination operations, d) ensuring compliance with the radiological end-point agreed with the authorising department (HMIP) as the final stage of the restoration. (author) 5 figs

  20. Remediation and restoration of a thorium and radium contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, N.C. [WS Atkins Consultants, Epsom Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the remediation and restoration of approximately 130,000 square metres of derelict land in East London, contaminated with radioactive and chemical substances. The land had been the location of a chemical plant operated under different owners for about ninety years. The plant was demolished in the 1970`s and lay derelict for approximately 10 years. This site was bought by developers in the late 1980`s with the intention of constructing a residential complex, and therefore had to be cleared of contamination such that it could be released for unrestricted use. This paper provides an overview of the initial radiological status of the site, the methodology and safety measures adopted for the decontamination operations with emphasis placed on the various radiological monitoring and sampling regimes and techniques employed for: (a) providing on-going evaluation of the decontamination progress, (b) the radiological characterisation of the waste arisings in order to identify various available disposal routes, (c) ensuring safety for both operators and members of the public during decontamination operations, (d) ensuring compliance with the radiological end-point agreed with the authorising department (HMIP) as the final stage of the restoration. (author) 5 figs.

  1. A complete remediation process for a uranium-contaminated site and application to other sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.F.V.; Lu, N.; Kitten, H.D.; Williams, M.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

    1998-01-01

    During the summer of 1996 the authors were able to test, at the pilot scale, the concept of leaching uranium (U) from contaminated soils. The results of this pilot scale operation showed that the system they previously had developed at the laboratory scale is applicable at the pilot scale. The paper discusses these results, together with laboratory scale results using soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Ohio. These FEMP results show how, with suitable adaptations, the process is widely applicable to other sites. The purpose of this paper is to describe results that demonstrate remediation of uranium-contaminated soils may be accomplished through a leach scheme using sodium bicarbonate

  2. A complete remediation process for a uranium-contaminated site and application to other sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F.V.; Lu, N.; Kitten, H.D.; Williams, M.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

    1998-12-31

    During the summer of 1996 the authors were able to test, at the pilot scale, the concept of leaching uranium (U) from contaminated soils. The results of this pilot scale operation showed that the system they previously had developed at the laboratory scale is applicable at the pilot scale. The paper discusses these results, together with laboratory scale results using soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Ohio. These FEMP results show how, with suitable adaptations, the process is widely applicable to other sites. The purpose of this paper is to describe results that demonstrate remediation of uranium-contaminated soils may be accomplished through a leach scheme using sodium bicarbonate.

  3. Field Guide for Evaluating Cottonwood Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.M. Broadfoot

    1960-01-01

    Two field methods have been developed at the Stoneville Research Center for estimating the capability of Midsouth soils to grow eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.). Data for establishing the procedures were collected from 155 plots* at the locations indicated in Figure 1.The methods give site index-that is, tree-growing...

  4. Contaminated site investigation using nuclear technique: a case study of temporary transformer storage sites in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanu, J. K.

    2013-07-01

    Recent introduction of man-made toxic chemicals, and the massive relocation of natural materials to different environmental compartment like soil, ground water and atmosphere, has resulted in severe pressure on the self- cleansing capacity of recipient ecosystems. Various accomulated pollutants and contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of much concern relative to both human and ecosystemm exposure and potential health impact. PCBs which are resistant to degradation and bioremediation accumulated in different niches of the biosphere. This significantly affects the ecological balances and cause adverse health effect on both human and the environment. Temporal transformer storage sites at four locations in Ghana (Tema, Temale, Bolgatanga and Wa) were investigated for PCB contamination using nuclear techniques. Analysis of soil samples from four temporal transformer storage sites revealed that the soil samples from Tema, Tamale, Bolgatanga and Wa were generally sandy with pH and EC ranging between 6.24 - 7.29 and 44.60 - 188.30 respectively. The PCB levels detected in the soil samples from the various locations varied considerably with mean ranging between 7.69 and 51.92 mg/kg. The highest mean PCB level was recorded at the Tema temporal transformer storage site (51.92 mg/kg), whilst the least mean level of 7.69 mg/kg was recorded at Wa storage site. At Tamale the individual levels range between 3.57 mg/kg and 38.70 mg/kg while at Bolgatanga it was 6.85 - 16.30 mg/kg and Wa, 6.08 - 14.70mg/kg. About 9% of soil samples from temporal transformer storage sites analysed had total PCBs concentrations above the 25mg/kg and 33 mg/kg level recommended by the Canadian Council of Ministers of environment (CCME) and EPA Ghana respectively for the protection of environment and human health. Generally, the Levels of PCBs in soil samples were found to decrease with increasing depth at all the temporal transformer storage sites. Results obtained using the EPA's L

  5. A comparison of bioaugmentation and intrinsic in situ bioremediation of a PAH contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, T.; Mortier, N.; Chaparian, M.

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common environmental hazards, naturally occurring in petroleum and its by-products. They are encountered at nearly all UST sites, and present an impediment to the use of cost effective intrinsic in situ bioremediation due to their recalcitrant nature. Even bacteria isolated specifically for their ability to degrade PAHs in the laboratory have shown no significant degradative capabilities in the field. This is due to the unique balance that exists at every contaminated site between the microbial ecology, chemical, physical, and environmental factors. Therefore, bacteria indigenous to the site and acclimated to these environmental parameters should be well suited for use in bioaugmentation. Based on this assumption, a new and innovative approach to bioaugmentation has been developed which consists of a series of scientifically-sound, rational steps in the use of this technology. Initially, careful chemical and biological analyses of site samples are conducted using conventional analytical instrumentation and state-of-the-art microbiological, biochemical, and molecular biological techniques. Bacteria from site samples that demonstrate potential PAH degradative capability are isolated. The bacteria are then enriched in culture and re-introduced to the site with appropriate nutrients. Further, this approach encompasses the proposed guidelines for proving the efficacy of in situ bioremediation as set forth by the National Science Foundation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, data are presented here of a laboratory-scale trial of a PAH contaminated site

  6. A Field Study of NMR Logging to Quantify Petroleum Contamination in Subsurface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, E. L.; Knight, R. J.; Grunewald, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements are directly sensitive to hydrogen-bearing fluids including water and petroleum products. NMR logging tools can be used to detect and quantify petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the sediments surrounding a well or borehole. An advantage of the NMR method is that data can be collected in both cased and uncased holes. In order to estimate the volume of in-situ hydrocarbon, there must be sufficient contrast between either the relaxation times (T2) or the diffusion coefficients (D) of water and the contaminant. In a field study conducted in Pine Ridge, South Dakota, NMR logging measurements were used to investigate an area of hydrocarbon contamination from leaking underground storage tanks. A contaminant sample recovered from a monitoring well at the site was found to be consistent with a mixture of gasoline and diesel fuel. NMR measurements were collected in two PVC-cased monitoring wells; D and T2 measurements were used together to detect and quantify contaminant in the sediments above and below the water table at both of the wells. While the contrast in D between the fluids was found to be inadequate for fluid typing, the T2 contrast between the contaminant and water in silt enabled the estimation of the water and contaminant volumes. This study shows that NMR logging can be used to detect and quantify in-situ contamination, but also highlights the importance of sediment and contaminant properties that lead to a sufficiently large contrast in T2 or D.

  7. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  8. Prioritization and accelerated remediation of groundwater contamination in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.; Ford, B.H.

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site, operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), occupies about 1,450 km 2 (560 mi 2 ) of the southeastern part of Washington State north of the confluence of the Yakima and Columbia Rivers. The Hanford Site is organized into numerically designated operational areas. The 200 Areas, located near the center of the Hanford Site, encompasses the 200 West, East and North Areas and cover an area of over 40 km 2 . The Hanford Site was originally designed, built, and operated to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons using production reactors and chemical reprocessing plants. Operations in the 200 Areas were mainly related to separation of special nuclear materials from spent nuclear fuel and contain related chemical and fuel processing and waste management facilities. Large quantities of chemical and radioactive waste associated with these processes were often disposed to the environment via infiltration structures such as cribs, ponds, ditches. This has resulted in over 25 chemical and radionuclide groundwater plumes, some of which have reached the Columbia River. An Aggregate Area Management Study program was implemented under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order to assess source and groundwater contamination and develop a prioritized approach for managing groundwater remediation in the 200 Areas. This included a comprehensive evaluation of existing waste disposal and environmental monitoring data and the conduct of limited field investigations (DOE-RL 1992, 1993). This paper summarizes the results of groundwater portion of AAMS program focusing on high priority contaminant plume distributions and the groundwater plume prioritization process. The objectives of the study were to identify groundwater contaminants of concern, develop a conceptual model, refine groundwater contaminant plume maps, and develop a strategy to expedite the remediation of high priority contaminants through the implementation of interim actions

  9. Financing Renewable Energy Projects on Contaminated Lands, Landfills, and Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information concerning financing tools and structures, as well as federal financial incentives that may be available for redeveloping potentially contaminated sites, landfills, or mine sites for renewable energy for site owners.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 573 is located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 573 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with non-nuclear experiments and nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 573, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives.

  11. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  12. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  13. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  14. Contamination control and revegetation (Field trials)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Stone, Earl L.

    1986-01-01

    The LLNL/DOE field program at Bikini Atoll began in 1977. The first few years were devoted to developing an adequate data base from which to do an updated dose assessment of Bikini and Eneu Islands. The results indicated that 137 Cs was the most significant radionuclide, actually accounting for more than 90% of the total estimated wholebody and bone marrow dose, and that the terrestrial food chain (especially coconut) was the most significant potential exposure pathway. Strontium-90 accounts for only about 507% of the total bone marrow dose and the transuranics, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am, less than 1%. Thus, if the intake of 137 Cs can be reduced to 10% or less of its current concentration in food crops the radiological dose for Bikini Island would be within federal guidelines. However, samples of vegetation and soil will be analyzed for Sr and the transuranics to ensure an adequate data for evaluation of these radionuclide. In 1980, prior to the formation of the BARC, the goals of our Marshall Island program were extended to include an initial evaluation of methods to reduce the uptake of 137 Cs by food crops and/or reduce the 137 Cs soil inventory. We expanded one of our experiments and added two more when the BARC was formed and additional funding became available for evaluating the rehabilitation of Bikini Atoll

  15. Mapping of contamination at Savannah River Site FBWU by INEEL trolley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.V.; Gehrke, R.J.; Helmer, R.G.; Josten, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU) 643-11G is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) designated site at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Pre-Work Plan Characterization at the FBWU in May 1996 indicated that radiological contamination was present in surface and near surface soils and identified cesium-137, 137 Cs, the unit specific contaminant, as being primarily in the top 15 cm of soil. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sent the dig-face trolley system to SRS where it demonstrated its capability over a 6.1-m (20 ft.) x 9.6-m (30 ft.) area to rapidly map the contamination on-line with its large area plastic scintillation detector. Also, an extended-range (10 keV to 3 MeV) Ge detector was used at selected locations to identify and quantify the 137 Cs contamination. The coordinate locations of each measurement acquired in either the scanning or fixed position mode was obtained with a survey system based on radial encoders. Topography measurements were also made during measurements to permit correction of field of view and activity concentrations for changes in the ground to detector distance

  16. Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo; Villar, Omar Ignacio Felix; Rine, Kyle P; Russell, Mackenzie R; King, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190 is located in Areas 11 and 14 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge; (2) 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall; (3) 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System; and (4) 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area. These sites are being investigated because existing information is insufficient on the nature and extent of potential contamination to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI). The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on August 24, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 190. The scope of the CAU 190 CAI includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling; (2) Conduct radiological and geophysical surveys; (3) Perform field screening; (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (5) If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination; (6) Collect samples of source material, if present

  18. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, ...

  19. Initial site characterization and evaluation of radionuclide contaminated soil waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Sandness, G.A.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of historical records and literature containing information on the contents of 300 Area and North Burial Grounds was completed. Existing records of radioactive waste location, type, and quantity within each burial ground facility were obtained and distributed to cooperating investigators. A study was then initiated to evaluate geophysical exploration techniques for mapping buried waste materials, waste containers, and trench boundaries. Results indicate that a combination of ground penetrating radar, magnetometer, metal detector, and acoustic measurements will be effective but will require further study, hardware development, and field testing. Drilling techniques for recovering radionuclide-contaminated materials and sediment cores were developed and tested. Laboratory sediment characterization and fluid transport and monitoring analyses were begun by installation of in situ transducers at the 300 North Burial Ground site. Biological transport mechanisms that control radionuclide movement at contaminated sites were also studied. Flora and fauna presently inhabiting specific burial ground areas were identified and analyzed. Future monitoring of specific mammal populations will permit determination of dose rate and pathways of contaminated materials contained in and adjacent to burial ground sites

  20. A case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.; Guo, J.; Wu, J.; Wang, J.; Chien, C.; Stahl, R.; Mack, E.; Grosso, N.

    2013-12-01

    A field site in Nanjing, China was selected for a case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation. This site is about 100m long and 100m wide. A chemical plant (1999-2010) at the site manufactured optical brightener PF, 2-Amino-4-methylphenol and 2-Nitro-4-methylphenol, totally three products. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for PPL 126 (126 pollutants in the 'Priority Pollutants List' issued by US EPA). Values of the Dutch Standards were used as the screening criteria for soil and ground water. Low levels of ethylbenezene, chlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4- dichlorobenzene were detected in one soil sample. Concentrations above Dutch Target Value (DTV) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and/or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, phenol, and/or 2,4-dichlorophenol were exhibited in two groundwater samples. The ground water was especially highly impacted by bichlorobenzenes and trichlorobenzenes. The maximum concentration of impacts was 7.3 mg/L of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in groundwater which was 730 times higher than Dutch Intervention Values (DIV). Risk of soil and groundwater at this site was assessed according to the guidelines issued by Chinese MEP and US EPA, respectively. Finally, remedy techniques were selected according to the result of risk assessment and the characteristics of hydrogeology conditions and contaminants.

  1. Development of methods and criteria for a standardized evaluation of contaminated sites and abandoned waste disposal sites particularly concerning their ground water contamination potential. Pt. 1. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerndorff, H.; Schleyer, R.; Arneth, J.D.; Struppe, T.; Milde, G.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated sites should be evaluated to such an extend, that nearly all risks for man and environment can be safely estimated. An assessment for such sites is presented which combines a substance-specific and a site-specific evaluation. It is a standardized path-specific concept in which - as an example - the contamination path ''waste - groundwater - drinking-water'' is investigated and evaluated in detail. Path-specific main contaminants are established on a statistic basis and ranked according to normalized evaluation numbers of 1-100. Their toxicity potential is calculated for which a particular and standardized method was developed. Main contaminants having a high toxicity potential are called priority contaminants. For the most important exposure/usage on this contamination path, the drinking-water catchment, hygienic and toxicologic based standards are presented. Together with site-specific conditions and the also path-specific and normalized transfer/persistency potential of the priority contaminants it is possible to come to a site- and usage/exposure-specific evaluation of individual sites. (orig.) [de

  2. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  3. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contamination from unsaturated soil: Field application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ technique under development at Sandia National Laboratories for removal of ionic contaminants from soil. While to date most other studies of this technique have focused on saturated soils, usually clays, the work at Sandia has been to extend the process to unsaturated sandy soils typical of arid regions. The impetus for this study is a chromate plume located beneath an old Sandia chemical waste landfill. Working in unsaturated soils is complicated by moisture control requirements, both to prevent undesired hydraulic transport of contamination outside the treatment zone and to optimize soil properties for efficient electrokinetic remediation. Two field tests will be discussed. First, a field test in clean soil is in progress to demonstrate moisture control with the Sandia electrode system. The second field demonstration, planned to begin the Fall of 1995, involves chromate removal from a in a chemical waste landfill

  4. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  5. A risk assessment tool for contaminated sites in low-permeability fractured media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John; Jørgensen, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    A risk assessment tool for contaminated sites in low-permeability fractured media is developed, based on simple transient and steady-state analytical solutions. The discrete fracture (DF) tool, which explicitly accounts for the transport along fractures, covers different source geometries...... and history (including secondary sources) and can be applied to a wide range of compounds. The tool successfully simulates published data from short duration column and field experiments. The use for risk assessment is illustrated by three typical risk assessment case studies, involving pesticides...

  6. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site

  7. Field—Based Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Hydrocarbons at Industrially Contaminated Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Rigou

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of organic pollutants in groundwaters should also consider the source of the pollution, which is often a solid matrix such as soil, landfill waste, or sediment. This premise should be viewed alongside the growing trend towards field-based characterisation of contaminated sites for reasons of speed and cost. Field-based methods for the extraction of organic compounds from solid samples are generally cumbersome, time consuming, or inefficient. This paper describes the development of a field-based supercritical fluid extraction (SFE system for the recovery of organic contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from soils. A simple, compact, and robust SFE system has been constructed and was found to offer the same extraction efficiency as a well-established laboratory SFE system. Extraction optimisation was statistically evaluated using a factorial analysis procedure. Under optimised conditions, the device yielded recovery efficiencies of >70% with RSD values of 4% against the standard EPA Soxhlet method, compared with a mean recovery efficiency of 48% for a commercially available field-extraction kit. The device will next be evaluated with real samples prior to field deployment.

  8. In situ groundwater and sediment bioremediation: barriers and perspectives at European contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, Mauro; Verdini, Roberta; Aulenta, Federico; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Agathos, Spiros; Puig, Sebastià; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    This paper contains a critical examination of the current application of environmental biotechnologies in the field of bioremediation of contaminated groundwater and sediments. Based on analysis of conventional technologies applied in several European Countries and in the US, scientific, technical and administrative barriers and constraints which still need to be overcome for an improved exploitation of bioremediation are discussed. From this general survey, it is evident that in situ bioremediation is a highly promising and cost-effective technology for remediation of contaminated soil, groundwater and sediments. The wide metabolic diversity of microorganisms makes it applicable to an ever-increasing number of contaminants and contamination scenarios. On the other hand, in situ bioremediation is highly knowledge-intensive and its application requires a thorough understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and ecology of contaminated soils, groundwater and sediments, under both natural and engineered conditions. Hence, its potential still remains partially unexploited, largely because of a lack of general consensus and public concerns regarding the lack of effectiveness and control, poor reliability, and possible occurrence of side effects, for example accumulation of toxic metabolites and pathogens. Basic, applied and pre-normative research are all needed to overcome these barriers and make in situ bioremediation more reliable, robust and acceptable to the public, as well as economically more competitive. Research efforts should not be restricted to a deeper understanding of relevant microbial reactions, but also include their interactions with the large array of other relevant phenomena, as a function of the truly variable site-specific conditions. There is a need for a further development and application of advanced biomolecular tools for site investigation, as well as of advanced metabolic and kinetic modelling tools. These would allow a

  9. Can Bayesian Belief Networks help tackling conceptual model uncertainties in contaminated site risk assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; McKnight, Ursula S.

    different conceptual models may describe the same contaminated site equally well. In many cases, conceptual model uncertainty has been shown to be one of the dominant sources for uncertainty and is therefore essential to account for when quantifying uncertainties in risk assessments. We present here......A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is the formulation of a conceptual site model. The conceptual model is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modelling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. A conceptual model should...... a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) approach for evaluating the uncertainty in risk assessment of groundwater contamination from contaminated sites. The approach accounts for conceptual model uncertainty by considering multiple conceptual models, each of which represents an alternative interpretation of the site...

  10. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Guzman, Francisco

    1996-11-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One important issue is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These sites areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltens, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost- effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico.

  11. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: Bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One of the important issues is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These site areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltenes, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost-effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico

  12. An evaluation of contaminated estuarine sites using sediment quality guidelines and ecological assessment methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M; Key, P; Wirth, E; Leight, A K; Daugomah, J; Bearden, D; Sivertsen, S; Scott, G

    2006-10-01

    Toxic contaminants may enter estuarine ecosystems through a variety of pathways. When sediment contaminant levels become sufficiently high, they may impact resident biota. One approach to predict sediment-associated toxicity in estuarine ecosystems involves the use of sediment quality guidelines (ERMs, ERLs) and site-specific contaminant chemistry while a second approach utilizes site-specific ecological sampling to assess impacts at the population or community level. The goal of this study was to utilize an integrated approach including chemical contaminant analysis, sediment quality guidelines and grass shrimp population monitoring to evaluate the impact of contaminants from industrial sources. Three impacted sites and one reference site were selected for study. Grass shrimp populations were sampled using a push-netting approach. Sediment samples were collected at each site and analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Contaminant levels were then compared to sediment quality guidelines. In general, grass shrimp population densities at the sites decreased as the ERM quotients increased. Grass shrimp densities were significantly reduced at the impacted site that had an ERM exceedance for chromium and the highest Mean ERM quotient. Regression analysis indicated that sediment chromium concentrations were negatively correlated with grass shrimp density. Grass shrimp size was reduced at two sites with intermediate levels of contamination. These findings support the use of both sediment quality guidelines and site-specific population monitoring to evaluate the impacts of sediment-associated contaminants in estuarine systems.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  14. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Community Solar: An Opportunity to Enhance Sustainable Development on Landfills and Other Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This discussion paper describes the linkage between the need for solar access for some sites, the mechanism of community solar and the opportunities for using formerly contaminated lands, landfills and mine sites for renewable energy.

  16. The field application of an immunoassay-based test for petroleum fuels contamination in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The recent development of low-cost, rapid field analytical tests for petroleum fuels based on immunoassay technology has provided an on-site tool for the cost-effective, accurate assessment of groundwater contamination. The method allows for rapid, direct measurement of contaminant concentration. The method has been used for a variety of applications including surface water runoff testing and groundwater monitoring well siting. The PETRO RISc Water Test can be used to substantially reduce the cost of monitoring well installation. Current, monitoring wells are placed based on knowledge of the location of the source of contamination, the size of the release, the time elapsed since the release began, and the hydrogeology of the site. While the location of the source is generally known with some precision, the hydrogeology of the site and the timing of the release rarely are. This results in the need for an ''educated guess'' regarding the drilling location for monitoring wells that are installed to provide long term feedback on groundwater contamination. The tests have the greatest sensitivity to aliphatic compounds in the range of six to ten carbons and aromatic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and naphthalene

  17. Estimating baseline risks from biouptake and food ingestion at a contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.; Woytowich, K.; Blunt, D.; Picel, M.

    1993-01-01

    Biouptake of contaminants and subsequent human exposure via food ingestion represents a public concern at many contaminated sites. Site-specific measurements from plant and animal studies are usually quite limited, so this exposure pathway is often modeled to assess the potential for adverse health effects. A modeling tool was applied to evaluate baseline risks at a contaminated site in Missouri, and the results were used to confirm that ingestion of fish and game animals from the site area do not pose a human health threat. Results were also used to support the development of cleanup criteria for site soil

  18. Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. F.; Kao, C. M.; Chen, T. Y.; Weng, C. H.; Tsai, C. T.

    2006-06-01

    An oil-refining plant site located in southern Taiwan has been identified as a petroleum-hydrocarbon [mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] spill site. In this study, groundwater samples collected from the site were analyzed to assess the occurrence of intrinsic MTBE biodegradation. Microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of biodegrading MTBE by indigenous microorganisms under aerobic, cometabolic, iron reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Results from the field investigation and microbial enumeration indicate that the intrinsic biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX is occurring and causing the decrease in MTBE and BTEX concentrations. Microcosm results show that the indigenous microorganisms were able to biodegrade MTBE under aerobic conditions using MTBE as the sole primary substrate. The detected biodegradation byproduct, tri-butyl alcohol (TBA), can also be biodegraded by the indigenous microorganisms. In addition, microcosms with site groundwater as the medium solution show higher MTBE biodegradation rate. This indicates that the site groundwater might contain some trace minerals or organics, which could enhance the MTBE biodegradation. Results show that the addition of BTEX at low levels could also enhance the MTBE removal. No MTBE removal was detected in iron reducing and methanogenic microcosms. This might be due to the effects of low dissolved oxygen (approximately 0.3 mg/L) within the plume. The low iron reducers and methanogens (soil) observed in the aquifer also indicate that the iron reduction and methanogenesis are not the dominant biodegradation patterns in the contaminant plume. Results from the microcosm study reveal that preliminary laboratory study is required to determine the appropriate substrates and oxidation-reduction conditions to enhance the biodegradation of MTBE. Results suggest that in situ or on-site aerobic bioremediation using indigenous microorganisms would

  19. Delineation of contaminant plume for an inorganic contaminated site using electrical resistivity tomography: comparison with direct-push technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qing; Deng, Yaping; Shi, Xiaoqing; Sun, Yuanyuan; Duan, Weidong; Wu, Jichun

    2018-03-03

    Precise delineation of contaminant plume distribution is essential for effective remediation of contaminated sites. Traditional in situ investigation methods like direct-push (DP) sampling are accurate, but are usually intrusive and costly. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, as a non-invasive geophysical technique to map spatiotemporal changes in resistivity of the subsurface, is becoming increasingly popular in environmental science. However, the resolution of ERT for delineation of contaminant plumes still remains controversial. In this study, ERT and DP technique were both conducted at a real inorganic contaminated site. The reliability of the ERT method was validated by the direct comparisons of their investigation results that the resistivity acquired by ERT method is in accordance with the total dissolved solid concentration in groundwater and the overall variation of the total iron content in soil obtained by DP technique. After testifying the applicability of ERT method for contaminant identification, the extension of contaminant plume at the study site was revealed by supplementary ERT surveys conducted subsequently in the surrounding area of the contaminant source zone.

  20. The use of modern on-site bioremediation systems to reduce crude oil contamination on oilfield properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, W.W.; Wilson, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Oil-field properties frequently have areas in which the soil has been degraded with crude oil. Soil contaminated in this manner is often considered either a hazardous waste or designated waste under regulatory guidelines. As a result, there is often concern about an owner's liabilities and the financial institution's liabilities whenever oilfield properties are transferred to new operators, abandoned, or converted to other uses such as real estate. There is also concern about the methods and relative costs to remediate soil which has been contaminated with crude oil. Modern, well-designed, soil bioremediation systems are cost effective for the treatment of crude oil contamination, and these systems can eliminate an owner's subsequent liabilities. Compared to traditional land-farming practices, a modern on-site bioremediation system (1) requires significantly less surface area, (2) results in lower operating costs, and (3) provides more expeditious results. Compared to excavation and off-site disposal of the contaminated soil, on-site bioremediation will eliminate subsequent liabilities and is typically more cost effective. Case studies indicate that o-site bioremediation systems have been successful at reducing the crude oil contamination in soil to levels which are acceptable to regulatory agencies in less than 10 weeks. Total costs for on-site bioremediation has ranged from $35 to $40 per cubic yard of treated soil, including excavation

  1. Application of Bayesian geostatistics for evaluation of mass discharge uncertainty at contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troldborg, Mads; Nowak, Wolfgang; Lange, Ida V.; Santos, Marta C.; Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2012-09-01

    Mass discharge estimates are increasingly being used when assessing risks of groundwater contamination and designing remedial systems at contaminated sites. Such estimates are, however, rather uncertain as they integrate uncertain spatial distributions of both concentration and groundwater flow. Here a geostatistical simulation method for quantifying the uncertainty of the mass discharge across a multilevel control plane is presented. The method accounts for (1) heterogeneity of both the flow field and the concentration distribution through Bayesian geostatistics, (2) measurement uncertainty, and (3) uncertain source zone and transport parameters. The method generates conditional realizations of the spatial flow and concentration distribution. An analytical macrodispersive transport solution is employed to simulate the mean concentration distribution, and a geostatistical model of the Box-Cox transformed concentration data is used to simulate observed deviations from this mean solution. By combining the flow and concentration realizations, a mass discharge probability distribution is obtained. The method has the advantage of avoiding the heavy computational burden of three-dimensional numerical flow and transport simulation coupled with geostatistical inversion. It may therefore be of practical relevance to practitioners compared to existing methods that are either too simple or computationally demanding. The method is demonstrated on a field site contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. For this site, we show that including a physically meaningful concentration trend and the cosimulation of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient across the transect helps constrain the mass discharge uncertainty. The number of sampling points required for accurate mass discharge estimation and the relative influence of different data types on mass discharge uncertainty is discussed.

  2. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  3. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  5. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2016-01-01

    data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown...

  6. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. PMID:21139851

  7. Time-dependent performance of soil mix technology stabilized/solidified contaminated site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-04-09

    This paper presents the strength and leaching performance of stabilized/solidified organic and inorganic contaminated site soil as a function of time and the effectiveness of modified clays applied in this project. Field trials of deep soil mixing application of stabilization/solidification (S/S) were performed at a site in Castleford in 2011. A number of binders and addictives were applied in this project including Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), MgO and modified clays. Field trial samples were subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS), BS CN 12457 batch leaching test and the extraction of total organics at 28 days and 1.5 years after treatment. The results of UCS test show that the average strength values of mixes increased from 0-3250 kPa at 28 days to 250-4250 kPa at 1.5 years curing time. The BS EN 12457 leachate concentrations of all metals were well below their drinking water standard, except Ni in some mixes exceed its drinking water standard at 0.02 mg/l, suggesting that due to varied nature of binders, not all of them have the same efficiency in treating contaminated soil. The average leachate concentrations of total organics were in the range of 20-160 mg/l at 28 days after treatment and reduced to 18-140 mg/l at 1.5 years. In addition, organo clay (OC)/inorgano-organo clay (IOC) slurries used in this field trial were found to have a negative effect on the strength development, but were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals. The study also illustrates that the surfactants used to modify bentonite in this field trail were not suitable for the major organic pollutants exist in the site soil in this project. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  10. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances; Guide methodologique: gestion des sites industriels potentiellement contamines par des substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  11. Use of passive alpha detectors to screen for uranium contamination in a field at Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, C.S.; Meyer, K.E.; Gammage, R.B.; Wheeler, R.V.; Salasky, M.; Kotrappa, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a field test of newly developed techniques for inexpensive, in situ screening of soil for alpha contamination. Passive alpha detectors that are commercially available for the detection indoor airborne alpha activity (i.e., 222 Rn) have been modified so they can be applied to the detection of alpha contamination on surfaces or in soils. Results reported here are from an intercomparison involving several different techniques with all measurements being made at the same sites in a field near the formerly used uranium processing facility at Fernald, Ohio, during the summer of 1994. The results for two types of passive alpha detector show that the quality of calibration is improved if soils samples are milled to increase homogeneity within the soil matrices. The correlation between laboratory based radiochemical analyses and quick, field-based screening measurements is acceptable and can be improved if the passive devices are left for longer exposure times in the field. The total cost per measurement for either type of passive alpha detector is probably less than $25 and should provide a cost-effective means for site managers to develop the information needed to find areas with remaining alpha contamination so resources can be allocated efficiently

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  14. Bio-mechanical removing of contaminated soils: a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Maubert, H.; Schulte, E.

    1992-01-01

    If, in spite of safety precautions, a major nuclear accident would occur, countermeasures should be taken to attenuate the impact of radioactive deposits. The European RESSAC program (REhabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an ACcident) aims at studying actions for normal life return in contaminated zones. One of them, called the Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) associates the biological action of turfing plants, producing a dense root-network capable to trap the top contaminated soil particles, and the mechanical efficiency of a turf harvester which can remove only 1 cm of soil. This performance, not associated with other techniques of soil removal such as scrapers or bulldozers, leads to minimize the waste production. The D.V.N is a vegetal cover spread over the contaminated soil, using the hydro-seeding technique. The growing plants are forming a pleasant lawn which may have a positive impact on the public opinion compared to techniques using bitumen mixtures to cover the soil. Field experiments involving labelling solutions of stable molybdenum salts simulating the contamination of the soil have shown that this technique can be applied as well on homogeneous cultivated soil surfaces as on roughly ploughed soils. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Stefan [Florida State University; Prakash, Om [Florida State University; Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University; Overholt, Will [Florida State University; Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Watson, David B [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University

    2011-01-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of ribosomal RNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure, and denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen and sampling season did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter. Results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  16. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Cushing, C.E.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The goals were: (1) determine the variability (both within and between laboratories) for the various bioassay procedures using contaminated soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA); (2) assess variability within and between plots for several assessment techniques (for sampling small mammals, plants, insects including honeybees and microarthropods) so that field studies could be designed to detect a defined biotic change; (3) establish three field plant transects which are apparently (a) contaminated, (b) appear contaminated and (c) could serve as a control; (4) assess the feasibility (in the laboratory) of using Basin F water to contaminate RMA soil artificially, and to supply information for the design of a field plot study in 1983; (5) attempt to obtain preliminary data on any promising field or laboratory bioassessment techniques not currently mentioned in the statement of work; and (6) obtain field data to assess the ecological status of RMA lakes and compare these observations to results from bioassessment testing.

  17. Mechanisms for surface contamination of soils and bottom sediments in the Shagan River zone within former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidarkhanov, A O; Lukashenko, S N; Lyakhova, O N; Subbotin, S B; Yakovenko, Yu Yu; Genova, S V; Aidarkhanova, A K

    2013-10-01

    The Shagan River is the only surface watercourse within the former Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS). Research in the valley of the Shagan River was carried out to study the possible migration of artificial radionuclides with surface waters over considerable distances, with the possibility these radionuclides may have entered the Irtysh River. The investigations revealed that radioactive contamination of soil was primarily caused by the first underground nuclear test with soil outburst conducted at the "Balapan" site in Borehole 1004. The surface nuclear tests carried out at the "Experimental Field" site and global fallout made insignificant contributions to contamination. The most polluted is the area in the immediate vicinity of the "Atomic" Lake crater. Contamination at the site is spatial. The total area of contamination is limited to 10-12 km from the crater piles. The ratio of plutonium isotopes was useful to determine the source of soil contamination. There was virtual absence of artificial radionuclide migration with surface waters, and possible cross-border transfer of radionuclides with the waters of Shagan and Irtysh rivers was not confirmed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maphosa, F.; Lieten, S.; Dinkla, I.; Stams, A.J.M.; Fennel, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes, and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides, and petroleum derivatives. Microbial

  19. Contaminated land in Colombia: A critical review of current status and future approach for the management of contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Espana, Victor Andres; Rodriguez Pinilla, Alfonso R; Bardos, Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2018-03-15

    Environmental contaminants can have negative effects on human health and land, air and water resources. Consequently, there have been significant advances in regulation for protecting the environment in developed countries including the development of remediation frameworks and guidelines. On the other hand, fewer studies have been reported on the risks and health effects of contaminants in developing regions and there is scarce information regarding contaminated land assessment and environmental remediation. Colombia is an important emerging economy and has started to take the first steps towards the development of a framework for the management of contaminated sites and there are opportunities for the country to learn from countries with well-established frameworks such as the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) and for international collaboration with organisations such as CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CARE). We review main pollution issues, current status of contaminated land management in Colombia to identify the gaps in policy and regulation. We also review the UK and US contaminated land policies and regulations to identify the elements of those experiences that could support progress in the country. Finally, we propose recommendations (e.g. risk based approach, soil screening criteria, clean-up funding, liability) for Colombia that could support further development and implementation of a more effective contaminated land management framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site's contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination

  1. A Comparative Approach for Ranking Contaminated Sites Based on the Risk Assessment Paradigm Using Fuzzy PROMETHEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejiang; Kluck, Cheryl; Achari, Gopal

    2009-11-01

    A ranking system for contaminated sites based on comparative risk methodology using fuzzy Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) was developed in this article. It combines the concepts of fuzzy sets to represent uncertain site information with the PROMETHEE, a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods. Criteria are identified based on a combination of the attributes (toxicity, exposure, and receptors) associated with the potential human health and ecological risks posed by contaminated sites, chemical properties, site geology and hydrogeology and contaminant transport phenomena. Original site data are directly used avoiding the subjective assignment of scores to site attributes. When the input data are numeric and crisp the PROMETHEE method can be used. The Fuzzy PROMETHEE method is preferred when substantial uncertainties and subjectivities exist in site information. The PROMETHEE and fuzzy PROMETHEE methods are both used in this research to compare the sites. The case study shows that this methodology provides reasonable results.

  2. Basis of the detection, assessment and cleaning up of sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmano, W.; Foerstner, U.

    1993-01-01

    The cleaning up of sites contaminated with heavy metals is still in its infancy. Depending on the type and extent of the contamination, new methods of treatment must be developed and matched to each situation. A survey is given of the groundwater contamination of soil heavy metals; the binding, availability and mobilisation of heavy metals; geo-chemical concepts for sites contaminated by heavy metals; judging the potential danger; safety measures; cleaning up processes and the reinstatement and renaturing of the soil. (orig.) [de

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  5. Feedback on the radiological management of a urban site contaminated with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprieur, F.; Pierrard, O. [Institut de radioportection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    of tritium measurements obtained at the end of each campaign. Feedback: This unusual incident, classified as level 2 on the INES scale, led to activate the IRSN technical crisis Center to handle referrals and manage relationships with the CEA and the authorities. He also mobilized many teams of the institute to manage in parallel both health and environmental aspects. Capacity for mobilization of the IRSN has been tested in situ during the first days following the discovery of the contamination. Following this event, the IRSN has improved its equipment able to measure tritium directly in laboratories trucks at low level. If this technical response seemed necessary in the early hours, feedback has demonstrate that it was also important to be available to answer local authorities and the public without trivializing this event despite its negligible health impact. The psycho-social dimension of the incident and its consequences for residents in 2013 still require a presence of IRSN on the field. Finally, the involvement of stakeholders and the public information was one of the main lessons related to the management of a contaminated urban site. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Remediation Of Radioactive Contaminated Soil in Oil Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, A.A.; Hassib, G.M.; Ibrahim, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in evaporation pond has been evaluated. At several onshore oil field locations, the produced water is discharged to form artificial lagoons or ponds. Subsequently, the released waters drain to the ground leaving radioactive deposits associated with the soil that eventually require remedial action in accordance with radiation protection principles. The present study aims to investigate the remediation of contaminated soil in some oil fields and in this concern, two scenarios were proposed. The first scenario is studying the feasibility of using soil washing technique (a physical-chemical separation process) for removing radium-226 from the contaminated soil samples collected from an evaporating pond. The size/activity distribution analyses were carried out. The data obtained showed that almost 68 % of the investigated soil was coarse sand (≥ 300 μm), 28 % was medium and fine sand (≤300 μm and (≥75 μm) and only small fraction of 4 % was silt and clay (≤75 μm). A series of mild acids such as HCl and mild NaCl/HCl (chloride washing) were used for washing the investigated soil fractions. The obtained data showed that the coarse fraction ≥ 300 μm can be re mediated below a regulatory level of 1Bq/g. and the radium from this coarse fraction could be easily removed by screening and chloride washing. For the remediation of (≤ 300 μm and (≥ 75 μm soil fractions, a series of mild chloride washing experiments also showed that the chloride base (NaCl/HCl) was found to be potentially useful. However, there was a difficulty in achieving a low radium value in the fine (≥ 75 μm size fractions using chloride washing. The second scenario is to get rid of all contaminated soil and store it in a concrete basin through the program of radiological protection of personnel and environment. Preliminary gamma survey of contaminated soil showed that the significant area of the investigated

  7. Field Investigation of Natural Attenuation of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifer, Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Lee, K.; Bae, G.

    2004-12-01

    In remediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer, natural attenuation may be significant as a remedial alternative. Therefore, natural attenuation should be investigated in the field in order to effectively design and evaluate the remediation strategy at the contaminated site. This study focused on evaluating the natural attenuation for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) at a contaminated site in South Korea. At the study site, the aquifer is composed of a high permeable gravel layer and relatively low permeable sandy-silt layers. Groundwater level vertically fluctuated between 1m and 2m throughout the year (April, 2003~June, 2004) and showed direct response to rainfall events. Chemical analyses of sampled groundwater were performed to investigate the concentrations of various chemical species which are associated with the natural attenuation processes. To evaluate the degree of the biodegradation, the expressed biodegradation capacity (EBC) analysis was done using aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, manganese reduction, ferric iron reduction, and sulfate reduction as an indicator. High EBC value of sulfate indicate that anaerobic biodegradation by sulfate reduction was a dominant process of mineralization of BTEX at this site. The EBC values decrease sensitively when heavy rainfall occurs due to the dilution and inflow of electron acceptors through a gravel layer. The first-order biodegradation rates of BTEX were estimated by means of the Buscheck and Alcantar method (1995). Results show that the natural attenuation rate of benzene was the highest among the BTEX.

  8. Design of an environmental site assessment template for open radioactive site contamination : a radioecological risk approach and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce redundancy, cost, and time, while at the same time ultimately increasing the effectiveness of the radioactive risk management process, a logical framework incorporating risk assessments (human cancer and environmental risks) into the environmental site assessment process was designed for radioactive open site contamination. Risk-based corrective action is becoming an increasingly more acceptable approach for the remediation of contaminated sites. In the past, cleanup goals were usually established without any regard to the risk involved, by mandating remediation goals based solely on maximum contamination levels. Now, a multi-stage environmental site assessment template has been developed on a radioecological approach. The template gives a framework for making environmentally sound decisions based on relevant regulations and guidelines. The first stage involves the comparison of the background screening activity level to the regulated activity level, the second stage involves the use of site-specific information to determine the risk involved with the contamination, and the third stage provides a remediation decision matrix based on results from the first two stages. This environmental site assessment template is unique because it incorporates the modified Canadian National Classification System for radioactive contaminated sites and two different types of risk assessments (human cancer risks and the newly designed ecological risk) into the decision making process. The template was used to assess a radiologically contaminated site at the Canadian Forces Base at Suffield (Alberta) as a case study, and it reaffirms the Department of National Defence's action as appropriate. This particular site is a Class 3, has an overall insignificant human cancer risk ( -6 ) and a low environmental risk, and conforms to all regulated guidelines. Currently, it is restricted and should be left as is, provided that the subsurface is not disturbed. (author)

  9. Applied field test procedures on petroleum release sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, G.; Nichols, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effective remediation of petroleum contaminated soils and ground water is a significant issue for Williams Pipe Line Co. (Williams): costing $6.8 million in 1994. It is in the best interest, then, for Williams to adopt approaches and apply technologies that will be both cost-effective and comply with regulations. Williams has found the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS) field test procedures at the onset of a petroleum release investigation/remediation accomplish these goals. This paper focuses on the application of AS/SVE as the preferred technology to a specific type of remediation: refined petroleum products. In situ field tests are used prior to designing a full-scale remedial system to first validate or disprove initial assumptions on applicability of the technology. During the field test, remedial system design parameters are also collected to tailor the design and operation of a full-scale system to site specific conditions: minimizing cost and optimizing effectiveness. In situ field tests should be designed and operated to simulate as close as possible the operation of a full-scale remedial system. The procedures of an in situ field test will be presented. The results of numerous field tests and the associated costs will also be evaluated and compared to full-scale remedial systems and total project costs to demonstrate overall effectiveness. There are many advantages of As/SVE technologies over conventional fluid extraction or SVE systems alone. However, the primary advantage is the ability to simultaneously reduce volatile and biodegradable compound concentrations in the phreatic, capillary fringe, and unsaturated zones

  10. Modelling of contaminant release from a uranium mine tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnt, Rene; Metschies, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Uranium mining and milling continuing from the early 1960's until 1990 close to the town of Seelingstaedt in Eastern Germany resulted in 4 tailings impoundments with a total tailings volume of about 105 Mio. m 3 . Leakage from these tailings impoundments enters the underlying aquifers and is discharged into surface water streams. High concentration of salts, uranium and several heavy metals are released from the tailings. At present the tailings impoundments are reshaped and covered. For the identification of suitable remediation options predictions of the contaminant release for different remediation scenarios have to be made. A compartment model representing the tailings impoundments and the surrounding aquifers for the calculation of contaminant release and transport was set up using the software GOLDSIM. This compartment model describes the time dependent hydraulic conditions within the tailings and the surrounding aquifers taking into account hydraulic and geotechnical processes influencing the hydraulic properties of the tailings material. A simple geochemical approach taking into account sorption processes as well as retardation by applying a k d -approach was implemented to describe the contaminant release and transport within the hydraulic system. For uranium as the relevant contaminant the simple approach takes into account additional geochemical conditions influencing the mobility. Alternatively the model approach allows to include the results of detailed geochemical modelling of the individual tailings zones which is than used as source term for the modelling of the contaminant transport in the aquifer and to the receiving streams. (authors)

  11. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  14. Subsurface imaging of water electrical conductivity, hydraulic permeability and lithology at contaminated sites by induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurya, P. K.; Balbarini, Nicola; Møller, I.

    2018-01-01

    At contaminated sites, knowledge about geology and hydraulic properties of the subsurface and extent of the contamination is needed for assessing the risk and for designing potential site remediation. In this study, we have developed a new approach for characterizing contaminated sites through time...... geological logs. On average the IP-derived and measured permeability values agreed within one order of magnitude, except for those close to boundaries between lithological layers (e.g. between sand and clay), where mismatches occurred due to the lack of vertical resolution in the geophysical imaging...

  15. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Dan; Bergkvist, Bo; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats; Langvall, Ola; Majdi, Hooshang; Weslien, Per

    2004-01-01

    arena, and thus LUSTRA has gradually put more focus on the Kyoto process. LUSTRA was evaluated during spring 2002 and the general overall statement was that 'The ambitious goals of the LUSTRA program are very good and seem to be well understood by the participating researchers. However, for a second phase a focus on synthesis and synergy is recommended'. In LUSTRA we are performing integrated research on C fluxes at three common field sites (CFS) situated in a south-north transect in Sweden: Asa, Knottaasen and Flakaliden. Measurements started summer 2000. The intention was to establish a climate gradient through Sweden but keep other environmental parameters rather similar. Also within each site the ambition was to get a hydrological gradient going from dry, over mesic to moist conditions, i.e. from deep lying ground water level to shallow groundwater. According to the advises by the reviewers of LUSTRA phase 1, more focus will be on syntheses during LUSTRA phase 2 (2003-2006). However, measurements at the CFS will be continued during 2003 and 2004. The objectives of this paper are (i) to give a general description of the sites, (ii) to describe the abiotic measurements made at the different sites, including the data base, (iii) to describe the methods used to obtain background information about soils and vegetation (C pools and fluxes) and (iv) to present the background information about soils and vegetation

  16. On-site investigations of hydrocarbon contaminated soil by the Pollut-Eval methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Y.; Prigent, S.; Haeseler, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Pollut-Eval method is based on the Rock-Eval pyrolysis method, founded on an IFP patent that has been used for decades for oil prospecting in sedimentary basins all over the world. This equipment provides data on the quantity and the quality of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. With the increasing demand for cost effective and rapid contaminated site diagnosis, it became obvious that the field of application of the Rock-Eval technology should be enlarged to environmental problematic. The Pollut-Eval methodology was developed since 1996 and firstly qualified through the design of a laboratory version. Compared to the previous apparatus dedicated to the geochemistry, innovations allow acquisition of data for accurate quantification of complex organic pollutants and mineral carbon distribution. New methods were developed especially for the characterisation of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil. Compared to kerogen analysis, the characterisation of light petroleum cuts entrapped in soil as pollutants was available by the design of an adapted refrigerated auto-sampler. The prevention of the loss of the high vapour tension pollutants couldn't be avoided for the new environmental field of applications. Site after site, the various experiments involving the 'laboratory' version of the Pollut-Eval analyser extended the application field of the methodology. The efficiency of the thermal extraction applied directly on the soil showed useful advantages compared to conventional solvent extraction techniques, especially for pollutants originating from former gas plants. The method was especially suitable for the determination of the complete carbon mass balance in the case of non-extractable organic pollutant such as coal tar or for heavy petroleum cut such as heavy fuel, vacuum distillation residue and bitumen. By the way, the Pollut-Eval method became rapidly complementary to more conventional GC quantification dedicated to complex organic pollution characterisation. By the

  17. Field sampling for monitoring, migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    As part of two studies funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the USEPA, the authors have investigated field sampling strategies and compositing as a means of detecting spills or migration at commercial low-level radioactive and chemical waste disposal sites and bioassays for detecting contamination at chemical waste sites. Compositing (pooling samples) for detection is discussed first, followed by the development of a statistical test to determine whether any component of a composite exceeds a prescribed maximum acceptable level. Subsequently, the authors explore the question of optimal field sampling designs and present the features of a microcomputer program designed to show the difficulties in constructing efficient field designs and using compositing schemes. Finally, they propose the use of bioassays as an adjunct or replacement for chemical analysis as a means of detecting and defining the areal extent of chemical migration

  18. Creosote-contaminated sites: their potential for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J G; Chapman, P J; Pritchard, P H [US EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL (USA)

    1989-10-01

    Coal tar creosote contamination is generally associated with surface soils, waters in treatment lagoons or evaporation areas, and groundwater contaminated with leachate from the above sources. The basic principle of bioremediation is to exploit the ability of microorganisms to catabolize a wide range of organic substrates. There are limitations which much be addressed if in situ bioremediation is to be successful: the pollutant must be in a chemical state conducive to microbial utilization, aeration and nutrient supplementation are essential elements of many in situ treatments, and there must be present an acclimated microbial population capable of degrading the pollutant. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-08

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  20. Field trip guide to the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Lindsey, K.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report is designed to provide a guide to the key geologic and hydrologic features of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site located in south-central Washington. The guide is divided into two parts. The first part is a general introduction to the geology of the Hanford Site and its relation to the regional framework of south-central Washington. The second part is a road log that provides directions to important geologic features on the Hanford Site and descriptions of the locality. The exposures described were chosen for their accessibility and importance to the geologic history of the Hanford Site and to understanding the geohydrology of the Site

  1. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, James E.; Hemond, Harold F.

    2004-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G and H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed

  2. Remediation of uranium contaminated sites: clean-up activities in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Raicevic, J. . E-mail address of corresponding author: raich@beotel.yu; Raicevic, S.)

    2005-01-01

    One of the serious environmental problems in Serbia represent sites contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) during past war activities. According to UNEP reports and our findings there are two types of contamination: (i) localized points of high, concentrated contamination where DU penetrators enter the soil, and (ii) low level of widespread DU contamination, which indicates that during the conflict DU dust was dispersed into the environment. Remediation of these sites is an urgent need because they represent a permanent threat to the population living in this area. Here we give a brief description of approaches commonly used in remediation of DU contaminated sites, and an overview of current clean-up activities performed in Serbia. (author)

  3. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  4. Radioactive contamination: what actions for the polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Averous, J.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Dupuis, M.C.; Paquot, A.; Barescut, J.C.; Cessac, B.; Darmendrail, D.; Grevoz, A.

    2004-01-01

    A national conference was held on May, 2004, in Paris. It concerned the radioactively polluted soil and sites, in order to identify action strategies for the treatment of radioactive pollution. Several aspects have been studied: action plan for radioactivity polluted sites, regulation of radioactively polluted sites in France, situation and practice abroad, natural radioactivity and radioactive pollution: definition and limits, inventory and descriptive data on polluted sites in France and in Europe, radioactive waste and radioactivity polluted sites management: national inventory contribution, then ended with three panels sessions about experience feedback on the management of radioactively polluted sites, responsibilities, legal and regulatory context and financing issues, from evaluation to remediation for polluted sites. (N.C.)

  5. Potential contamination of groundwater in the World Heritage Site of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid population growth, high levels of tourism and poor sewage waste disposal (at least for the foreseeable future) in St. Katherine have resulted in potential contamination of groundwater and subsequent high risk to human health. To evaluate the safety of well water for human use in St. Katherine, water samples were ...

  6. Present situation of radioactive contamination in and around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Hoshi, M.; Takada, J.; Tsukatani, T.; Oikawa, S.; Yoshikawa, I.; Takatsuji, T.; Sekerbaev, A. Kh.; Gusev, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    Field missions were sent to the Semipalatinsk regions to investigate the present radioecological situation as a result of the radioactive fallout from nuclear test explosions carried out at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). For this purpose, surface and core soil samples were collected at more than 60 sites, including several settlements such as Dolon, Chagan and Sarzhal, within and outside the SNTS territory. The radioactivities of long-lived radionuclides, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu, and the atomic ratio of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu were determined in combination with non-destructive g-ray spectrometric method and radiochemical separation followed by a-particle spectrometric and/or ICP-MS methods. The results showed a distinction of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu inventories in soil depending on a sampling sites. Although 137 Cs was within typical environmental levels except for the area near the first nuclear test site and Balapan, 239,240 Pu was at elevated levels in all areas we visited. This high Pu contamination was recognized to be due to the weapons-grade Pu from the SNTS by the measurement of 240 Pu/ 239P u atomic ratio in soil samples. (author)

  7. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labieniec, Paula Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface.

  8. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labieniec, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface

  9. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes in the groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site: development of a monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borke, P.; Husers, N.; Werner, P.; Leibenath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tar oil is a complex mixture of mainly aromatic hydrocarbons. It is found in the subsurface of manufactured gas plants (MGP), coking plants or wood preserving facilities. The transportation into the soil and groundwater stands for a severe contamination. This is due to the physico-chemical properties of the DNAPL (dense non aqueous phase liquid) and its mobility in the soil and aquifer system. Additionally most of the contaminants show a low biological degradability and solubility under in situ conditions. Therefore it is known as a long term source of contamination. Nevertheless, natural attenuation (NA) processes are detectable at tar oil contaminated sites. In the thematic network two of the German funding priority KORA (http://www.natural-attenuation.de) these processes are matter of investigation. Four typical contaminated sites were chosen to evaluate under which circumstances monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is applicable. Furthermore enhanced natural attenuation questions are examined. The design of monitoring networks at tar oil contaminated sites plays a significant role in gaining field evidence for natural attenuation as well as documenting the efficiency of the attenuation processes and evaluating the matching of performance goals. Well designed monitoring networks include the placement of monitoring wells in 3D so that 3D flow path, mass balances and an estimation of mass flux can be monitored. As an example the history of the monitoring network of a wood preserving facility is shown. Starting from a risk assessment network to a network for MNA is presented. In this case for example especially the determination of the groundwater flow direction in time and space is connected to the number of observation wells and their location. Moreover in the beginning the observation wells were located according to the assumed centerline of the plume. Because of the variability of the groundwater flow direction and the need to determine mass flux a control plane

  10. Characterization of soil and plant-associated bacteria on a metal contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, J.; Weyens, N.; Barac, T.; Dupae, J.; Lelie, D. van der; Taghavi, S.; Vaqngronsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional methods for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and ground water are very expensive and often damaging to the environment. Complementary to these traditional methods, especially for sites with a diffuse contamination in relatively low concentrations, phyto extraction is proposed as a promising technology for effective and inexpensive radiation. (Author)

  11. Hanford site implementation plan for buried, transuranic-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The GAO review of DOE's Defense Waste Management Plan (DWMP) identified deficiencies and provided recommendations. This report responds to the GAO recommendations with regard to the Hanford Site. Since the issuance of the DWMP, an extensive planning base has been developed for all high-level and transuranic waste at the Hanford Site. Thirty-three buried sites have been identified as possibly containing waste that can be classified as transuranic waste. Inventory reports and process flowsheets were used to provide an estimate of the radionuclide and hazardous chemical content of these sites and approximately 370 additional sites that can be classified as low-level waste. A program undertaken to characterize select sites suspected of having TRU waste to refine the inventory estimates. Further development and evaluation are ongoing to determine the appropriate remedial actions, with the objectives of balancing long-term risks with costs and complying with regulations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  13. Technologies for in situ immobilization and isolation of radioactive wastes at disposal and contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report describes technologies that have been developed worldwide and the experiences applied to both waste disposal and contaminated sites. The term immobilization covers both solidification and embedding of wastes

  14. AN EVALUATION OF HANFORD SITE TANK FARM SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION FY2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2007-07-10

    The Tank Farm Vadose Zone (TFVZ) Project conducts activities to characterize and analyze the long-term environmental and human health impacts from tank waste releases to the vadose zone. The project also implements interim measures to mitigate impacts, and plans the remediation of waste releases from tank farms and associated facilities. The scope of this document is to report data needs that are important to estimating long-term human health and environmental risks. The scope does not include technologies needed to remediate contaminated soils and facilities, technologies needed to close tank farms, or management and regulatory decisions that will impact remediation and closure. This document is an update of ''A Summary and Evaluation of Hanford Site Tank Farm Subsurface Contamination''. That 1998 document summarized knowledge of subsurface contamination beneath the tank farms at the time. It included a preliminary conceptual model for migration of tank wastes through the vadose zone and an assessment of data and analysis gaps needed to update the conceptual model. This document provides a status of the data and analysis gaps previously defined and discussion of the gaps and needs that currently exist to support the stated mission of the TFVZ Project. The first data-gaps document provided the basis for TFVZ Project activities over the previous eight years. Fourteen of the nineteen knowledge gaps identified in the previous document have been investigated to the point that the project defines the current status as acceptable. In the process of filling these gaps, significant accomplishments were made in field work and characterization, laboratory investigations, modeling, and implementation of interim measures. The current data gaps are organized in groups that reflect Components of the tank farm vadose zone conceptual model: inventory, release, recharge, geohydrology, geochemistry, and modeling. The inventory and release components address

  15. AN EVALUATION OF HANFORD SITE TANK FARM SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION FY 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Tank Farm Vadose Zone (TFVZ) Project conducts activities to characterize and analyze the long-term environmental and human health impacts from tank waste releases to the vadose zone. The project also implements interim measures to mitigate impacts, and plans the remediation of waste releases from tank farms and associated facilities. The scope of this document is to report data needs that are important to estimating long-term human health and environmental risks. The scope does not include technologies needed to remediate contaminated soils and facilities, technologies needed to close tank farms, or management and regulatory decisions that will impact remediation and closure. This document is an update of ''A Summary and Evaluation of Hanford Site Tank Farm Subsurface Contamination''. That 1998 document summarized knowledge of subsurface contamination beneath the tank farms at the time. It included a preliminary conceptual model for migration of tank wastes through the vadose zone and an assessment of data and analysis gaps needed to update the conceptual model. This document provides a status of the data and analysis gaps previously defined and discussion of the gaps and needs that currently exist to support the stated mission of the TFVZ Project. The first data-gaps document provided the basis for TFVZ Project activities over the previous eight years. Fourteen of the nineteen knowledge gaps identified in the previous document have been investigated to the point that the project defines the current status as acceptable. In the process of filling these gaps, significant accomplishments were made in field work and characterization, laboratory investigations, modeling, and implementation of interim measures. The current data gaps are organized in groups that reflect Components of the tank farm vadose zone conceptual model: inventory, release, recharge, geohydrology, geochemistry, and modeling. The inventory and release components address residual wastes that will

  16. Residual effects of metal contamination on the soil quality: a field survey in central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gerardo, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is an important source of income and employment. But depletion and degradation of land challenge to producing safe food and other agricultural products to sustain livelihoods and meet the needs of urban populations. When developing or expanding an agricultural area, it becomes essential to access the soil quality. Even if the present source of contamination is not observed, it is a worth subject to evaluate whether or not any negative effects of the post contamination still last. For this purpose, a field survey (2 ha) was carried: a zinc and lead mining site that was abandoned about 50 years ago was researched at Sanguinheiro (40°18'N and 8°21'W) in Central Portugal. The area is characterized by very steep slopes that are confining with a small stream. The obtained results show that (i) the Pb content in the site (165 mg/kg) is higher than that in the background (67.7 mg/kg); (ii) the Zn content of local vegetation (Eucalyptus globulus) in the post-mining site is 2.1 times that in the control site, and (iii) dead bare ground is observed in some parts of the site. There is a possibility that great amounts of Zn and Pb accumulate in tissues of local vegetation. Although mining activity ended 50 years ago, the contents of Pb and Zn in the sampled soil were comparatively high in the site with about a 75% slope. It is concluded that not only the present contamination but also the post-environmental stress should be assessed to properly develop an agricultural area in terms of securing agricultural products.

  17. Tolerance to Cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae Seeds and Seedlings from Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Méndez-Hurtado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them.

  18. Characterization of Pu-contaminated soils from Nuclear Site 201 at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tamura, T.; Larsen, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of Pu-bearing radioactive particles throughout five soil profiles from Nuclear Site (NS) 201 were investigated. Concentrations of 239 240 Pu and 241 Am decreased with depth and most of the contamination was contained in the top 5 cm except in profile 4 where it extended to 10 cm. The mean activity ratio of 239 240 Pu to 241 Am and its standard error were 5.8 +- 0.3 (N=42). Most of the total radioactivity of the soils was contributed by 0.25 to 2 mm sand size fraction which comprised 20 to 50% by weight of the soils. The radioactive particles in the 0.25 to 2 mm size fraction occurred as spherical glass particles or as glass coatings on sand particles. The glass coatings had gas voids in the matrix but were not as porous as the radioactive particles from NS 219. After impact grinding the >0.25-mm size fractions for one hour, 85% of the initial activity in a NS 201 sample remained with the particles on the 0.25 mm sieve, whereas in the NS 219 sample only 10% remained. The results show that the radioactive particles from NS 201 were much more stable against the impact grinding force than those from NS 219. Therefore, the NS 201 soils would be expected to have a lower probability of producing respirable-size radioactive particles by saltation during wind erosion. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  19. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  20. Leachability and heavy metal speciation of 17-year old stabilised/solidified contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei, E-mail: fwtiffany@gmail.com [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wang, Hailing, E-mail: wanghailing@njtech.edu.cn [College of Environment, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Al-Tabbaa, Abir, E-mail: aa22@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The effectiveness of the cement-based S/S at 17 years in West Drayton site is still satisfactory. • Major leaching of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb in all mixes took place in the Fe/Mn oxides phase. • The hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place at 17 years. • Microstructure analyses show that unreacted PFA exists. - Abstract: The long-term leachability, heavy metal speciation transformation and binding mechanisms in a field stabilised/solidified contaminated soil (made ground) from West Drayton site were recently investigated following in situ auger mixing treatment with a number of cement-based binders back in 1996. Two batch leaching tests (TCLP and BS EN 12457) and a modified five step sequential extraction procedure along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed for the testing of the 17-year-old field soil. The results of batch leaching tests show that the treatment employed remained effective at 17 years of service time, with all BS EN 12457 test samples and most of TCLP test samples satisfied drinking water standards. Sequential extraction results illustrate that the leaching of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in all mixes mainly occurred at the Fe/Mn phase, ranging from 43% to 83%. Amongst the five metals tested, Ni was the most stable with around 40% remained in the residual phase for all the different cement-based binder stabilised/solidified samples. XRD and SEM analyses show that the hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place. In summary, this study confirms that such cement-based stabilisation/solidification (S/S) treatment can achieve satisfactory durability and thus is a reliable technique for long-term remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil.

  1. Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaaba, A.K.L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead

  2. Screening of native plant species for phytoremediation potential at a Hg-contaminated mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2016-01-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury (Hg), and therefore, one of the major sources of Hg pollution in the environment. This study was conducted in the Alacrán gold-mining site, one of the most important ASGM sites in Colombia, to identify native plant species growing in Hg-contaminated soils used for agricultural purposes, and to assess their potential as phytoremediation systems. Twenty-four native plant species were identified and analysed for total Hg (THg) in different tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) and in underlying soils. Accumulation factors (AF) in the shoots, translocation (TF) from roots to shoots, and bioconcentration (BCF) from soil-to-roots were determined. Different tissues from all plant species were classified in the order of decreasing accumulation of Hg as follows: roots > leaves > stems. THg concentrations in soil ranged from 230 to 6320 ng g(-1). TF values varied from 0.33 to 1.73, with high values in the lower Hg-contaminated soils. No correlation was found between soils with low concentrations of Hg and plant leaves, indicating that TF is not a very accurate indicator, since most of the Hg input to leaves at ASGM sites comes from the atmosphere. On the other hand, the BCF ranged from 0.28 to 0.99, with Jatropha curcas showing the highest value. Despite their low biomass production, several herbs and sub-shrubs are suitable for phytoremediation application in the field, due to their fast growth and high AF values in large and easily harvestable plant parts. Among these species, herbs such as Piper marginathum and Stecherus bifidus, and the sub-shrubs J. curcas and Capsicum annuum are promising native plants with the potential to be used in the phytoremediation of soils in tropical areas that are impacted by mining.

  3. Microbial and plant ecology of a long-term TNT-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Emma R.; Bruce, Neil C.; Rosser, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of the environment with explosive residues presents a serious ecological problem at sites across the world, with the highly toxic compound trinitrotoluene (TNT) the most widespread contaminant. This study examines the soil microbial community composition across a long-term TNT-contaminated site. It also investigates the extent of nitroaromatic contamination and its effect on vegetation. Concentrations of TNT and its metabolites varied across the site and this was observed to dramatically impact on the extent and diversity of the vegetation, with the most heavily contaminated area completely devoid of vegetation. Bryophytes were seen to be particularly sensitive to TNT contamination. The microbial population experienced both a reduction in culturable bacterial numbers and a shift in composition at the high concentrations of TNT. DGGE and community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) revealed a clear change in both the genetic and functional diversity of the soil when soil was contaminated with TNT. - Long-term contamination of soil with TNT reduces the extent and diversity of vegetation, decreases culturable bacterial numbers and shifts the microbial community composition

  4. Reducing the risk of surgical site infection: a case controlled study of contamination of theatre clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandan, Indu; Bowker, Karen E; Bannister, Gordon C; Soar, Jasmeet

    2011-02-01

    Surgical site infections are one of the most important causes of healthcare associated infections (HCAI), accounting for 20% of all HCAIs. Surgical site infections affect 1% of joint replacement operations. This study was designed to assess whether theatre clothing is contaminated more inside or outside the theatre suite. Petri dishes filled with horse blood agar were pressed on theatre clothes at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours to sample bacterial contamination in 20 doctors whilst working in and outside the theatre suite. The results showed that there was greater bacterial contamination when outside the theatre suite at 2 hours. There were no differences in the amount of contamination at 4, 6 and 8 hours. This study suggests that the level of contamination of theatre clothes is similar both inside and outside the theatre setting.

  5. Radiological risk assessment for radioactive contamination at landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted for a landfill site where radioactive residues resulting from past uranium ore processing operations are present. Potential radiation doses to an individual under different scenarios have been predicted using the RESRAD computer code. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site that is currently underway. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez R, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  7. Modelling contaminant transport using site specific data from Vaalputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The transport of a contaminant through the upper layers of the earth's surface is a complex phenomenon. To develop a model for this, requires a good understanding of the physical nature of the phenomenon. This paper discusses two difficulties frequently encountered in developing such a model - the nature of the subsurface and the mathematical representation of the unsaturated hydraulic parameters. It is proposed that information obtained from pump- and packer tests be used to circumvent the first difficulty, and that the unsaturated flow parameters be approximated by C -∞ continuous function

  8. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register; Bewertung der radiologischen Altlastenrelevanz von gewerblichen und industriellen Standorten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Flesch, Klaus [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (LfULG), Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  9. A stable isotope approach for source apportionment of chlorinated ethene plumes at a complex multi-contamination events urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Pellegatti, Eleonora; Paramatti, Enrico; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Gargini, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of chlorinated aliphatic compounds such as chlorinated methanes, ethanes and ethenes was examined as an intrinsic fingerprint for apportionment of sources. A complex field site located in Ferrara (Italy), with more than 50 years history of use of chlorinated aliphatic compounds, was investigated in order to assess contamination sources. Several contamination plumes were found in a complex alluvial sandy multi-aquifer system close to the river Po; sources are represented by uncontained former industrial and municipal dump sites as well as by spills at industrial areas. The carbon stable isotope signature allowed distinguishing 2 major sources of contaminants. One source of chlorinated aliphatic contaminants was strongly depleted in 13C (-40‰ which is commonly observed in recent production of chlorinated solvents. The degradation processes in the plumes could be traced interpreting the isotope enrichment and depletion of parent and daughter compounds, respectively. We demonstrate that, under specific production conditions, namely when highly chlorinated ethenes are produced as by-product during chloromethanes production, 13C depleted fingerprinting of contaminants can be obtained and this can be used to track sources and address the responsible party of the pollution in urban areas.

  10. The use of small diameter probing equipment for contaminated site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, T.M.; Spradlin, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of contaminated sites being investigated in the United States. This increase in subsurface investigation has spurred a corresponding increase in the development of subsurface sampling tools and methods. The past five years, in particular, have seen the development of small diameter (1 double-prime to 1.4 double-prime O.D.) percussion driven probing tools which can be used for the recovery of soil vapor, soil core and groundwater samples. This development has placed heretofore unavailable tools at the disposal of site investigators. Mechanized, vehicle mounted soil probe systems apply both static force and hydraulically powered percussion hammers for tool placement. Static down forces up to 3,000 lbs combined with percussion hammers of eight (8) horsepower continuous output are typical on equipment available to the field investigator. Using these energies, probing tools have been used for sampling a variety of media at depths exceeding 70 feet. Advantages of probing equipment which have contributed to its increasing usage in recent years include: ease of mobilization, absence of borehole cuttings, minimization of surface disturbance, and speed of sample collection. This paper focuses on the field application of hydraulic probing equipment including: the suitability of probing operations with respect to various Boil types and lithologies to probing operations; sampler types and recovery quantities for various media, and innovative probing applications presently being tested

  11. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fly pupae and puparia as potential contaminants of forensic entomology samples from sites of body discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A; Briggs, C A; Ranson, D L

    2006-11-01

    Fly pupae and puparia may contaminate forensic entomology samples at death scenes if they have originated not from human remains but from animal carcasses or other decomposing organic material. These contaminants may erroneously lengthen post-mortem interval estimates if no pupae or puparia are genuinely associated with the body. Three forensic entomology case studies are presented, in which contamination either occurred or was suspected. In the first case, blow fly puparia collected near the body were detected as contaminants because the species was inactive both when the body was found and when the deceased was last sighted reliably. The second case illustrates that contamination may be suspected at particularly squalid death scenes because of the likely presence of carcasses or organic material. The third case involves the presence at the body discovery site of numerous potentially contaminating animal carcasses. Soil samples were taken along transects to show that pupae and puparia were clustered around their probable sources.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain

  14. STIMULATION OF DEFENSE FACTORS FOR OYSTERS DEPLOYED TO CONTAMINATED SITES IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A positive association between chemical contaminants and defense factors has been established for eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Florida, but it is unknown whether such factors can be stimulated through short-term exposure to contaminants in the field. Hatchery oyst...

  15. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed 137 Cs concentrations [> 10 6 Bq/kg dry wt (> 10 4 pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of 137 Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h 1 1 m above the soil surface

  16. Performance of in situ chemical oxidation field demonstrations at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been investigating the use of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate organic contaminants (VOCs, SVOCs, and PCBs) in soils and groundwater at the laboratory and field scales. Field scale design parameters (e.g., oxidant loading rates and oxidant delivery techniques) are often dictated by site conditions (e.g., soil properties and initial contaminant concentrations). Chemical destruction of organic compounds can be accomplished using a variety of oxidants. Recent research has involved field scale in situ chemical oxidation demonstrations using H 2 O 2 and KMnO 4 in conjunction with soil mixing as the oxidant delivery mechanism. A description of some of these fields activities and future field-scale work is presented here

  17. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  18. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterbrunner, R.; Puschenreiter, M.; Sommer, P.; Wieshammer, G.; Tlustos, P.; Zupan, M.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. We investigated Zn and Cd accumulation in tissues of adult trees and associated herbaceous species collected from contaminated areas in Central Europe. We found considerable Cd and Zn accumulation in various willow, poplar and birch species with up to 116 mg Cd kg -1 and 4680 mg Zn kg -1 in leaves of Salix caprea. Annual variation of Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves of Salix caprea were small, indicating that data obtained in different years can be compared. Metal concentrations in leaves were not related to total (aqua regia) or labile (1 M NH 4 NO 3 extract) concentrations in soil but the accumulation factors (leaf concentration: soil concentration) for Cd and Zn followed an inverse log type function. Metal partitioning between tissues showed a minimum in the wood, with increasing concentrations of Cd and Zn towards the leaves and fine roots. - Adult field-grown Salix caprea, Populus tremula and other tree species accumulate up to 4680 mg Zn kg -1 and 116 mg Cd kg -1 in their leaves

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterbrunner, R. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Puschenreiter, M. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.puschenreiter@boku.ac.at; Sommer, P. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, G. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Tlustos, P. [Czech University of Agriculture Prague, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol (Czech Republic); Zupan, M. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy department, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Wenzel, W.W. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. We investigated Zn and Cd accumulation in tissues of adult trees and associated herbaceous species collected from contaminated areas in Central Europe. We found considerable Cd and Zn accumulation in various willow, poplar and birch species with up to 116 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 4680 mg Zn kg{sup -1} in leaves of Salix caprea. Annual variation of Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves of Salix caprea were small, indicating that data obtained in different years can be compared. Metal concentrations in leaves were not related to total (aqua regia) or labile (1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extract) concentrations in soil but the accumulation factors (leaf concentration: soil concentration) for Cd and Zn followed an inverse log type function. Metal partitioning between tissues showed a minimum in the wood, with increasing concentrations of Cd and Zn towards the leaves and fine roots. - Adult field-grown Salix caprea, Populus tremula and other tree species accumulate up to 4680 mg Zn kg{sup -1} and 116 mg Cd kg{sup -1} in their leaves.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination (PCBs), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in the southwestern portion of Area 25 on the NTS in Jackass Flats (adjacent to Test Cell C [TCC]), CAU 528 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Test Cell C was built to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (operational between 1959 and 1973) activities including conducting ground tests and static firings of nuclear engine reactors. Although CAU 528 was not considered as a direct potential source of PCBs and petroleum contamination, two potential sources of contamination have nevertheless been identified from an unknown source in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. This CAU's close proximity to TCC prompted Shaw to collect surface soil samples, which have indicated the presence of PCBs extending throughout the area to the north, east, south, and even to the edge of the western boundary. Based on this information, more extensive field investigation activities are being planned, the results of which are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  3. Descriptions of representative contaminated sites and facilities within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Buck, J.W.; Clark, L.L.; Fletcher, J.F.; Glantz, C.S.; Holdren, G.R.; Huesties, L.R.; Williams, M.D.; Oates, L.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated efforts to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that will analyze the existing environmental restoration and waste management program and evaluate alternatives for an integrated program. The alternatives being evaluated include (1) a open-quotes No Actionclose quotes alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), (2) an Applicable, Relevant, and Appropriate Requirements (ARAR)-driven alternative, (3) a land-use-driven alternative, (4) a health-risk-driven alternative, and (5) a combination land-use and health-risk-driven alternative. The analytical approach being taken to evaluate each of these alternatives is to perform a remedial engineering analysis and human health and ecosystem effects analyses on every contaminated site and facility in the DOE complex. One of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) roles in this approach has been to compile the source term and environmental setting data needed to drive each of these analyses. To date, over 10,000 individual contaminated sites and facilities located throughout the DOE complex of installations have been identified and at least some minimal data compiled on each. The PEIS analyses have been appreciably simplified by categorizing all of these contaminated sites and facilities into six broad categories: (1) contaminated buildings, (2) contaminated soils, (3) solid waste sites (e.g., burial grounds), (4) liquid containment structures (e.g., tanks), (5) surface water sites, and (6) contaminated groundwater sites. A report containing a complete description of each of these thousands of contaminated sites and facilities would be tremendously large and unwildy, as would separate reports describing the application of the analytical methodologies to each

  4. Management of industrial sites and areas contaminated by radionuclides in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Rousseau, D.

    2001-01-01

    The presentation involves two parts making mention on the one hand on the industrial sites management and on the other hand on contaminated areas management. In a third part, are considered the analogies and the differences susceptible of appearing in the management modes of industrial sites and areas. (N.C.)

  5. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  6. Fundamentals of bioventing applied to fuel contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Bioventing entails the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems for the transport of oxygen to the subsurface, where indigenous organisms are stimulated to aerobically metabolize fuel components. Bioventing systems are designed and configured to optimize oxygen transfer and oxygen utilization efficiency, and are operated at much lower flow rates and with configurations much different than those of conventional SVE systems. Bioventing system applications and design are contrasted to those of conventional SVE systems, and the two key elements of bioventing system design evaluation, i.e., in situ microbial activity and air permeability determinations, are highlighted in this paper. The application of bioventing to vadose zone bioremediation was reviewed with particular emphasis on its advantages over aqueous based bioremediation systems in terms of its superior oxygen transfer efficiency. Finally, the application of bioventing and bioventing design concepts are illustrated through a case study of JP-4 jet fuel contaminated soil remediation at Hill AFB, Utah. 22 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Methodological guide for risk assessment and management of industrial sites contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Brenot, J.; Cessac, B.; Charbonneau, P.; Maigne, J.P.; Santucci, P.

    2000-01-01

    initiate the discussion. These techniques strongly suggest a given solution instead of allowing an open comparison of the strategies. The quantitative techniques could however be used at a later stage, should the stakeholder consider they need some help in view of ranking the strategies. As a conclusion, the methodology developed by IPSN, under the scrutiny of the environment and health ministries, is an attempt to implement the radiological protection principles in the field of contaminated industrial sites, keeping in mind the need to provide operational guidance to all those who are actually involved in the rehabilitation of such sites. (author)

  8. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl 4 . This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl 4 waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl 4 distributions

  9. Towards a protocol for the assessment of site-specific human health risks for consumption of vegetables from contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Otte PF; Beelen P van; Rikken MGJ; Tuinstra J; Spijker J; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    RIVM has developed an approach which allows human health risks of vegetable consumption from contaminated sites to be assessed. A tiered approach was used to guarantee the scientific basis and efficient use in practice. The underlying principle is: simple when possible and complex when necessary. If

  10. Locating the Source of Atmospheric Contamination Based on Data From the Kori Field Tracer Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kopka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental releases of hazardous material into the atmosphere pose high risks to human health and the environment. Thus it would be valuable to develop an emergency reaction system which can recognize the probable location of the source based only on concentrations of the released substance as reported by a network of sensors. We apply a methodology combining Bayesian inference with Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC methods to the problem of locating the source of an atmospheric contaminant. The input data for this algorithm are the concentrations of a given substance gathered continuously in time. We employ this algorithm to locating a contamination source using data from a field tracer experiment covering the Kori nuclear site and conducted in May 2001. We use the second-order Closure Integrated PUFF Model (SCIPUFF of atmospheric dispersion as the forward model to predict concentrations at the sensors' locations. We demonstrate that the source of continuous contamination may be successfully located even in the very complicated, hilly terrain surrounding the Kori nuclear site. (original abstract

  11. Uncertainty of mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites at screening level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Troldborg, M.; McKnight, Ursula S.

    Contaminated sites threaten groundwater resources worldwide. The number of contaminated sites is large and there are too few economic resources available to ensure a thorough investigation and remediation of them all. Risk assessment must already be done at a screening level in order to ensure...... consider possible source and hydrogeological descriptions, where each model is believed to be a realistic representation of the given site, based on the current level of information. Parameter uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. For each conceptual model we calculate a transient mass...

  12. The behaviour of residual contaminants at a former station site, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Jenny; Webster, Kerry; Nelson, Peter; Waterhouse, Emma

    2003-01-01

    Minor contamination by metals, phosphorus, and fuel products were found at a former research station site in Antarctica. - In 1994, New Zealand's only mainland Antarctic base, Vanda Station, was removed from the shores of Lake Vanda, in the McMurdo Dry Valleys region of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Residual chemical contamination of the station site has been identified, in the form of discrete fuel spills, locally elevated Pb, Zn, Ag and Cd concentrations in soil and elevated Cu, Ni, Co and phosphate concentrations in suprapermafrost fluids in a gully formerly used for domestic washing water disposal. Pathways for contaminant transfer to Lake Vanda, potential environmental impacts and specific remediation/monitoring options are considered. While some contaminants (particularly Zn) could be selectively leached from flooded soil, during a period of rising lake level, the small area of contaminated soils exposed and low level of contamination suggests that this would not adversely affect either shallow lake water quality or the growth of cyanobacteria. Phosphate-enhanced growth of the latter may, however, be a visible consequence of the minor contamination occurring at this site

  13. Relating groundwater and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.F.; Gibson, T.

    1996-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site in Belleville, Michigan. As part of this study we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly-contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly-contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the more-contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly-contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogensis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate. Groundwater chemistry and microbial analyses revealed significant differences resulted from the injection of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface. These differences included increases in pH and Eh and large decreases in BTEX, dissolved iron, and sulfate concentrations at the injection well

  14. Field emission and high voltage cleaning of particulate contaminants on extended metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The vacuum insulation properties of extended metallic surfaces depends strongly on their cleanliness. The usual technique to reduce electronic field emission from such surfaces consists in exposing them to very high electric fields during limited periods of time. This kind of processing also reduces the occurrence of vacuum breakdown. The processing of the surface is generally believed to be due to a thermomechanical destruction of the emitting sites, initiated by the emission itself. Comparison of the electric forces vs adherence forces which act on dust particles lying on the surface shows that the processing could also be due simply to the mechanical removal of the dust particles, with a subsequent reduction of field emission from the contaminated surface. (author)

  15. Bioremediation of ground water contaminants at a uranium mill tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, L.L.; Nuttall, H.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Lutze, W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water contaminated with uranium from milling operations must be remediated to reduce the migration of soluble toxic compounds. At the mill tailings site near Tuba City, Arizona (USA) the approach is to employ bioremediation for in situ immobilization of uranium by bacterial reduction of uranyl, U(VI), compounds to uraninite, U(IV). In this initial phase of remediation, details are provided to indicate the magnitude of the contamination problem and to present preliminary evidence supporting the proposition that bacterial immobilization of uranium is possible. Additionally, consideration is given to contaminating cations and anions that may be at toxic levels in ground water at this uranium mill tailing site and detoxification strategies using bacteria are addressed. A model concept is employed so that results obtained at the Tuba City site could contribute to bioremediation of ground water at other uranium mill tailings sites

  16. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stefan J; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will A; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

    2012-02-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of rRNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure and that denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower-pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as the concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen level, and sampling season, did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter bacteria. The results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  17. Restoration principles and criteria: superfund program policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) is responsible for implementing the long-term (non-emergency) portion of a key U.S. law regulating cleanup: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed 'Superfund'. The purpose of the Superfund program is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund program. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in a consistent manner as with chemical contamination, except to account for the technical differences between radionuclides and chemicals. This consistency is important since at every radioactively contaminated site being addressed under Superfund's primary program for long-term cleanup, the National Priorities List (NPL), chemical contamination is also present. (author)

  18. The application of containment technologies on landfills and contaminated sites in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, S.

    1997-01-01

    Remedial action on contaminated sites may include ex-situ or in-situ treatment of contaminants (extraction of solids, liquids and gases or in-situ decontamination) as well as the application of containment technologies. Rumer ampersand Ryan (1995) define containment technology as open-quotes the construction of low-permeability barriers around the source zone [of contaminated sites] to contain contaminants combined with manipulation of hydraulic gradientsclose quotes. The technical focus areas of the 1997 International Containment Technology Conference and Exhibition include vertical, bottom and surface barriers as well as technologies like permeable barriers and stabilization ampersand solidification. Contaminant transport modeling, the test and choice of materials, quality assurance and control, cost and performance criteria, and long-term performance monitoring are integral and essential parts of the technologies and their application. The extent of their use depends on the technology applied as well as on the hazard of the site. This paper will focus on a description of the systems used to construct walls, floors, and caps on European landfills and contaminated sites. The application of walls, floors, and caps, however, is not only a question of the best available technology but also is strongly governed by the priority of the problem to be solved. Therefore this paper will give a short overview on some environmental, socio-economical and political factors, which influence the application of containment technologies, before short profiles of the currently applied technologies will be presented

  19. Comparative study of surrogate models for groundwater contamination source identification at DNAPL-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of groundwater contamination sources is critical for effectively protecting groundwater resources, estimating risks, mitigating disaster, and designing remediation strategies. Many methods for groundwater contamination source identification (GCSI) have been developed in recent years, including the simulation-optimization technique. This study proposes utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) model and a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) model to enrich the content of the surrogate model. The surrogate model was itself key in replacing the simulation model, reducing the huge computational burden of iterations in the simulation-optimization technique to solve GCSI problems, especially in GCSI problems of aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A comparative study between the Kriging, SVR, and KELM models is reported. Additionally, there is analysis of the influence of parameter optimization and the structure of the training sample dataset on the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model. It was found that the KELM model was the most accurate surrogate model, and its performance was significantly improved after parameter optimization. The approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model did not always improve with increasing numbers of training samples. Using the appropriate number of training samples was critical for improving the performance of the surrogate model and avoiding unnecessary computational workload. It was concluded that the KELM model developed in this work could reasonably predict system responses in given operation conditions. Replacing the simulation model with a KELM model considerably reduced the computational burden of the simulation-optimization process and also maintained high computation accuracy.

  20. Geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site, southeastern Utah - Indications of contaminant migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Horton, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site in San Juan County, southeastern Utah, was affected by the historical (1957-68) processing of uranium and copper-uranium ores. Relict uranium tailings and related ponds, and a large copper heap-leach pile at the site represent point sources of uranium and copper to local soils, surface water, and groundwater. This study was designed to establish the nature, extent, and pathways of contaminant dispersion. The methods used in this study are applicable at other sites of uranium mining, milling, or processing. The uranium tailings and associated ponds sit on a bench that is as much as 4.25 meters above the level of the adjacent modern channel of Fry Creek. The copper heap leach pile sits on bedrock just south of this bench. Contaminated groundwater from the ponds and other nearby sites moves downvalley and enters the modern alluvium of adjacent Fry Creek, its surface water, and also a broader, deeper paleochannel that underlies the modern creek channel and adjacent benches and stream terraces. The northern extent of contaminated groundwater is uncertain from geochemical data beyond an area of monitoring wells about 300 meters north of the site. Contaminated surface water extends to the State highway bridge. Some uranium-contaminated groundwater may also enter underlying bedrock of the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone along fracture zones. Four dc-resistivity surveys perpendicular to the valley trend were run across the channel and its adjacent stream terraces north of the heap-leach pile and ponds. Two surveys were done in a small field of monitoring wells and two in areas untested by borings to the north of the well field. Bedrock intercepts, salt distribution, and lithologic information from the wells and surface observations in the well field aided interpretation of the geophysical profiles there and allowed interpretation of the two profiles not tested by wells. The geophysical data for the two profiles to the north of the

  1. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  2. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities

  3. Plant-specific responses to zinc contamination in a semi-field lysimeter and on hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, Roland; Verkleij, Jos A.C.; Nelissen, Hans J.M.; Vink, Jos P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The species Agrostis stolonifera, Brassica napus and Trifolium repens representing different ecological strategies, were selected to study the effect of Zn contamination on Zn tolerance, uptake and accumulation patterns. Parallel tests were carried out with increasing concentrations of Zn in a semi-field lysimeter and hydroponics in the climate chamber. A significant reduction in biomass production or root length and an increase in shoot Zn concentration was observed for all species at increasing external Zn concentrations. However, shoot biomass production, Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation differed significantly among the tested species. The results in both experimental set-ups were quite similar concerning Zn tolerance and accumulation and improved the validity of the findings. The rather specific responses of the different plant species to Zn contamination interfere with the more generic approach used in risk assessment studies. Maximum amounts of Zn in shoot are not likely to cause a risk to herbivores. - Effects of Zn contamination showed different responses in uptake and accumulation patterns of site-specific plant species, which were similar in a semi-field experiment and under controlled conditions

  4. Plant-specific responses to zinc contamination in a semi-field lysimeter and on hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Roland [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verkleij, Jos A.C. [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jos.verkleij@falw.vu.nl; Nelissen, Hans J.M. [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vink, Jos P.M. [Department of Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, RIZA, PO Box 17, NL-8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    The species Agrostis stolonifera, Brassica napus and Trifolium repens representing different ecological strategies, were selected to study the effect of Zn contamination on Zn tolerance, uptake and accumulation patterns. Parallel tests were carried out with increasing concentrations of Zn in a semi-field lysimeter and hydroponics in the climate chamber. A significant reduction in biomass production or root length and an increase in shoot Zn concentration was observed for all species at increasing external Zn concentrations. However, shoot biomass production, Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation differed significantly among the tested species. The results in both experimental set-ups were quite similar concerning Zn tolerance and accumulation and improved the validity of the findings. The rather specific responses of the different plant species to Zn contamination interfere with the more generic approach used in risk assessment studies. Maximum amounts of Zn in shoot are not likely to cause a risk to herbivores. - Effects of Zn contamination showed different responses in uptake and accumulation patterns of site-specific plant species, which were similar in a semi-field experiment and under controlled conditions.

  5. Qualitative vs. quantitative data: Controls on the accuracy of PID field screening in petroleum contamination assessment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luessen, M.J.; Allex, M.K.; Holzel, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    The use of photoionization detectors (PIDs) for field screening of soils for volatile organic contaminants has become a standard industry practice. PID screening data is generally utilized as a qualitative basis for selection of samples for laboratory analysis to quantify concentrations of specific contaminants of concern. Both qualitative field screening data and quantitative laboratory analytical data were reviewed for more than 100 hydrogeologic assessment sites in Ohio to evaluate controls on the effectiveness of field screening data. Assessment data evaluated was limited to sites at which the suspected contaminant source was a gasoline underground storage tanks system. In each case, a 10.0 eV (or greater) PID calibrated for benzene was used to screen soils which were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) by SW 846 method 8020. Controls on field screening which were evaluated for each site included (1) soil classification, (2) soil moisture, (3) weather conditions, (4) background levels, (5) equipment quality, (6) screening methodology, and (7) laboratory QA/QC. Statistical data analysis predictably indicated a general overestimate of total BTEX levels based on field screening (gasoline is approximately 25 weight percent BTEX). However, data locally indicated cases of both significant (i.e., more than an order of magnitude difference) over- and under-estimation of actual BTEX concentrations (i.e., quantitative laboratory data) by field screening data

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2012-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 is located in Areas 7, 8, and 10 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 550, Smoky Contamination Area, comprises 19 corrective action sites (CASs). Based on process knowledge of the releases associated with the nuclear tests and radiological survey information about the location and shape of the resulting contamination plumes, it was determined that some of the CAS releases are co-located and will be investigated as study groups. This document describes the planned investigation of the following CASs (by study group): (1) Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test - CAS 08-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T-2C; (2) Study Group 2, Safety Experiments - CAS 08-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-8B - CAS 08-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T-8A - CAS 08-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site T-8C; (3) Study Group 3, Washes - Potential stormwater migration of contaminants from CASs; (4) Study Group 4, Debris - CAS 08-01-01, Storage Tank - CAS 08-22-05, Drum - CAS 08-22-07, Drum - CAS 08-22-08, Drums (3) - CAS 08-22-09, Drum - CAS 08-24-03, Battery - CAS 08-24-04, Battery - CAS 08-24-07, Batteries (3) - CAS 08-24-08, Batteries (3) - CAS 08-26-01, Lead Bricks (200) - CAS 10-22-17, Buckets (3) - CAS 10-22-18, Gas Block/Drum - CAS 10-22-19, Drum; Stains - CAS 10-22-20, Drum - CAS 10-24-10, Battery. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each study group. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 is located in Areas 7, 8, and 10 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 550, Smoky Contamination Area, comprises 19 corrective action sites (CASs). Based on process knowledge of the releases associated with the nuclear tests and radiological survey information about the location and shape of the resulting contamination plumes, it was determined that some of the CAS releases are co-located and will be investigated as study groups. This document describes the planned investigation of the following CASs (by study group): (1) Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test - CAS 08-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T-2C; (2) Study Group 2, Safety Experiments - CAS 08-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-8B - CAS 08-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T-8A - CAS 08-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site T-8C; (3) Study Group 3, Washes - Potential stormwater migration of contaminants from CASs; (4) Study Group 4, Debris - CAS 08-01-01, Storage Tank - CAS 08-22-05, Drum - CAS 08-22-07, Drum - CAS 08-22-08, Drums (3) - CAS 08-22-09, Drum - CAS 08-24-03, Battery - CAS 08-24-04, Battery - CAS 08-24-07, Batteries (3) - CAS 08-24-08, Batteries (3) - CAS 08-26-01, Lead Bricks (200) - CAS 10-22-17, Buckets (3) - CAS 10-22-18, Gas Block/Drum - CAS 10-22-19, Drum; Stains - CAS 10-22-20, Drum - CAS 10-24-10, Battery. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each study group. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed

  8. Assessing Alternative Endpoints for Groundwater Remediation at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Soil – Land disposal restrictions for chemicals New Bedford 1 ROD 9/25/98 Surface water and seafood – Clean Water Act and Food, Drug and Cosmetic ...DNAPL longevity through biological flux enhancement. Prepared for Environmental Security Technology Certification Program by Rice University...NJDEP and EPA began site investigation after black tar-like material is found in soil near a sewer pipe 1998 Removal activities, mulch and

  9. Study of a waste disposal site and it's groundwater contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The choice of an old borrow pit at Avu village in the outskirts of Owerri Urban as the permanent dump for wastes from Owerri Urban is evaluated in terms of the hydrogeology of the site. The depth to the groundwater table or the vadose zone is 9 – 9.5m; the texture of the soils shows fine attenuative materials that can inhibit ...

  10. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVATIVES: GREENHOUSE AND FIELD EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation was evaluated as a potential treatment for the creosote-contaminated surface soil at the McCormick and Baxter (M&B) Superfund Site in Portland, OR. Soil a the M&B site is contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight indivi...

  11. Remediation of cyanide-contaminated industrial sites through woody biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Repmann, Frank; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Due to the unfavourable chemical and physical soil quality parameters and the potential presence of contaminants, former industrial sites can hardly be utilized as arable land and can thus be classified as marginal areas. Still, as far as possible, they can effectively be used for the production of alternative energy, including the cultivation of fast growing trees. Apart from being a source of bioenergy, trees might facilitate the stabilization, remedation, contaminant extraction and degradation and, not on the last place, to enhance soil quality improvement on former industrial areas. This process is known as phytoremediation and has successfully been applied on industrial sites of various organic and inorganic contamination. The former manufactured gas plant site ( 2500 m2) "ehemalige Leuchtgasanstalt" Cottbus, contaminated, among others, with iron cyanides undergoes phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production since 2011. The project "Biomass-Remediation" is fully financed by the German Railways JSC. A dense (23700 stems/ha), mixed cover of willow (Salix caprea), poplar (Populus maximowicii Henry x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray (Hybrid 275)) and black locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia) trees has been planted on the site. Throughout the five years of remediation, a successful long-term stabilization of the site has been achieved as a result of the nearly outright established tree stock and the dense planting. Annual monitoring of the cyanide levels in the leaf tissue of the trees on the site and results from greenhouse experiments indicate the ability of all tree species to extract and transport the cyanide from the soil. Additonally, the greenhouse experiments suggest that the willows might be able, although not to a full extent, to detoxify the contaminant by splitting the CN moiety. The contaminated biomass material might easily be dealt with through regular harvests and subsequent incineration. Phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  14. Geological characterization of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    to increase the density of the field data, the two areas were mapped using combined Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Induced Polarization (IP), and a multi-configuration Ground Conductivity Meter (DualEM421). Based on the borehole information and the high-density geophysical data, detailed 3D...

  15. Proceedings of the 2000 contaminated site remediation conference. From source zones to ecosystems. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    The conference theme, 'From Source Zones to Ecosystems' , indicate the recognition of the fact that once released into environment, contaminants followed a pathway from the source to the point of impact with an ecosystem or other receptors, consequently care is taken to associate remediation with reducing risk to these receptors. The papers, presented at the conference provide a guide to current practice and future direction of contaminated site remediation in Australia and internationally. Monitored natural attenuation is considered as is an increased body of evidence available to evaluate this approach when managing site contamination for Australian conditions. Remediation strategies for heavy metal contamination appear to be underdeveloped and indeed underrepresented. The phyto remediation is being developed to ameliorate the problem and there is also a focus on the bioavailability of metals and on better defining the risk they pose

  16. Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)

  17. Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination - 12543

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Kurt; Chamberlain, Grover; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin [Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Wellman, Dawn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth [ARCADIS U.S., Inc., Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination

  18. Public participation in decision-making for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Sharp, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Public participation is critical in environmental decision-making. This paper provides three examples of public participation in the decision making process. The first example illustrates the effectiveness of public involvement when incorporated at the beginning of a project. The second example shows the loss of trust by a community resulting from the lack of public involvement. The third example demonstrates public involvement in making risk-based decisions for corrective action in a non-radiological situation. The first site is the Los Alamos National Laboratory where a lawsuit filed by local citizens led to an independent audit of the laboratory's compliance with the Clean Air Act for radionuclides. The audit team involved the public extensively, resulting in close interaction during the audit and a better understanding by the public of the regulations. The second site is the Rocky Flats Plant nuclear weapons facility, which is being decommissioned and the surrounding property will ultimately be available for public use. The Department of Energy proposed a cleanup level but the level was developed with little public input and has been criticized widely by local residents. As a result, the target cleanup levels are being reevaluated by an independent contractor with oversight from a panel of local members of the public. Working with the independent contractor, the panel proposed new cleanup standards to the Department of Energy. The third site is a bulk oil and terminal where chemicals have migrated offsite into a residential area. Facility owners have initiated a public involvement program to help the community understand the potential risks involved and alternatives for remedial action. The public is playing a key role in the risk-based decision making process. Each of these examples illustrates the importance of public participation in different situations. (author)

  19. Methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels at decommissioned nuclear facilities/sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.C.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hoenes, G.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The ultimate disposition of decommissioned nuclear facilities and their surrrounding sites depends upon the degree and type of residual contamination. Examination of existing guidelines and regulations has led to the conclusion that there is a need for a general method to derive residual radioactive contamination levels that are acceptable for public use of any decommissioned nuclear facility or site. This paper describes a methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels based on the concept of limiting the annual dose to members of the public. It is not the purpose of this paper to recommend or even propose dose limits for the exposure of the public to residual radioactive contamination left at decommissioned nuclear facilities or sites. Unrestricted release of facilities and/or land is based on the premise that the potential annual dose to any member of the public using this property from all possible exposure pathways will not exceed appropriate limits as may be defined by Federal regulatory agencies. For decommissioned land areas, consideration should be given to people living directly on previously contaminated areas, growing crops, grazing food animals and using well water. Mixtures of radionuclides in the residual contamination representative of fuel reprocessing plants, light water reactors and their respective sites are presented. These mixtures are then used to demonstrate the methodology. Example acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels, based on an assumed maximum annual dose of one millirem, are calculated for several selected times following shutdown of a facility. It is concluded that the methodology presented in this paper results in defensible acceptable residual contamination levels that are directly relatable to risk assessment with the proviso that an acceptable limit to the maximum annual dose will be established. (author)

  20. Uranium Contamination in the Subsurface Beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Thorne, Paul D.; Williams, Mark D.

    2008-02-29

    This report provides a description of uranium contamination in the subsurface at the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The principal focus is a persistence plume in groundwater, which has not attenuated as predicted by earlier remedial investigations. Included in the report are chapters on current conditions, hydrogeologic framework, groundwater flow modeling, and geochemical considerations. The report is intended to describe what is known or inferred about the uranium contamination for the purpose of making remedial action decisions.

  1. Field-scale assessment of phytotreatment of soil contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.R.T.; Koskinen, P.E.P.; Tuhkanen, T.A.; Puhakka, J.A. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Tampere Univ. of Tech., Tampere (Finland); Pichtel, J. [Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States); Vaajasaari, K. [Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, Tampere (Finland); Joutti, A. [Finnish Environment Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Background, Aims, and Scope. Phytoremediation is remediation method which uses plants to remove, contain or detoxify environmental contaminants. Phytoremediation has successfully been applied for the removal of fresh hydrocarbon contamination, but removal of aged hydrocarbons has proven more difficult. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface can be enhanced by the presence of plant roots, i.e. the rhizosphere effect. Phytostabilization reduces heavy metal availability via immobilization in the rhizosphere. Soils contaminated by both hydrocarbons and heavy metals are abundant and may be difficult to treat. Heavy metal toxicity can inhibit the activity of hydrocarbon-degrading micro-organisms and decrease the metabolic diversity of soil bacteria. In this experiment, weathered hydrocarbon- and heavy metal-contaminated soil was treated using phytoremediation in a 39-month field study in attempts to achieve both hydrocarbon removal and heavy metal stabilization. Methods. A combination of hydrocarbon degradation and heavy metal stabilization was evaluated in a field-scale phytoremediation study of weathered contaminants. Soil had been contaminated over several years with hydrocarbons (11,400{+-}4,300 mg kg dry soil){sup -1} and heavy metals from bus maintenance activities and was geologically characterized as till. Concentrations of soil copper, lead and zinc were 170{+-}50 mgkg{sup -1}, 1,100{+-}1,500 mg kg{sup -1} and 390{+-} 340 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The effect of contaminants, plant species and soil amendment (NPK fertilizer or biowaste compost) on metabolic activity of soil microbiota was determined. Phytostabilization performance was investigated by analyses of metal concentrations in plants, soil and site leachate as well as acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri and Enchtraeus albidus. Results. Over 39 months hydrocarbon concentrations did not decrease significantly (P=0.05) in non-amended soil, although 30% of initial hydrocarbon concentrations were

  2. On-site cell field test support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniunas, J. W.; Merten, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1990 by the US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine what remedial actions are necessary for contaminated ground water at the site

  4. Contaminant fluxes through site containment barriers: Performance assessment and illustrative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vita, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminant mass flux by advective and diffusive transport is predicted for five containment barriers that use one or more clay liners, flexible membrane liners (FMLs), or liquid collection and removal systems (LCRS)s. Barriers are engineered systems intended to contain and isolate site contaminants from the environment. Barriers include liners, caps, and cutoff walls. Barriers may be used in contaminated-site cleanups (including CERCLA and RCRA), RCRA landfills, or other RCRA TSDFs. Concepts are provided for barrier performance assessment, including analysis and optimization, for meeting performance requirements and controlling risk at minimum cost. Concepts and results can help in planning, designing, or evaluating and communicating, the use or effectiveness of proposed or existing barriers for site cleanups or waste containment. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    and metal objects. The area has been anaerobic and the corrosion rate has been very low for the metal objects to be preserved for so long, but it is now a major concern, whether the artefacts will further on be preserved in the area or will now corrode away. The National Museum is now monitoring...... measurements, electrical resistance corrosion rate measurements and weight loss data from the initial 15 months exposure will be presented and discussed as well as some practical aspects of field monitoring....

  6. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  7. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  8. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Strand

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  10. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  11. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  12. Potential of Pteris vittata L. for phytoremediation of sites co-contaminated with cadmium and arsenic: the tolerance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiyuan; Chen, Tongbin; An, Zhizhuang; Lei, Mei; Huang, Zechun; Liao, Xiaoyong; Liu, Yingru

    2008-01-01

    Field investigation and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the tolerance of Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) to cadmium (Cd) and its feasibility for remediating sites co-contaminated with Cd and arsenic (As). The results showed that P. vittata could survive in pot soils spiked with 80 mg/kg of Cd and tolerated as great as 301 mg/kg of total Cd and 26.8 mg/kg of diethyltriaminepenta acetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd under field conditions. The highest concentration of Cd in fronds was 186 mg/kg under a total soil concentration of 920 mg As/kg and 98.6 mg Cd/kg in the field, whereas just 2.6 mg/kg under greenhouse conditions. Ecotypes of P. vittata were differentiated in tolerance and accumulation of Cd, and some of them could not only tolerate high concentrations of soil Cd, but also accumulated high concentrations of Cd in their fronds. Arsenic uptake and transportation by P. vittata was not inhibited at lower levels (< or = 20 mg/kg) of Cd addition. Compared to the treatment without addition of Cd, the frond As concentration was increased by 103.8% at 20 mg Cd/kg, with the highest level of 6434 mg/kg. The results suggested that the Cd-tolerant ecotype of P. vittata extracted effectively As and Cd from the site co-contaminated with Cd and As, and might be used to remediate and revegetate this type of site.

  13. Contaminant transport in the sub-surface soil of an uncontrolled landfill site in China: site investigation and two-dimensional numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Thomas, Hywel R; Sedighi, Majid; Masum, Shakil A; Ran, Qihua

    2016-02-01

    A field investigation of contaminant transport beneath and around an uncontrolled landfill site in Huainan in China is presented in this paper. The research aimed at studying the migration of some chemicals present in the landfill leachate into the surrounding clayey soils after 17 years of landfill operation. The concentrations of chloride and sodium ions in the pore water of soil samples collected at depths up to 15 m were obtained through an extensive site investigation. The contents of organic matter in the soil samples were also determined. A two-dimensional numerical study of the reactive transport of sodium and chloride ion in the soil strata beneath and outside the landfill is also presented. The numerical modelling approach adopted is based on finite element/finite difference techniques. The domain size of approximately 300 × 30 m has been analysed and major chemical transport parameters/mechanisms are established via a series of calibration exercises. Numerical simulations were then performed to predict the long-term behaviour of the landfill in relation to the chemicals studied. The lateral migration distance of the chloride ions was more than 40 m which indicates that the advection and mechanical dispersion are the dominant mechanism controlling the contaminant transport at this site. The results obtained from the analysis of chloride and sodium migration also indicated a non-uniform advective flow regime of ions with depth, which were localised in the first few metres of the soil beneath the disposal site. The results of long-term simulations of contaminant transport indicated that the concentrations of ions can be 10 to 30 times larger than that related to the allowable limit of concentration values. The results of this study may be of application and interest in the assessment of potential groundwater and soil contamination at this site with a late Pleistocene clayey soil. The obtained transport properties of the soils and the contaminant transport

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  16. Risks to humans and wildlife from metal contamination in soils/sediments at CERCLA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitch, J.P.; Hovatter, P.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.; Young, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A common problem that occurs at DOD and DOE CERCLA sites is metal contamination in soils and aquatic sediments and the protection of humans and wildlife from potential exposure to this contamination. Consequently, the authors have developed a site-specific reference dose for mercury in sediments at the Oak Ridge Reservation and site-specific cleanup levels for certain metals, including arsenic and nickel, in soils at an Army ammunition plant. Another concern during remediation of these sites is that limited data are available to determine the direct risks to indigenous wildlife. Therefore, the authors have developed toxicological benchmarks for certain metals and metal compounds to be used as screening tools to determine the potential hazard of a contaminant to representative mammalian and avian wildlife species. These values should enable the Army and DOE to more accurately determine the risks to humans and wildlife associated with exposure to these contaminated media at their sites in order to achieve a more effective remediation. This effort is ongoing at ORNL with toxicological benchmarks also being developed for metal compounds and other chemicals of concern to DOD and DOE in order to address the potential hazard to

  17. Environmental liability and contaminated site management : a strategic approach for Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The issue of how much liability can be imposed on a party for remediating a contaminated site is discussed. Many jurisdictions have either passed legislation or implemented policies on environmental liability consistent with the 1993 framework outlined by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). In 1997, the Minister of Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM) received a report from the Minister`s Contaminated Site Liability Advisory Group (CSLAG) which made a series of recommendations on the application of CCME principles in a Saskatchewan context. This document clarifies SERM`s approach to the management of contaminated sites in Saskatchewan and proposes a process model in accordance with the principles outlined by CCME and CSLAG to provide a workable system for determining which remedial measures are appropriate for specific contaminated sites. The report also identifies the parties responsible for implementing remedial measures and encourages them to negotiate the sharing of responsibility for the remediation among themselves. The treatment of orphan shares/sites is also discussed. 1 fig.

  18. Self-potential monitoring of a crude oil contaminated site (Trecate, Italy): first results of the modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Rizzo, E.; Titov, K.; Maineult, A.; Lapenna, V.

    2012-04-01

    , whereas the northern one is characterized by positive values. In contrast, in March, positive SP values generally coincide with the contaminated area. As described by Revil et al. (2010), the capillary fringe of the contaminated portion of the aquifer is potentially the setting of mechanism of electron transfer normal to the water table (due to a higher density of bacteria at the transition zone). This "geo-battery" generates a dipolar self-potential field. In particular, the capillary fringe is higher in October than in March because the rice fields are flooded. Therefore, the water level and the height of the capillary fringe possibly play an important role in the electrochemical mechanism. However, to clearly understand the origin of the measured SP signals, we are building a SP model using vertical dipolar electrical sources, and taking into account the electrical resistivity distribution deduced from ERT an EM measurements. In conclusion, our results confirm that SP can play an important role in the definition of soil hydraulic characteristics and contamination distribution. This work is part of the research project ModelPROBE (Model-Driven soil probing, site assessment and evaluation, Grant No. 213161 in the framework of the EC-FP7 funded).

  19. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  20. Remediation of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with calcium chloride: Verification of on-site washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki; Sasaki, Kouta; Maejima, Yuji; Sugahara, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We developed a new, three-step soil-wash method to remediate Cd-contaminated paddy fields. The method comprises (1) chemically washing the field soil with a CaCl 2 solution; (2) washing the treated soil with water to eliminate residual Cd and CaCl 2 ; and (3) on-site treatment of wastewater using a portable wastewater treatment system. Cd concentrations in the treated water were below Japan's environmental quality standard (0.01 mg Cd L -1 ), and the removal of Cd from the exchangeable fraction was 55% and from the acid-soluble fraction 15%. While soil fertility properties were affected by the soil washing, adverse effects were not crucial and could be corrected. The washing had no affect on rice growth, and reduced the average Cd concentration in rice grains by about two-thirds compared to a control plot. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the soil-wash method in remediating Cd-contaminated paddy fields. - In situ soil washing in a paddy field using an on-site wastewater treatment system resulted in an effective decrease of Cd in soil and rice grains without affecting rice yield

  1. Baseline Assessment of Petroleum Contamination and Soil Properties at Contaminated Sites in Utqiagvik, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    microbial community, including high bacterial numbers in these soils. The results from this baseline study indicate that stimulating biodegradation...CEERD-RR), ERDC- CRREL. At the time of publication, Dr. Justin Berman was Chief, CEERD- RRN; CDR J. D. Horne, USN (Ret), was Chief, CEERD-RR; and Dr...of the fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial activity in ERDC/CRREL TR-17-13 3 situ to reveal the status of each site at the time of

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

  4. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Bishop, L.B.; Floran, R.J.; Williams, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, the analysis of these samples is not only expensive, but can take weeks or months when sent to an off-site laboratory. In contrast, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) screening capability could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real-time measurements provided by a MVM system would enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies, enhance worker safety, and provide the added flexibility of being able to ''steer'' the drill bit in or out hazardous zones. During measurement-while-drilling, down-hole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a rapid data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling proceeds, data are collected on the nature and extent of the subsurface contamination in real-time. The down-hole sensor is a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT) gamma radiation detector. In addition to the GMT signal, the MWD system monitors these required down-hole voltages and two temperatures associated with the detector assembly. The Gamma Ray Detection System (GRDS) and electronics package are discussed in as well as the results of the field test. Finally, our conclusions and discussion of future work are presented

  5. Microbial characterization of a radionuclide- and metal-contaminated waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Lumppio, H.L.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Plymale, A.E.

    1993-04-01

    The operation of nuclear processing facilities and defense-related nuclear activities has resulted in contamination of near-surface and deep-subsurface sediments with both radionuclides and metals. The presence of mixed inorganic contaminants may result in undetectable microbial populations or microbial populations that are different from those present in uncontaminated sediments. To determine the impact of mixed radionuclide and metal contaminants on sediment microbial communities, we sampled a processing pond that was used from 1948 to 1975 for the disposal of radioactive and metal-contaminated wastewaters from laboratories and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities on the Hanford Site in Washington State. Because the Hanford Site is located in a semiarid environment with average rainfall of 159 mm/year, the pond dried and a settling basin remained after wastewater input into the pond ceased in 1975. This processing pond basin offered a unique opportunity to obtain near-surface sediments that had been contaminated with both radionuclides and metals for several decades. Our objectives were to determine the viable populations of microorganisms in the sediments and to test several hypotheses about how the addition of both radionuclides and metals influenced the microbial ecology of the sediments. Our first hypothesis was that viable populations of microorganisms would be lower in the more contaminated sediments. Second, we expected that long-term metal exposure would result in enhanced metal resistance. Finally, we hypothesized that microorganisms from the most radioactive sediments should have had enhanced radiation resistance

  6. Estimating risk at a Superfund site contaminated with radiological and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temeshy, A.; Liedle, J.M.; Sims, L.M.; Efird, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the method and results for estimating carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects at a Superfund site that is radiologically and chemically contaminated. Risk to receptors from disposal of waste in soil and resulting contamination of groundwater, air, surface water, and sediment is quantified. Specific risk assessment components which are addressed are the exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and the resulting risk characterization. In the exposure assessment, potential exposure pathways are identified using waste disposal inventory information for soil and modeled information for other media. Models are used to calculate future radionuclide concentrations in groundwater, soil, surface water and air. Chemical exposure concentrations are quantified using site characterization data. Models are used to determine concentrations of chemicals in surface water and in air. Toxicity parameters used to quantify the dose-response relationship associated with the carcinogenic contaminants are slope factors and with noncarcinogenic contaminants are reference doses. In the risk characterization step, results from the exposure assessment and toxicity assessment are summarized and integrated into quantitative risk estimates for carcinogens and hazard induces for noncarcinogens. Calculated risks for carcinogenic contaminants are compared with EPA's target risk range. At WAG 6, the risk from radionuclides and chemicals for an on-WAG homesteader exceeds EPA's target risk range. Hazard indices are compared to unity for noncarcinogenic contaminants. At WAG 6, the total pathway hazard index for the on-WAG homesteader exceeds unity

  7. Decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo; Abdaal, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    Polluting mine accidents and widespread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe and elsewhere has triggered the improvement of related environmental legislation and of the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background pollution associated with natural mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination located in the three-dimensional sub-surface space, the problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites and abandoned mines in historic regions like Europe. These mining-specific problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the decision support methods that have been developed and applied to mining contamination. In this paper, only those methods that are both efficient decision support tools and provide a 'holistic' approach to the complex problem as well are considered. These tools are (1) landscape ecology, (2) industrial ecology, (3) landscape geochemistry, (4) geo-environmental models, (5) environmental impact assessment, (6) environmental risk assessment, (7) material flow analysis and (8) life cycle assessment. This unique inter-disciplinary study should enable both the researcher and the practitioner to obtain broad view on the state-of-the-art of decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mine sites. Documented examples and abundant references are also provided.

  8. Zinc accumulation in plant species indigenous to a Portuguese polluted site: relation with soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana P G C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2007-01-01

    The levels of zinc accumulated by roots, stems, and leaves of two plant species, Rubus ulmifolius and Phragmites australis, indigenous to the banks of a stream in a Portuguese contaminated site were investigated in field conditions. R. ulmifolius, a plant for which studies on phytoremediation potential are scarce, dominated on the right side of the stream, while P. australis proliferated on the other bank. Heterogeneous Zn concentrations were found along the banks of the stream. Zn accumulation in both species occurred mainly in the roots, with poor translocation to the aboveground sections. R. ulmifolius presented Zn levels in the roots ranging from 142 to 563 mg kg(-1), in the stems from 35 to 110 mg kg(-1), and in the leaves from 45 to 91 mg kg(-1), vs. average soil total Zn concentrations varying from 526 to 957 mg kg(-1). P. australis showed Zn concentrations in the roots from 39 to 130 mg kg(-1), in the stems from 31 to 63 mg kg(-1), and in the leaves from 37 to 83 mg kg(-1), for the lower average soil total Zn levels of 138 to 452 mg kg(-1) found on the banks where they proliferated. Positive correlations were found between the soil total, available and extractable Zn fractions, and metal accumulation in the roots and leaves of R. ulmifolius and in the roots and stems of P. australis. The use of R. ulmifolius and P. australis for phytoextraction purposes does not appear as an effective method of metal removing, but these native metal tolerant plant species may be used to reduce the effects of soil contamination, avoiding further Zn transfer to other environmental compartments.

  9. Actinide migration from contaminated soil to surface water at the rocky flats environmental technology site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, Peter H.; Roberts, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Surficial soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) contain elevated levels of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am due to wind dispersal of soil particles, contaminated in the 1960's by leaking drums stored on the 903 Pad. Over the past 4 years, actinide mobility in the surface environment at RFETS, Golden, Colorado, USA, was examined through field and laboratory experiments. From measurements of total 239,240 Pu and 241 Am concentrations in storm runoff and pond discharge samples, collected during spring and summer times, it was established that most of the actinide transport from contaminated soils to streams occurred in the particulate (0.45μm) and colloidal (3kDa - 0.45μm) phases. Controlled laboratory investigations of soil resuspension, indicated that remobilization of colloid-bound Pu during soil erosion events can be enhanced by humic acids. 2-D Polyacrylamide Gel electrophoresis (PAGE) experiments of radiolabeled colloidal organic and inorganic matter, extracted from RFETS soils, suggested that colloidal Pu, which was focused at pH IEP of 4.5, is mainly associated with organic (humic acids) colloids of 10-15 kDa molecular weight. Pu(IV) oxide and inorganic colloids such as iron and aluminum oxides have pH IEP of 8-10. While some clay minerals also have pH IEP of 3-5, no Al was found coincident with Pu. This finding has important ramifications for possible remediation, erosion controls, and land-management strategies. (author)

  10. Current and emerging techniques for contaminant mapping and data visualization at DNAPL sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wealthall, Gary; Durant, Neal; Grosen, Bernt

    methods will be discussed in the context of contaminant delineation, remediation design, technology verification and regulatory acceptance. We present a range of site investigation tools, based on the principle of combined lines of evidence and the premise that a single technique is not available to fully......Recent advances in the development of contaminant specific site investigation tools has significantly enhanced our ability to characterize the spatial architecture of DNAPL source zones in both sedimentary and fractured bedrock environments. The application of innovative site characterization...... value. These methods are generally of lower cost, produce vertical profiles of real-time data and are primarily used to identify site areas that require further investigation. Examples of such "decision quality" methods are drive point tools, such as laser-induced fluorescence profiling and membrane...

  11. Using a risk assessment protocol to develop soil cleanup criteria for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante-Duah, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum contaminated site may prose significant risks to the public because of potential health and environmental effects, and to Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) because of financial liabilities that could result from such effects. The effective management of petroleum contaminated sites has therefore become an important environmental priority and will be a growing challenge for years to come. It has also become evident that the proper management of such sites poses great challenges. Risk assessment seems to be one of the fastest evolving tools for developing appropriate management decisions, including those relating to the levels of cleanup warranty under specific scenarios. This paper reports that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recognizes the use of risk assessment to facilitate decisions on whether or not remedial actions are needed to abate site-related risks, and also in the enforcement of regulatory standards. Risk assessment techniques have been used in various regulatory programs employed by federal, state, and local agencies

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site

  18. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance 66 (class VI

  19. Minutes of the workshop on off-site release criteria for contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.N.

    1989-11-01

    A one and one-half-day workshop was held May 2-3, 1989, at the Pollard Auditorium in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the objective of formulating a strategy for developing reasonable and uniform criteria for releasing radioactively contaminated materials from the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This report contains the minutes of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshop, a plan was formulated to facilitate the development of the above-mentioned off-site release criteria

  20. Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Valérie; Seuntjens, Piet; Dejonghe, Winnie; Lacherez, Sophie; Thuy, Hoang Thi Thanh; Vandecasteele, Bart

    2009-11-01

    processes and vegetation development mainly determined by hydrology, over alluvial soils affected by overbank sedimentation (including flood control areas), to dredged sediment disposal facilities where hydrology and vegetation might be affected or managed by human intervention. This gradient is also a gradient of systems with highly variable soil and hydrological conditions in a temporal scale (tidal marshes) versus systems with a distinct soil development over time (dredged sediment landfill sites). In some circumstances (e.g. to avoid flooding or to ensure navigation) dredging operations are necessary. Management and remediation of contaminated sediments are necessary to reduce the ecological risks and risks associated with food chain contamination and leaching. Besides disposal, classical remediation technologies for contaminated sediment also extract or destroy contaminants. These techniques imply the sediment structure deterioration and prohibitive costs. On the contrary, phytoremediation could be a low-cost option, particularly suited to in situ remediation of large sites and environmentally friendly. However, phytoremediation is rarely included in the management scheme of contaminated sediment and accepted as a viable option. Phytoremediation is still an emerging technology that has to prove its sustainability at field scale. Research needs to focus on optimisations to enhance applicability and to address the economic feasibility of phytoremediation.

  1. Exploring available options in characterising the health impact of industrially contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Roberto; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; Martuzzi, Marco; Iavarone, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Industrially contaminated sites (ICS) are of high concern from an environmental public health perspective, since industrial plants may produce a widespread contamination that can result in several health impacts on the populations living in their neighbourhood. The objective of this contribution is to briefly explore available options in studying the health impact of ICS, mainly referring to information provided by documents and activities developed by the WHO and the WHO Collaborating Center for Environmental Health in Contaminated Sites. In current practice the health impact of ICS is evaluated using studies and assessments falling in two broad types of strategies: one based on epidemiology and the other on risk assessment methods. In recent years, traditional approaches to assess relationships between environmental risks and health has been evolved considering the intricate nature between them and other factors. New developments should be explored in the context of ICS to find common strategies and tools to assess their impacts and to guide public health interventions.

  2. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of rodents at a waste burial site, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Sites 1 and 2) at Area G, TA-54, and a control site outside Area G (Site 3) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for americium ( 241 Am), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), total uranium (U), and examined by gamma spectroscopy (including cesium [ 137 Cs]). Significantly higher (parametric t-test at p = 0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, and potassium ( 40 K) were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. The results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, P = 0.0095) total U concentrations in carcasses than Sites 2 and 3. Site 2 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, P = 0.0195) 239 Pu concentrations in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 3

  3. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malcolm, Colin A.; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart G. J.; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an

  4. A field guide for well site geologists: Cable tool drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Liikala, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    This field is intended for use by Pacific Northwest Laboratory well site geologists who are responsible for data collection during the drilling and construction of monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. This guide presents standardized methods for geologic sample collection and description, and well construction documentation. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) used as biomonitors in contaminated mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Ilizaliturri, Cesar; Gonzalez-Mille, Donaji; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Mejia-Saavedra, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities globally; however, mining processes have critical environmental impacts, as mining is a major source of metals and metalloids that contribute significantly to the pollution of soil, sediment, water and air. Heavy metals can impact the health of exposed human populations and nonhuman receptors. This study focused on arsenic because its genotoxicity is well-known. Previously, we proposed a methodology to evaluate and integrate risk from a single source affecting different biologic receptors. Here, we propose an alternative approach estimating arsenic exposure in children and kangaroo rats using probabilistic simulation with Monte Carlo modeling. The estimates are then associated to measured DNA damage and compared to both populations of children and rodents living in contaminated and in reference areas. Finally, based on the integrated analysis of the generated information, we evaluate the potential use of wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) as a biomonitor at mining sites. Results indicate that the variation of genotoxicity in children of the reference site is approximately 2 units when compared to the children of the contaminated site. In the rodents we observed a variation of approximately 4 units between those of the reference site when compared to those living on the contaminated site. We propose that D. merriami can be used as a biomonitor organism in sites with mining activity, and that a non-lethal test can be used to evaluate risk from metal exposure.

  6. Toward identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P; Sedlak, David L; Barlaz, Morton A; Henry, Heather F; Muir, Derek C G; Swackhamer, Deborah L; Weber, Eric J; Arnold, Robert G; Ferguson, P Lee; Field, Jennifer A; Furlong, Edward T; Giesy, John P; Halden, Rolf U; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Howard, Philip H; Luthy, Richard G; Meyer, Anita K; Sáez, A Eduardo; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vulpe, Chris D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  7. Multi-criteria assessment tool for sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives for a contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bondgård, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In order to improve and support decision-making for the selection of remedial techniques for contaminated sites, a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) method has been developed. The MCA framework is structured in a decision process actively involving stakeholders, and compares...

  8. Uncertainty estimation of the mass discharge from a contaminated site using a fully Bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Nowak, W.; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    with an uncertain geostatistical model and iii) measurement uncertainty. The method is tested on a TCE contaminated site for which four different conceptual models were set up. The mass discharge and the associated uncertainty are hereby determined. It is discussed which of the conceptual models is most likely...

  9. Radioactive contamination of soil-vegetation cover in some southern areas of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Zharikov, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The nature of radioactive contamination of meadow-pasture lands in the south of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) has been studied using experimental data. Individual parameters of radionuclide transport from soil into plants depending upon soil type and sub-type, extent of land use for hay-making and pasturing, and other nature-climatic and anthropogenic factors have been determined. (author)

  10. Uncertainty evaluation of mass discharge estimates from a contaminated site using a fully Bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Nowak, W.; Tuxen, N.

    2010-01-01

    for each of the conceptual models considered. The probability distribution of mass discharge is obtained by combining all ensembles via BMA. The method was applied to a trichloroethylene-contaminated site located in northern Copenhagen. Four essentially different conceptual models based on two source zone...

  11. Associative diazotrophic bacteria in grass roots and soils from heavy metal contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fátima M S; Lange, Anderson; Klauberg-Filho, Osmar; Siqueira, José O; Nóbrega, Rafaela S A; Lima, Adriana S

    2008-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate density of associative diazotrophic bacteria populations in soil and grass root samples from heavy metal contaminated sites, and to characterize isolates from these populations, both, phenotypically (Zinc, Cadmium and NaCl tolerance in vitro, and protein profiles) and genotypically (16S rDNA sequencing), as compared to type strains of known diazotrophic species. Densities were evaluated by using NFb, Fam and JNFb media, commonly used for enrichment cultures of diazotrophic bacteria. Bacterial densities found in soil and grass root samples from contaminated sites were similar to those reported for agricultural soils. Azospirillum spp. isolates from contaminated sites and type strains from non-contaminated sites varied substantially in their in vitro tolerance to Zn+2 and Cd+2, being Cd+2 more toxic than Zn+2. Among the most tolerant isolates (UFLA 1S, 1R, S181, S34 and S22), some (1R, S34 and S22) were more tolerant to heavy metals than rhizobia from tropical and temperate soils. The majority of the isolates tolerant to heavy metals were also tolerant to salt stress as indicated by their ability to grow in solid medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) NaCl. Five isolates exhibited high dissimilarity in protein profiles, and the 16S rDNA sequence analysis of two of them revealed new sequences for Azospirillum.

  12. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  13. Potential for effects of land contamination on human health. 2. The case of waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Levy, Len; Brown, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This review of the epidemiological literature shows that evidence for negative impacts of land contaminated by waste disposal on human health is limited. However, the potential for health impacts cannot be dismissed. The link between residence close to hazardous waste disposal sites and heightened levels of stress and anxiety is relatively well established. However, studies on self-reported outcomes generally suffer from interpretational problems, as subjective symptoms may be due to increased perception and recall. Several recent multiple-site studies support a plausible linkage between residence near waste disposal sites and reproductive effects (including congenital anomalies and low birth weight). There is some conflict in the literature investigating links between land contamination and cancers; the evidence for and against a link is equally balanced and is insufficient to make causal inferences. These are difficult to establish because of lack of data on individual exposures, and other socioeconomic and lifestyle factors that may confound a relationship with area of residence. There is no consistently occurring risk for any specific tumor across multiple studies on sites expected to contain similar contaminants. Further insights on health effects of land contamination are likely to be gained from studies that consider exposure pathways and biomarkers of exposure and effect, similar to those deployed with some success in investigating impacts of cadmium on human health.

  14. Common Elements for Success: What Makes the Deal Work at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Common Elements for Success - What makes the Deal Work at Contaminated Sites.

  15. DECHEM: A remedial planning tool for metallic contaminants in soil at UMTRA Project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The DECHEM (DEcontamination of CHEMicals) method was developed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to guide characterization and remedial planning for metals contamination in soils. This is necessary because non-radiological hazardous constituents may be more mobile than radium-226 (Ra-226), and hence may migrate more deeply into subpile soils (beneath tailings that are to be relocated) or into adjacent contaminated soils at UMTRA Project sites. The result is that remedial action to the Ra-226 excavation limit, as specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, may not adequately remove hazardous non-radiological contamination. Unmitigated, these contaminants in soil may cause health risks because of their presence in resuspended particles, their uptake by crops or fodder their seepage into aquifers used for drinking water or other possible exposure pathways. The DECHEM method was developed in response to the need for advanced planning for the remediation of chemical contaminants at UMTRA Project sites, and includes the following elements: Establishment of acceptable exposure rates for humans to chemicals, based on EPA guidelines or other toxicological literature. Modeling of chemical migration through environmental pathways from a remediated UMTRA Project site to humans. Determination of allowable residual concentrations (i.e., cleanup guidelines) for chemicals in soils that results in doses to humans that are below established acceptable exposure rates. The initial development and application of the DECHEM method has focused upon hazardous metallic contaminants such as arsenic, lead, molybdenum, and selenium, which are known to occur in elevated concentrations at some UMTRA Project sites

  16. Days of dismantling activities of installations and rehabilitation of contaminated sites in France; Demantelement des installations et rehabilitation de sites contamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The objective of these days, organized by the section environment of the French society of radiation protection, is to present a panorama of the activities of nuclear installations dismantling and contaminated sites rehabilitation in France, by leaning in the same time on practical cases and by stating the French rule and the national and international recommendations on the subject. These days have also for object to approach the stakes associated with the sectors of waste management and the materials generated by these activities and in a more general way, the stakes to come for the different actors of the dismantling and the rehabilitation. (N.C.)

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2010, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the Baneberry site. The primary release associated with Corrective Action Unit 365 was radiological contamination from the Baneberry nuclear test. Baneberry was an underground weapons-related test that vented significant quantities of radioactive gases from a fissure located in close proximity to ground zero. A crater formed shortly after detonation, which stemmed part of the flow from the fissure. The scope of this investigation includes surface and shallow subsurface (less than 15 feet below ground surface) soils. Radionuclides from the Baneberry test with the potential to impact groundwater are included within the Underground Test Area Subproject. Investigations and corrective actions associated with the Underground Test Area Subproject include the radiological inventory resulting from the Baneberry test.

  18. Using proven, cost-effective chemical stabilization to remediate radioactive and heavy metal contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.; Sogue, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS) has deployed a cost-effective metals stabilization method which can be used to reduce the cost of remediation projects where radioactivity and heavy metals are the contaminants of concern. The Envirobond TM process employs the use of a proprietary chemical process to stabilize metals in many waste forms, and provides an excellent binding system that can easily be compacted to reduce the waste into a shippable brick called Envirobric TM . The advantages of using chemical stabilization are: (1) Low cost, due to the simplicity of the process design and inexpensive reagents. (2) Chemical stabilization is easily deployed in field applications, which limit the amount of shielding and other protective measures. (3) The process does not add volume and bulk to the treated waste; after treatment the materials may be able to remain on-site, or if transportation and disposal is required the cost will be reduced due to lower volumes. (4) No secondary waste. The simplicity of this process creates a safe environment while treating the residues, and the long-term effectiveness of this type of chemical stabilization lowers the risk of future release of hazardous elements associated with the residues. (author)

  19. An integrated system for conducting radiological surveys of contaminated sites - 16312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, Jay P.; Rogers, Donna M.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated detection system that has been developed to conduct radiological surveys of sites suspected of contamination of materials such as depleted uranium. This system utilizes cerium activated lanthanum bromide and thallium activated sodium iodide gamma detectors and can be easily adapted to include units for detecting neutrons. The detection system includes software controlling the collection of radiological spectra and GPS data. Two different platforms are described for conducting surveys, a modified zero turn radius (ZTR) mower and a three-wheeled cart that is manually pushed. The detection system software controlling data collection has components that facilitate completing a grid-less survey on user specified spacings. Another package confirms that all data quality activities (calibrations, etc.) are conducted prior to beginning the survey and also reviews data to identify areas that have been missed for which data quality falls below user designated parameters. Advanced digital signal processing algorithms are used to enhance the interpretation of spectra for conducting background subtractions and for mapping. Data from radiation detection instruments and GPS antennae are merged and made compatible with mapping using Geosoft Oasis montaj software. A summary of system performance during field-testing is included in the paper. This includes survey rate, detection limits, duty cycle, supporting ancillary equipment/material, and manpower requirements. The rate of false positives and false negatives is discussed with the benefits of surveys conducted using synergetic detection systems such as electromagnetic induction imaging. (authors)

  20. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  1. Evaluating Potential Human Health Risks Associated with the Development of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Facilities on Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. -J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kygeris, C. [Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report presents a general methodology for obtaining preliminary estimates of the potential human health risks associated with developing a utility-scale solar energy facility on a contaminated site, based on potential exposures to contaminants in soils (including transport of those contaminants into the air).

  2. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  4. Mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites: Multi-model solutions for assessment of conceptual uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, N. I.; Troldborg, M.; McKnight, U. S.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Mass discharge estimates are increasingly being used in the management of contaminated sites. Such estimates have proven useful for supporting decisions related to the prioritization of contaminated sites in a groundwater catchment. Potential management options can be categorised as follows: (1) leave as is, (2) clean up, or (3) further investigation needed. However, mass discharge estimates are often very uncertain, which may hamper the management decisions. If option 1 is incorrectly chosen soil and water quality will decrease, threatening or destroying drinking water resources. The risk of choosing option 2 is to spend money on remediating a site that does not pose a problem. Choosing option 3 will often be safest, but may not be the optimal economic solution. Quantification of the uncertainty in mass discharge estimates can therefore greatly improve the foundation for selecting the appropriate management option. The uncertainty of mass discharge estimates depends greatly on the extent of the site characterization. A good approach for uncertainty estimation will be flexible with respect to the investigation level, and account for both parameter and conceptual model uncertainty. We propose a method for quantifying the uncertainty of dynamic mass discharge estimates from contaminant point sources on the local scale. The method considers both parameter and conceptual uncertainty through a multi-model approach. The multi-model approach evaluates multiple conceptual models for the same site. The different conceptual models consider different source characterizations and hydrogeological descriptions. The idea is to include a set of essentially different conceptual models where each model is believed to be realistic representation of the given site, based on the current level of information. Parameter uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. For each conceptual model we calculate a transient mass discharge estimate with uncertainty bounds resulting from

  5. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Adam, E-mail: a.l.varley@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Andrew, E-mail: a.n.tyler@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Smith, Leslie, E-mail: l.s.smith@cs.stir.ac.uk [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Dale, Paul, E-mail: paul.dale@sepa.org.uk [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactive Substances, Strathallan House, Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Davies@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Eight Street, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection.

  6. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection

  7. Successful field tests of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of persistent petroleum and organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Huang, X.D.; Gurska, Y.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Wang, W.; Lampi, M.A.; Zhang, C.; Khalid, A.; Isherwood, D.; Chang, P.; Wang, H.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A large number of aquatic and terrestrial environments are polluted with various levels of toxicants. Metals, organics and total petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources pose a risk to both human health and the health of ecosystems. Although these persistent contaminants are difficult to remediate, several industrial sites throughout North America are being remediated as part of land reclamation and restoration programs. This paper addressed the issue of phytoremediation for removing contaminants from soils. Phytoremediation is considered to be a viable remediation strategy because the increased biomass of plants, relative to the biomass of soil microbes in the absence of plants, allows for higher throughput. Extensive root systems can infiltrate large volumes of soil, thus promoting degradation of contaminants over a wide area. This paper described a newly developed multi-process phytoremediation system with accelerated remediation kinetics to effectively remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) from soils. The system combines land farming/sunlight exposure; inoculation of contaminant degrading bacteria; and, plant growth with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria which mitigates the effects of stress ethylene in plants. The primary factor for success was the interaction between the plant and the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Several field tests were conducted following successful greenhouse tests. Results at a TPH contaminated site in Sarnia, Ontario showed that over a 2 year period, 60 to 70 per cent remediation of 15 per cent TPH was achieved. At a site in Turner Valley, Alberta, 35 per cent remediation of 1 per cent recalcitrant TPH was achieved, while a DDT contaminated site near Simcoe, Ontario had nearly 30 per cent of CHC removed in a 3 month period. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Successful field tests of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of persistent petroleum and organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Huang, X.D.; Gurska, Y.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Wang, W.; Lampi, M.A.; Zhang, C.; Khalid, A.; Isherwood, D.; Chang, P.; Wang, H.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A large number of aquatic and terrestrial environments are polluted with various levels of toxicants. Metals, organics and total petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources pose a risk to both human health and the health of ecosystems. Although these persistent contaminants are difficult to remediate, several industrial sites throughout North America are being remediated as part of land reclamation and restoration programs. This paper addressed the issue of phytoremediation for removing contaminants from soils. Phytoremediation is considered to be a viable remediation strategy because the increased biomass of plants, relative to the biomass of soil microbes in the absence of plants, allows for higher throughput. Extensive root systems can infiltrate large volumes of soil, thus promoting degradation of contaminants over a wide area. This paper described a newly developed multi-process phytoremediation system with accelerated remediation kinetics to effectively remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) from soils. The system combines land farming/sunlight exposure; inoculation of contaminant degrading bacteria; and, plant growth with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria which mitigates the effects of stress ethylene in plants. The primary factor for success was the interaction between the plant and the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Several field tests were conducted following successful greenhouse tests. Results at a TPH contaminated site in Sarnia, Ontario showed that over a 2 year period, 60 to 70 per cent remediation of 15 per cent TPH was achieved. At a site in Turner Valley, Alberta, 35 per cent remediation of 1 per cent recalcitrant TPH was achieved, while a DDT contaminated site near Simcoe, Ontario had nearly 30 per cent of CHC removed in a 3 month period. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. European sites contaminated by residues from the ore extracting and processing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.

    2000-01-01

    Activities linked with the ore extraction and processing industries may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) in products, by-products and waste and at the installations and in the surroundings of the facility. In the framework of the EC-DGXI CARE project (Common Approach for REstoration of contaminated sites) nine important categories of industries were identified and discussions were summarized on the industrial processes and the levels of NORs in parent material, waste and by-products. The most contaminating industries are uranium mining and milling, metal mining and smelting and the phosphate industry. Radionuclide levels in products and/or waste products from the oil and gas extraction industry and of the rare earth, zirconium and ceramics industries may be particularly elevated, but waste streams are limited. The impact on the public from coal mining and power production from coal is commonly considered low. No typical values are available for contaminant levels in materials, buildings and surroundings of radium extraction and luminizing plants, nor for thorium extraction and processing plants. An attempt to give an overview of sites in Europe contaminated with NORs, with emphasis on past practices, was only partly successful since information was often limited or unavailable. The most prominent case of environmental contamination due to mining and processing activities (uranium, metal and coal mining) is in eastern Germany. (author)

  10. Incorporating linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information in a risk-based approach for ranking contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejiang; Achari, Gopal; Pei, Yuansheng

    2010-10-01

    Different types of uncertain information-linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic-exist in site characterization. Their representation and propagation significantly influence the management of contaminated sites. In the absence of a framework with which to properly represent and integrate these quantitative and qualitative inputs together, decision makers cannot fully take advantage of the available and necessary information to identify all the plausible alternatives. A systematic methodology was developed in the present work to incorporate linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information into the Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE), a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods for ranking contaminated sites. The identification of criteria based on the paradigm of comparative risk assessment provides a rationale for risk-based prioritization. Uncertain linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information identified in characterizing contaminated sites can be properly represented as numerical values, intervals, probability distributions, and fuzzy sets or possibility distributions, and linguistic variables according to their nature. These different kinds of representation are first transformed into a 2-tuple linguistic representation domain. The propagation of hybrid uncertainties is then carried out in the same domain. This methodology can use the original site information directly as much as possible. The case study shows that this systematic methodology provides more reasonable results. © 2010 SETAC.

  11. Mathematical modeling of heavy metals contamination from MSW landfill site in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantemsapya, N; Naksakul, Y; Wirojanagud, W

    2011-01-01

    Kham Bon landfill site is one of many municipality waste disposal sites in Thailand which are in an unsanitary condition. The site has been receiving municipality wastes without separating hazardous waste since 1968. Heavy metals including, Pb, Cr and Cd are found in soil and groundwater around the site, posing a health risk to people living nearby. In this research, contamination transport modelling of Pb, Cr and Cd was simulated using MODFLOW for two periods, at the present (2010) and 20 years prediction (2030). Model results showed that heavy metals, especially Pb and Cr migrated toward the north-eastern and south-eastern direction. The 20 years prediction showed that, heavy metals tend to move from the top soil to the deeper aquifer. The migration would not exceed 500 m radius from the landfill centre in the next 20 years, which is considered to be a slow process. From the simulation model, it is recommended that a mitigation measure should be performed to reduce the risk from landfill contamination. Hazardous waste should be separated for proper management. Groundwater contamination in the aquifer should be closely monitored. Consumption of groundwater in a 500 m radius must be avoided. In addition, rehabilitation of the landfill site should be undertaken to prevent further mobilization of pollutants.

  12. Bioremediation of mixed microbial mats: System development of mixed contaminants for application at the Savannah River Site. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, J.; Phillips, P.

    1996-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this project is to develop and field test the mixed microbial mat bioremediation system for decontamination of target sites at SRS. Although microbial mats have performed well in several pilot projects in the past, atypical problems and site characteristics at SRS demand special field designs. In the interest of designing a pilot and locating it at an appropriate site, the project investigators have worked closely with the technical staff at the SREL. We have concluded that the diverse characteristics of contaminations at SRS may dictate testing several pilot designs during the course of this project

  13. Gelatinous soil barrier for reducing contaminant emissions at waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Martin, W.J.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    The milling of uranium ore produces large quantities of waste (mill tailings) that are being deposited in earthen pits or repositories. These wastes, which remain potentially hazardous for long time periods, may reach the biosphere at levels greater than those allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). For example, the leachates associated with these wastes contain numerous radionuclides and toxic trace metals at levels 10 2 to 10 4 greater than allowable for drinking water based on EPA Primary Drinking Water Standards. As a result, technologies must be developed to ensure that such wastes will not reach the biosphere at hazardous levels. Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has investigated the use of engineered barriers for use as liners and covers for waste containment. Results of these investigations have led to the development of a low permeable, multilayer earthen barrier that effectively reduces contaminant loss from waste disposal sites. The multilayer earth barrier was developed as an alternative to clay liner or cover schemes for use in areas where clays were not locally available and must be shipped to the disposal site. The barrier layer is comprised of 90% locally available materials whose liner or cover properties are enhanced by the addition of a gelatinous precipitate which entrains moisture into the cover's air-filled pore spaces, blocking the pathways through which gas would otherwise diffuse into the atmosphere or through which moisture would migrate into the ground. In field verification tests, the earthen seal reduced radon gas emissions by 95 to 99% over prior release rates with measured permeabilities on the order of 10 - 9 cm/s

  14. Identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in Ukraine and planning for environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In the Pridniprovsk-Krivoy Rog region uranium, titanium, iron and manganese ores were mined and milled beginning in the 1950s. These activities have caused radioactive contamination of the environment at some sites. In recent times intensive works concerning the surveying of contaminated areas and substantiating the need for remediation have been initiated. The research methodologies applied and the results from radiation surveys are presented for the site of the first uranium mine in the Ukraine, for tailings originating from the Pridniprovsk Chemical Plant (PChP), for the recultivated dump-site of the former 'O'-mine, as well as for the wastes, raw materials and production of the Nicopol Ferro-Alloy Plant. The planning procedure for the remediation activities at the town of Zhovty Vody is described. (author)

  15. Innovative technology for expedited site remediation of extensive surface and subsurface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audibert, J.M.E.; Lew, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale surface and subsurface contamination resulted from numerous releases of feed stock, process streams, waste streams, and final product at a major chemical plant. Soil and groundwater was contaminated by numerous compounds including lead, tetraethyl lead, ethylene dibromide, ethylene dichloride, and toluene. The state administrative order dictated that the site be investigated fully, that remedial alternative be evaluated, and that the site be remediated within a year period. Because of the acute toxicity and extreme volatility of tetraethyl lead and other organic compounds present at the site and the short time frame ordered by the regulators, innovative approaches were needed to carry out the remediation while protecting plant workers, remediation workers, and the public

  16. Surface and subsurface characterization of uranium contamination at the Fernald environmental management site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Perkins, R.W.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    The past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils, and the three-dimensional distribution of the uranium at these sites must be thoroughly characterized before any effective remedial protocols can be established. To this end, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked by the DOE's Office of Technology Development with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies for the measurement of uranium in surface and subsurface soils at the Fernald Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration site. These studies are detailed in this report

  17. [The significance of the contamination of dental care articles. The results of a field study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingst, V

    1989-04-01

    Permissible conclusions both from recent available literature and our own field-study results concerning the problematic nature of microbial contamination of dental hygiene articles and the resulting possible health hazard for the consumer can be summarized as follows: Manufacturing practices as are given in the basic instructions for production sites of the cosmetic industry, render a possible degree of microbial contamination. This largely rules out the danger of infection of the consumer upon acquisition of the dental hygiene product. Secondary contamination of these products, as inevitably is the case during use of dental hygiene articles, leads to microbial colonization especially of toothbrush bristles. The extent of this colonization depends at least partially upon the utilization age of the toothbrush. Also for this reason a toothbrush should be replaced by a new one after period of three months, six months at the latest and in all cases of inflammatory changes of the mouth and throat region. The contamination of both the glass or plastic container used for rinsing the teeth after brushing or for gargling can be held within certain limits by dry storage. Only in exceptional cases do mouthwashes show a small degree of contamination. Provided they contain antimicrobial substances, no therapeutically serviceable possibilities worth mentioning follow for the reduction of oropharyngeal flora. Microbial colonization of toothpastes as a result of secondary contamination following use is observed only in exceptional cases due to their preservative content. Significant germination of stagnated residual water in waterpicks often occurs, achieving germ counts up to more than 10(7) cfu per ml. Moreover, waterpicks can represent a biotope for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and should be used neither by patients with open wounds or mucous membrane lesions in the oropharyngeal area, nor by patients with reduced immune resistance. Manufacturers of waterpicks are urged to impede

  18. Assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in soil at a contaminated sawmill site in Sweden – A GIS and PCA approach to interpret the contamination pattern and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, S.; Hagberg, J.; Bäckström, M.; Persson, I.; Lindström, G.

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) were analysed in soil from a Swedish sawmill site where chlorophenols (CPs) had been used more than 40 years ago. The most contaminated area at the site was the preservation subarea where the PCDD/F WHO 2005 -TEQ level was 3450 times higher than the current Swedish guideline value of 200 ng TEQ/kg soil for land for industrial use. It was also shown that a fire which destroyed the sawmill might have affected the congener distribution at the concerned areas. To get a broader picture of the contamination both GIS (spatial interpolation analysis) and multivariate data analysis (PCA) were applied to visualize and compare PCDD/F levels as well as congener distributions at different areas at the site. It is shown that GIS and PCA are powerful tools in decisions on future investigations, risk assessments and remediation of contaminated sites. -- Highlights: •GIS and PCA visualize and compare site levels and congener patterns of dioxins. •Subareas were separated by differences in contamination levels and congener patterns. •Fire had a significant effect on the congener distribution at the site. -- The use of geostatistical and multivariate statistical methods are powerful tools to visualize the contamination pattern and distribution at a highly PCDD/Fs-contaminated site

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  1. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M.; Jean, D.; Brown, C.; Byrd, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia's Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope

  2. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean, D. [MDM/Lamb, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, C. [Environmental Dimensions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87109 (United States); Byrd, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

  3. Restoration principles and criteria: Superfund programme policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response is responsible for implementing two key US laws regulating waste management and cleanup: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed ''Superfund''. The purpose of the Superfund programme is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund programme. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in the identical way as chemical contamination. (author)

  4. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Keuning, Sytze [Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  5. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  6. Semianalytical solutions for contaminant transport under variable velocity field in a coastal aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohbor, Behshad; Fahs, Marwan; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.; Younes, Anis

    2018-05-01

    Existing closed-form solutions of contaminant transport problems are limited by the mathematically convenient assumption of uniform flow. These solutions cannot be used to investigate contaminant transport in coastal aquifers where seawater intrusion induces a variable velocity field. An adaptation of the Fourier-Galerkin method is introduced to obtain semi-analytical solutions for contaminant transport in a confined coastal aquifer in which the saltwater wedge is in equilibrium with a freshwater discharge flow. Two scenarios dealing with contaminant leakage from the aquifer top surface and contaminant migration from a source at the landward boundary are considered. Robust implementation of the Fourier-Galerkin method is developed to efficiently solve the coupled flow, salt and contaminant transport equations. Various illustrative examples are generated and the semi-analytical solutions are compared against an in-house numerical code. The Fourier series are used to evaluate relevant metrics characterizing contaminant transport such as the discharge flux to the sea, amount of contaminant persisting in the groundwater and solute flux from the source. These metrics represent quantitative data for numerical code validation and are relevant to understand the effect of seawater intrusion on contaminant transport. It is observed that, for the surface contamination scenario, seawater intrusion limits the spread of the contaminant but intensifies the contaminant discharge to the sea. For the landward contamination scenario, moderate seawater intrusion affects only the spatial distribution of the contaminant plume while extreme seawater intrusion can increase the contaminant discharge to the sea. The developed semi-analytical solution presents an efficient tool for the verification of numerical models. It provides a clear interpretation of the contaminant transport processes in coastal aquifers subject to seawater intrusion. For practical usage in further studies, the full

  7. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR IN SITU CLEANUP OF DNAPL CONTAMINATED SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquids poses one of the greatest remedial challenges in the field of environmental engineering. Denser-than-water non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are especially problematic due to their low water solubility, high density, an...

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  10. Laboratory and field evaluation of the gas treatment approach for insitu remediation of chromate-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Jackson, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    Laboratory scale soil treatment tests have been conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of chromate-contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. These tests involved three different soil samples that were contaminated with Cr(VI) at the 200 ppM level. Treatment of the contaminated soils was performed by passing 100 ppM and 2000 ppM concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in nitrogen through soil columns until a S:Cr mole ratio of 10:1 was achieved. The treated soils were then leached with groundwater or deionized water and analyzed to assess the extent of chromium immobilization. Test results indicate >90% immobilization of chromium and demonstrate that the treatment process is irreversible. Ongoing developmental efforts are being directed towards the demonstration and evaluation of the gas treatment approach in a field test at a chromate-contaminated site. Major planned activities associated with this demonstration include laboratory testing of waste site soil samples, design of the treatment system and injection/extraction well network, geotechnical and geochemical characterization of the test site, and identification and resolution of regulatory and safety requirements

  11. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  12. Manual on restoration strategies for radioactive-contaminated sites. RESTRAT-TD 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Brendler, V.; Nordlinder, S.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Bousher, A.

    1999-06-01

    This report is submitted as Technical Deliverable No. 14 against the requirements of the RESTRAT (Restoration Strategies for radioactively contaminated Sites and their Close Surroundings) Project. In this manual the methodology for ranking restoration options is explained and applied to example sites that are representative for major categories of contaminated sites. Potentially relevant techniques for restoration of contaminated sites are identified and characterised and the data collected included on a CD-ROM. For the ranking of the restoration options, a multi-attribute utility (MAU) type of analysis has been chosen with a view to the various categories of attributes that are being taken into account: radiological health detriment; economic costs; social factors. The methods of assessing the attributes and converting the attribute values into utility values for the scoring of the options are explained. The models applied for assessing the collective dose to the population and for the ranking of the remediation options (MAU analysis) are explained and the software included on two CD-ROMs added to the manual

  13. A possibilistic analysis approach for environmental risk assessment of petroleum-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, G.H.; Fuller, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A possibilistic approach for assessing risks associated with petroleum-contaminated sites is provided. The approach is applied to an illustrative case study in order to show its applicability and implementation for decision making in effective site remediation and management. The approach consists of three main parts: (1) the determination of fuzzy steady state contaminant concentrations in a aquifer based on an analytical solute transport model; (2) possibilistic analysis of fuzzy criteria for different risk levels; and (3) environmental risk assessment based on the Euclidian method. Based on results from an illustrative case study, environmental risks at a petroleum-contaminated site can be effectively evaluated using the developed methodology. The risk assessment framework can effectively handle uncertainities presented as fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy nature of water quality and risk level criteria were seen in the related simulation and evaluation models, and the framework is especially useful for situations in which probabilistic information is not available. This use of this approach is new in the area of petroleum waste management under uncertainty, and its results are useful for the related site remediation and management decisions. 36 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Applicability of slug interference testing of hydraulic characterization of contaminated aquifer sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A.; Swanson, L.C.

    1993-10-01

    Aquifer test methods available for characterizing hazardous waste sites are sometimes restricted because of problems with disposal of contaminated groundwater. These problems, in part, have made slug tests a more desirable method of determining hydraulic properties at such sites. However, in higher permeability formations (i.e., transmissivities ≥ 1 x 10 -3 m 2 /s), slug test results often cannot be analyzed and give, at best, only a lower limit for transmissivity. A need clearly exists to develop test methods that can be used to characterize higher permeability aquifers without removing large amounts of contaminated groundwater. One hydrologic test method that appears to hold promise for characterizing such sites is the slug interference test. To assess the applicability of this test method for use in shallow alluvial aquifer systems, slug interference tests have been conducted, along with more traditional aquifer testing methods, at several Hanford multiple-well sites. Transmissivity values estimated from the slug interference tests were comparable (within a factor of 2 to 3) to values calculated using traditional testing methods, and made it possible to calculate the storativity or specific yield for the intervening test formation. The corroboration of test results indicates that slug interference testing is a viable hydraulic characterization method in transmissive alluvial aquifers, and may represent one of the few test methods that can be used in sensitive areas where groundwater is contaminated

  15. Manual on restoration strategies for radioactive-contaminated sites. RESTRAT-TD 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Brendler, V.; Nordlinder, S.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Bousher, A

    1999-06-01

    This report is submitted as Technical Deliverable No. 14 against the requirements of the RESTRAT (Restoration Strategies for radioactively contaminated Sites and their Close Surroundings) Project. In this manual the methodology for ranking restoration options is explained and applied to example sites that are representative for major categories of contaminated sites. Potentially relevant techniques for restoration of contaminated sites are identified and characterised and the data collected included on a CD-ROM. For the ranking of the restoration options, a multi-attribute utility (MAU) type of analysis has been chosen with a view to the various categories of attributes that are being taken into account: radiological health detriment; economic costs; social factors. The methods of assessing the attributes and converting the attribute values into utility values for the scoring of the options are explained. The models applied for assessing the collective dose to the population and for the ranking of the remediation options (MAU analysis) are explained and the software included on two CD-ROMs added to the manual.

  16. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  17. Relative contributions of microbial and infrastructure heat at a crude oil-contaminated site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2018-04-01

    Biodegradation of contaminants can increase the temperature in the subsurface due to heat generated from exothermic reactions, making temperature observations a potentially low-cost approach for determining microbial activity. For this technique to gain more widespread acceptance, it is necessary to better understand all the factors affecting the measured temperatures. Biodegradation has been occurring at a crude oil-contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota for 39 years, creating a quasi-steady-state plume of contaminants and degradation products. A model of subsurface heat generation and transport helps elucidate the contribution of microbial and infrastructure heating to observed temperature increases at this site. We created a steady-state, two-dimensional, heat transport model using previous-published parameter values for physical, chemical and biodegradation properties. Simulated temperature distributions closely match the observed average annual temperatures measured in the contaminated area at the site within less than 0.2 °C in the unsaturated zone and 0.4 °C in the saturated zone. The model results confirm that the observed subsurface heat from microbial activity is due primarily to methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone resulting in a 3.6 °C increase in average annual temperature. Another important source of subsurface heat is from the active, crude-oil pipelines crossing the site. The pipelines impact temperatures for a distance of 200 m and contribute half the heat. Model results show that not accounting for the heat from the pipelines leads to overestimating the degradation rates by a factor of 1.7, demonstrating the importance of identifying and quantifying all heat sources. The model results also highlighted a zone where previously unknown microbial activity is occurring at the site.

  18. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10 -12 to 10 -6 Ci/g of 90 Sr or 137 Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of 90 Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer's diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed

  19. Characteristics of radionuclide contamination of different zones of Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site ``Opytnoe pole''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrzhanov, K. K.; Khazhekber, S.; Lukashenko, S. N.; Solodukhin, V. P.; Kazachevskiy, I. V.; Poznyak, V. L.; Knyazev, B. B.; Rofer, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    Data on the spatial distribution of radionuclides (241Am, 239Pu, 137Cs and 152Eu) formed during nuclear explosions of different types near P2 SNTS test site are presented. Radionuclide contamination induced by the explosions varies in the concentrations of individual radionuclides, their proportions and species. Examination of the variations is a crucial task to plan remediation activities as well as those aimed at decrease of radiation risk for population and prevention of repeated contamination. Concentrations of 241Am and 239+240Pu that are the most toxic radionuclides in the area lie in hundred thousands of Bqkg-1. The most contaminated areas are classified by the radionuclide concentration, ratio and form present in soil.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments

  2. European network on the determination of site end points for radiologically contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Peter; Lennon, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Nexia Solutions are currently running a small European network entitled 'European Network on the Determination of Site End Points for Radiologically Contaminated Land (ENDSEP)'. Other network members include NRG (Netherlands), UKAEA (UK), CEA (France), SOGIN (Italy), Wismut (Germany), Saxon State Agency of Environment and Geology (Germany). The network is focused on the technical and socio-economical issues associated with the determination of end points for sites potentially, or actually, impacted by radiological contamination. Such issues will cover: - Those associated with the run up to establishing a site end point; - Those associated with verifying that the end points have been met; and Those associated with post closure. The network's current high level objectives can be summarized as follows: Share experience and best practice in the key issues running up to determining site end points; Gain a better understanding of the potential effects of recent and forthcoming EU legislation; Assess consistency between approaches; Highlight potential gaps within the remit of site end point determination and management; and - Consider the formulation of research projects with a view to sharing time and expense. The programme of work revolves around the following key tasks: - Share information, experience and existing good practice. - Look to determine sustainable approaches to contaminated land site end point management. - Through site visits, gain first hand experience of determining an appropriate end point strategy, and identifying and resolving end point issues. Highlight the key data gaps and consider the development of programmes to either close out these gaps or to build confidence in the approaches taken. Production of position papers on each technical are a highlighting how different countries approach/resolve a specific problem. (authors)

  3. Site-specific optimisation of the countermeasure structure on rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Okhrimenko, D.V.; Lisyanski, B.G.; Okhrimenko, I.V.; Mirzeabassov, O.A.

    2000-01-01

    The use of 'soft' countermeasures (CMs) (agricultural CMs, some administrative ones, except for relocation/resettlement and some 'strong' measures on restriction of living conditions) allows considering the radiological and economic parameters for assessing their effectiveness. In this case cost-benefit analysis (CBA) or some its modification are used. However, the determination of various radiological and economic parameters (and their combination) is not enough for making final decisions on countermeasure implementation. All radiological, ecological and economic characteristics and other expert knowledge, corresponding standards and regulations should be taken into account, and many of them may not be used very often in analytical methods directly. The approaches to evaluating strong' CMs are based, as a rule, on expert judgements (MAUA, M-Crit). However, in practice they can lead to any result given in advance or to a choice of an weighted solution which does not comply with opinions by most experts due to considerable range of expert opinions and subjective weights for chosen attributes/criteria. Implementation of CMs on rehabilitation of contaminated territories should be based on the radiation protection principles. However, these principles are declared only when realising CMs on rehabilitation of contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident. In practice some national or departmental standards are used and principles of justification'/'optimisation' are not examined. Taking into consideration a complex character of tasks on CM analysis and comparison of various alternatives it is quite necessary to use up-to-date computer decision support systems (DSSs). One of the systems which is directly intended for site-specific rehabilitation of territories subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident is the PRANA DSS. A key block of PRANA is 'analysis and optimisation of CMs structure'. It is intended for : -determination of territories

  4. Site-specific optimisation of the countermeasure structure on rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Okhrimenko, D.V.; Lisyanski, B.G.; Okhrimenko, I.V.; Mirzeabassov, O.A. [Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Obninsk, Kaluga (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The use of 'soft' countermeasures (CMs) (agricultural CMs, some administrative ones, except for relocation/resettlement and some 'strong' measures on restriction of living conditions) allows considering the radiological and economic parameters for assessing their effectiveness. In this case cost-benefit analysis (CBA) or some its modification are used. However, the determination of various radiological and economic parameters (and their combination) is not enough for making final decisions on countermeasure implementation. All radiological, ecological and economic characteristics and other expert knowledge, corresponding standards and regulations should be taken into account, and many of them may not be used very often in analytical methods directly. The approaches to evaluating strong' CMs are based, as a rule, on expert judgements (MAUA, M-Crit). However, in practice they can lead to any result given in advance or to a choice of an weighted solution which does not comply with opinions by most experts due to considerable range of expert opinions and subjective weights for chosen attributes/criteria. Implementation of CMs on rehabilitation of contaminated territories should be based on the radiation protection principles. However, these principles are declared only when realising CMs on rehabilitation of contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident. In practice some national or departmental standards are used and principles of justification'/'optimisation' are not examined. Taking into consideration a complex character of tasks on CM analysis and comparison of various alternatives it is quite necessary to use up-to-date computer decision support systems (DSSs). One of the systems which is directly intended for site-specific rehabilitation of territories subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident is the PRANA DSS. A key block of PRANA is 'analysis and optimisation of CMs structure

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

  7. Leaching of microelement contaminants: a long-term field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, T.; Kadar, I. [Research Inst. for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    A field experiment with microelement loads was set up on loamy textured, calcareous chernozem soil formed on loess. The ploughed layer contained ca. 5% CaCO{sub 3} and 3% humus. The soil was well supplied with Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu, moderately supplied with N and K, and weakly supplied with P and Zn. The water table is at the depth of 15 m, the water balance of the area is negative, and the site is drought sensitive. Salts of the 13 examined microelements were applied at 4 doses in the spring of 1991. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design, in a total of 104 plots with two replications. Loading rates were 0, 90, 270 and 810 kg/ha per element in the form of AlCl{sub 3}, NaAsO{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2}, CdSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, CuSO{sub 4}, HgCl{sub 2}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}, NiSO{sub 4}, Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}, SrSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4}. Soil profiles of the control and the 810 kg/ha treated plots were sampled in the 3{sup rd}, 6{sup th} and 10{sup th} year of the trial. The mixed samples, consisting of 5 cores/plot were taken in 30 cm steps to 60 cm (year 1993), 90 cm (year 1996), and 290 cm (year 2000). Ammonium acetate + EDTA-soluble element content was determined. (orig.)

  8. Subsurface imaging of water electrical conductivity, hydraulic permeability and lithology at contaminated sites by induced polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, P. K.; Balbarini, N.; Møller, I.; Rønde, V.; Christiansen, A. V.; Bjerg, P. L.; Auken, E.; Fiandaca, G.

    2018-05-01

    At contaminated sites, knowledge about geology and hydraulic properties of the subsurface and extent of the contamination is needed for assessing the risk and for designing potential site remediation. In this study, we have developed a new approach for characterizing contaminated sites through time-domain spectral induced polarization. The new approach is based on: (1) spectral inversion of the induced polarization data through a reparametrization of the Cole-Cole model, which disentangles the electrolytic bulk conductivity from the surface conductivity for delineating the contamination plume; (2) estimation of hydraulic permeability directly from the inverted parameters using a laboratory-derived empirical equation without any calibration; (3) the use of the geophysical imaging results for supporting the geological modelling and planning of drilling campaigns. The new approach was tested on a data set from the Grindsted stream (Denmark), where contaminated groundwater from a factory site discharges to the stream. Two overlapping areas were covered with seven parallel 2-D profiles each, one large area of 410 m × 90 m (5 m electrode spacing) and one detailed area of 126 m × 42 m (2 m electrode spacing). The geophysical results were complemented and validated by an extensive set of hydrologic and geologic information, including 94 estimates of hydraulic permeability obtained from slug tests and grain size analyses, 89 measurements of water electrical conductivity in groundwater, and four geological logs. On average the IP-derived and measured permeability values agreed within one order of magnitude, except for those close to boundaries between lithological layers (e.g. between sand and clay), where mismatches occurred due to the lack of vertical resolution in the geophysical imaging. An average formation factor was estimated from the correlation between the imaged bulk conductivity values and the water conductivity values measured in groundwater, in order to

  9. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  10. Effects of microelements on soil nematode assemblages seven years after contaminating an agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, P.; Bakonyi, G.; Bongers, A.M.T.; Kádár, I.; Fábián, M.; Kiss, I.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term effects of Cd, Cr, Cu, Se and Zn were studied 7 years after artificially contaminating plots of an agricultural field on a calcareous chernozem soil. Effects of three to four different contamination levels (originally 10, 30, 90 and 270 mg kg(-1)) were studied. Nematode density was

  11. Management of Ground and Groundwater Contamination on a Compact Site Constrained by Ongoing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilbeck, K.E.; Reeve, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sellafield Site is a compact and complex site which since the 1940's has been home to a range of facilities associated with the production and reprocessing of fissile material. The site contains the UK equivalent of the Chicago Pile-1 reactor, Hanford B Reactor, Rocky Flats Buildings 771 and 774, West Valley Main Process Plant Building, Savannah River Vitrification Plant, Savannah River MOX Plant, Savannah River F Canyon, Hanford 222 Analytical Laboratory, Savannah River K-, L-, and P-Basins, and the Fort St. Vrain Reactor all in an area of approximately 1000 acres. Spent fuel reprocessing is still undertaken on site; however waste management and decommissioning activities are of increasing importance. These include the emptying and removal of fragile ponds and silos containing significant radioactive inventories, the decommissioning of reactors (including the world's first commercial reactor for power generation and the Windscale Piles, the site of a reactor fire in the late 1950's) and the construction of a new generation of vitrification and encapsulation plants. Leaks, spills and on-site disposals during the site's industrial lifetime have resulted in a legacy of fission products and other radionuclides in the ground and groundwater. Volumes of contaminated ground have been estimated as being as much as 18 million m 3 and an estimated below ground inventory of approximately 1.8 E16 Bq. These have all occurred within close proximity to a range of receptors including farm land and the sea. The cramped nature of the facilities on site, overlapping source terms and ongoing decommissioning, waste management and operating activities all raise significant challenges in the management and remediation of contaminated land and groundwater. The strategy to address these challenges includes: 1. Data collection, management and interpretation. The congested nature of the site and the age of some of the monitoring facilities has resulted in particular difficulties. For

  12. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Applying FDEM, ERT and GPR at a site with soil contamination: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Pin; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tong, Lun-Tao; Chang, Ping-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Dong, Tien-Hsing; Liu, Hsin-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ping; Yang, Kai-Hsing; Ho, Ching-Jen; Cheng, Shih-Nan

    2015-10-01

    This study employed the combination of three methods, namely the Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to evaluate a heavy-metal contaminated site for both pre- and post-remediation investigations. The main goals were to verify the position and the integrity of the underground storage tanks (UST), and to determine the effectiveness of remediation to ensure no contaminants remained at the site. In general, the GPR survey was effective at locating shallowly buried objects. However, due to the highly conductive nature of the heavy-metal laden sludge, the GPR signals were attenuated severely. Thus, the first attempt to use GPR in the pre-remediation investigation did not achieve the desired results and other methods were deployed. The existence of the UST and the sludge within were confirmed by ERT and the UST shape was mapped by FDEM. The principal remediation scheme was soil replacement by replacing the contaminated soil with clean silt. Based on the distinctive property differences of the contaminated soil and the clean silt, the completion of the remediation was confirmed by the differences between pre-remediation and post-remediation in GPR, ERT and FDEM results.

  14. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Gunnison Baseline Risk Assessment for Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site was performed to determine if long-term use of groundwater from domestic wells near the site has a potential for adverse health effects. The risk assessment was based on the results of sampling domestic wells during 1989--1990. A risk assessment evaluates health risks by comparing the amount of a contaminant taken in by a person with the amount of the contaminant that may be toxic. The Gunnison Risk Assessment used high intake values to estimate the maximum levels a person might be exposed to. The results of the risk assessment are divided into cancer (carcinogenic) risks and non-carcinogenic risks. Five key contaminants were evaluated for adverse health risks: uranium, manganese, lead antimony, and cadmium. Due to the potential health risks and the unavoidable uncertainties associated with limited groundwater and toxicity data, it is prudent public health policy to provide a permanent alternate water supply. Additionally, providing a permanent alternate water supply is cost-effective compared to long-term routine monitoring

  15. Bioremediation of a PAH-contaminated gasworks site with the Ebiox vacuum heap system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiermann, D.R.; Bolliger, R.

    1995-01-01

    A former gasworks site in the industrial city of Winterthur, Switzerland, was extremely contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); phenols; ammonia; and mineral oils. Three vacuum heaps, with a total volume of 10,500 m 3 of contaminated soil, were bioremediated during 1993/94. Separating excavated soil material into different soil qualities was of particular importance because of the pathway definition of the specific soil material. Excavation of contamination took longer than 10 months, delivering continuously different contaminated soil-type material for bioremediation. Conditioning and subsequent biostimulation of the large soil volumes were the prerequisites for most advanced milieu optimization. The degradation results demonstrated the potential for successful application of bioremediation on former industrial sites. PAH-concentration reductions ranged from 75 to 83% for the soil values and from 87 to 98% for the elution values. Soil and elution target qualities were met within 6 to 12 months, depending on initial PAH-concentration and soil structure. The achieved target quality for the bioremediated soil allowed subsequent reuse as high-value backfill material for the ongoing building project

  16. Management of radio-contaminated sites. Analysis of various public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.; Brenot, J.; Hubert, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the management of sites that were contaminated by radioactive substances in the past because of industrial practices, such as the mining, milling and processing of uranium ores, the radium luminizing industry, and thorium processing. Contaminations due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents and on-going practices are not considered. The management refers to the protection of the near populations and of people who are using the site now or who might use it in the future. International organizations have issued recommendations which apply to these contaminated sites. The concepts called for to manage these de facto situations are intervention, optimization and intervention levels. Few countries have yet elaborated regulations or guidelines concerning the treatment and the use of contaminated sites. The United States has one regulation in preparation that will be generally applicable whereas most countries follow the recommendations of their national radiation protection board on a case by case basis. This paper aims at comparing public policies in several countries by developing first, how policies are defined, and second, how they are implemented in practice. The present survey suffers from the limitation of such an approach. The main limitation lies in the fact that remediation cannot be summarized by a series of prescriptions that can be found in regulatory documents. Rather it is a series of practical decisions that must be investigated, and of recommendations that may not have an official statute and cannot be traced easily. Nevertheless, this work allowed us to put forward some important points. The main one is that flexible approaches are usually adopted. Even when quantitative levels (intervention levels, non intervention levels) are put forward, they can be interpreted in different ways, depending on the approach followed for assessment and on the exact concepts. Should one consider that contaminated sites can be a building in an

  17. Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nidhi; Lata, Pushp; Jit, Simran; Sangwan, Naseer; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Niharika, Neha; Kaur, Jasvinder; Saxena, Anjali; Dua, Ankita; Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Geueke, Birgit; Kunz, Petra; Rentsch, Daniel; Holliger, Christof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The efficiency of the consortium was investigated in laboratory scale experiments, in a pot scale study, and in a full-scale field trial. It turned out that the approach of combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most effective in achieving reduction in the levels of α- and β-HCH and that the application of a bacterial consortium as compared to the action of a single HCH-degrading bacterial strain was more successful. Although further degradation of β- and δ-tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diol, the terminal metabolites of β- and δ-HCH, respectively, did not occur by the strains comprising the consortium, these metabolites turned out to be less toxic than the parental HCH isomers.

  18. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm 2 ), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste

  19. Remediation of sites with mixed contamination of radioactive and other hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the management of the legacies of past practices and accidents. In response to this, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation. Mixed radioactive and hazardous substances contamination poses a particular challenge because of the combination of types of hazards and potential exposures. While radionuclides and toxic (heavy) metals pose similar and mostly compatible challenges, organic contaminants often require different approaches that may not be compatible with the former. Additional complexity is introduced into the problem by a different and sometimes conflicting regulatory framework for radiological and non-radiological contamination, including the prescribed waste management routes. In consideration of the added complexities of remediating (mixed) contamination, the IAEA has determined that this subject sufficiently warrants the development of a specialized report for assisting Member States. Topics discussed are types of sites, hazards and contaminant behaviour; regulatory implications; implications for worker health and safety; implications for sampling and analysis; elements of the remediation process; technology evaluation and selection; monitored non-intervention; blocking of pathways; removal of the source term; ex-situ treatment followed by case studies and a glossary

  20. Response of PCB contamination in stream fish to abatement actions at an industrial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, G.R.; Peterson, M.J.; McCarthy, J.F.; Milne, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, used large quantities of PCBs in equipment associated with the great electric power requirements of isotopic enrichment of uranium. Historic losses of PCBs in the 1950s and 1960s have left a legacy of contamination at the site. A biological monitoring program implemented in 1987 found PCBs in PGDP effluents and in fish downstream from facility discharges. As a consequence, a fish consumption advisory was posted on Little Bayou Creek by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1987, and regulatory discharge limits for PCBs at PGDP were reduced. Monitoring at multiple locations in receiving streams indicated that PGDP discharges were more important than in stream sediment contamination as sources of PCBs to fish. Environmental management and compliance staff at PGDP led an effort to reduce PCB discharges and monitor the effects of those actions. The active discharge of uncontaminated process water to historically PCB-contaminated drainage systems was found to mobilize PCBs into KPDES (Clean Water Act) regulated effluents. Efforts to locate PCB sources within the plant, coupled with improvements in management practices and remedial actions, appear to have been successful in reducing PCB discharges from these sources. Actions included emplacing passive monitors in the plant drainage system to identify this as a chronic source, and consolidating and re-routing effluents to minimize flow through PCB-contaminated channels. As a consequence, PCB contamination in fish in small streams receiving plant discharges decreased 75% over from 1992--1995

  1. An integrated stochastic environmental risk assessment method and its application to a petroleum-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Fuller, G.A.; Huang, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Contamination of soil and water and the resulting threat to public health and the environment are the frequent results of oil spills, leaks and other releases of gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil and other petroleum products. Integrating an analytical groundwater solute transport model within its general framework, this paper proposes an integrated stochastic risk assessment method and ways to apply it to petroleum-contaminated sites. Both the analytical solute transport model and the general risk assessment framework are solved by the Monte Carlo simulation technique for approaching the theoretical output distribution. Results of this study show that the total cancer risk has approximately log-normal distribution, irrespective of the fact that a variety of distributions were used to define the related parameters. It is claimed that the method can improve the effectiveness of the risk assessment for subsurface, and provide useful result for site remediation decisions. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Radon Emanation from NORM-Contaminated Pipe Scale, Soil, and Sediment at Petroleum Industry Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.; White, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a study of radon (Rn) emanation from pipe scale and soil samples contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Samples were collected at petroleum production sites in Oklahoma, Michigan, Kentucky, and Illinois. For comparison, data are also presented from preliminary studies conducted at sites in Texas and Wyoming. All samples collected were analyzed for their Rn emanation fraction, defined as the fraction of 222Rn produced that enters the interconnected pore space within a medium contaminated with 226Ra before the 222Rn undergoes radioactive decay. This measure represents one of the important parameters that determine the overall Rn activity flux from any solid medium. The goal of this project was to determine whether Rn emanation from pipe scale and soil is similar to emanation from uranium mill tailings

  3. Design criteria for a worldwide directory of radioactively contaminated sites (DRCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The publication attempts to fulfil two main objectives: (a) to describe the activities and underlying considerations and concepts for the development by the IAEA of a worldwide Directory of Radioactively Contaminated Sites; (b) to give some recommendations for the development of such directories at the Member States level. In addition to a discussion of the conceptual considerations on the design of an IAEA-level directory, the results of previous efforts on data collation are presented. The DRCS also intends to collate technical information on remedial actions taken or proposed, thus giving examples for consultation in similar cases. Hence, the information available in such a Directory is intended to provide decision makers with a useful reference frame for their own actions. In this the IAEA attempts to assume the role of a clearing-house of information pertinent to characterization of radioactively contaminated sites and their remediation and restoration

  4. Design criteria for a worldwide directory of radioactively contaminated sites (DRCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    The publication attempts to fulfil two main objectives: (a) to describe the activities and underlying considerations and concepts for the development by the IAEA of a worldwide Directory of Radioactively Contaminated Sites; (b) to give some recommendations for the development of such directories at the Member States level. In addition to a discussion of the conceptual considerations on the design of an IAEA-level directory, the results of previous efforts on data collation are presented. The DRCS also intends to collate technical information on remedial actions taken or proposed, thus giving examples for consultation in similar cases. Hence, the information available in such a Directory is intended to provide decision makers with a useful reference frame for their own actions. In this the IAEA attempts to assume the role of a clearing-house of information pertinent to characterization of radioactively contaminated sites and their remediation and restoration.

  5. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytoremediation potential of Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana and Pteris vittata L. grown at a highly variable arsenic contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Singh, Balwant; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Kachenko, Anthony George

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the phytoextraction potential of two arsenic (As) hyperaccumulators, Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana at a historical As-contaminated cattle dip site in northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Total As concentration in the surface soil (0-20 cm) showed a better spatial structure than phosphate-extractable As in the surface and sub-surface soil at this site. P. calomelanos var. austroamericana produced greater frond dry biomass (mean = 130 g plant(-1)) than P. vittata (mean = 81 g plant(-1)) after 10 months of growth. Arsenic concentration and uptake in fronds were also significantly higher in P. calomelanos var. austroamericana (means = 887 mg kg(-1) and 124 mg plant(-1)) than in P. vittata (means = 674 mg kg(-1) and 57 mg plant(-1)). Our results showed that under the field conditions and highly variable soil As at the site, P. calomelanos var. austroamericana performed better than P. vittata. We predict that P. calomelanos var. austroamericana would take approximately 100 years to reduce the total As to below 20 mg kg(-1) at the site compared to > or =200 years estimated for P. vittata. However, long-term data are required to confirm these observations under field conditions.

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people's health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  9. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  10. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  11. Modeling tissue contamination to improve molecular identification of the primary tumor site of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Perell, Katharina; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2014-01-01

    with any predictor model. The usability of the model is illustrated on primary tumor site identification of liver biopsies, specifically, on a human dataset consisting of microRNA expression measurements of primary tumor samples, benign liver samples and liver metastases. For a predictor trained on primary...... tumor and benign liver samples, the contamination model decreased the test error on biopsies from liver metastases from 77 to 45%. A further reduction to 34% was obtained by including biopsies in the training data....

  12. Dissolved organic carbon--contaminant interaction descriptors found by 3D force field calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, H A J; Krop, H B; Parsons, J R; Tambach, T; Kubicki, J D

    2002-03-01

    Enthalpies of transfer at 300 K of various partitioning processes were calculated in order to study the suitability of 3D force fields for the calculation of partitioning constants. A 3D fulvic acid (FA) model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was built in a MM+ force field using AMI atomic charges and geometrical optimization (GO). 3,5-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB14), 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB15), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (PPDDT) and 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (Atrazine) were inserted into different sites and their interaction energies with FA were calculated. Energies of hydration were calculated and subtracted from FA-contaminant interactions of selected sites. The resulting values for the enthalpies of transfer from water to DOC were 2.8, -1.4, -6.4 and 0.0 kcal/mol for PCB 14, PCB15, PPDDT and Atrazine, respectively. The value of PPDDT compared favorably with the experimental value of -5.0 kcal/mol. Prior to this, the method was studied by the calculation of the enthalpies of vaporization and aqueous solution using various force fields. In the MM + force field GO predicted enthalpies of vaporization deviated by +0.7 (PCB14), +3.6 (PCB15) and -0.7 (PPDDT)kcal/mol from experimental data, whereas enthalpies of aqueous solution deviated by -3.6 (PCB14), +5.8 (PCB15) and +3.7 (PPDDT) kcal/mol. Only for PCB14 the wrong sign of this enthalpy value was predicted. Potential advantages and limitations of the approach were discussed.

  13. Phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil by carambola (Averrhoa carambola) in field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Dai, Z Y; Zhu, R; Shu, W S

    2009-08-01

    Use of metal-accumulating woody species to extract metals from heavy metal contaminated soil has received more attention. While considerable studies have focused on the phytoextraction potential of willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.), similar information is rare for other woody species. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is a high-biomass tree and has been identified as a new Cd-accumulating species. The present study aimed to evaluate the Cd phytoextraction potential of carambola under field condition. After growing in a slightly Cd-contaminated site for about 170 d, the carambola stand initiated by seed-seedling with high planting density (encoded with "HD-1yr") attained a high shoot biomass yield of 18.6 t ha(-1) and extracted 213 g Cdha(-1), resulting in a 1.6-fold higher Cd removal efficiency than that of a contrasting stand established by grafted-seedling with low planting density (5.3% vs. 2%). That is, "HD-1yr" would remove 50% of the total soil Cd with 13yr, assuming that the Cd removal efficiency would not change over time. Further, one crop of "HD-1yr" significantly decreased (63-69%) the Cd uptake by subsequent vegetables. Among the four carambola stands established using grafted-seedling, the 2-yr-old stand exhibited the highest annual Cd removal efficiency (3.7%), which was yet lower than that of "HD-1yr". These results suggested that phytoextraction of Cd by carambola (especially for "HD-1yr" stand) presented a feasible option to clean up agricultural soils slightly contaminated by Cd.

  14. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: II. St. Louis Airport Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLASS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy is considering various remedial action options for the SLASS under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This report describes the results of geochemical investigations, carried out to support the FUSRAP activities and to aid in quantifying various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples from the site were characterized, and sorption ratios for uranium and radium and apparent concentration limit values for uranium were measured in soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. The uranium and radium concentrations in soil samples were significantly above background near the old contaminated surface horizon (now at the 0.3 - to 0.9 - m depth); the maximum values were 1566 μg/g and 101 pCi/g, respectively. Below about the 6 - m depth, the concentrations appeared to be typical of those naturally present in soils of this area (3.8 +- 1.2 μg/g and 3.1 +- 0.6 pCi/g). Uranium sorption ratios showed stratigraphic trends but were generally moderate to high (100 to 1000 L/kg). The sorption isotherm suggested an apparent uranium concentration limit of about 200 mg/L. This relatively high solubility can probably be correlated with the carbonate content of the soil/groundwater systems. The lower sorption ratio values obtained from the sorption isotherm may have resulted from changes in the experimental procedure or the groundwater used. The SLASS appears to exhibit generally favorable behavior for the retardation of uranium solubilized from waste in the site. Parametric tests were conducted to estimate the sensitivity of uranium sorption and solubility to the pH and carbonate content of the system

  15. Chemical and microbiological investigations on mineral-oil contaminated soils following on-site regeneration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerbach, A.; Teschner, M.; Bosecker, K.; Wehner, H.; Kassner, H.

    1992-01-01

    In the site of a former petroleum refinery, where bombing during the second World War has caused in part deep-down contamination of the ground with petroleum and its products, a pilot study with five on-site biological treatment beds was carried through by different firms with the aim to reduce the hydrocarbon content of the soil to 1 gramme per kilogramme of dry weight. Thus, good comparability of the different regeneration measures was given. Sampling was done at the end of the regeneration experiments by obtaining an average sample. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiostrontium contamination of soil and vegetation within the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J; Semioschkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Clifford, J

    2004-12-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan was an important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union. Results are presented from investigations on the extent of radiostrontium contamination in soils and vegetation at the technical areas of the STS, where the tests were conducted and in pastures used by farmers for grazing animals or for hay production. Our data are compared with those reported largely in the recent Russian language literature that has been reviewed. The extent of (90)Sr contamination of soil is highly variable over the STS with the highest values associated with the technical areas, particularly the Degelen mountains. Recently measured values in both the present data and the Russian language literature confirm the relatively high current contamination of soil and vegetation in the vicinity of tunnels and associated watercourses in the Degelen area. The proportion of (90)Sr in soil which could not be extracted with 6 M HCl was only an average of 20%, which is low compared to other test site areas and possibly indicates a relatively high mobility in this area, because the (90)Sr is derived from leakage from explosion tunnels along watercourses rather than being associated with fused silicates. A comparison of relative activity concentrations in soil and vegetation suggests that the transfer of (90)Sr to vegetation on the STS is high compared to that of (137)Cs and plutonium.

  17. In situ technologies for the remediation of contaminated sites. Part 8: Biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, M. (URS Consultants, Inc., Long Beach, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    The paper discusses the in-situ technique of biodegradation for removal of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, from contaminated soils. Biodegradation involves growing microorganisms in the soil which consume the waste, breaking it down into less harmful end products. Enhancing the biological activity may require pH adjustment or the addition of supplementary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, trace metals and organic carbon. This is potentially an effective, low cost, and safe method for soil and groundwater decontamination, but has yet to be demonstrated for large sites. Detox Industries of Houston, Texas, has selected and bred a bank of 200 naturally occurring, nonpathogenic soil microorganisms for degrading such substances as polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and creosote. At one site, 1200 cubic yards of soil experienced a 90 percent reduction in contamination (with methylene chloride, n-butyl alcohol, dimethylaniline, and acetone) over 3 years. Costs are site- specific, but is usually 30 to 60 percent less than carbon adsorption or air stripping methods. Advantages are ease, safety, and cost. Limitations include difficulty to monitor and control, lack of experience and test data, and inapplicability of the technique where contaminants are refractory or are present at toxic levels. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Identification of Anaerobic Aniline-Degrading Bacteria at a Contaminated Industrial Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Li, Yun; McGuinness, Lora R; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Weilin; Kerkhof, Lee J; Mack, E Erin; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic aniline biodegradation was investigated under different electron-accepting conditions using contaminated canal and groundwater aquifer sediments from an industrial site. Aniline loss was observed in nitrate- and sulfate-amended microcosms and in microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. Lag times of 37 days (sulfate amended) to more than 100 days (methanogenic) were observed prior to activity. Time-series DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify bacteria that incorporated (13)C-labeled aniline in the microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. In microcosms from heavily contaminated aquifer sediments, a phylotype with 92.7% sequence similarity to Ignavibacterium album was identified as a dominant aniline degrader as indicated by incorporation of (13)C-aniline into its DNA. In microcosms from contaminated canal sediments, a bacterial phylotype within the family Anaerolineaceae, but without a match to any known genus, demonstrated the assimilation of (13)C-aniline. Acidovorax spp. were also identified as putative aniline degraders in both of these two treatments, indicating that these species were present and active in both the canal and aquifer sediments. There were multiple bacterial phylotypes associated with anaerobic degradation of aniline at this complex industrial site, which suggests that anaerobic transformation of aniline is an important process at the site. Furthermore, the aniline degrading phylotypes identified in the current study are not related to any known aniline-degrading bacteria. The identification of novel putative aniline degraders expands current knowledge regarding the potential fate of aniline under anaerobic conditions.

  19. Geoelectrical characterization of a site with hydrocarbon contamination caused by pipeline leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Rodriguez, Omar; Shevnin, Vladimir; Ochoa-Valdes, Jesus [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ryjov, Albert [Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-15

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method is used extensively in environmental impact studies including hydrocarbon contamination. In this work, the results of the geoelectrical characterization of a contaminated site caused by pipeline leakage are presented. Geoelectrical study was performed with multi-electrode technology and 2D profile data interpretation. VES results from six parallel profiles were presented in resistivity sections and maps. Layered model of the site was found including aquifer and aquitard layers. Although the contamination grade of the site is low, we found two contaminated zones into sandy aquifer. Aquifer and aquitard were characterized by its resistivity, clay content, porosity and cation exchange capacity values. Recalculation of resistivity data into petrophysical sections and maps was performed by an inversion algorithm taking into account pore water salinity. Petrophysical parameters for uncontaminated areas estimated from resistivity are close to real values; meanwhile, in contaminated zones petrophysical parameters have anomalous values. Similar effects of contamination influence on petrophysical parameters were found in laboratory by resistivity measurements made at clean and contaminated sand samplers. [Spanish] El metodo Sondeo Electrico Vertical (SEV) es ampliamente utilizado en estudios de impacto ambiental incluyendo el caso de contaminacion por hidrocarburos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la caracterizacion geoelectrica de un sitio contaminado por hidrocarburos relacionado con una fuga en linea de ducto. El estudio geoelectrico fue realizado utilizando el metodo SEV en la variante de tomografia, realizandose una interpretacion 2D de los datos observados. Seis perfiles paralelos de SEV fueron medidos y presentados sus resultados en secciones y mapas. Se determino un modelo estratificado que incluye acuitardo y acuifero. Aunque el grado de contaminacion en este sitio es bajo fue posible localizar dos zonas

  20. Transuranic Contamination in Sediment and Groundwater at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-08-20

    A review of transuranic radionuclide contamination in sediments and groundwater at the DOE’s Hanford Site was conducted. The review focused primarily on plutonium-239/240 and americium-241; however, other transuranic nuclides were discussed as well, including neptunium-237, plutonium-238, and plutonium-241. The scope of the review included liquid process wastes intentionally disposed to constructed waste disposal facilities such as trenches and cribs, burial grounds, and unplanned releases to the ground surface. The review did not include liquid wastes disposed to tanks or solid wastes disposed to burial grounds. It is estimated that over 11,800 Ci of plutonium-239, 28,700 Ci of americium-241, and 55 Ci of neptunium-237 have been disposed as liquid waste to the near surface environment at the Hanford Site. Despite the very large quantities of transuranic contaminants disposed to the vadose zone at Hanford, only minuscule amounts have entered the groundwater. Currently, no wells onsite exceed the DOE derived concentration guide for plutonium-239/240 (30 pCi/L) or any other transuranic contaminant in filtered samples. The DOE derived concentration guide was exceeded by a small fraction in unfiltered samples from one well (299-E28-23) in recent years (35.4 and 40.4 pCi/L in FY 2006). The primary reason that disposal of these large quantities of transuranic radionuclides directly to the vadose zone at the Hanford Site has not resulted in widespread groundwater contamination is that under the typical oxidizing and neutral to slightly alkaline pH conditions of the Hanford vadose zone, transuranic radionuclides (plutonium and americium in particular) have a very low solubility and high affinity for surface adsorption to mineral surfaces common within the Hanford vadose zone. Other important factors are the fact that the vadose zone is typically very thick (hundreds of feet) and the net infiltration rate is very low due to the desert climate. In some cases where

  1. Modeling emissions and dispersion of contaminants from cleanup activities at a mixed waste site to estimate air impacts and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.; Menlove, S.

    1993-09-01

    The transport and dispersion of contaminants via the air pathway is a major concern during cleanup of contaminated sites. Impacts to air quality and human health during cleanup were evaluated for the Weldon Spring site by using site-specific information for source areas, activities, and receptor locations. In order to ensure protection of human health and the environment, results are being used to focus on those cleanup activities for which release controls should be emphasized

  2. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes of soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.

  3. Cost comparison of laboratory methods and four field screening technologies for uranium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.

    1994-01-01

    To address the problem of characterizing uranium-contaminated surface soil at federal facilities, the Department of Energy has the development of four uranium field screening technologies, under the direction of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program. These four technologies include: a long-range alpha detector a beta scintillation detector, an in situ gamma detector, and a mobile laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP/AES) laboratory. As part of the performance assessment for these field screening technologies, cost estimates for the development and operation of each technology were created. A cost study was conducted to compare three of the USID field screening technologies to the use of traditional field surveying equipment to adequately characterize surface soils of a one-acre site. The results indicate that the use of traditional equipment costs more than the in situ gamma detector, but less than the beta scintillation detector and LRAD. The use of traditional field surveying equipment results in cost savings of 4% and 34% over the use of the beta scintillation and LRAD technologies, respectively. A study of single-point surface soil sampling and laboratory analysis costs was also conducted. Operational costs of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory were compared with operational costs of traditional sampling and analysis, which consists of collecting soil samples and conducting analysis in a radiochemical laboratory. The cost study indicates that the use of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory results in cost savings of 23% and 40% over traditional field sampling and laboratory analysis conducted by characterization groups at two DOE facilities

  4. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Multi-Sited Ethnography and the Field of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierides, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the challenge of how educational research might be practised in a contemporary world that is no longer necessarily organised by nearness and unity. Focusing on ethnography, it argues for what a multi-sited imaginary contributes to research in the field of education. By giving prominence to the notion of multi-sited…

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the potential for impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site caused by the burning of coal containing uranium to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities and not for those constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Because background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking, any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background. The incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination and disposing of the contaminated soils in an engineered disposal cell. The UMTRA Ground Water Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under the UMTRA Ground Water Project, results of this risk assessment will help determine what ground water compliance strategy may be applied at the site

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  9. Management of industrial sites contaminated with radionuclides and stake-holders involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Cessac, B.; Brenot, J.; Maigne, J.P.; Santucci, P.

    2001-01-01

    The method to be used for the assessment and management of the radiation risks associated with sites contaminated with radionuclides was recently developed in France at the request of the authorities. The aim is to provide all the stakeholders (administrations, elected representatives, engineering companies, operators, residents' associations and environmental protection organizations) with a guide describing how to proceed. There are six stages: the removal of doubt, the pre-diagnosis, the initial diagnosis, the simplified risk study, the detailed risk study and the assistance in the selection of the remediation strategy. Each stage of risk assessment involves the stakeholders to a greater or lesser degree depending on the complexity of the site in question. The guide outlines the criteria which enable the assessment sequence to be interrupted and the appropriate decisions to be taken. For example, one can stop at the stage of the simplified risk study when the site is small and if it is relatively easy to remove and store the contaminated soil. However, in many cases a detailed risk study will be needed. The selection of the appropriate strategy presupposes the identification of several alternate strategies which must be characterized in terms of reduction of dosimetric impact, reduction of contamination, costs and associated nuisances. The choice of strategy requires the involvement of the stakeholders. The degree of involvement depends of the sites specific context. The radiological aspect is generally only one of the elements of the choice, and the conditions have to be created to enable the stakeholders to discuss all the relevant aspects in the site's specific context. (authors)

  10. Simulation of ground water contamination by tritium: Application to a Moroccan Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassoud, D.; Soufi, I.; Nacir, B.; Ziagos, J.; Demir, Z.; Hajjani, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive element. Its movement in the environment depends on the chemical forms that it takes. Tritiated water is one of this forms. The infiltration of tritiated water can causes contamination of the environment and the underground water. In this context, we have taken into account a waste contaminated by Tritium and stored in the surface of the soil. We studied the impact of an infiltration of a unit activity of this radioelement in the Moroccan site of Maamora localized in the Rharb region. The principal objective of the work presented in this paper is to give necessary information for the site environmental surveillance program establishment. The assessment is based on the characteristics of the site considered. It is carried out using the methodology taken into account in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the pollutant transport simulation in the unsaturated zone (between the soil and underground water). This methodology is based on the mathematical model called NUFT[1,2] witch is a unified suite of multiphase, multicomponent models for numerical solution of non-isothermal flow and transport in porous media with application to subsurface contaminant transport problems. NUFT have been developed in LLNL (Livermore-USA). Considering a quantity of one Curie of Tritium and considering the assumptions of impact assessments of the radioactivity on the Maamora ground water, the concentration of this radionuclide in water, will be lower than 0,4% of the acceptable Tritium limit in water. Taking in to account the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of the site studied and in the basis of the site radiological baseline, the environmental impact of the tritium infiltration into the underground water is negligible for the case studied

  11. Patterns of magnetic field merging sites on the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, J.G.; Walker, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Crooker, N.U.; Spreiter, J.R.; Stahara, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Several years ago, Crooker presented a qualitative picture of the merging sites on the magnetopause defined as the points where the magnetospheric and magnetosheath field are antiparallel. However, Cowley pointed out that merging can also occur where these fields are not exactly antiparallel, but merely have antiparallel components. Using realistic models of the magnetosphere and magnetosheath magnetic fields, the angles between the fields at the magnetopause boundary were determined for different interplanetary field orientations, including radial field and Parker spiral field. The results are summarized in Figure 1, which displays contours on the dayside magnetopause (viewed from the sun, i.e., the GSE Y-Z plane projection) of equal value of the cosine of the angle between the magnetospheric and magnetosheath model fields. Only contours with negative values, implying some antiparallel component, are shown. Values at the contours, starting with the contour filled with shading, are -.98, -.95, -.9, -.8, -.7, -.6, -.5, -.4, -.3, -.2, -.1, -.0. The interplanetary field orientations are indicated in vector notation in the lower right corners. In particular, the pattern for a 45 0 cone angle is shown in the fourth diagram in the right hand column and patterns for northward and southward fields occupy the first position in the first column and the second position in the right hand column. These results can be used for comparisons with observed distribution of flux transfer events and for studies of magnetospheric particle leakage

  12. Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Tiner, P.F.

    1992-05-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL and will be implemented by ORNL/MAD. Major components of the plan include (1) a quality assurance project plan that describes the scope and objectives of ORNL/MAD activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, assigns responsibilities, and provides emergency information for contingencies that may arise during field operations; (2) sampling and analysis sections; (3) a site-specific health and safety section that describes general site hazards, hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements, and mandatory safety procedures; (4) procedures and requirements for equipment decontamination and responsibilities for generated wastes, waste management, and contamination control; and (5) a discussion of form completion and reporting required to document activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site

  13. Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Tiner, P.F.

    1992-05-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL and will be implemented by ORNL/MAD. Major components of the plan include (1) a quality assurance project plan that describes the scope and objectives of ORNL/MAD activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, assigns responsibilities, and provides emergency information for contingencies that may arise during field operations; (2) sampling and analysis sections; (3) a site-specific health and safety section that describes general site hazards, hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements, and mandatory safety procedures; (4) procedures and requirements for equipment decontamination and responsibilities for generated wastes, waste management, and contamination control; and (5) a discussion of form completion and reporting required to document activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site.

  14. Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Tiner, P.F.

    1992-05-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL and will be implemented by ORNL/MAD. Major components of the plan include (1) a quality assurance project plan that describes the scope and objectives of ORNL/MAD activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, assigns responsibilities, and provides emergency information for contingencies that may arise during field operations; (2) sampling and analysis sections; (3) a site-specific health and safety section that describes general site hazards, hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements, and mandatory safety procedures; (4) procedures and requirements for equipment decontamination and responsibilities for generated wastes, waste management, and contamination control; and (5) a discussion of form completion and reporting required to document activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site.

  15. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management

  16. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management.

  17. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  19. Phytostabilization potential of evening primrose (Oenothera glazioviana) for copper-contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; Wang, Ting; Liu, Yanli; Xia, Yan; Wang, Guiping; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2014-01-01

    A field investigation, field experiment, and hydroponic experiment were conducted to evaluate feasibility of using Oenothera glazioviana for phytostabilization of copper-contaminated soil. In semiarid mine tailings in Tongling, Anhui, China, O. glazioviana, a copper excluder, was a dominant species in the community, with a low bioaccumulation factor, the lowest copper translocation factor, and the lowest copper content in seed (8 mg kg(-1)). When O. glazioviana was planted in copper-polluted farmland soil in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, its growth and development improved and the level of γ-linolenic acid in seeds reached 17.1%, compared with 8.73% in mine tailings. A hydroponic study showed that O. glazioviana had high tolerance to copper, low upward transportation capacity of copper, and a high γ-linolenic acid content. Therefore, it has great potential for the phytostabilization of copper-contaminated soils and a high commercial value without risk to human health.

  20. Screening of extremotolerant fungi for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Prenafeta, Francesc; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated sites, by taking advantage of microorganisms which have the potential to degrade a wide range of contaminants. While research has been focused mainly on bacteria, the knowledge on other microorganisms, especially fungal communities, is still limited. However, the use of fungi may have advantages compared to bacteria. Extremophile fungi like the black yeasts can withstand high levels of environmental stress (e.g. range of pH, water availability and temperature, presence of toxic chemicals). Therefore they might be applicable in situations, where bacterial communities show limited performance. In order to identify fungi which are good candidates for bioremediation application, a selection of 163 fungal strains, mostly from the group of the black yeasts, was tested for their capability to degrade three different pollutants: hexadecane, toluene, and polychlorinated biphenyl 126, which were used as model compounds for aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. These chemicals are frequently found in sites contaminated by oil, gas and coal. The screening was based on a two-step selection approach. As a first step, a high throughput method was developed to screen the relatively large amount of fungal strains regarding their tolerance to the contaminants. A microtiter plate based method was developed for monitoring fungal growth in the presence of the selected contaminants photometrically with a Tecan reader. Twenty five strains out of 163, being species of the genera Cladophilaophora, Scedosporium and Exophiala, showed the ability to grow on at least 2 hydrocarbons, and are therefore the most promising candidates for further tests. In a second step, degradation of the contaminants was investigated in more detail for a subset of the screened fungi. This was done by closing the carbon balance in sealed liquid cultures in which the selected pollutant was introduce as the sole source of carbon

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a