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Sample records for contaminated dairy plant

  1. Listeria monocytogenes contamination in dairy plants: evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes environmental contamination in two cheese-making plants using sheeps milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ibba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes harbouring niches established in the processing plant support post-process contamination of dairy products made from pasteurised or thermised milk. The present study investigated L. monocytogenes environmental contamination in two sheep’s milk cheese-making plants. Persistence of contamination in the area at higher risk was also investigated. During a one-year survey 7 samplings were carried out in each dairy plant, along the production lines of Pecorino Romano and ricotta salata cheese. A total of 613 environmental samples collected from food contact and non-food contact surfaces were analysed according to ISO 11290-1:2005 standard method. Identification of the isolated strains was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. L. monocytogenes prevalence was 23.2% in dairy A and 13.1% in dairy B, respectively. The higher prevalence rate was found in the following areas: salting, products washing, packaging, ricotta salata storage and Pecorino Romano ripening rooms. L. monocytogenes was never found in the cheese-making area. The probability of observing samples positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes was asso- ciated with dairy plant, sampling area and the period of cheese-making (P<0.001. The greater persistence of contamination over time was observed in the washing, salting, and Pecorino Romano ripening areas. The control of persistent environmental contamination relies on the identification of L. monocytogenes niches within the processing environment and the prevention of harborage sites formation. The importance of strict cleaning and sanitising procedure in controlling L. monocytogenes environmental contamination is confirmed by the lower level of contamination observed after these procedures were correctly implemented.

  2. Arcobacter butzleri in sheep ricotta cheese at retail and related sources of contamination in an industrial dairy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, Christian; Giacometti, Federica; Manfreda, Gerardo; Lucchi, Alex; Pes, Emanuela; Spanu, Carlo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi; Serraino, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate Arcobacter species contamination of industrial sheep ricotta cheese purchased at retail and to establish if the dairy plant environment may represent a source of contamination. A total of 32 sheep ricotta cheeses (1.5 kg/pack) packed in a modified atmosphere were purchased at retail, and 30 samples were collected in two sampling sessions performed in the cheese factory from surfaces in contact with food and from surfaces not in contact with food. Seven out of 32 samples (21.9%) of ricotta cheese collected at retail tested positive for Arcobacter butzleri at cultural examination; all positive samples were collected during the same sampling and belonged to the same batch. Ten surface samples (33.3%) collected in the dairy plant were positive for A. butzleri. Cluster analysis identified 32 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. The same PFGE pattern was isolated from more than one ricotta cheese sample, indicating a common source of contamination, while more PFGE patterns could be isolated in single samples, indicating different sources of contamination. The results of the environmental sampling showed that A. butzleri may be commonly isolated from the dairy processing plant investigated and may survive over time, as confirmed by the isolation of the same PFGE pattern in different industrial plant surface samples. Floor contamination may represent a source of A. butzleri spread to different areas of the dairy plant, as demonstrated by isolation of the same PFGE pattern in different production areas. Isolation of the same PFGE pattern from surface samples in the dairy plant and from ricotta cheese purchased at retail showed that plant surfaces may represent a source of A. butzleri postprocessing contamination in cheeses produced in industrial dairy plants.

  3. Retail Survey of Brazilian Milk and Minas Frescal Cheese and a Contaminated Dairy Plant To Establish Prevalence, Relatedness, and Sources of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J. Renaldi F.; Santos, Emilia M. P.; Arcuri, Edna F.; Lange, Carla C.; Brito, Maria A. V. P.; Souza, Guilherme N.; Cerqueira, Mônica M. P. O.; Beltran, J. Marcela Soto; Call, Jeffrey E.; Liu, Yanhong; Porto-Fett, Anna C. S.; Luchansky, John B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was designed to recover Listeria monocytogenes from pasteurized milk and Minas frescal cheese (MFC) sampled at retail establishments (REs) and to identify the contamination source(s) of these products in the corresponding dairy processing plant. Fifty milk samples (9 brands) and 55 MFC samples (10 brands) were tested from REs located in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. All milk samples and 45 samples from 9 of 10 MFC brands tested negative for L. monocytogenes; however, “brand F” of MFC obtained from REs 119 and 159 tested positive. Thus, the farm/plant that produced brand F MFC was sampled; all samples from the milking parlor tested negative for L. monocytogenes, whereas several sites within the processing plant and the MFC samples tested positive. All 344 isolates recovered from retail MFC, plant F MFC, and plant F environmental samples were serotype 1/2a and displayed the same AscI or ApaI fingerprints. Since these results established that the storage coolers served as the contamination source of the MFC, plant F was closed so that corrective renovations could be made. Following renovation, samples from sites that previously tested positive for the pathogen were collected from the processing environment and from MFC on multiple visits; all tested negative for L. monocytogenes. In addition, on subsequent visits to REs 159 and 119, all MFC samples tested negative for the pathogen. Studies are ongoing to quantify the prevalence, levels, and types of L. monocytogenes in MFC and associated processing plants to lessen the likelihood of listeriosis in Brazil. PMID:18502929

  4. Short communication: occurrence of Arcobacter species in industrial dairy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the presence of Arcobacter spp. in industrial dairy plants. Between February and September 2013, pasteurized milk used for cheesemaking, processing and cleaning water, cheese, and environmental samples from different plant sites, including surfaces in contact or not in contact with food, were sampled. A total of 126 samples were analyzed by the cultural method and isolates were identified by multiplex PCR. Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 22 of 75 environmental samples (29.3%): of them, 22.7% were surfaces in contact with food and 38.7% surfaces not in contact with food. A total of 135 Arcobacter spp. isolates were obtained; of these, 129 and 6 were identified as Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus, respectively. All food processing water and pasteurized milk samples were negative for Arcobacter species. We were not able to determine the primary source of contamination, but the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in surfaces in contact with food before and during manufacturing suggests that Arcobacter spp. are not or are only partially affected by routine sanitizing procedures in the industrial dairy plants studied. The efficacy of sanitizing procedures should be evaluated and further studies are needed to determine whether certain Arcobacter strains persist for long periods of time in industrial dairy plants and whether they can survive in different types of cheese in cases of postprocessing contamination.

  5. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

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    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  6. Dairy plants financial and economic security evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Misko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the concept “financial and economic security of the enterprise” is covered. Methodological approaches to the enterprise financial and economic security evaluation are considered, enabling the method of index numberrating score of the enterprise financial and economic security to be found. Dynamics of milk anddairy production in Ukraine has been studied. Ukrainian regions leading in liquid processed milk production have been identified. Dynamics of milk and dairy production per man has been analyzed which allowed to find out the annual increase in demand per man. Integrated index of the dairy enterprise financial and economic security has been evaluated. As a result, the ways to increase the managerial efficiency of financial and economic security of the following enterprises:PJSC "Dubnomoloko", PJSC "Kupyans'ki milk canning plant", PJSC the "Yagotyns'ki creamery", PJSC the "Pervomais'ki milk canning plant" are offered.

  7. Occurrence of Antibiotics and Emerging Contaminants in Dairy Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of a variety of emerging contaminants including pathogens, naturally occurring and synthetic steroid hormones, and various pharmaceuticals, particularly antibiotics. For example, more than twenty million pounds of antibiotics are sold for use in animal husbandry with 95% going towards therapeutic use. Here, we focus on the application and potential environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals and disinfectants on dairies. Recommended drug applications are available from national databases. Statistical data on actual usage, however, are not available. We complement national data with interviews and dairy visits for further evaluation of drug and chemical usage (not including pesticides used on crops and fertilizer) and an overall assessment of the potential antibiotics output in dairy waste. We find that aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and coccidiostats make up much of the total mass of antibiotics used. On dairies using the ionophoric antibiotic monensin as feed additive, monensin makes up a large fraction of the total antibiotics use (by mass). Other chemicals of potential concern include disinfectants used to prevent mastitis, detergents used in the milking parlor, footbath reagents to prevent and treat lameness, and insecticides used to control flies and mites.

  8. Biodegradation of organic contaminants from the dairy industry

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    Diego Prócel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the environmental aspects of high impact in dairy industries is the discharge of wastewaters, because of contaminating organic matter as well as the substantial generation of effluents. In the present study, a biofiltration of effluents from a dairy industry in San Miguel de Nono (Ecuador with a pollution load of 10.000 mg/L in terms of chemical oxygen demand and turbidity of 799 NTU was implemented. The system with a capacity of 55 L per batch consisted of three biofilters in series and activated zeolite assisted clarification. Organic degradation reached 98,9%; turbidity removal was 95,2%, 94,4% of nitrogen and 89,1% of phosphorus. The presence of milk fat did not decrease the efficiency of the biofiltration but increased the removal of suspended matter and pH neutralisation in the clarification. The optimal operating time was 6 hours under aerobic conditions.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-Contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okshevsky, Mira; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian P. G.; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft genome was produced. PMID:28126940

  10. Dairy production system type and critical points of contamination

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    Gilberto Henrique Simões

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current milk production includes a large diversity between systems, which generates difficulties in defining a microbiological standard. The adapted practical and hygienic-sanitary management methods are diverse and introduce great complexity into the production systems. Based on this scenario, the objective of this study was to evaluate the types of dairy production systems of western Parana and to quantify Staphylococcus sp in three critical points in the dairy cattle production systems: the milking machines, milkers’ hands, the cooling tanks and raw milk. A total of 35 samples of refrigerated raw milk were collected, and a questionnaire referring to hygienic and sanitary management was administered. All of the data were collected during the period from September to October 2012 and involved 35 properties in the municipality of Marechal Cândido Rondon – PR. From these data, five groups were formed based on cluster analysis (CHA. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA presented in the first two dimensions, CP1 (81.43% and CP2 (36.87%, showed the relevance of the variables used, which are sanitary and production management methods, and contamination and control of mastitis, respectively (CP1 and CP2. We found average contamination with 9.9 x 101 CFU/cm2, 2.2x104 CFU/cm2, 28 CFU/ cm2 and 3.8x103 CFU/mL; for milking machines, milkers’ hands, cooling tanks and milk, respectively. The results reveal the presence of staphylococcal agent in dairy production systems regardless of the adopted hygiene and health management protocols. The guidance, planning and adaptation of hygiene and health management systems can significantly improve the microbiological quality of the milk produced, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  11. 75 FR 80826 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products-Microbial Contaminants and Alkaline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products... Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products-- Microbial Contaminants and Alkaline Phosphatase... other indicators of inadequate pasteurization or post-pasteurization contamination of dairy...

  12. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  13. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  14. Performance evaluation of Effluent Treatment Plant of Dairy Industry

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    Pratiksinh Chavda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is among the most polluting of the food industries in regard to its large water consumption. Dairy is one of the major industries causing water pollution. Considering the increased milk demand, the dairy industry in India is expected to grow rapidly and have the waste generation and related environmental problems are also assumed increased importance. Poorly treated wastewater with high level of pollutants caused by poor design, operation or treatment systems creates major environmental problems when discharged to the surface land or water. Various operations in a dairy industry may include pasteurization, cream, cheese, milk powder etc. Considering the above stated implications an attempt has been made in the present project to evaluate one of the Effluent Treatment Plant for dairy waste. Samples are collected from three points; Collection tank (CT, primary clarifier (PC and Secondary clarifier (SC to evaluate the performance of Effluent Treatment Plant. Parameters analyzed for evaluation of performance of Effluent Treatment Plant are pH, TDS, TSS, COD, and BOD at 200C The pH, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD removal efficiency of Effluent Treatment Plant were 26.14 %, 33.30 %, 93.85 %, 94.19 % and 98.19 % respectively.

  15. The trade network in the dairy industry and its implication for the spread of contamination.

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    Pinior, B; Konschake, M; Platz, U; Thiele, H D; Petersen, B; Conraths, F J; Selhorst, T

    2012-11-01

    In case of an outbreak of a foodborne disease, administrative decisions in the context of crisis management are only efficient if they follow standard practices and are specifically adapted to the outbreak situation in a timely manner. These goals are hard to achieve. The complexity of national and global trade structures obscures a clear view of trade flows and, consequently, it is often impossible to unravel complex trade links quickly. Furthermore, increasing public concerns about possible health hazards caused by global trade put additional pressure on decision makers. The aim of this paper was to unveil the specific trade structures of the German milk supply chain, to highlight how these structures could affect the spatial spread of a hypothetical contaminant, and to quantify the risk of the contaminant reaching the consumer. To achieve this goal, the vertical and horizontal trade links between milk producers, dairies, and consumers were taken into account. The horizontal flow of milk between dairies (inter-dairy trade), which is intended to compensate a temporary over- or undersupply of milk, is of special importance in this respect. We hypothesized that the extent of inter-dairy trade would significantly influence the spatial spread of contaminated milk and the contamination risk. This hypothesis was tested using a computer simulation model that predicts the hypothetical spread of a contaminant via trade of milk. The model parameters were estimated using trade data collected in 2004 and 2010. The results of our study indicate that inter-dairy trade significantly influenced the contamination risk. Compared with a scenario with no inter-dairy trade, the risk that contaminated milk will reach the consumer was up to 4 times higher, even with moderate inter-dairy trade. The contamination risk depended on the extent of inter-dairy trade in a nonlinear way and reached its maximum asymptotically when inter-dairy trade increased. The contamination risk exhibited

  16. Modelling approach to limit aflatoxin B1 contamination in dairy cattle compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding dairy cattle with safe compound feed helps farmers to ensure food safety. However, several ingredients often used in compound feed production can be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which may result into milk contaminated with aflatoxin M1. Given the number of ingredients and their

  17. Dairy Product Manufacturing Costs at Cooperative Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, K. Charles

    1983-01-01

    Cost data are summarized for 14 plants manufacturing cheese, butter, and powder and average costs are presented for each product. Average cost curves are estimated for each plant. The scale of plant for least-cost operations is identified for plants of each product type. Plant capacity utilization and seasonal volume variation and their impacts on manufacturing cost are delineated.

  18. Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanović Dragoslav; Vojnović-Miloradov Mirjana; Lemić Jovan; Kurajica Milorad; Kovačević Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 200...

  19. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergren, Robin; Orata, Francis; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2013-11-01

    Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMFenvironments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios.

  20. Injuries to plants from controlled environment contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    The use of controlled environments is subject to problems from contaminants emitted from materials of the system and from plants. Many contaminants are difficult to identify because injurious dosages are very low, there is a lack of information on what compounds injure plants, because species and cultivars differ greatly in their sensitivity to injury and injury symptoms often are not distinctive. Plastics have been shown to emit many different volatile compounds. The compound, di-butyl phthalate, contained in certain flexible plastics, has been shown to be very toxic to plants. Other injuries have been produced by caulking compounds and bonded screening. Paints have been shown to release xylene that is toxic to plants. Steam for humidification can cause problems because of hydroxylamines and other compounds added to steam used for heating to control fungal growth in return lines. Mercury, from broken thermometers is a particular problem in growth chambers because small quantities can collect in cracks and slowly volatilize to slow growth of plants. Plants themselves release large quantities of volatile hydrocarbons, with ethylene being the commonly recognized chemical that can be damaging when allowed to accumulate. People release large quantities of carbon dioxide which can cause variations in the rate of growth of plants. Contaminant problems can be controlled through filtering of the air or ventilation with make-up air, however the potential for problems is always present and careful testing should be undertaken with the particular species and cultivars being grown to insure that there are no toxic agents altering growth in each particular controlled environment being utilized.

  1. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  2. Survey the frequency and type of Fungal Contaminants in Animal Feed of Yazd Dairy Cattles

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    mohammad taghi ghaneian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal feeds by production of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are the most common and dangerous mycotoxins produced by few species of Aspergillus and penicillium. This group of mycotoxin has disorder and risks, including the induction of liver cancer. They are mutagenic and teratogenic. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2, which are naturally produced by several toxic fungi, may contaminate a wide range of dairy animal feeds resulted severe economic loss of cattle meat. Since Aflatoxin B1 and B2 can be transmitted via mammalian’s milk and cheese in form of synthetic Aflatoxin M1 and M2 to human consumers, cause significant health problems. Therefore contamination of animal feed with common toxic airborne saprophytic fungi is a major concern of health officials. Wheat, barley, corn, soybean and other animal feeds may be contaminated with toxic fungi during implantation, harvesting and storage. There are many dairy and livestock centers in Yazd that prepare milk and dairy products for Yazd and neighboring provinces. The aim of current study was to evaluate the amount and type of fungal contaminates of dairy feeds in Yazd dairies. Materials and methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the summer of 2012 on 23 dairies in Yazd. Samples of different animal feeds including concentrates, wheat straw, hay, corn, silage corn, soybean and canola as well as waste of bread, were randomly selected from their bulks. The temperature and humidity of feed storage were recorded

  3. Attitudes to coping with radiologically suspect or contaminated milk in the UK: a dairy industry viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komorowski, E.S. [Dairy UK, 93 Baker Street, London W1U 6QQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ekomorowski@dairyuk.org

    2005-07-01

    The attitudes of the UK milk processing industry to a nuclear incident which resulted in milk supplies being suspected of being contaminated, or actually being contaminated, with radioactivity is examined. The factors influencing these attitudes are discussed, together with their implications. In the event of a nuclear incident in which part of the United Kingdom's milk supply is possibly contaminated, the milk processing industry will want to ensure that consumers and retailers maintain complete confidence in dairy products. As a consequence the industry will require that solutions are not adopted merely to avoid wastage of milk, or awkward milk disposal problems. In the early history of the BSE crisis the government wrongly assured consumers that beef was completely safe to eat. It will be necessary to ensure that any assurances that milk is safe, following a nuclear incident, are well founded.

  4. Nitrate toxicosis in beef and dairy cattle herds due to contamination of drinking water and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bellaiche, M; Marcus, M; Liberboim, M

    1997-10-01

    Four cases of rarely reported nitrate toxicosis due to contamination of drinking water or whey were recorded in 2 beef and 2 dairy cattle herds. In the cases associated with water contamination, water containing ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer for irrigating orchards accidentally entered drinking water troughs for cattle through malfunctioning 1-way valves. The whey contamination in 1 instance was caused by transportation in containers which contained traces of concentrated ammonium nitrate; the 2nd case was induced by whey derived from the production of a specialty cheese produced by the incorporation of nitrate. Mortality occurred in 2 herds and abortions in the 2 other herds. Affected cows responded well to treatment, but some animals remained in a deteriorated physical condition for several months.

  5. Performance evaluation of Effluent Treatment Plant of Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiksinh Chavda; Apurva Rana

    2014-01-01

    Dairy industry is among the most polluting of the food industries in regard to its large water consumption. Dairy is one of the major industries causing water pollution. Considering the increased milk demand, the dairy industry in India is expected to grow rapidly and have the waste generation and related environmental problems are also assumed increased importance. Poorly treated wastewater with high level of pollutants caused by poor design, operation or treatment systems cr...

  6. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

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    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good

  7. Interactive effects of Cd and PAHs on contaminants removal from co-contaminated soil planted with hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil contamination by multiple organic and inorganic contaminants is common but its remediation by hyperaccumulator plants is rarely reported. The growth of a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and removal of contaminants from Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) co-contaminated s...

  8. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  9. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and

  10. Root uptake of organic contaminants into plants: Species differences

    OpenAIRE

    Orita, Naho

    2012-01-01

    Trace amounts of xenobiotic organic contaminants have been frequently identified in the environment, including surface water and wastewater streams, and some are even in drinking water. The concern of unintended ingestion by humans or wildlife of such compounds resulting from the uptake by plants has risen in recent years. Although the uptake of a variety of xenobiotic organic contaminants by plants has been reported and the contaminants are found in the fruits in some cases, the differences ...

  11. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Schukken, Y H; Pradhan, A K; Smith, J M; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Wolfgang, D R; Grohn, Y T

    2011-10-01

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental sites in 3 commercial dairy herds in the Northeast US were cultured quarterly for MAP, providing 1131 samples (133 (11.8%) were culture-positive), and all adult animals in the herds were tested biannually by fecal culture (FC), for 6 years. Of the environmental sites sampled, manure storage areas and shared alleyways were most likely to be culture-positive. Environmental sample results were compared to FC results from either the concurrent or previous sampling date at both the herd and the pen level. At the herd level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding increased the odds of a positive non-pen environmental sample by a factor of 6 and increased the average amount of MAP in non-pen samples by 2.9 cfu/g. At the pen level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding in the pen increased the odds of a positive environment by a factor of 2.4 and the average amount of MAP was increased by 3.5 cfu/g. We were not able to model the relationship between non-pen environmental sample status and the distance between shedding animals and the sample's location, and neighboring pens did not significantly affect the results of the pen-level analysis. The amount of MAP in pen-level samples and the probability of a pen testing positive for MAP were both positively but non-significantly correlated with the number of animals in the pen shedding >30 cfu/g of MAP. At least 6 environmental samples met the criteria for the U.S. Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program on 47 of the 72 sampling dates; of these, 19 of the 47 FC-positive sampling dates

  12. [Feasibility of applying ornamental plants in contaminated soil remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Nü; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Sun, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2007-07-01

    Phytoremediation is one of the effective ways in resolving problems of contaminated soils, but limited hyperaccumulation plant species were reported and documented. This shortage could be offset if remediation plants can be screened out from various ornamental plants. In addition, such doing can beautify the environment while bring some economic effects. Starting from the importance of phytoremediation, this paper generalized the characters and standards of remediation plants. Through describing the resources of ornamental plants and their functions on environmental protection, particularizing their superiorities to other plants, and analyzing their endurance, accumulation traits and remediation types, the feasibility of applying ornamental plants in the practices of contaminated soil remediation was discussed. To screening out hyperaccumulators from ornamental plants would be an entirely new research area in the remediation of contaminated soils.

  13. 浅析乳品变质与微生物污染%Analysis of Dairy Deterioration and Microbial Contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳; 齐美园; 张青; 俞泽帆; 刘晓明

    2016-01-01

    我国乳及乳制品消费量逐年增加,但由腐败变质引起的损失巨大。基于此,针对乳品腐败变质的问题,综述微生物污染对乳及乳制品的影响,并对其原因进行分析。%The consumption of milk and dairy products in China is increasing year by year, but the damage caused by corruption is huge. In this paper, aiming at the problem of dairy spoilage, effects of microbial contamination of milk and dairy products were reviewed, and analyzed its causes.

  14. The Impact of Wireless Technology Feedback on Inventory Management at a Dairy Manufacturing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Replacing the method of counting inventory from paper count sheets to that of wireless reliably reduced the elapsed time to complete a daily inventory of the storage cooler in a dairy manufacturing plant. The handheld computers delivered immediate prompts as well as auditory and visual feedback. Reducing the time to complete the daily inventory…

  15. The Impact of Wireless Technology Feedback on Inventory Management at a Dairy Manufacturing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Replacing the method of counting inventory from paper count sheets to that of wireless reliably reduced the elapsed time to complete a daily inventory of the storage cooler in a dairy manufacturing plant. The handheld computers delivered immediate prompts as well as auditory and visual feedback. Reducing the time to complete the daily inventory…

  16. A Study on the Economics of Milk Processing in a Dairy Plant in Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The economics of manufacturing of different dairy products, viz. ghee, full-cream milk, standardized milk, toned milk, double-toned milk, skimmed milk and ice-cream (processing only) have been reported. The study has been conducted in an ISO-9002 dairy plant situated in the north-eastern part of Haryana. It has been observed that all the products, except the double-toned milk are being produced above the recommended breakeven level. A comparison of unit manufacturing cost with unit price rece...

  17. Screening of plants for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Hiromi; Kawasaki, Yu; Kaimi, Etsuko; Nishiwaki, Junko; Noborio, Kosuke; Tamaki, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Several species of ornamental flowering plants were evaluated regarding their phytoremediation ability for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil in Japanese environmental conditions. Thirty-three species of plants were grown in oil-contaminated soil, and Mimosa, Zinnia, Gazania, and cypress vine were selected for further assessment on the basis of their favorable initial growth. No significant difference was observed in the above-ground and under-ground dry matter weight of Gazania 180 days after sowing between contaminated and non-contaminated plots. However, the other 3 species of plants died by the 180th day, indicating that Gazania has an especially strong tolerance for oil-contaminated soil. The total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of the soils in which the 4 species of plants were grown decreased by 45-49% by the 180th day. Compared to an irrigated plot, the dehydrogenase activity of the contaminated soil also increased significantly, indicating a phytoremediation effect by the 4 tested plants. Mimosa, Zinnia, and cypress vine all died by the 180th day after seeding, but the roots themselves became a source of nutrients for the soil microorganisms, which led to a phytoremediation effect by increase in the oil degradation activity. It has been indicated that Gazania is most appropriate for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

  18. Occurrence and genetic diversity of Arcobacter butzleri in an artisanal dairy plant in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Manfreda, Gerardo; Florio, Daniela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Serraino, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the presence, distribution, and persistence of Arcobacter spp. in an artisanal dairy plant and to test the isolates to determine their different genotypes in the processing plant and in foods. Samples were collected in an artisanal cheese factory on four occasions between October and December 2012. Food samples (raw milk, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese, and conditioning liquid), water samples, and environmental samples were analyzed by the culture method; isolates were identified by multiplex PCR and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Arcobacter butzleri was isolated from 29 out of 59 samples (46.6%), 22 of which were from environmental samples and 7 of which were from food samples. Cluster analysis divided the strains into 47 PFGE patterns: 14 PFGE clusters and 33 unique types. Our findings indicate that the plant harbored numerous A. butzleri pulsotypes and that the manual cleaning and sanitation in the studied dairy plant do not effectively remove Arcobacter. The recurrent isolation of A. butzleri suggests that the environmental conditions in the dairy plant constitute a good ecological niche for the colonization of this microorganism. In some cases, the presence of indistinguishable strains isolated from the same facilities on different sampling days showed that these strains were persistent in the processing environment.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes Act as Contaminant Carriers and Translocate within Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guosheng; Qiu, Junlang; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Ruifen; Cai, Siying; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Fang; Zeng, Feng; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology permits broad advances in agriculture. However, as it is still at a relatively early stage of development, the potential risks remain unclear. Herein, for the first time, we reveal the following: 1) the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the accumulation/depuration behaviors of contaminants in crop, mustard (Brassica juncea), and 2) the permeability and transportability of MWCNTs in intact mature mustard plants. Using an in vivo sampling technique, the kinetic accumulation/depuration processes of several contaminants in mustard plans exposed to MWCNTs were traced, and an enhancement of contaminant accumulation in living plants was observed. Meanwhile, we observed that the MWCNTs permeated into the roots of intact living plants (three months old) and were then transported to the upper organs under the force of transpiration steam. This study demonstrated that MWCNTs can act as contaminant carriers and be transported to the edible parts of crops.

  20. [Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane contamination in dairy farms of the Sacco River Valley, Latium, Italy, 2005. A retrospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Marcello; Caminiti, Antonino; Rombolà, Pasquale; Volpe, Aldo; Roffi, Cristina; Caperna, Osvaldo; Miceli, Maria; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Battisti, Antonio; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2012-01-01

    in March 2005, the Italian National Monitoring System on Chemical Residuals in Food of Animal Origin detected levels of the pesticide beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) that were 20 times higher than the legal limit of 0.003 mg/kg in bulk milk from a dairy farm in the Sacco River valley. ß-HCH, a lindane isomer and possible human carcinogen, was subsequently found in milk from several neighboring farms. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. all dairy cattle farms in the valley were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study and their bulk milk analyzed for ß-HCH. A questionnaire was administered to farmers to evaluate possible exposure factors. cases: dairy farms with at least one result indicating ß-HCH ≥ 0.002 mg/kg in bulk milk during the period april-june 2005; exposure: feeding animals on fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water; participants: IZSLT, RMG Local Health Unit, FR Local Health Unit. attack rate, relative risk, attributable proportion among exposed. of 244 farms tested, 34 met the case definition (attack rate 14%). The exposure to fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water was observed in 33/34 (97%) case-farms and in 23/210 (10.9%) of those with contamination milk (RR 110.8; 95%CI 15.5- 792). Attributable proportion among exposed was more than 99%. fodder cultivated near a contaminated river was the main risk factor for ß-HCH contaminated milk. On the basis of the epidemiologic evidence and laboratory testing, watering local fields with river water and production of fodder in farms with contaminated soil was banned, and all the animals from positive farms were culled.

  1. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  2. Role of soil, crop debris, and a plant pathogen in Salmonella enterica contamination of tomato plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri D Barak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential for crop debris to act as inoculum from one crop to the next, and any interaction between the seedbourne plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and S. enterica on tomato plants. Our results show S. enterica can survive for up to six weeks in fallow soil with the ability to contaminate tomato plants. We found S. enterica can contaminate a subsequent crop via crop debris; however a fallow period between crop incorporation and subsequent seeding can affect contamination patterns. Throughout these studies, populations of S. enterica declined over time and there was no bacterial growth in either the phyllosphere or rhizoplane. The presence of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria on co-colonized tomato plants had no effect on the incidence of S. enterica tomato phyllosphere contamination. However, growth of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere occurred on co-colonized plants in the absence of plant disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: S. enterica contaminated soil can lead to contamination of the tomato phyllosphere. A six week lag period between soil contamination and tomato seeding did not deter subsequent crop contamination. In the absence of plant disease, presence of the bacterial plant pathogen, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was beneficial to S. enterica allowing multiplication of the human pathogen population. Any event leading to soil contamination with S. enterica could pose a public health risk with subsequent tomato production, especially in areas prone to bacterial spot disease.

  3. Metal resistant plants and phytoremediation of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om P.

    2010-04-20

    The present disclosure provides a method of producing transgenic plants which are resistant to at least one metal ion by transforming the plant with a recombinant DNA comprising a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenic reductase under the control of a plant expressible promoter, and a nucleic acid encoding a nucleotide sequence encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme under the control of a plant expressible promoter. The invention also relates a method of phytoremediation of a contaminated site by growing in the site a transgenic plant expressing a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenate reductase and a nucleic acid encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme.

  4. Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii Circulation in a Dairy Farm and Sources of Milk Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Delogu, Mauro; Grilli, Ester; Guarniero, Ilaria; Stancampiano, Laura; Manfreda, Gerardo; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Even though dairy cows are known carriers of Arcobacter species and raw or minimally processed foods are recognized as the main sources of human Arcobacter infections in industrialized countries, data on Arcobacter excretion patterns in cows and in milk are scant. This study aimed to identify potentially pathogenic Arcobacter species in a dairy herd and to investigate the routes of Arcobacter transmission among animals and the potential sources of cattle infection and milk contamination. A strategy of sampling the same 50 dairy animals, feed, water, and milk every month for a 10-month period, as well as the sampling of quarter milk, animal teats, the milking environment, and animals living on the farm (pigeons and cats), was used to evaluate, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the characteristic patterns in animals, their living environment, and the raw milk they produced. Of the 463 samples collected, 105 (22.6%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. by culture examination. All the matrices except quarter milk and pigeon gut samples were positive, with prevalences ranging from 15 to 83% depending on the sample. Only three Arcobacter species, Arcobacter cryaerophilus (54.2%), A. butzleri (34.2%), and A. skirrowii (32.3%), were detected. PFGE analysis of 370 isolates from positive samples provided strong evidence of Arcobacter circulation in the herd: cattle likely acquire the microorganisms by orofecal transmission, either by direct contact or from the environment, or both. Water appears to be a major source of animal infection. Raw milk produced by the farm and collected from a bulk tank was frequently contaminated (80%) by A. butzleri; our PFGE findings excluded primary contamination of milk, whereas teats and milking machine surfaces could be sources of Arcobacter milk contamination.

  5. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-05

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting.

  6. Biodiversity and characterization of Staphylococcus species isolated from a small manufacturing dairy plant in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José C; Marques, M Rosário; Tavaria, Freni K; Pereira, Joana O; Malcata, F Xavier; Pintado, Manuela M

    2011-03-30

    The level and the diversity of the staphylococcal community occurring in the environment and dairy products of a small manufacturing dairy plant were investigated. Species identification was performed using different molecular methods, viz. Multiplex-PCR, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and sodA gene sequencing. The main species encountered corresponded to Staphylococcus equorum (41 isolates, 39.0%), S. saprophyticus (28 isolates, 26.7%) and S. epidermidis (15 isolates, 14.3%). Additionally, low incidence of enterotoxin genes was obtained, with only 9 strains (8.6%) being positive for one or more toxin genes. With regard to antimicrobial resistance, 57.1% of the isolates showed at least resistance against one antibiotic, and 28.6% were multi-resistant, which might accomplish resistance for up to 6 antibiotics simultaneously. These results provided evidence that the presence of Staphylococcus species in dairy environment are mostly represented by S. equorum and S. saprophyticus, and illustrate that carrying antimicrobial resistance genes has become reasonably widespread in cheese and dairy environment.

  7. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-08-21

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.

  8. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M. Pasiakos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years. Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.

  9. Evaluation of energy consumption during aerobic sewage sludge treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    The subject of the research conducted in an operating dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was to examine electric energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment. The excess sewage sludge was aerobically stabilized and dewatered with a screw press. Organic matter varied from 48% to 56% in sludge after stabilization and dewatering. It proves that sludge was properly stabilized and it was possible to apply it as a fertilizer. Measurement factors for electric energy consumption for mechanically dewatered sewage sludge were determined, which ranged between 0.94 and 1.5 kWhm(-3) with the average value at 1.17 kWhm(-3). The shares of devices used for sludge dewatering and aerobic stabilization in the total energy consumption of the plant were also established, which were 3% and 25% respectively. A model of energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment was estimated according to experimental data. Two models were applied: linear regression for dewatering process and segmented linear regression for aerobic stabilization. The segmented linear regression model was also applied to total energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment in the examined dairy WWTP. The research constitutes an introduction for further studies on defining a mathematical model used to optimize electric energy consumption by dairy WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake by Plants of Radiostrontium from Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. J.

    1965-01-01

    In a recent report from this department it was shown that the extractability of radiostrontium from contaminated soil samples was effectively reduced by heat treatment and by the addition of phosphate to the soil. It was pointed out that, under emergency conditions, heat......-treatment of the contaminated soil surface and heavy phosphate application might thus reduce the uptake by plants of radiostrontium more efficiently than liming, which is only effective in soils of low calcium status. In the investigation reviewed here the influence of heat treatment and superphosphate application on the plant...... uptake of radiostrontium was examined in pot experiments. For comparison the effect of applying calcium carbonate to the contaminated soil surface was also determined....

  11. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Ping; SHU Wensheng; LI Zhian; LIAO Bin; LI Jintian; SHAO Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimization of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  12. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Shu, Wensheng; Li, Zhian; Liao, Bin; Li, Jintian; Shao, Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimal of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  13. Application of subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands to reject water treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Karolinczak, Beata; Gajewska, Magdalena; Wojciechowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of applying subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SS VF) for the treatment of reject water generated in the process of aerobic sewage sludge stabilization in the biggest dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Poland. Two SS VF beds were built: bed (A) with 0.65 m depth and bed (B) with 1.0 m depth, planted with reeds. Beds were fed with reject water with hydraulic load of 0.1 m d(-1) in order to establish the differences in treatment efficiency. During an eight-months research period, a high removal efficiency of predominant pollutants was shown: BOD5 88.1% (A) and 90.5% (B); COD 84.5% (A) and 87.5% (B); TSS 87.6% (A) and 91.9% (B); TKN 82.4% (A) and 76.5% (B); N-NH4(+) 89.2% (A) and 85.7% (B); TP 30.2% (A) and 40.6% (B). There were not statistically significant differences in the removal efficiencies between bed (B) with 1.0 m depth and bed (A) with 0.65 m depth. The research indicated that SS VF beds could be successfully applied to reject water treatment in dairy WWTPs. The study proved that the use of SS VF beds in full scale in dairy WWTPs would result in a significant decrease in pollutants' load in reject water. In the analyzed case, decreasing the load of ammonia nitrogen was of greatest importance, as it constituted 58% of the total load treated in dairy WWTP and posed a hazard to the stability of the treatment process.

  14. Effect of dairy production systems on the sensory characteristics of Cantal cheeses: a plant-scale study

    OpenAIRE

    AGABRIEL, C.; Martin, B; Sibra, C.; Bonnefoy, J.C.; Montel, M C; DIDIENNE, R.; Hulin, S.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; A study was conducted to verify whether bulk milk produced according to specific conditions of production would lead to distinctive cheeses. Milk from two groups of farms that mainly differ in their level of intensification of dairy cow and forage area management was processed into cheese in the same Cantal dairy plant, during 4 periods of 3 consecutive days each. The milk chemical composition differed little between the two producing groups whereas the differences wer...

  15. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a thermophilic sporeformer associated with a dairy-processing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M.P.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.; Kort, R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a Thermophilic Sporeformer Associated with a Dairy-Processing Environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M.P.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.; Kort, R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a thermophilic sporeformer associated with a dairy-processing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M.P.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.; Kort, R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb. ©

  18. Evaluation of possible use of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić-Martinez Mira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor sanitation of food contact surfaces has been a contributing factor in food borne disease outbreaks, especially those involving Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus etc. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1. Determine the efficiency of a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in suspension in a closed system in a dairy plant. 2. Evaluate the possibility of disinfection of working surfaces with a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide. In order to determine the germicidal effect of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide by suspension test (BSEN 1276:1997; the following test organisms were used: Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide were tested by IDF 077:1977 standard. The efficacy of this disinfectant was investigated in a closed system in a dairy plant. Results indicated a 100% reduction of >108 cfu/ml L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, viable count after 1 minute of exposure to 100 ppm of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide and 400 ppm for Bacillus cereus. In the presence of 2% skim milk and 4 % skim milk concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm resulted in 100% reduction in numbers of the five of six test microorganisms, respectively. The spore former, Bacillus cereus is less susceptible to the disinfectant. Therefore, the efficient concentration for 100% reduction in viable count after 1 minute exposure was 500 ppm. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant were not determined. In the case of closed system disinfection in a dairy plant, reduction in viable count after 15 minute exposure to 100 ppm of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide ranged from 80 to 100%.

  19. Effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat and feed intake level on the biotransformation and carry-over of deoxynivalenol in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeling, K; Dänicke, S; Valenta, H; Egmond, H P van; Schothorst, R C; Jekel, A A; Lebzien, P; Schollenberger, M; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Flachowsky, G

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of feeding Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (8.21 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.09 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg dry matter) at different feed intake levels on the biotransformation and carry-over of DON in dairy cows. For this purpose, 14 ruminal

  20. Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation.

  1. Plant uptake of explosives from contaminated soil at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Illinos, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-04-01

    Explosives and their degradation products may enter the animal and human food chains through plants grown on soils contaminated with explosives. Soil and plant samples were collected from the Group 61 area at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant and analyzed to determine the extent to which 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its degradation products are taken up by existing vegetation and crops growing on contaminated soils. Neither TNT nor its degradation products was detected in any of the aboveground plant organs of existing vegetation. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were planted on TNT-contaminated soils amended with three levels of chopped grass hay. Extractable TNT concentrations in hay-amended soils were monitored for almost 1 year. Crop establishment and growth improved with increased levels of hay amendment, but TNT uptake was not affected or detected in any aboveground crop organs. Evidence was found to indicate that soil manipulation and hay addition may reduce extractable TNT concentration in soils, but the wide variations in TNT concentrations in these soils prevented development of conclusive evidence regarding reduction of extractable TNT concentrations. Results from this study suggest that vegetation grown on TNT-contaminated soils is not a major health concern because TNT and its degradation products were not detected in aboveground plant organs. However, low concentrations of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene were detected in or on some existing vegetation and crop roots. 21 refs., 10 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Microbial contamination of water intended for milk container washing in smallholder dairy farming and milk retailing houses in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenu, Kebede; Shitu, Desalew; Abera, Mesele

    2016-01-01

    The water used during handling and processing of milk products can be potential sources of microbial contamination with possible negative consequences on food safety. Especially, the water used in keeping the hygiene of milking and milk storage utensils is crucial to keep the quality and safety of the products. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the bacteriological quality of water used for cleaning milking and milk storage equipment in smallholder dairy production in Hawassa and its surroundings. A total of 79 water samples were collected: 26 from milk collecting houses in Hawassa and 53 from selected smallholder dairy farms (Hawassa = 14, Arsi Negele = 29 and Yirgalem = 10). Out of the total samples, 18 samples were collected directly from pipe and 61 from storage containers (46 from narrow opening and 15 from wide opening containers). The overall prevalence of E. coli exceeding zero CFU/ml was 39.2 %. From analyzed samples, high prevalence of positive samples for E. coli was found in water samples taken from wide opening containers (66.7 %). A number of bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified which include Bacillus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Citrobacter sp. 1.3 %(n = 1), E. coli 39.2 % (n = 31), Enterobacter sp. 2.5 % (n = 2), Klebisella sp. 7.6 % (n = 6), Micrococcus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Pseudomonas sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus epidermidis 13.9 % (n = 11) and Streptococcus sp. 1.3 % (n = 1). The bacteriological quality of water especially, water stored in household storage containers in present study area was found to be contaminated with different bacteria indicating potential food safety problem and health risk to the society. In this respect, people handling water should be educated on its proper handling and the risk of contamination during storage. To minimize contamination, materials with narrow mouth and lid should be used. Further study is recommended on

  3. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products.

  4. Phytoremediation of small organic contaminants using transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C Andrew; Strand, Stuart E

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of transgenic plants in the phytoremediation of small organic contaminants has been investigated. Two principal strategies have been pursued (1) the manipulation of phase I metabolic activity to enhance in planta degradation rates, or to impart novel metabolic activity, and (2) the enhanced secretion of reactive enzymes from roots leading to accelerated ex planta degradation of organic contaminants. A pair of dehalogenase genes from Xanthobacter autotrophicus was expressed in tobacco resulting in the dehalogenation of 1,2-dichloroethane, which was otherwise recalcitrant. A laccase gene from cotton was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana resulting in increased secretory laccase activity and the enhanced resistance to trichlorophenol in soils. Although the results to date are promising, much of the work has been limited to laboratory settings; field demonstrations are needed. PMID:19342219

  5. Microbial contamination of the air at the wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3, the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.

  6. Remediation of plants contaminated with cesium by aqueous cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, N., E-mail: naoyuki.osada@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Aramaki Aza-Aoba 01, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Itoh, S. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Aramaki Aza-Aoba 01, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Aramaki Aza-Aoba 01, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujishiro, F.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Aramaki Aza-Aoba 01, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous cleaning removed two-thirds of the radioactivity from cesium-contaminated plants. Instead of being transferred to the water, cesium was attached to particles of rice straw. These particles were analyzed by micro-PIXE to determine the surface distribution of several elements. The elemental ratio of cesium to silicon was constant, and both elements exhibited similar distributions, suggesting that cesium was bound nonrandomly to silicon on the surface of the rice straw. Thus, aqueous cleaning removed both cesium and silicon simultaneously.

  7. Biogas generation and use at a dairy-cattle plant; Biogaserzeugung und -verwertung auf einer Milchviehanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, K. [Saechsische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Leipzig (Germany); Eichert, H. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Zwickau (Germany); Ackermann, J. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Zwickau (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    At a dairy-cattle plant of the Lungwitztal agrarian co-operative society in Saxony (approximately 1000 head of cattle), a biogas-fuelled cogeneration plant with an electric power output of 220 kilowatts and a thermal power output of 350 kilowatts went operational in 1995. The article reports the operating experience so far gathered, first data concerning the energy budget (the plant`s own power demand, power fed into the grid, use potential) as well as first results regarding the influence of the mixed substrate used (cattle manure with irregular admixtures of chicken dung, molasses, fatty water) on biogas production. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf einer Milchviehanlage der Agrargenossenschaft Lungwitztal e.g. in Sachsen (rund 1000 GVE) wurde 1995 ein Biogas-BHKW mit einer Leistung von 220 kW elektrisch und 350 kW thermisch in Betrieb genommen. Es werden die bisherigen Betriebserfahrungen, erste Ergebnisse zur Energiebilanz (Eigenbedarf, Netzeinspeisung, Nutzungspotential) sowie zum Einfluss des eingesetzten Mischsubstrates (Rinderguelle mit unregelmaessigen Zuschlaegen von Huehnerkot, Melasse, Fettwasser) auf die Biogasproduktion vorgestellt. (orig.)

  8. Defoliation and patchy nutrient return drive grazing effects on plant and soil properties in a dairy cow pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Mikola, Juha; SetÀlÀ, Heikki; VirkajÀrvi, P; SaarijÀrvi, K; K. Ilmarinen; Voigt, W.; Vestberg, M

    2009-01-01

    Large herbivores can influence plant and soil properties in grassland ecosystems, but especially for belowground biota and processes, the mechanisms that explain these effects are not fully understood. Here, we examine the capability of three grazing mechanisms-plant defoliation, dung and urine return, and physical presence of animals (causing trampling and excreta return in patches)-to explain grazing effects in Phleum pratense-Festuca pratensis dairy cow pasture in Finland. Comparison of co...

  9. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H

    2015-07-21

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  10. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunao Marui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  11. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-07-11

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  12. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  13. Removal of fluoride contamination in water by three aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sukalpa; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation, popularly known as 'green technology' has been employed in the present investigation to examine the potential of fluoride removal from water by some aquatic plants. Fluoride contamination in drinking water is very much prevalent in different parts of the world including India. Batch studies were conducted using some aquatic plants e.g., Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, and Spirodela polyrhiza which profusely grow in natural water bodies. The experimental data exhibited that all the above three aquatic floating macrophytes could remove fluoride to some relative degree of efficiency corresponding to initial concentration of fluoride 3, 5, 10, 20 mg/l after 10 days exposure time. Result showed that at lower concentration level i.e., 3 mg/L removal efficiency of Pistia stratiotes (19.87%) and Spirodela polyrhiza (19.23%) was found to be better as compared to Eichhornia crassipes (12.71%). Some of the physiological stress induced parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total protein, catalase, and peroxidase were also studied to explore relative damage within the cell. A marginal stress was imparted among all the plants for lower concentration values (3 mg/L), whereas at 20 mg/l, maximum damage was observed.

  14. Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

  15. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2013-06-01

    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products.

  16. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.

  17. Distribution of Pseudomonas Species in a Dairy Plant Affected by Occasional Blue Discoloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonaco, Sara; Nucera, Daniele; Garoglio, Davide; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Civera, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    During 2010 many cases of discoloration in mozzarella, popularly termed as blue mozzarella, have been reported to the attention of public opinion. Causes of the alteration were bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The strong media impact of such cases has created confusion, not only among consumers, but also among experts. In order to help improving the knowledge on microbial ecology of this microorganism a study has been set up with the collaboration of a medium-sized dairy plant producing fresh mozzarella cheese, with occasional blue discoloration, conducting surveys and sampling in the pre-operational, operational and post-operational process phase, milk before and after pasteurization, water (n=12), environmental surfaces (n=22) and the air (n=27). A shelf life test was conducted on finished products stored at different temperatures (4-8°C). Among the isolates obtained from the microbiological analysis of the samples, 60 were subjected to biomolecular tests in order to confirm the belonging to Pseudomonas genus and to get an identification at species level by the amplification and sequencing of the gyrB gene. The results of microbiological tests demonstrated the presence of microorganisms belonging to the genus Pseudomonas along the entire production lane; molecular tests showed 7 different species among the 40 isolates identified. One particular species (Pseudomonas koreensis) was isolated from blue discolored mozzarella cheese and was indicated as the most relevant for the production plant, both for the distribution along the processing chain and for the consequences on the finished product.

  18. Survey the frequency and type of Fungal Contaminants in Animal Feed of Yazd Dairy Cattles

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad taghi ghaneian; abbasali jafari; sara jamshidi; mohammad hasan ehrampoush; habibe momeni; omid jamshidii; mohammad ali ghove

    2016-01-01

    Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal fee...

  19. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the uptake and accumulation of organic contaminants into plants is very important to assess the possible human risk associated with. Biodegradation of emerging contaminants in plants has been observed, but kinetical studies are rare. In this study, we analy...

  20. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  1. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  2. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  5. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  6. Monitoring of the declining trend of Polychlorobifenyls concentration in milk of contaminated dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pregnant heifers, coming from a herd with a history of high concentration of polychlorobifenyls (PCB into the milk, were fed with a very low-PCB diet starting from the 6th month of pregnancy. After parturition cows were milked for at least 190 d with a maximum of 270 d. Diet was made of: corn silage (31.7% of DMI, dehydrated alfalfa (13.3% of DMI, grass hay (3.7% of DMI and concentrate (51.3% of DMI. The average DMI was 23.12 kg/d. Milk production was recorded and samples of milk and blood were taken and analyzed for PCB (18, 28, 31, 52, 44, 101, 149, 118, 153, 138, 180 and 194 congeners content using a GC-MS technique. The average milk yield (kg/d of the 6 cows was 26.0, 22.5, 23.2, 24.5, 28.9, 29.3. The maximum PCB concentration of 100 ng/g of fat allowed by the Italian law was reached after 144-209 d of lactation. One animal after 204 days had a PCB concentration of 102 ng/g fat. If log10 of PCB concentration (ppb in milk fat is regressed against days in milking (DIM the following significant equation was obtained: log10 PCB (ng/g of milk fat= 2.796 -0.00474 DIM; r2 0.72; P<0.01 The initial level of contamination is not the main factor affecting the time required in order for PCB to return to below the legal threshold of 100 ng/g fat, while daily milk yield significantly affects PCB excretion. Body condition and energy balance could be important factors affecting PCB excretion. In the presence of high contamination, about 6 months of lactation are required in order to obtain milk with a sufficiently low PCB content. Among the seven congeners considered by Italian legislation, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 constitute almost all the PCBs found in tissues and milk, with a much smaller presence of PCB 180, and the numbers of the congeners PCB 28 and PCB 52 are almost insignificant, probably because they accumulate little in the body. The congeners PCB 138 and PCB 153 are those most frequently found. For PCB 138 the liver is the principal

  7. Distribution of Pseudomonas species in a dairy plant affected by occasional blue discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiesa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 many cases of discoloration in mozzarella, popularly termed as blue mozzarella, have been reported to the attention of public opinion. Causes of the alteration were bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The strong media impact of such cases has created confusion, not only among consumers, but also among experts. In order to help improving the knowledge on microbial ecology of this microorganism a study has been set up with the collaboration of a medium-sized dairy plant producing fresh mozzarella cheese, with occasional blue discoloration, conducting surveys and sampling in the pre-operational, operational and post-operational process phase, milk before and after pasteurization, water (n=12, environmental surfaces (n=22 and the air (n=27. A shelf life test was conducted on finished products stored at different temperatures (4-8°C. Among the isolates obtained from the microbiological analysis of the samples, 60 were subjected to biomolecular tests in order to confirm the belonging to Pseudomonas genus and to get an identification at species level by the amplification and sequencing of the gyrB gene. The results of microbiological tests demonstrated the presence of microorganisms belonging to the genus Pseudomonas along the entire production lane; molecular tests showed 7 different species among the 40 isolates identified. One particular species (Pseudomonas koreensis was isolated from blue discolored mozzarella cheese and was indicated as the most relevant for the production plant, both for the distribution along the processing chain and for the consequences on the finished product.

  8. Circulation of Coxiella burnetii in a Naturally Infected Flock of Dairy Sheep: Shedding Dynamics, Environmental Contamination, and Genotype Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, A; Laroucau, K; Bailly, X; Prigent, M; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Blanchard, B; Rousset, E; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2015-10-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir. Sheep, in particular, may frequently cause outbreaks in humans. Because within-flock circulation data are essential to implementing optimal management strategies, we performed a follow-up study of a naturally infected flock of dairy sheep. We aimed to (i) describe C. burnetii shedding dynamics by sampling vaginal mucus, feces, and milk, (ii) assess circulating strain diversity, and (iii) quantify barn environmental contamination. For 8 months, we sampled vaginal mucus and feces every 3 weeks from aborting and nonaborting ewes (n=11 and n=26, respectively); for lactating females, milk was obtained as well. We also sampled vaginal mucus from nine ewe lambs. Dust and air samples were collected every 3 and 6 weeks, respectively. All samples were screened using real-time PCR, and strongly positive samples were further analyzed using quantitative PCR. Vaginal and fecal samples with sufficient bacterial burdens were then genotyped by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) using 17 markers. C. burnetii burdens were higher in vaginal mucus and feces than in milk, and they peaked in the first 3 weeks postabortion or postpartum. Primiparous females and aborting females tended to shed C. burnetii longer and have higher bacterial burdens than nonaborting and multiparous females. Six genotype clusters were identified; they were independent of abortion status, and within-individual genotype diversity was observed. C. burnetii was also detected in air and dust samples. Further studies should determine whether the within-flock circulation dynamics observed here are generalizable.

  9. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  10. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Dairy and plant based food intakes are associated with altered faecal microbiota in 2 to 3 year old Australian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Brown, P.; Morrison, M.; Krause, L.; Davies, P. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, pulses and nuts) food intakes were associated with distinct microbiota profiles. Dairy intake was positively associated with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, and in particular Erysipelatoclostridium spp., but negatively associated with species richness and diversity. Vegetable intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of the Lachnospira genus, while soy, pulse and nut intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides xylanisolvens. Fruit intake, especially apples and pears, were negatively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Ruminococcus gnavus. In this cohort of young children dairy and plant based food intakes were found to be associated with altered microbiota composition. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the effect of these dietary and microbial differences on host phenotype. PMID:27694811

  12. Electrochemical Analysis of Heavy Metal Contaminants in Plant Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghard, C. J.; Atkinson, D. B.; Zhu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium and Lead are toxic heavy metals found in the aerosol phase that can cause cancer (Cd) or neurological and developmental problems (Pb). In October 2015 the Oregon DEQ and USFS performed a follow-up investigation after a 2013 USFS moss study in Portland, Oregon showed high levels of Cadmium and Lead in a neighborhood in the Southeast part of the city. Findings from the ODEQ study implicated emissions from the Bullseye Glass Factory, and to a lesser extent, the Uroboros Glass Studio in producing the elevated Cadmium and Lead. These facilities were ordered to stop production until particulate filtering systems could be installed. Once production had ceased, ambient Cadmium concentrations dropped from 29.4 ng/m3 (49 times higher than the 0.6 ng/m3 Oregon Benchmark) to 1.1 ng/m3 near one factory and 0.67 ng/m3 near the other. The emissions of these metals were highly concentrated in an approximate 0.5 kilometer radius around the Bullseye facility and contamination of edible produce from gardens in the area is of concern. A simple extraction method, paired with Anodic Stripping Voltammetry was used to determine the levels of the two metals in produce and other plants from the area. Preliminary findings indicate that low levels of lead and cadmium are detectable in the vegetation samples from the area.

  13. Use of Lecane rotifers for limiting Thiothrix filamentous bacteria in bulking activated sludge in a dairy wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive growth of filamentous bacteria is a serious problem in many dairy wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. The objective of the study was to determine whether Lecane inermis rotifers were able to reduce the density of Thiothrix bacteria in activated sludge originating from a dairy WWTP, as well as to identify the impact of rotifers on other organisms in sludge. On a laboratory scale, three experiments were conducted in which activated sludge with a predominance of Thiothrix was inoculated with rotifers at an initial concentration of app. 600 individuals/mL. The results showed that the rotifers, by feeding on the bacterium filaments, are able to reduce significantly the quantity of Thiothrix. A decline in Thiothrix abundance coincided with an improvement of the sedimentation properties of activated sludge. In addition, it was proven that Lecane inermis did not negatively affect the number of Protozoa and Metazoa in activated sludge.

  14. Non-dioxin-like PCB and PBDE deposition on Zea mays L. leaves: modelled contamination in milk from dairy animals fed on silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Abate, Vittorio; di Domenico, Alessandro; Esposito, Mauro; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Iacovella, Nicola; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Tassinari, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) can intercept airborne pollutants before their deposition on soil. Selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ6NDL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (Σ8PBDEs) with feed and food safety relevance were measured on maize leaves harvested for silage in dairy animals from 28 fields in Italy. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography coupled to high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Contamination ranged from 0.65 to 5.3 ng g(-1) with 12% moisture for Σ6NDL-PCBs, and from 2.7 to 6.2 for Σ8 PBDEs. Modelled contamination in cow's milk was estimated to fall within the range 0.27-16 ng g(-1) for PCBs, 0.17-1.9 for PBDE number 47, and 0.22-2.1 for PBDE number 99 on a lipid basis. The results indicate that maize silage alone may raise Σ6NDL-PCB contamination in dairy milk up to the 95th percentile in the European Union. Results are discussed in terms of air quality standards able to support food safety.

  15. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Flavia, E-mail: flavia.girolami@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Spalenza, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.spalenza@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Carletti, Monica, E-mail: monica.carletti@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Sacchi, Paola, E-mail: paola.sacchi@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Rasero, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rasero@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Nebbia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.nebbia@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Adrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  17. Plants' use of different nitrogen forms in response to crude oil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Ming [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Centre for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Lu Meng; Yang Qiang; Zhang Xiaodong [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiao Ming [College of Life and Environment Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Jiang Lifen; Yang Ji; Fang Changming [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen Jiakuan [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Centre for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li Bo, E-mail: bool@fudan.edu.c [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Centre for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, we investigated Phragmites australis' use of different forms of nitrogen (N) and associated soil N transformations in response to petroleum contamination. {sup 15}N tracer studies indicated that the total amount of inorganic and organic N assimilated by P. australis was low in petroleum-contaminated soil, while the rates of inorganic and organic N uptake on a per-unit-biomass basis were higher in petroleum-contaminated soil than those in un-contaminated soil. The percentage of organic N in total plant-assimilated N increased with petroleum concentration. In addition, high gross N immobilization and nitrification rates relative to gross N mineralization rate might reduce inorganic-N availability to the plants. Therefore, the enhanced rate of N uptake and increased importance of organic N in plant N assimilation might be of great significance to plants growing in petroleum-contaminated soils. Our results suggest that plants might regulate N capture under petroleum contamination. - Plant strategies of utilizing nitrogen in crude oil-contaminated soils.

  18. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in environmental and food samples collected in industrial and artisanal dairy plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacometti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of Arcobacter species in two cheese factories; a total of 22 environmental samples and 10 food samples were collected from an artisanal and an industrial cheese factory; Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the artisanal cheese factory, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from several environmental samples, cow and water buffalo raw milk and ricotta cheese. In the industrial plant, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from surfaces not in contact with food and from a cleaned surface in contact with food; no Arcobacter spp. was isolated from food. All isolates were identified as A. butzleri. We report of the presence of A. butzleri in a ready-to-eat cheese produced for retail. In addition, the isolation of A. butzleri in food processing surfaces in the two cheese factories could be assessed as a source of potential contamination for cheeses

  19. Monensin inhibits growth of bacterial contaminants from fuel ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of commercial fermentation cultures by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a common and costly problem to the fuel ethanol industry. Virginiamycin (VIR) and penicillin (PEN) are frequently used to control bacterial contamination but extensive use of antibiotics may select for strains with d...

  20. Occupational Exposure at a Contemplated Belarussian Power Plant Fired with Contaminated Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, J

    1999-07-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper focuses on the radiation doses that may be received by workers at such a power plant. By Monte Carlo modelling based on a Danish biofuel power plant design it was found that the highest dose rates within the power plant would be those to people standing near the fly ash silo, bottom ash containers and so-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed. (author)

  1. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    experimental data on the uptake of emerging organic contaminants into lettuce derived in a greenhouse experiment. Measured soil, root and leaf concentrations from four contaminants were selected within the applicability domain of a steady-state two-compartment standard plant uptake model: bisphenol A (BPA...

  2. Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials.

  3. [The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M; Sigrist, S M; Corti, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R

    2011-06-01

    Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Each farm was visited five times. All lactating cows, with the exception of those undergoing antibiotic treatment, were examined immediately before milking using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A milk sample was collected from positive quarters. Items used to clean the udder, which included wood wool, paper towels and disinfecting towels as well as the milker's hands and the teat dip cup were swabbed for bacteriological examination. Water samples, samples of teat dip and cleaning solutions were also collected and cultured. Our results demonstrate that cleaning and disinfecting solutions have the potential to transmit udder pathogens and cause clinical mastitis. The most common CNS isolated from quarter samples were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri and S. chromogenes, and the most common CNS isolated from utensils, cleaning and disinfecting solutions were S. fleuretii, S. vitulus, S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. succinus and S. saprophyticus.

  4. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. Th...

  5. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Rhea eLumactud; Shu Yi eShen; Mimas eLau; Roberta eFulthorpe

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species....

  6. Hg transfer from contaminated soils to plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Henriques, B.; Reis, A.T.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the transfer of mercury (Hg) from soil to crops is crucial due to Hg toxicity and Hg occurrence in terrestrial systems. Previous research has shown that available Hg in soils contributes to plant Hg levels. Plant Hg concentrations are related to soil conditions and plant characteristic

  7. Zearalenone contamination in farm maize silage

    OpenAIRE

    L. Cavallarin; Antoniazzi, S.; E. Tabacco; G. Borreani

    2010-01-01

    Whole-plant maize silage, stored in horizontal silos, is the main diet source of lactating dairy cows in Italy. Mycotoxin contamination of maize grain has widely been described (Hussein and Brasel, 2001), while limited information is available on mycotoxins in maize silage (Oldenburg, 1991).

  8. Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H I; Cappato, L P; Corassin, C H; Cruz, A G; Oliveira, C A F

    2016-03-01

    This research investigated the removal of adherent cells of 4 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Listeria monocytogenes strain (previously isolated from dairy plants) from polystyrene microtiter plates using peracetic acid (PAA, 0.5%) for 15, 30, 60, and 120 s, and the inactivation of biofilms formed by those strains on stainless steel coupons using the same treatment times. In the microtiter plates, PAA removed all S. aureus at 15 s compared with control (no PAA treatment). However, L. monocytogenes biofilm was not affected by any PAA treatment. On the stainless steel surface, epifluorescence microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining (BacLight, Molecular Probes/Thermo Fisher Scientific, Eugene, OR) showed that all strains were damaged within 15 s, with almost 100% of cells inactivated after 30 s. Results of this trial indicate that, although PAA was able to inactivate both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes monospecies biofilms on stainless steel, it was only able to remove adherent cells of S. aureus from polystyrene microplates. The correct use of PAA is critical for eliminating biofilms formed by S. aureus strains found in dairy plants, although further studies are necessary to determine the optimal PAA treatment for removing biofilms of L. monocytogenes.

  9. Dynamism of PGPR in bioremediation and plant growth promotion in heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P R; Shaikh, S S; Sayyed, R Z

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination, particularly of cultivable lands, is a matter of concern. Bioremediation helps in reversing such contamination to certain extent. Here, we report isolation, polyphasic identification and the role of siderophore producing rhizobacteria Alcaligenes feacalis RZS2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 in bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and plant growth promotion activity in such contaminated soil. Siderophore produced by A. feacalis RZS2 and P. aeruginosa RZS3 strains chelated various heavy metal ions like MnCl₂.4H₂O, NiCl₂.6H₂O, ZnCl₂, CuCl₂ and CoCl₂ other than FeCl₃.6H2O at batch scale. Their bioremediation potential was superior over the chemical ion chelators like EDTA and citric acid. These isolates also promoted growth of wheat and peanut seeds sown in heavy metal contaminated soil. Effective root colonizing ability of these isolates was observed in wheat and peanut plants.

  10. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ., of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept., of Agronomy

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in TNT-contaminated soils on Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). The soils in this group were contaminated more than 40 years ago. In this study, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled from 15 locations and analyzed to determine TNT uptake by plants under natural field conditions. Plant materials were separated by species if more than one species was present at a sampling location. Standard methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. No. explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, the results indicate that TNT, 2-amino DNT, and/or 4-amino DNT were found in some root samples of false boneset (Kuhnia eupatorioides), teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris), and bromegrass (Bromus inermis). It is possible that slight soil contamination remained on the roots, especially in the case of the very fine roots for species like bromegrass, where washing was difficult. The presence of 2-amino DNT and 4-amino DNT, which could be plant metabolites of TNT, increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  11. Effect of High Pressure Homogenization on the Physicochemical Properties of Natural Plant-based Model Emulsion Applicable for Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Min, Sang-Gi; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In the dairy industry, natural plant-based powders are widely used to develop flavor and functionality. However, most of these ingredients are water-insoluble; therefore, emulsification is essential. In this study, the efficacy of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on natural plant (chocolate or vanilla)-based model emulsions was investigated. The particle size, electrical conductivity, Brix, pH, and color were analyzed after HPH. HPH significantly decreased the particle size of chocolate-based emulsions as a function of elevated pressures (20-100 MPa). HPH decreased the mean particle size of chocolate-based emulsions from 29.01 μm to 5.12 μm, and that of vanilla-based emulsions from 4.18 μm to 2.44 μm. Electrical conductivity increased as a function of the elevated pressures after HPH, for both chocolate- and vanilla-based model emulsions. HPH at 100 MPa increased the electrical conductivity of chocolate-based model emulsions from 0.570 S/m to 0.680 S/m, and that of vanilla-based model emulsions from 0.573 S/m to 0.601 S/m. Increased electrical conductivity would be attributed to colloidal phase modification and dispersion of oil globules. Brix of both chocolate- and vanilla-based model emulsions gradually increased as a function of the HPH pressure. Thus, HPH increased the solubility of plant-based powders by decreasing the particle size. This study demonstrated the potential use of HPH for enhancing the emulsification process and stability of the natural plant powders for applications with dairy products. PMID:26761891

  12. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Saisai; Zhu, Lizhong; Zhou, Wenjun

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization has little consequence for plant heavy metal uptake in contaminated field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietterich, Lee H; Gonneau, Cédric; Casper, Brenda B

    2017-09-01

    The factors affecting plant uptake of heavy metals from metalliferous soils are deeply important to the remediation of polluted areas. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), soil-dwelling fungi that engage in an intimate exchange of nutrients with plant roots, are thought to be involved in plant metal uptake as well. Here, we used a novel field-based approach to investigate the effects of AMF on plant metal uptake from soils in Palmerton, Pennsylvania, USA contaminated with heavy metals from a nearby zinc smelter. Previous studies often focus on one or two plant species or metals, tend to use highly artificial growing conditions and metal applications, and rarely consider metals' effects on plants and AMF together. In contrast, we examined both direct and AMF-mediated effects of soil concentrations on plant concentrations of 8-13 metals in five wild plant species sampled across a field site with continuous variation in Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu contamination. Plant and soil metal concentration profiles were closely matched despite high variability in soil metal concentrations even at small spatial scales. However, we observed few effects of soil metals on AMF colonization, and no effects of AMF colonization on plant metal uptake. Manipulating soil chemistry or plant community composition directly may control landscape-level plant metal uptake more effectively than altering AMF communities. Plant species identities may serve as highly local indicators of soil chemical characteristics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical

  15. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dai

  16. Interspecific transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: An unconsidered source of contaminations of phytopharmaceuticals and plant derived commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Melanie; Wittke, Carina; Lederer, Ines; Klier, Bernhard; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk

    2016-12-15

    Many plant derived commodities contain traces of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). The main source of these contaminations seems to be the accidental co-harvest of PA-containing weeds. Yet, based on the insights of the newly described phenomenon of the horizontal transfer of natural products, it is very likely that the PA-contaminations may also be due to an uptake of the alkaloids from the soil, previously being leached out from rotting PA-plants. The transfer of PAs was investigated using various herbs, which had been mulched with dried plant material from Senecio jacobaea. All of the acceptor plants exhibited marked concentrations of PAs. The extent and the composition of the imported PAs was dependent on the acceptor plant species. These results demonstrate that PAs indeed are leached out from dried Senecio material into the soil and confirm their uptake by the roots of the acceptor plants and the translocation into the leaves.

  17. Assessment of indoor airborne contamination in a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Miranda, Sandra; Monteiro, Ricardo A R; Lopes, Filipe V S; Madureira, Joana; Silva, Gabriela V; Pestana, Nazaré; Pinto, Eugénia; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to quantify and characterize the major indoor air contaminants present in different stages of a municipal WWTP, including microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide ammonia, formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In general, the total bacteria concentration was found to vary from 60 to >52,560 colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), and the total fungi concentration ranged from 369 to 14,068 CFU/m(3). Generally, Gram-positive bacteria were observed in higher number than Gram-negative bacteria. CO(2) concentration ranged from 251 to 9,710 ppm, and CO concentration was either not detected or presented a level of 1 ppm. H(2)S concentration ranged from 0.1 to 6.0 ppm. NH(3) concentration was <2 ppm in most samples. Formaldehyde was <0.01 ppm at all sampling sites. The total VOC concentration ranged from 36 to 1,724 μg/m(3). Among the VOCs, toluene presented the highest concentration. Results point to indoor/outdoor ratios higher than one. In general, the highest levels of airborne contaminants were detected at the primary treatment (SEDIPAC 3D), secondary sedimentation, and sludge dehydration. At most sampling sites, the concentrations of airborne contaminants were below the occupational exposure limits (OELs) for all the campaigns. However, a few contaminants were above OELs in some sampling sites.

  18. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels.

  19. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  20. Growth and Contaminant Removal Effect of Several Plants in Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Yun Cheng; Ming-Qiu Liang; Wen-Yin Chen; Xu-Cheng Liu; Zhang-He Chen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to probe the relation between plant growth and its decontamination effect in constructed wetlands.Four species were studied in the small-scale mono-cuitured constructed wetlands, which were fed with domestic wastewater. Plant growth indexes were correlated with contaminant removal performance of the constructed wetlands. Wetlands planted with Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb. showed the highest growth indexes such as shoot growth, biomass, root activity, root biomass increment, and the highest contaminant removal rates, whereas wetlands planted with Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash had the lowest growth indexes and the lowest removal rates. Above-ground biomass and total biomass were significantly correlated with ammonia nitrogen removal, and below-ground biomass with soluble reactive phosphorus removal. Photosynthetic rate had higher correlation with nitrogen removal in these species. Root activity and root biomass increment was more correlated with 5 d biochemical oxygen demand removal.Chemical oxygen demand removal had lower correlations with plant growth indexes. All four species had higher removal rates in summer and autumn. The results suggest that the effect of plant growth on contaminant removal in constructed wetlands were different specifically in plants and contaminants.

  1. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application.

  2. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  3. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Atsunao Marui; Adrian H. Gallardo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damagedthree reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuc...

  4. Remote Detection of Plant Physiological Responses to TNT Soil Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Photosystem II efficiency and mechanisms of energy dissipation in iron - deficient, field-grown pear trees (Pyrus communis L.). Photosynth Res 63:9–21...associated metabolites directly impact the photosystem, resulting in decreased biomass and chlorosis . It has been proposed that xenobiotics are taken up and...cerifera, and this could provide future field opportunities in contaminated soils. Fruits of M. cerifera were collected from Hog Island (37° 40′N; 75

  5. Soil contamination with emissions of non-ferrous metallurgical plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Plekhanova, I. O.; Prokopovich, E. V.; Savichev, A. T.

    2011-02-01

    The upper soil horizons are strongly contaminated in the area influenced by the Mid-Urals copper smelter. In the technogenic desert and impact zones, the contents of a number of elements (Cu, Zn, As, Pb, P, and S) by many times exceed their clarke values and the maximum permissible concentrations (or provisional permissible concentrations). The degree of technogeneity (Tg) for these elements is very high in these zones. In the far buffer zone, Tg is about zero for many elements and increases up to Tg = 27-42% for four heavy elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, and As) and up to 81-98% for P and S. The buffer capacity of the humus horizon depends on the soil's location within the technogeochemical anomaly and also on the particular pollutant. In the impact zone, it is equal to 70-77% for lead and arsenic, although other technogenic elements (Zn, Cr, S, and P) are poorly retained and readily migrate into the deeper horizons (the buffer capacity is equal to 14-25%). Nearly all the heavy metals enter the soil in the form of sulfides. The soils in the area affected by the Noril'sk mining and smelting metallurgical enterprise are subdivided into two groups according to the degree of their contamination, i.e., the soils within Noril'sk proper and the soils in its suburbs to a distance of 4-15 km. The strongest soil contamination is recorded in the city: the clarke values are exceeded by 287, 78, 16, 4.1, and 3.5 times for Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, and S, respectively. The major pollutants enter the soil from the ferruginous slag. The soil's contamination degree is lower in the suburbs, where heavy metal sulfides reach the soils with the aerial emission from the enterprise.

  6. Molecular tools to understand the bioremediation effect of plants and earthworms on contaminated marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Beatriz; Cañizares, Rosa; Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Masciandaro, Grazia; Benitez, Emilio

    2015-12-30

    A meso-scale pilot plant was set up to test the efficiency of a bioremediation scheme applied to marine sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was implemented for three years in two stages using two remediation agents: plants (Paspalum vaginatum and Tamarix gallica) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida). DNA and RNA-based methodologies were applied to elucidate the dynamics of the bacterial population and were related to improving biological and chemical conditions of the sediments. Bioremediation strategies were successful in removing pollutants from the contaminated sediments and specialization within the bacterial community related to the type of contamination present was detected in the different stages of the process. The highest response of Gram-positive PAH-degraders to the contamination was detected at the beginning and after the first stage of the experiment, corresponding to the uppermost values of degradation.

  7. Selection of mercury accumulator plants for gold mine tailing contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Muddarisna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation, which is more efficient with less side effects than conventional physical and chemical methods, is increasing in popularity as a remediation system. This paper provides a brief overview of developments in research and application of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailings containing mercury. Lindernia crustacea L., Digitaria radicosa Presl. Miq., Zingiber purpurium L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg., Cyperus kyllingia Endl., and Caladium bicolor Vent., that were selected for this study were planted in the planting media consisting of soil (70% and tailings (30% for 9 weeks. The results showed that after 9 weeks of planting, Paspalum conjugatum had growth rate, biomass production, Hg accumulation, and ratio of shoot Hg : root Hg higher than those of other plant species tested, both in the media consisted of amalgamation and cyanidation tailings. It can thus be concluded that Paspalum conjugatum is potential plant species for remediating mercury-contaminated soil.

  8. Modeling phytoextraction of heavy metals at multiply contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdiloo, Habib

    2009-01-01

    Soils and waters contaminated with heavy metals pose a major environmental and human health problem that needs an effective and affordable technological solution. Phytoextraction offers a reasonable technology which uses plants to extract the heavy metals from soils. However, the effectiveness of this new method needs to be demonstrated by means of mathematical modeling. The phytoextraction models also are needed to manage the contaminated soils. A thorough literature review indic...

  9. Plant coexistence can enhance phytoextraction of cadmium by tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Liu; Yuefang Li; Jianjun Tang; Liangliang Hu; Xin Chen

    2011-01-01

    A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate whether plant coexistence affects cadmium (Cd) uptake by plant in contaminated soil. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. K326) and Japanese clover (Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl.) were used.Cadmium was applied as 3CdSO4.8H2O in solution at three levels (0, 1, and 3 mg/kg soil) to simulate an unpolluted soil and soils that were slightly and moderately polluted with Cd. Tobacco (crop), Japanese clover (non-crop), and their combination were grown under each Cd treatment. Compared to monoculture and under all Cd treatments, co-planting with Japanese clover did not affect tobacco biomass but significantly increased Cd concentration in all tobacco tissues and enhanced Cd accumulation in tobacco shoots and roots.Compared to monoculture, co-planting reduced soil pH and increased Cd bioavailability. For tobacco, co-planting with Japanese clover increased the Cd bioconcentration factor (BCF) in Cd contaminated soil. Japanese clover also accumulated substantial quantities of Cd in shoots and roots. Thus, total Cd uptake by the plants was much greater with co-planting than with monoculture. The results suggested that phytoextraction can be effectively increased through tobacco co-planting with Japanese clover in mildly Cd-contaminated soil.

  10. Advanced monitoring and supervision of biological treatment of complex dairy effluents in a full-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Eugenio F; Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a wastewater treatment plant treating effluents from a dairy laboratory was monitored by an advanced system. This plant comprises a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR) coupled in series and is equipped with the following on-line measurement devices: biogas flow meter, feed and recycling flow meters, temperature sensor, dissolved oxygen analyzer, and redox meter. Other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), etc. were determined off-line. The plant has been in operation for 634 days, the influent flow rate being 6-8 m(3)/d. COD concentration of the influent ranged between 8 and 12 kg COD/m(3), resulting in COD values in the effluent around 50-200 mg/L. The behavior of the system was studied using the set of measurements collected by the data acquisition program especially developed for this purpose. Monitoring of variables such as anaerobic reactor temperature permitted the detection and prevention of several failures such as temperature shocks in the AF reactor. Besides, off-line measurements such as the alkalinity or the VFA content, together with the on-line measurements, provided immediate information about the state of the plant and the detection of several anomalies, such as organic overloads in the SBR, allowing the implementation of several fast control actions.

  11. Delineation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination at a former hydrogenation plant using spectral induced polarization imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Orozco, Adrián; Kemna, Andreas; Oberdörster, Christoph; Zschornack, Ludwig; Leven, Carsten; Dietrich, Peter; Weiss, Holger

    2012-08-01

    Broadband spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements were conducted at a former hydrogenation plant in Zeitz (NE Germany) to investigate the potential of SIP imaging to delineate areas with different BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) concentrations. Conductivity images reveal a poor correlation with the distribution of contaminants; whereas phase images exhibit two main anomalies: low phase shift values (1.7 g/l), and higher phase values for lower BTEX concentrations. Moreover, the spectral response of the areas with high BTEX concentration and free-phase products reveals a flattened spectrum in the low frequencies (contaminants at BTEX contaminated sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  13. Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures

  14. Metal Contamination In Plants Due To Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Farhad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyzes the determination of heavy metals named Chromium Lead and Cadmium deposited in soil as well as in the plants and vegetables due to the tanning industries of the area of Hazaribagh Dhaka. The tanneries discharge untreated tannery effluents which get mixed with the soil water of rivers and canals in this area. The determination of metals was performed for the soil that was collected from the land adjacent to the canals which bear untreated tannery effluents. The soil is affected with the untreated effluents through the deposition of heavy metals. The metals were furthers deposited into the plants and vegetables grown on that soil. The roots stems and leaves of the plants of Jute Corchorus capsularis and Spinach Basella alba grown on that soil were analyzed for determining these metals. Extreme amount of chromium was found for plants and again Lead Cadmium were found in higher amount in these parts of the two plants. These two plants are taken as a popular vegetables extensively. In case of soil the amount of Chromium Lead and Cadmium were analyzed as 87 mgL 0.131 mgL and 0.190 mgL respectively. For the roots stems and leaves of Jute Corchorus capsularis the average values are 115.62 mgL for Chromium 11.25 mgL for Lead and 2.27 mgL for Cadmium respectively. Again in case of Spinach Basella alba 124.42 mgL was found for Chromium 7.38 mgL for lead and 2.97 mgL for Cadmium as average values for these parts of the two trees. All the observed values of metals of Chromium Lead and Cadmium are higher than the permissible and specially for Chromium the amount is extremely higher.

  15. Plant enhanced degradation of phenanthrene in the contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; XIE Xiao-mei

    2006-01-01

    The degradative characteristics ofphenanthrene, microbial biomass carbon, plate counts of heterotrophic bacteria and most probable number (MPN) of phenanthrene degraders in non-rhizosphere or rhizosphere soils with uninoculating or inoculating phenanthrene degraders were measured. At the initial concentration of 20 mg phenanthrene/kg soil, the half-lives of phenanthrene in uninoculated non-rhizosphere soil, uninoculated rhizosphere soil, inoculated non-rhizosphere soil, and inoculated rhizosphere soil were measured to be 81.5, 47.8, 15.1 and 6.4 d, respectively, and corresponding kinetic data fitted first-order kinetics. The highest degradation rate of phenanthrene was observed in inoculated rhizosphere soil. The degradative characteristics of phenanthrene were closely related to the effects of vegetation on soil microbial process. Vegetation could enhance the magnitude ofrhizosphere microbial communities, microbial biomass content, and heterotrophic bacterial community, but barely influence those community components responsible for phenanthrene degradation. Results suggested that combination of vegetation and inoculation with degrading microorganisms of target organic contaminants was a better pathway to enhance degradation of the organic contaminants in soil.

  16. Seasonal occurrence and molecular diversity of clostridia species spores along cheesemaking streams of 5 commercial dairy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Jorge; González, Marcela J; Olivera, Jorge A; Burgueño, Juan A; Juliano, Pablo; Fox, Edward M; Reginensi, Stella M

    2016-05-01

    Five commercial dairy plants were monitored over a 17-mo period to determine the seasonal occurrence of Clostridium spores in streams from the cheesemaking process. Every 2 mo, samples of raw milk (RM), separated cream (SC), pasteurized and standardized vat milk (PSVM), PSVM + lysozyme (PSVM+L), and manufactured cheese aged for 60 to 90 d were processed for analysis. Molecular diversity of the main species identified was determined using repetitive element palindromic PCR. The mean anaerobic spore counts (μ ± SE) were 3.16±0.054, 3.00±0.054, 2.89±0.059, and 2.03±0.054 log10 most probable number/L for RM, PSVM, PSVM+L, and SC, respectively. Although spore counts did not differ between dairy plants, seasonal variation was observed; spore counts of RM, PSVM, and PSVM+L were higher during winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) months, but no seasonal variation was seen in SC counts. The most frequently isolated species was Clostridium tyrobutyricum, ranging from 50 to 58.3% of isolates from milk and cream samples. Clostridium sporogenes was the second most common species identified (16.7-21.1%); Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium butyricum were also found, although at lower prevalence (7.9-13.2%). Analysis of the C. tyrobutyricum and C. sporogenes population structure through repetitive element palindromic PCR indicated a high diversity, with unique isolates found in each positive sample. The occurrence of Clostridia spores in incoming streams to cheesemaking was most prominent in the winter and summer seasons, with higher prevalence of C. tyrobutyricum in the months of June and August.

  17. Spatial distribution of soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in relation to the distribution and use of domestic cat defecation sites on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J A; Kurdzielewicz, S; Jeanniot, E; Dupuis, E; Marnef, F; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Poulle, M-L

    2017-03-16

    Little information is available on the relationship between the spatial distribution of zoonotic parasites in soil and the pattern of hosts' faeces deposition at a local scale. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in relation to the distribution and use of the defecation sites of its definitive host, the domestic cat (Felis catus). The study was conducted on six dairy farms with a high number of cats (seven to 30 cats). During regular visits to the farms over a 10month period, the cat population and cat defecation sites (latrines and sites of scattered faeces) on each farm were systematically surveyed. During the last visit, 561 soil samples were collected from defecation sites and random points, and these samples were searched for T. gondii DNA using real-time quantitative PCR. Depending on the farm, T. gondii DNA was detected in 37.7-66.3% of the soil samples. The proportion of contaminated samples at a farm was positively correlated with the rate of new cat latrines replacing former cat latrines, suggesting that inconstancy in use of a latrine by cats affects the distribution of T. gondii in soil. On the farms, known cat defecation sites were significantly more often contaminated than random points, but 25-62.5% of the latter were also found to be contaminated. Lastly, the proportion of positive T. gondii samples in latrines was related to the proximity of the cats' main feeding and resting sites on the farms. This study demonstrates that T. gondii can be widely distributed in farm soil despite the heterogeneous distribution of cat faeces. This supports the hypothesis that farms are hotspot areas for the risk of T. gondii oocyst-induced infection in rural environments.

  18. Hydrocarbon contamination and plant species determine the phylogenetic and functional diversity of endophytic degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Smalla, Kornelia; Cunha, Ângela

    2014-03-01

    Salt marsh sediments are sinks for various anthropogenic contaminants, giving rise to significant environmental concern. The process of salt marsh plant survival in such environment is very intriguing and at the same time poorly understood. The plant–microbe interactions may play a key role in the process of environment and in planta detoxification.In this study, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular approaches [enrichment cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing] were used to investigate the effect of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) contamination on the structure and function[polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dioxygenase genes] of endophytic bacterial communities of salt marsh plant species (Halimione portulacoides and Sarcocornia perennis)in the estuarine system Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Pseudomonads dominated the cultivable fraction of the endophytic communities in the enrichment cultures. In a set of fifty isolates tested, nine were positive for genes encoding for PAH dioxygenases (nahAc)and four were positive for plasmid carrying genes encoding PAH degradation enzymes(nahAc). Interestingly, these plasmids were only detected in isolates from most severely PH-polluted sites. The results revealed site-specific effects on endophytic communities,related to the level of PH contamination in the sediment, and plant-species-specific ‘imprints’ in community structure and in genes encoding for PAH dioxygenases. These results suggest a potential ecological role of bacterial plant symbiosis in the process of plant colonization in urban estuarine areas exposed to PH contamination.

  19. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L. [University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL (United States). Agronomy Dept.; Houser, W.P. [US Army Environmental Center, Edgewood, MD (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by vegetation growing on soils contaminated by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). Plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled and analyzed to determine TNT uptake under natural field conditions. Standard USATHAMA methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. No- explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, results indicate that TNT, 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and/or 4-ADNT were present in some root samples. The presence of 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  20. Uranium accumulation by aquatic plants from uranium-contaminated water in Central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratas, João; Favas, Paulo J C; Paulo, Carlos; Rodrigues, Nelson; Prasad, M N V

    2012-03-01

    Several species of plants have developed a tolerance to metal that enables them to survive in metal contaminated and polluted sites. Some of these aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate significant amounts of specific trace elements and are, therefore, useful for phytofiltration. This work focuses the potential of aquatic plants for the phytofiltration of uranium (U) from contaminated water. We observed that Callitriche stagnalis, Lemna minor, and Fontinalis antipyretica, which grow in the uraniferous geochemical province of Central Portugal, have been able to accumulate significant amounts of U. The highest concentration of U was found in Callitriche stagnalis (1948.41 mg/kg DW), Fontinalis antipyretica (234.79 mg/kg DW), and Lemna minor (52.98 mg/kg DW). These results indicate their potential for the phytofiltration of U through constructed treatment wetlands or by introducing these plants into natural water bodies in the uraniferous province of Central Portugal.

  1. Contamination of cooked peeled shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Listeria monocytogenes during processing at two processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdóttir, Sigrún; Gudbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Einarsson, Hjörleifur; Kristinsson, Karl G; Kristjansson, Már

    2006-06-01

    Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes contamination was evaluated in cooked peeled shrimp (final or semifinal product, 82 samples) and the shrimp-processing environment (two plants, 613 samples) in eight surveys conducted from 1998 through 2001. Listeria was detected in 12.5% (78) of the 695 samples (11.2% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes), but none of the samples of final product contained Listeria. One hundred seventy-two L. monocytogenes isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Cleavage with macrorestriction enzymes AscI and ApaI yielded 14 different pulsotypes in the plants; two types were dominant, one in each plant. Sixty-three of the 106 isolates in plant A and 43 of the 66 isolates in plant B were of the dominant types. Certain strains, mainly of serotypes 1/2c and 4b and pulsotypes 1A and 2H, were persistent for long periods in both plants. Adaptation of good hygienic practices in the processing plants, including strict rules concerning traffic of staff and equipment, and existing hygienic requirements appeared to be effective in preventing contamination between areas within plants and in the final product. The persistence of Listeria strains in these two processing plants indicates the importance of detecting the places in the processing environment (e.g., transporters, equipment, floors, and drains) where L. monocytogenes can survive so that cleaning and disinfection efforts can be directed to such niches.

  2. Draft genome sequences of four thermophilic spore formers isolated from a dairy-processing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, M.P.M.; Boekhorst, J.; Jong, de A.; Kort, R.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Abee, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spores of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. Here, we report draft genome sequences of four thermophilic strains from a milk-processing plant or standard milk, namely, a Geobacillus thermoglucosidans isolate (TNO-09.023), Geobacillus stearother

  3. Relationship of Estuarine Plant Contaminants to Existing Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    conditions. However, near the roots of Halimiona portl.acoides the soil colour changed from blue to red, indica ting that somehow the plant created oxidizing...holm-oak leaves from Aljus trel are near the level at which Rebechini & Hanzely (1974) observed striking changes in chloroplast fine structure, in...Photo- synthetica, 18: 134-138. INSTITUTO AGRONONICO DE S. PAULO (1978). Andlise Quimica de Plantas.Cir cular N2 87, Sic Paulo. KIEKENS, L. Cottenie, A

  4. Assessment of airborne virus contamination in wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Masclaux, Frédéric; Hotz, Philipp; Gashi, Drita; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Oppliger, Anne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Occupational exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and its consequence on workers׳ health are well documented. Most studies were devoted to enumerating and identifying cultivable bacteria and fungi, as well as measuring concentrations of airborne endotoxins, as these are the main health-related factors found in WWTP. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the presence and concentrations of airborne virus in WWTP. However, many enteric viruses ar...

  5. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  6. Fecal contamination of wastewater treatment plants in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Serrano, Isa; Van Harten, Sofia; Bessa, Lucinda J; Bernardo, Fernando; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2016-07-01

    Reutilization of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for non-potable applications is increasing due to the reduction of sustainable water resources. These products mostly come from municipal WWTP and also from slaughterhouses effluents. The microbiological certification of these products is mandatory before their discharge into the environment. This study evaluates if the treatment applied in WWTP to municipal waters or to poultry slaughterhouse effluents distributed over the Portuguese continental territory is efficient in reducing the microbiological risk associated with the reutilization of those wastewaters and sludges. Fecal indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were evaluated in 42 and 24 wastewater samples from 14 municipal WWTP and 8 poultry slaughterhouse treatment plants, respectively, by the conventional culture method and a rapid Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Bacterial enumeration in inflow water from most WWTP was rather high (generally >10(5) cells/ml), for both E. coli and Enterococcus spp., and the bacterial quantification by FISH was generally higher than enumeration by the conventional culture method. In both types of treatment plants studied, bacterial load from effluents and sludges was not statistically different from the inflows, indicating that the treatment applied seems to be equally unable to reduce the microbiological load of the effluents. These findings may jeopardize the safe reuse of treated wastewaters in agriculture and the quality of the water environment. Therefore, products like water, sewage sludge, and biosolids originated from the municipal and slaughterhouse WWTP studied should not be reutilized, and effluents treatment should be urgently reviewed.

  7. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva; Godofredo Cesar Vitti; Anderson Ricardo Trevizam

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different re...

  8. Identification of dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorbiphenyls in plant tissues and contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jin-Juh; Chung, Jen-Chir; Weng, Ying-Ming; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Wang, Ming Kuang

    2007-10-01

    The environmental analysis laboratory (EAL) of the Taiwan environmental protection administration (TEPA) has been monitoring certain sites polluted in southern Taiwan by pentachlorophenol manufacture. The analytical results revealed peculiarities in the concentration distributions in plant tissues. There are no available data on dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorbiphenyls (DL-PCBs), which can be taken up from contaminated soils by plant tissues. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify, understand, and to validate these dioxin and DL-PCBs concentrations in plant tissues of the contaminated soils. This research analyzed ten species of plant tissues, including tappa (Boussonetia papyrifera) and common jasmin orange (Murraya paniculata) from sites in southern Taiwan, with different levels of contamination. Dioxin concentrations in these plant tissues ranged from 12.7 to 2919 ng WHO-TEQ(DF)/kg dry weight (d.w.), with average of 463 ng WHO-TEQ(DF)/kg d.w. (n=16). The DL-PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.236 to 1.75 ng WHO-TEQp/kg d.w., with an average of 0.605 ng WHO-TEQp/kg d.w. (n=8). Tappa is one of the most common and fastest growing plants in Taiwan. It also shows the highest tolerance to environmental contaminants and accumulates dioxin and DL-PCBs. This is one of the best species to take up dioxins and DL-PCBs effectively. It can be recommended as a candidate for dioxin and DL-PCB phyto-remediation. These data are useful to evaluate bioaccumulation of dioxin and DL-PCBs, and to study the capability of phyto-remediation in contaminated soils.

  9. Ecosystem services and plant physiological status during endophyte-assisted phytoremediation of metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Blanco, Fernando; Becerril, José M; Garbisu, Carlos

    2017-04-15

    Mining sites shelter a characteristic biodiversity with large potential for the phytoremediation of metal contaminated soils. Endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria were isolated from two metal-(hyper)accumulator plant species growing in a metal contaminated mine soil. After characterizing their plant growth-promoting traits, consortia of putative endophytes were used to carry out an endophyte-assisted phytoextraction experiment using Noccaea caerulescens and Rumex acetosa (singly and in combination) under controlled conditions. We evaluated the influence of endophyte-inoculated plants on soil physicochemical and microbial properties, as well as plant physiological parameters and metal concentrations. Data interpretation through the grouping of soil properties within a set of ecosystem services was also carried out. When grown together, we observed a 41 and 16% increase in the growth of N. caerulescens and R. acetosa plants, respectively, as well as higher values of Zn phytoextraction and soil microbial biomass and functional diversity. Inoculation of the consortia of putative endophytes did not lead to higher values of plant metal uptake, but it improved the plants' physiological status, by increasing the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids by up to 28 and 36%, respectively, indicating a reduction in the stress level of plants. Endophyte-inoculation also stimulated soil microbial communities: higher values of acid phosphatase activity (related to the phosphate solubilising traits of the endophytes), bacterial and fungal abundance, and structural diversity. The positive effects of plant growth and endophyte inoculation on soil properties were reflected in an enhancement of some ecosystem services (biodiversity, nutrient cycling, water flow regulation, water purification and contamination control).

  10. Trichoderma spp. alleviate phytotoxicity in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Antonio G; Sommella, Alessia; Lorito, Matteo; Lombardi, Nadia; Azam, Shah M G G; Pigna, Massimo; Ruocco, Michelina

    2014-09-15

    The influence of two strains of Trichoderma (T. harzianum strain T22 and T. atroviride strain P1) on the growth of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with As-contaminated water, and their effect on the uptake and accumulation of the contaminant in the plant roots and leaves, were studied. Accumulation of this non-essential element occurred mainly into the root system and reduced both biomass development and net photosynthesis rate (while altering the plant P status). Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) of both Trichoderma species alleviated, at least in part, the phytotoxicity of As, essentially by decreasing its accumulation in the tissues and enhancing plant growth, P status and net photosynthesis rate. Our results indicate that inoculation of lettuce with selected Trichoderma strains may be helpful, beside the classical biocontrol application, in alleviating abiotic stresses such as that caused by irrigation with As-contaminated water, and in reducing the concentration of this metalloid in the edible part of the plant.

  11. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. van der Fels-Klerx

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1 in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1, and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk.

  12. Evaluating leaf and canopy reflectance of stressed rice plants to monitor arsenic contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor ars...

  13. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the uptake and accumulation of organic contaminants into plants is very important to assess the possible human risk associated with. Biodegradation of emerging contaminants in plants has been observed, but kinetical studies are rare. In this study, we analyse experimental data on the uptake of emerging organic contaminants into lettuce derived in a greenhouse experiment. Measured soil, root and leaf concentrations from four contaminants were selected within the applicability domain of a steady-state two-compartment standard plant uptake model: bisphenol A (BPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), triclosan (TCS) and caffeine (CAF). The model overestimated concentrations in most cases, when no degradation rates in plants were entered. Subsequently, biodegradation rates were fitted so that the measured concentrations were met. Obtained degradation kinetics are in the order, BPA modeling are, despite the inherent uncertainty, indicative of the dissipation rates. The advantage of the procedure that is additional knowledge can be gained from existing experimental data. Dissipation kinetics found via inverse modeling is not a conclusive proof for biodegradation and confirmation by experimental studies is needed.

  14. Efficient phytoremediation of organic contaminants in soils using plant-endophyte partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Nai-Xian; Yu, Jiao; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2017-04-01

    Soil pollution with organic contaminants is one of the most intractable environmental problems today, posing serious threats to humans and the environment. Innovative strategies for remediating organic-contaminated soils are critically needed. Phytoremediation, based on the synergistic actions of plants and their associated microorganisms, has been recognized as a powerful in situ approach to soil remediation. Suitable combinations of plants and their associated endophytes can improve plant growth and enhance the biodegradation of organic contaminants in the rhizosphere and/or endosphere, dramatically expediting the removal of organic pollutants from soils. However, for phytoremediation to become a more widely accepted and predictable alternative, a thorough understanding of plant-endophyte interactions is needed. Many studies have recently been conducted on the mechanisms of endophyte-assisted phytoremediation of organic contaminants in soils. In this review, we highlight the superiority of organic pollutant-degrading endophytes for practical applications in phytoremediation, summarize alternative strategies for improving phytoremediation, discuss the fundamental mechanisms of endophyte-assisted phytoremediation, and present updated information regarding the advances, challenges, and new directions in the field of endophyte-assisted phytoremediation technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytoremediation and phytomining: Using plants to remediate contaminated or mineralized environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of harsh environment for plants is metal and metalloid contaminated or mineralized soils which exist in most countries due to geological formations or to the history of mining and smelting. Depending on soil pH and fertility, metal-rich soils may be barren and eroding into wider areas. Some...

  16. Characterization of contaminants from a sanitized milk processing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cleto

    Full Text Available Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank--transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties.

  17. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54 at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  18. Plant Mounds as Concentration and Stabilization Agents for Actinide Soil Contaminants in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Shafer; J. Gommes

    2009-02-03

    Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around the base of shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. An important factor in their formation is that shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, 241Am, and U in plant mounds at safety experiment and storage-transportation test sites of nuclear devices. Although aerial concentrations of these contaminants were highest in the intershrub or desert pavement areas, the concentration in mounds were higher than in equal volumes of intershrub or desert pavement soil. The NAEG studies found the ratio of contaminant concentration of actinides in soil to be greater (1.6 to 2.0) in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. At Project 57 on the NTTR, 17 percent of the area was covered in mounds while at Clean Slate III on the TTR, 32 percent of the area was covered in mounds. If equivalent volumes of contaminated soil were compared between mounds and desert pavement areas at these sites, then the former might contain as much as 34 and 62 percent of the contaminant inventory, respectively. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. In addition, preservation of shrub mounds could be important part of long-term stewardship if these sites are closed by fencing and posting with administrative controls.

  19. Distribution of Penicillium commune isolates in cheese dairies mapped using secondary metabolite profiles, morphotypes, RAPD and AFLP fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Nielsen, A.B.; Skouboe, P.

    2003-01-01

    In an 8-year study of the diversity and distribution of Penicillium commune contaminants in two different cheese dairies, swab and air samples were taken from the production plants, the processing environment and contaminated cheeses. A total of 321 Penicillium commune isolates were characterized...... morphotyping, P. commune isolates with identical profiles using all four typing techniques were interpreted as closely related isolates with a common origin and the distribution of these isolates in the processing environment indicated possible contamination points in the cheese dairies. The coating process...... and unpacking of cheeses with growth of P. commune seemed to cause the contamination problems. Several identical P. commune isolates remained present in the processing environment for more than 7 years in both dairies....

  20. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Saisai [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhou Wenjun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils. - Saponin has great potential for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and phenanthrene from the combined contaminated soils.

  1. Short communication: Toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in dairy ewes and carryover to milk following a single or long-term ingestion of contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudra, H; Saivin, S; Buffiere, C; Morgavi, D P

    2013-10-01

    Ruminal microbes have the capacity to inactivate ochratoxins, rendering ruminants less sensitive to this fungal contaminant found in cereal feeds. However, ochratoxin A has been reported in milk surveys. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicokinetics, excretion, and transmission into milk of ochratoxin A using doses similar to those of naturally occurring field contaminations. Six Lacaune dairy ewes in late lactation were separated into 2 groups that received a single dose of contaminated wheat containing 5 or 30 μg of ochratoxin A/kg of body weight. After administration, toxicokinetics and excretion were monitored for 48 h. Subsequently, ewes were administered the corresponding toxin dose daily for 24 d followed by a second toxicokinetics and excretion monitoring period for this long-term exposure. The doses used did not affect production or health of ewes. After a single dose, ochratoxin A and its main metabolite, ochratoxin α, were found in blood 1h postexposure. The maximum blood concentrations of ochratoxin A and α, respectively, were dose dependent and were observed, on average, 6 and 8h after exposure. Long-term exposure increased the maximum concentration of ochratoxin A detected in blood, whereas ochratoxin α was not affected. In contrast, the time to reach the maximum concentration was reduced to 3h for both molecules. Ochratoxins, essentially ochratoxin α, were mainly excreted in feces. Ochratoxin A and α were detected in milk at concentrations that were dose dependent but with a low carryover rate (ochratoxin A can escape ruminal degradation and traces were found in milk of experimentally exposed ewes, the low carryover of ochratoxin A in milk minimizes the risk to consumers.

  2. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  3. A simple technique for removing plant polysaccharide contaminants from DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, N; Adams, R P

    1991-02-01

    A survey of the inhibitory effects of various plant polysaccharides on DNA restrictions (HindIII and EcoRI) revealed that neutral polysaccharides (arabino-galactan, dextran, gum guar, gum locust bean, beta-glucan, inulin, laminaran, mannan and starch) were not very inhibitory. In contrast, acidic polysaccharides (carrageenan, dextran sulfate, gum ghatti, gum karaya, pectin and xylan) were very inhibitory, even at low concentrations. The Elutip-d (RPC-5 type resin) was evaluated for removal of the inhibitory polysaccharides. Used alone or in combination with a phenol/chloroform wash, it proved effective in removing the polysaccharide so that HindIII digestion was possible, except in the cases of carrageenan and dextran sulfate. In addition, the genomic DNA extracts from live oak (Quercus virginiana) and magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) were sufficiently purified so that the DNAs could be restricted with both EcoRI and HindIII.

  4. Tolerance of cultivated and wild plants of different taxonomy to soil contamination by kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharonova, Natalia; Breus, Irina

    2012-05-01

    In laboratory experiments on leached chernozem contaminated by kerosene (1-15 wt.%), germination of 50 plants from 21 families (cultivated and wild, annual and perennial, mono- and dicotyledonous) as affected by kerosene type and concentration and plant features was determined. Tested plants formed three groups: more tolerant, less tolerant, and intolerant, in which relative germination was more than 70%, 30-70% and less than 30%, respectively. As parameters of soil phytotoxicity, effective kerosene concentrations (EC) causing germination depression of 10%, 25% and 50% were determined. EC values depended on the plant species and varied in a wide range of kerosene concentrations: 0.02-7.3% (EC(10)), 0.05-8.1% (EC(25)), and 0.2-12.7% (EC(50)). The reported data on germination in soils contaminated by oil and petrochemicals were generalized. The comparison showed that at very high contamination levels (10 and 15%) kerosene was 1.3-1.6 times more phytotoxic than diesel fuel and 1.3-1.4 times more toxic than crude oil, and at low (1 and 2%) and medium (3 and 5%) levels the toxicity of these contaminants was close differing by a factor of 1.1-1.2. Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature and, on the average, decreased in the following range of families: Fabaceae (germination decrease of 10-60% as compared to an uncontaminated control)>Brassicaceae (5-70%)>Asteraceae (25-95%)>Poaceae (10-100%). The monocotyledonous species tested were characterized as medium- and low-stable to contamination, whereas representatives of dicotyledonous plants were met in all groups of tolerance. Tested wild plants, contrary to reference data on oil toxicity, were more sensitive to kerosene than cultivated. No correlation was observed between degree of plant tolerance to kerosene and mass of seeds. The evidence indicates factors as structure and properties of testa, structure of germ, type of storage compounds, and type of seed germination (underground or

  5. Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2014-04-01

    Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant׳s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air.

  6. Plants Rather than Mineral Fertilization Shape Microbial Community Structure and Functional Potential in Legacy Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridl, Jakub; Kolar, Michal; Strejcek, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Stursa, Petr; Paces, Jan; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions are of particular importance in polluted soils. This study sought to determine how selected plants (horseradish, black nightshade and tobacco) and NPK mineral fertilization shape the structure of soil microbial communities in legacy contaminated soil and the resultant impact of treatment on the soil microbial community functional potential. To explore these objectives, we combined shotgun metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene amplicon high throughput sequencing with data analysis approaches developed for RNA-seq. We observed that the presence of any of the selected plants rather than fertilization shaped the microbial community structure, and the microbial populations of the root zone of each plant significantly differed from one another and/or from the bulk soil, whereas the effect of the fertilizer proved to be insignificant. When we compared microbial diversity in root zones versus bulk soil, we observed an increase in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria or Bacteroidetes, taxa which are commonly considered copiotrophic. Our results thus align with the theory that fast-growing, copiotrophic, microorganisms which are adapted to ephemeral carbon inputs are enriched in the vegetated soil. Microbial functional potential indicated that some genetic determinants associated with signal transduction mechanisms, defense mechanisms or amino acid transport and metabolism differed significantly among treatments. Genetic determinants of these categories tend to be overrepresented in copiotrophic organisms. The results of our study further elucidate plant-microbe relationships in a contaminated environment with possible implications for the phyto/rhizoremediation of contaminated areas.

  7. Effect of rhizosphere enzymes on phytoremediation in PAH-contaminated soil using five plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea, and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix, dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix, and urease (except Medicago sativa L. were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592. The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d. At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665. Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil.

  8. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  9. Characterization of soil contamination by using environmental magnetic techniques: example of the Ribatejo power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga Mendes, Ana Rita; Font, Eric; Andrade, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Soil contamination resulting from power plant atmospheric emissions represents a major problem for soil management, water resource and agriculture. Here, we studied the contamination of soils located close to the Ribatejo power plant, near Carregado, Portugal. We used magnetic susceptibility (MS), isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) curves and frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (Kfd) in order to identify the concentration and grainsize of anthropogenic magnetic particles. Separation of natural (background) and anthropogenic magnetic particles is achieved by studying several sites located close (polluted) and far (background) from the Ribatejo power plant. Vertical variations of magnetic particle content at each site provide information about the depth at which anthropogenic particles are maximum, and allow discussing the influence of downward fluid percolation within the different soil horizons.

  10. Phytoremediation potential of some agricultural plants on heavy metal contaminated mine waste soils, salem district, tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmapriya, S; Murugan, N; Ragavendran, C; Thangabalu, R; Natarajan, D

    2016-01-01

    The Pot culture experiment performed for phytoextraction potential of selected agricultural plants [millet (Eleusine coracana), mustard (Brassica juncea), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), black gram (Vigna mungo), pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)] grown in metal contaminated soils around the Salem region, Tamilnadu, India. Physiochemical characterization of soils, reported as low to medium level of N, P, K was found in test soils. The Cr content higher in mine soils than control and the values are 0.176 mg/L in Dalmia soil and 0.049 mg/L in Burn & Co soil. The germination rate low in mine soil than control soils (25 to 85%). The content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, carbohydrate and protein decreased in mine soils than control. The morphological parameters and biomass values decreased in experimental plants due to metal accumulation. Proline content increased in test plants and ranged from 0.113 mg g(-1) to 0.858 mg g(-1) which indicate the stress condition due to toxicity of metals. Sorghum and black gram plants reported as metal tolerant capacity. Among the plants, Sorghum produced good results (both biomass and biochemical parameters) which equal to control plant and suggests Sorghum plant is an ideal for remediation of metal contaminated soils.

  11. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea eLumactud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  12. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  13. Lead and Cadmium Contamination of Different Roadside Soils and Plants in Peshawar City, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.KHAN; M.A.KHAN; S.REHMAN

    2011-01-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from roadside sites (along with primary, secondary and tertiary roads) and reference site to investigate the contamination of soils and old common plant species with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in Peshawar City, Pakistan. All the data were analyzed using ANOVA analysis that showed a significant (P ≤ 0.01) variation in Pb and Cd concentrations in the roadside soils and plants ss compared to the reference site. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 53.9 and 6.0 mg kg-1 in soils and 49.1 and 10.9 mg kg-1 in plants, respectively. Significant variation (P ≤ 0.01) in concentrations of Pb and Cd in soil and plant samples along with primary, secondary and tertiary roads might be due to different traffic densities. The highest value (9.4) of metal accumulation index (MAI) was observed for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. In selected plant species, the Pb and Cd accumulation was found in the order of E. camaldulensis > Ficus elastica > Dalbergia sissoo > Alstonia scholaris. The roadside soils and plants were highly contaminated with Pb and Cd as compared to the reference site.

  14. Plant-based plume-scale mapping of tritium contamination in desert soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Michel, R.L.; Halford, K.J.; Radyk, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Plant-based techniques were tested for field-scale evaluation of tritium contamination adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of tritium in plant water, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict and map subsurface contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into tritium migration pathways and processes. Plant sampling [creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville] required one-fifth the time of soil water vapor sampling. Plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a separation distance of 380 m; measurement uncertainty accounted for plant tritium explained 96 and 90% of the variation in root-zone and sub-root-zone soil water vapor concentrations, respectively. The equations were combined with kriged plant-water concentrations to map subsurface contamination. Mapping showed preferential lateral movement of tritium through a dry, coarse-textured layer beneath the root zone, with concurrent upward movement through the root zone. Analysis of subsurface fluxes along a transect perpendicular to the LLRW facility showed that upward diffusive-vapor transport dominates other transport modes beneath native vegetation. Downward advective-liquid transport dominates at one endpoint of the transect, beneath a devegetated road immediately adjacent to the facility. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document large-scale subsurface vapor-phase tritium migration from a LLRW facility. Plant-based methods provide a noninvasive, cost-effective approach to mapping subsurface tritium migration in desert areas.

  15. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Terrestrial Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1993-01-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is screening contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as contaminants of potential concern. This process is termed contaminant screening. It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 38 chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In addition, background information on the phytotoxicity and occurrence of the chemicals in soils is presented, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation is reviewed. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

  16. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella S Gattai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco. Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1 to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1 in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v. The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil.

  17. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants: 1994 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is screening contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as contaminants of potential concern. This process is termed contaminant screening. It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 38 chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In addition, background information on the phytotoxicity and occurrence of the chemicals in soils is presented, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation is reviewed. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

  18. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattai, Graziella S.; Pereira, Sônia V.; Costa, Cynthia M. C.; Lima, Cláudia E. P.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina) in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco). Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1) to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1) in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v). The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil. PMID:24031701

  19. Phytoremediation of PAH-Contaminated Sediments by Potamogeton Crispus L. with Four Plant Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡波; 迟杰

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of plant density of Potamogeton crispus L. on the remediation of sedi-ments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a 54-day experiment with four plant densities(642, 1,604, 2,567 and 3,530 plants/m2)was conducted. The results showed higher plant density with slower plant growth rate. Surface area per plant was the most sensitive root parameter to plant density. At the end of the 54-day experi-ment, planting P. crispus enhanced the dissipation ratios of phenanthrene and pyrene in sediments by 6.5%—26.2%and 0.95%—13.6%, respectively. The dissipation increment increased with increasing plant density. Plant uptake accounted for only a small portion of the dissipation increments. Furthermore, P. crispus could evidently improve sediment redox potentials, and strong positive correlations between root surface area and the redox potential as well as between the redox potentials and the dissipation ratios of phenanthrene and pyrene were obtained, indicating that the oxygen released by the roots of P. crispus might be the main mechanism by which P. crispus enhanced the dis-sipation of PAHs in sediments.

  20. Contaminant Removal of Domestic Wastewater by Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Zhang-He Chen; Jian-Gang Zhao; Bin-He Gu

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between five emergent plant species and between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands was conducted in small-scale (2.0 m×1.0 m×0.7 m, length×width×depth) constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in order to evaluate the decontaminated effects of different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of organic matter between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands.Wetlands planted with Canna indica Linn., Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and Phragmites communls Trin. had generally higher removal rates for TN and TP than wetlands planted with other species. Plant growth and fine root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass were related to removal efficiency. Fine root biomass rather than the mass of the entire root system played an important role in wastewater treatment. Removal efficiency varied with season and plant growth. Wetlands vegetated by P. purpureum significantly outperformed wetlands with other plants in May and June, whereas wetlands vegetated by P. communis and C. indica demonstrated higher removal efficiency from August to December. These findings suggest that abundance of fine roots is an important factor to consider in selecting for highly effective wetland plants. It also suggested that a plant community consisting of multiple plant species with different seasonal growth patterns and root characteristics may be able to enhance wetland performance.

  1. Uptake of Organic Contaminants by Plants from Oil Sands Fine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the performance of different plant species growing in different kinds of oil sands fine tailings,and to estimate the uptake of organic contaminants by plants from the oil sands fine tailings.In general,total hydrocarbon in the plant could be ranked(beginning with the highest)as:unweathered plant 4 tailings (UWT),Freeze-Thawtailings(FT),weathered plant 4 tailings(WT),and consolidated tailings(CT) for the willow,poplar and cattails.For grass,CT amended with tailings sand and muskeg had the highest hydrocarbon level in the field treatment,however,other three kinds of tailings(FT,WT and UWT) had lower but similar to each other hydrocarbon levels.

  2. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects.

  3. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B; Pasin, Gonca

    2016-07-23

    Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals) that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein) consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars-all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product's glucoregulatory effects.

  4. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  5. Radiocesium contamination behavior and its effect on potassium absorption in tropical or subtropical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Cep 24210-340 (Brazil); Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Cep 24210-340 (Brazil)]. E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Mosquera, B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Cep 24210-340 (Brazil); Macario, K. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Cep 24210-340 (Brazil); Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Cep 24210-340 (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The accumulation and long-term decline of radiocesium contamination in tropical plant species was studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra from pomegranate (Punica granatum) and chili pepper (Capsicum fructescens) trees. The plants were originally grown at a {sup 137}Cs contaminated site (where a radiological accident occurred in the city of Goiania, Brazil, in 1987), and transplanted to uncontaminated soil, so that the main source of contamination of the new leaves and fruits would be the fraction of the available radiocesium in the body of the plants. Measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 4}K concentrations along the roots, main trunk, twigs, leaves and fruits before and after the transplant process of both plant species indicated a direct competition between Cs and K ions, suggesting that these elements could have a common accumulation mechanism. Cesium transfer factors from soil to pomegranate, green and red chili pepper fruits were evaluated as 0.4 {+-} 0.1, 0.06 {+-} 0.01 and 0.05 {+-} 0.01, respectively. Biological half-life values due to {sup 137}Cs translocation from the tree reservoir (BHL{sub T}) were calculated as 0.30 years for pomegranate, 0.12 years and 0.07 years for red and green peppers, respectively.

  6. Extracellular Trapping of Soil Contaminants by Root Border Cells: New Insights into Plant Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Hawes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water pollution by metals and other toxic chemicals is difficult to measure and control, and, as such, presents an ongoing global threat to sustainable agriculture and human health. Efforts to remove contaminants by plant-mediated pathways, or “phytoremediation”, though widely studied, have failed to yield consistent, predictable removal of biological and chemical contaminants. Emerging research has revealed that one major limitation to using plants to clean up the environment is that plants are programmed to protect themselves: Like white blood cells in animals, border cells released from plant root tips carry out an extracellular trapping process to neutralize threats and prevent injury to the host. Variability in border cell trapping has been found to be correlated with variation in sensitivity of roots to aluminum, and removal of border cell results in increased Al uptake into the root tip. Studies now have implicated border cells in responses of diverse plant roots to a range of heavy metals, including arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead, mercury, iron, and zinc. A better understanding of border cell extracellular traps and their role in preventing toxin uptake may facilitate efforts to use plants as a nondestructive approach to neutralize environmental threats.

  7. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K., E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H. [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173 (Japan); Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T. [Sasaki Taro memorial PIXE Center, Asano-cho 5, Hakodate 040-0076 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K. We also measured {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of {sup 40}K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of {sup 137}Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with {sup 137}Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  8. Soil pollution assessment and identification of hyperaccumulating plants in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated sites, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Awad, Yasser M; Lim, Kyoung Jae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-05-01

    In recent decades, heavy metal contamination in soil adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has received increasing attention. This study was conducted to determine the pollution level (PL) based on the concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in soils and to evaluate the remediative capacity of native plant species grown in the CCA contaminated site, Gangwon Province, Korea. The pollution index (PI), integrated pollution index (IPI), bioaccumulation factors (BAF(shoots) and BAF(roots)) and translocation factor (TF) were determined to ensure soil contamination and phytoremediation availability. The 19 soil samples from 10 locations possibly contaminated with Cr, Cu and As were collected. The concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in the soil samples ranged from 50.56-94.13 mg kg(-1), 27.78-120.83 mg kg(-1), and 0.13-9.43 mg kg(-1), respectively. Generally, the metal concentrations decreased as the distance between the CCA-treated wood structure and sampling point increased. For investigating phytoremediative capacity, the 19 native plant species were also collected in the same area with soil samples. Our results showed that only one plant species of Iris ensata, which presented the highest accumulations of Cr (1120 mg kg(-1)) in its shoot, was identified as a hyperaccumulator. Moreover, the relatively higher values of BAF(shoot) (3.23-22.10) were observed for Typha orientalis, Iris ensata and Scirpus radicans Schk, suggesting that these plant species might be applicable for selective metal extraction from the soils. For phytostabilization, the 15 plant species with BAF(root) values>1 and TF values<1 were suitable; however, Typha orientalis was the best for Cr. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution pathways of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a soil-plant-air system. A case study with Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp. plants grown in a contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvelo Pereira, R. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: edrobert@usc.es; Monterroso, C.; Macias, F.; Camps-Arbestain, M. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This study focuses on the main routes of distribution and accumulation of different hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (mainly {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta}-HCH) in a soil-plant-air system. A field assay was carried out with two plant species, Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp., which were planted either: (i) directly in the HCH-contaminated soil; or (ii) in pots filled with uncontaminated soil, which were placed in the HCH-contaminated soil. Both plant species accumulated HCH in their tissues, with relatively higher accumulation in above-ground biomass than in roots. The {beta}-HCH isomer was the main isomer in all plant tissues. Adsorption of HCH by the roots from contaminated soil (soil {yields} root pathway) and adsorption through the aerial biomass from either the surrounding air, following volatilization of the contaminant (soil {yields} air {yields} shoot pathway), and/or contact with air-suspended particles contaminated with HCH (soil particles {yields} shoot pathway) were the main mechanisms of accumulation. These results may have important implications for the use of plants for reducing the transfer of contaminants via the atmosphere. - Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are preferentially accumulated in above-ground tissues of plants grown in a heavily contaminated site.

  10. Unravelling remote sensing signatures of plants contaminated with gasoline and diesel: an approach using the red edge spectral feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, I D; Souza Filho, C R; Magalhães, L A; Quitério, G C M; Alves, M N; Oliveira, W J

    2013-03-01

    Pipeline systems used to transport petroleum products represent a potential source of soil pollution worldwide. The design of new techniques that may improve current monitoring of pipeline leakage is imperative. This paper assesses the remote detection of small leakages of liquid hydrocarbons indirectly, through the analysis of spectral features of contaminated plants. Leaf and canopy spectra of healthy plants were compared to spectra of plants contaminated with diesel and gasoline, at increasing rates of soil contamination. Contamination effects were observed both visually in the field and thorough changes in the spectral reflectance patterns of vegetation. Results indicate that the remote detection of small volumes of gasoline and diesel contaminations is feasible based on the red edge analysis of leaf and canopy spectra of plants. Brachiaria grass ranks as a favourable choice to be used as an indicator of HCs leakages along pipelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  12. Growth of Jatropha curcas on heavy metal contaminated soil amended with industrial wastes and Azotobacter. A greenhouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G P; Yadav, S K; Thawale, P R; Singh, S K; Juwarkar, A A

    2008-04-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effect of organic wastes (biosludge and dairy sludge) and biofertilizer (Azotobacter chroococcum) on the planting conditions of Jatropha curcas in metal contaminated soils. Results showed that the plants survival rate in heavy metal contaminated soil increased with addition of amendments. Treatment T6 (heavy metal contaminated soils+dairy sludge+biofertilizer) observed to be the best treatment for growth (height and biomass) as compared with the treatment T5 (heavy metal contaminated soils+biosludge+biofertilizer). In addition, organic amendments provided nutrients such as carbon, N, P and K to support plant growth and reduced the metal toxicity to plant. The present study showed that metal contaminated lands/soils could be suitably remediated by adapting appropriate measures.

  13. A spatial, statistical approach to map the risk of milk contamination by β-hexachlorocyclohexane in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Battisti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2005, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH was found in a sample of bovine bulk milk from a farm in the Sacco River valley (Latium region, central Italy. The primary source of contamination was suspected to be industrial discharge into the environment with the Sacco River as the main mean of dispersion. Since then, a surveillance programme on bulk milk of the local farms was carried out by the veterinary services. In order to estimate the spatial probability of β- HCH contamination of milk produced in the Sacco River valley and draw probability maps of contamination, probability maps of β-HCH values in milk were estimated by indicator kriging (IK, a geo-statistical estimator, and traditional logistic regression (LR combined with a geographical information systems approach. The former technique produces a spatial view of probabilities above a specific threshold at non-sampled locations on the basis of observed values in the area, while LR gives the probabilities in specific locations on the basis of certain environmental predictors, namely the distance from the river, the distance from the pollution site, the elevation above the river level and the intrinsic vulnerability of hydro-geological formations. Based on the β-HCH data from 2005 in the Sacco River valley, the two techniques resulted in similar maps of high risk of milk contamination. However, unlike the IK method, the LR model was capable of estimating coefficients that could be used in case of future pollution episodes. The approach presented produces probability maps and define highrisk areas already in the early stages of an emergency before sampling operations have been carried out.

  14. Species diversity of plant communities from territories with natural origin radionuclides contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneva, A.V.; Belykh, E.S.; Maystrenko, T.A.; Grusdev, B.I.; Zainullin, V.G.; Vakhrusheva, O.M. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of RAS, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation); Oughton, D. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Since plants dominate every landscape, the impact of any environmental stressor on plants can directly affect the structure and function of an ecosystem, resulting in decreased primary productivity and degradation of wildlife habitat. The investigation goal of the present research was to study how vascular plant species' composition at a former radium mining site could be related to i) soil contamination with heavy metals and uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides and ii) soil agrochemical properties. Between the 1930's and 1950's, the commercial extraction of radium, storage of the uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, together with deactivation of the site with a mixture of sand and gravel completely destroyed plant communities in the vicinity of Vodny settlement (Komi Republic, Russia). The plant cover recovery started more than 60 years ago, and resulted in overgrowing with common grassland plant species. Three meadow sites were investigated, one with low contamination (on the territory of former radium production plant), one with high contamination (waste storage cell) and a reference sites out of the radiochemical plant zone of influence, but with similar natural conditions. Geo-botanical descriptions revealed 134 vascular plant species from 34 families in the meadow communities studied. The greatest richness was seen for Poaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae families; others had 1-5 species. The highest richness in diversity was seen at reference sites with 95 vascular plant species. 87 species were registered on low contaminated sites and 75 species on high contaminated. Perennial herbs were the dominant life form on all the studied meadow communities. Arboreal species expansion in vegetation was noted at both experimental and reference sites. Shannon index calculations indicated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in species diversity on sample areas of the highly contaminated radioactive waste storage cell. Mean values

  15. Effect evaluation of carbendazim-β-ciclodextrin complex for controling filamentous contaminants of plant in vitro cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileidy Cruz-Martín

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of in vitro contaminant microorganisms affecting plant in vitro culture are bacterias and fungus. These are commonly observed in vivo on plants, but they could cause harmful effect on plant propagated in vitro. The search of new alternatives for their prevention and control is a priority. Carbendazim is the active ingredient of some systemic fungicides, it´s application for fungus contamination on in vitro propagation of plant it has been constrained for their lowsolubilityonwater.Thisproblemcouldbesolvedbycombiningthisproductwitha β-ciclodextrina.Thispaperwas focusedtodeterminetheeffectofcarbendazim-β-ciclodextrinaversusthecontaminantfungiofplantinvitroculture. It was determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC by the agar dilution method. Thirty four strains were analysed.Thecarbendazim-β-ciclodextrinacomplexshowedanacceptableantifungalactivityversuscontaminant. This result could be an useful alternative to control the fungi contamination on plant propagated in vitro. Key words: fungal contamination, antifungal compounds, minimum inhibitory concentration

  16. THE LEVEL OF CROP PLANTS CONTAMINATION BY HEAVY METALS FROM THE HISTORICAL MINES AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Tomáš

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we focused on monitoring the total content of heavy metals ( Cd , Pb , Cu , Cr in selected crops (spring barley, wheat, oilseed rape, maize and oats, grown on contaminated land in an iron-ore mining company in Spišská Nová Ves, plant Rudňany. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of technological maturity with well-defined sampling points using the GPS. In mineralized samples we used the F - AAS on a VARIAN 240 FS performed analyzes to determine the content of heavy metals monitored. The results observed contents of risk elements point to a relatively high level of contamination of harvested agricultural production, which is used for food purposes. Exceeding the maximum levels was recorded fot Cd, Pb and Cr using the Codex Alimentarius. In the case of Cu, we exceeded HPL for each crop group recorded.

  17. Honeybees and honey as monitors for heavy metal contamination near thermal power plants in Mugla, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, 6 honeydew samples of known geographical and botanical origins and 11 honeybee samples were analyzed to detect possible contamination by the thermoelectric power plants in Mugla, Turkey. The contents of trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after application of microwave digestion. The samples from the thermal power plants, which were 10-22 km away from the hives, that did not cause pollution in honeydew honeys were also analyzed. The levels of copper, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc, manganese, iron, chromium, nickel, and aluminum were similar to the values found in other recent studies in literature. However, it was found that the contamination levels of the toxic elements such as Pb and Cd in honeybee samples measured relatively higher than that of honey samples. The study concludes that honeybees may be better bioindicators of heavy metal pollution than honey.

  18. Treatment of endosulfan contaminated water with in vitro plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Patricia A; Ferrari, Mónica M; Orden, Alejandro A; Cañas, Irene; Nassetta, Mirtha; Kurina-Sanz, Marcela

    2016-03-15

    Endosulfan is a Persistent Organic Pollutant insecticide still used in many countries. It is commercially available as mixtures of two diastereomers, α- and β-endosulfan, known as technical grade endosulfan (TGE). A laboratory model based on the use of axenic plant cell cultures to study the removal and metabolization of both isomers from contaminated water matrixes was established. No differences were recorded in the removal of the two individual isomers with the two tested endemic plants, Grindelia pulchella and Tessaria absinthioides. Undifferentiated cultures of both plant species were very efficient to lower endosulfan concentration in spiked solutions. Metabolic fate of TGE was evaluated by analyzing the time course of endosulfan metabolites accumulation in both plant biomass and bioremediation media. While in G. pulchella we only detected endosulfan sulfate, in T. absinthioides the non-toxic endosulfan alcohol was the main metabolite at 48h, giving the possibility of designing phytoremediation approaches.

  19. Feasibility of using hyperaccumulating plants to bioremediate metal-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.J. [Dames and Moore, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Guerin, T.F. [Minenco Bioremediation Services, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was carried out to determine whether selected plants were capable of hyperaccumulating anthropogenic sources of metals found in soils from three contaminated sites. A trial was conducted using the previously reported hyperaccumulators, Armeria maritima (thrift), Impatiens balsamina (balsam), Alyssum saxatile (gold dust), and the control species, Brassica oleracea (cabbage). Although none of these plants showed any substantial hyperaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, it was established that there is an optimum period in the life-cycle of these plants in which the metal concentration reaches a maximum. This period was dependent on the metal, soil, and plant type. The current paper describes the data obtained for Zn and Cu uptake by thrift.

  20. Heavy Metal Uptake by C. esculentus, S. alterniflora and Agronomic Plants from Contaminated Soils and Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-28

    HEAVY METAL UPTAKE BY C ESCULENTUS S ALIERNIFLORA ANDAGRONOIC PLANTS FR,, U’ UNIVERSITY COLL OF WALES ABERYSTWYTH DEPT OF GEOGRAPHY 6 E DAVIES 20 FE...uu-~~ HEAVY METAL UP TAKE BY C.* escu lentus, S.* a iter-nif cra AND AGRONOIMIC PLANTS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTSj PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR Dr...comprising a range of heavy metal contents. Analytical data for the selected soils are:- EDTA extract: jig/g soilLime Requirement AREA pH (cwt/acre) Pb

  1. Determination of the Content of Heavy Metals in Pyrite Contaminated Soil and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Marić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of a pyrite contaminated soil texture, content of heavy metals in the soil and soil pH, was the aim in the investigation. Acidification of damaged soil was corrected by calcium carbonate. Mineral nutrients and organic matter (NPK, dung, earthworm cast, straw and coal dust were added to damaged soil. Afterwards, the soil was used for oat production. Determination of total heavy metal contents (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe in soil was performed by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. Plant material (stems, seeds was analysed, too. Total concentration of the heavy metals in the plant material were greater than in crop obtained in unaffected soil.

  2. [Enhanced bioremediation of coking plant soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xiu-Li; Ma, Jie; Wu, Shu-Ke; Chen, Chao-Qi; Wu, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from Beijing Coking Plant. The purposes were to isolate PAHs degrading bacteria from the soils, determine their appropriate living condition, enrich them and apply them in the enhanced bioremediation of the contaminated soils. Using each of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs as the sole carbon source, PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated using the method of plate streaking and identified by genetic analysis. In total seven species of PAHs degrading bacteria were obtained. When mixed, these bacteria could degrade the 16 (2-6 cyclic) PAHs studied at appropriate concentrations. In the liquid medium, when the total concentration of the 16 PAHs (sigma PAH16) was 17 microg/mL, single bacteria could grow well and degrade the PAHs. However, when sigma PAH16 was 166 microg/mL, the growth and activity of either single PAHs degrading bacteria or a mixture of the seven PAHs degrading bacteria were inhibited. Aiming at the contaminated soils from Beijing coking plant, five treatments were performed, i.e., control (C), addition of nutrient (N), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria (N + B), addition of nutrient and surfactant (N +S), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant (N + B + S). After five weeks of experiment, compared to the C treatment, the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B treatment was increased 32%, and the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B + S treatment was increased 46% (the mean removal rate of the 10 4-6 cyclic PAHs was increased 52%). The addition of PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant could significantly enhance the degradation of PAHs in the soils. This study provides evidence for the enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil for Beijing coking plant and other coking plants.

  3. [Growth responses of six leguminous plants adaptable in Northern Shaanxi to petroleum contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Cao, Qiao-Ling; Kang, Zhen-Yan; Li, Shu-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    To select appropriate native species in Northern Shaanxi for phytoremediation, the growth index of six kinds of leguminous plants planted in petroleum contaminated soils were investigated through pot culture. Petroleum concentrations were set at 0, 5 000, 10 000, 20 000, 40 000 mg x kg(-1) respectively with three replicates. Using different levels of seed germination rate, germination time, individual height, wilting rate, dry weight and chlorophyll content in leaves of tested plants as the ecological indicator. The results showed that tested plants have significantly different responses to petroleum pollution. Compared with those planted in clean soils, seed germination rate and individual height were promoted when petroleum concentration was lower than 5000 mg x kg(-1), but inhibition occurred when petroleum concentrations were higher than 10000 mg x kg(-1). Strong endurance of Medicago sativa was observed to petroleum polluted soil, especially at lower petroleum concentration. Leaf wilting of Robinia pseudoacacia was unobserved even when petroleum concentration was 40 000 mg x kg(-1), thus displaying the potential of remediating petroleum contaminated soils. The petroleum concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with seed germination rate, individual height and dry weight, but positively correlated with chlorophyll content in leaves.

  4. Indigenous microfungi and plants reduce soil nonylphenol contamination and stimulate resident microfungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, Mariangela; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Lazzari, Alexandra; Segreto, Rossana; Perotto, Silvia; Siniscalco, Consolata

    2009-02-01

    Nonylphenol, the most abundant environmental pollutant with endocrine disrupting activity, is also toxic to plants and microorganisms, but its actual impact in the field is unknown. In this study, diversity of culturable soil microfungal and plant communities was assessed in a disused industrial estate, at three sites featuring different nonylphenol pollution. Although soil microfungal assemblages varied widely among the sites, no significant correlation was found with point pollutant concentrations, thus suggesting indirect effects of soil contamination on microfungal assemblages. The potential of indigenous fungi and plants to remove nonylphenol was assessed in mesocosm experiments. Poplar plants and a fungal consortium consisting of the most abundant strains in the nonylphenol-polluted soil samples were tested alone or in combination for their ability to reduce, under greenhouse conditions, nonylphenol levels either in a sterile, artificially contaminated sand substrate, or in two non-sterile soils from the original industrial area. Introduction of indigenous fungi consistently reduced nonylphenol levels in all substrates, up to ca. 70% depletion, whereas introduction of the plant proved to be effective only with high initial pollutant levels. In native non-sterile soil, nonylphenol depletion following fungal inoculation correlated with biostimulation of indigenous fungi, suggesting positive interactions between introduced and resident fungi.

  5. Short communication: Influence of pasteurization on the active compounds in medicinal plants to be used in dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse; Kudsk, Dorte Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Interest from the dairy industry in adding herbal drugs to milk and yogurt products raises the question of whether these plant materials can be pasteurized. Root material of Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng, all plants with adaptogenic activities, was pasteurized....... The content of active compounds in the root material before and after pasteurization was quantified by HPLC analysis. The results show that the eleutherosides in E. senticosus, and to an extent the ginsenosides from P. ginseng, could withstand pasteurization, whereas salidroside and rosavin from R. rosea did...

  6. Assessing the dynamic changes of rhizosphere functionality of Zea mays plants grown in organochlorine contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Claire; Briset, Loïc; Legay, Nicolas; Arnoldi, Cindy; Poly, Franck; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Raveton, Muriel

    2017-06-05

    The persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils are suspected to disturb soil biogeochemical cycles. This study addressed the dynamic changes in soil functionality under lindane and chlordecone exposures with or without maize plant. Decreases in soil ammonium concentration, potential nitrogen mineralization and microbial biomass were only OCP-influenced in bulk soils. OCPs appeared to inhibit the ammonification step. With plants, soil functionality under OCP stress was similar to controls demonstrating the plant influence to ensure the efficiency of C- and N-turnover in soils. Moreover, OCPs did not impact the microbial community physiological profile in all tested conditions. However, microbial community structure was OCP-modified only in the presence of plants. Abundances of gram-negative and saprophytic fungi increased (up to +93% and +55%, respectively) suggesting a plant stimulation of nutrient turnover and rhizodegradation processes. Nevertheless, intimate microbial/plant interactions appeared to be OCP-impacted with depletions in mycorrhizae and micro/meso-fauna abundances (up to -53% and -56%, respectively) which might have adverse effects on more long-term plant growth (3-4 months). In short-term experiment (28days), maize growth was similar to the control ones, indicating an enhanced plasticity of the soil functioning in the presence of plants, which could efficiently participate to the remediation of OCP-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Different Tolerant Plant for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soils with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraction activity, transportation and processing of crude oil caused soil contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH. The develop phytoremediation process of contaminated soils with 2.8 % TPH, were studied in pots, with a tolerant grass species, Lolium perenne. Four treatments, each consisting of three replicates, were realized in randomized block design. The experimental variants are: control, uncontaminated soil, untreated and treated contaminated soil with anaerobic stabilized sewage sludge (50 t/ha in absence/presence volcanic indigenous tuff amendment (5 t/ha. Removal efficiencies of TPH from the contaminated soils variants treated with organic fertilizer without volcanic indigenous tuff and mixed with tuff after eight months was 73.4 % and 78.9 % respectively. The results are supported by healthy plants with roots system well developed. The green biomass harvested from the variant fertilized with sludge mixed with volcanic tuff was similar to the harvested from control variant, 15.1-17.9 g / pot of vegetation The obtained results show that, the tolerant grass species, Lolium perenne must be applied safely to phytoremediation, on TPH contaminated soil.

  8. Detection of contaminating enzymatic activity in plant-derived recombinant biotechnology products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Robert G; Giulian, Gary G; Kelman, Zvi; Marino, John P

    2014-12-02

    Residual impurities in recombinantly produced protein biologics, such as host cell proteins (HCP), can potentially cause unwanted toxic or immunogenic responses in patients. Additionally, undetected impurities found in recombinant proteins used in cell culture may adversely impact basic research and biotechnology applications. Currently, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the standard for detection of residual HCP contamination in recombinantly produced biologics. Alternatively, two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is being developed as a tool for assessing this critical quality attribute. Both of these methods rely on the direct detection of HCPs and some previous knowledge of the contaminant. For contaminating enzymes, the mass level of the impurity may fall below the threshold of detection of these methods and underestimate the true impact. To address this point, here we demonstrate facile detection and characterization of contaminating phytase activity in rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) using a sensitive, label-free nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assay. We observed varying degrees of phytase contamination in biotechnology-grade rHSA from various manufacturers by monitoring the degradation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate by (31)P NMR. The observed lot-to-lot variability may result in irreproducible cell culture results and should be evaluated as a possible critical quality attribute in plant-derived biotherapeutics.

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Mery; Abollino, Ornella; Buoso, Sandro; Giacomino, Agnese; La Gioia, Carmela; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of 15 metal ions, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr, in the soil of a contaminated site in Piedmont (Italy). This area was found to be heavily contaminated with Cu, Cr and Ni. The availability of these metal ions was studied using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure: the fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful for the environment, was much higher than that normally present in unpolluted soils. This soil was hence used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with vermiculite to reduce the availability of the pollutants to two plants, Lactuca sativa and Spinacia oleracea, by pot experiments. The results indicated that the addition of vermiculite significantly reduces the uptake of metal pollutants by plants, confirming the possibility of using this clay in amendment treatments of metal-contaminated soils. The effect of plant growth on metal fractionation in soils was investigated. Finally, the sum of the metal percentages extracted into the first two fractions of Tessier's protocol was found to be suitable in predicting the phytoavailability of most of the pollutants present in the investigated soil.

  10. Radiocesium Contamination of Quercus Serrata From Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident During 2011 and 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112, Japan (Japan); Hirano, Yurika; Igei, Shigemitsu; Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Itou, Hirohisa; Murakami, Kaori; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112, Japan (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate time dependence of contamination by radioactive cesium in the ecosystems at Yamakiya, Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture from 2011 to 2013. The depth contamination profile of soil and the three dimensional contamination profile of cedar tree were evaluated in the cedar forest at Yamakiya, the evacuation area, 30 km northwest from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.The soil contamination proceeded in the depth direction within 4 7 months after the foul out, the depth concentration profiles was described linearly in logarithmic scale. The radiocesium in soil approached the depth of cedar roots within two years after the foul out. The contamination of outside of cedar tree, leaves twigs and bark in this area was in the range from 10,000 to 200,000 Bq/kgDW in August 2011. The inside contamination of cedar tree was in the rage from 500 to 10,000 Bq/kgDW, and the inside concentration of radiocesium depended on the direction and the height. The first stage of inside contamination of cedar tree was caused by the foliar and bark absorptions in 2011. The radiocesium existed particularly in heartwood and the phloem or the water vessel (sap wood) in cedar. The radiocesium concentration in heartwood depended on the height, however that in the phloem depended slightly on the height. The inside concentration of radiocesium in heartwood and sap wood closely related to the water content or distribution in wood. In this study, the relationship between transportation of water and radiocesium was discussed. (authors)

  11. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  12. Executive summary of effects of air emissions from sour gas plants on the health and productivity of beef and dairy herds in Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M. H.

    1998-07-01

    The effects of licensed emissions into air from sour gas processing plants and oilfield batteries on the health and productivity of beef cow-calf and dairy herds was investigated. Four distinct atmospheric dispersion models were used to assess historical exposures at 1,382 dairy and 5,726 beef cow-calf farm sites from 1985 through 1994 to three exposure variables: (1) emissions into air from licensed sour gas processing plants, (2) sulphur dioxide from all larger industrial sources, or (3) solution gas flaring. In the dairy study, none of the emissions were found to have harmful association with herd culling or mortality, milk production, milk somatic cell count, stillbirths or twin births. The beef cow-calf study showed no significant negative association between the sour gas or sulphur dioxide exposure variables and herd culling, the calf-crop delivered, stillbirth, calf mortality, or calf-crop weaned. Some negative association was found to exist between the level of exposure to sulphur dioxide from large industrial sources, which increased the number of twin births and produced an increased calving season profile. However, this finding does not directly implicate the sour gas industry as a cause.

  13. The use of cluster analysis for plant grouping by their tolerance to soil contamination with hydrocarbons at the germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potashev, Konstantin; Sharonova, Natalia; Breus, Irina

    2014-07-01

    Clustering was employed for the analysis of obtained experimental data set (42 plants in total) on seed germination in leached chernozem contaminated with kerosene. Among investigated plants were 31 cultivated plants from 11 families (27 species and 20 varieties) and 11 wild plant species from 7 families, 23 annual and 19 perennial/biannual plant species, 11 monocotyledonous and 31 dicotyledonous plants. Two-dimensional (two-parameter) clustering approach, allowing the estimation of tolerance of germinating seeds using a pair of independent parameters (С75%, V7%) was found to be most effective. These parameters characterized the ability of seeds to both withstand high concentrations of contaminants without the significant reduction of the germination, and maintain high germination rate within certain contaminant concentrations. The performed clustering revealed a number of plant features, which define the relation of a particular plant to a particular tolerance cluster; it has also demonstrated the possibility of generalizing the kerosene results for n-tridecane, which is one of the typical kerosene components. In contrast to the "manual" plant ranking based on the assessment of germination at discrete concentrations of the contaminant, the proposed clustering approach allowed a generalized characterization of the seed tolerance/sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the microbial parameters along the production phases at a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to detect the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in raw milk, to assess the hygiene parameters during the milk processing and to evaluate the safety of the fi nal dairy products using standard ISO methods. Staphylococcus aureus showed highest prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms (85%, followed by Escherichia coli (46% and Listeria monocytogenes (9.8 in bulk tank milk samples. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the tested samples.The swab samples taken from employees and working surfaces, water samples and pasteurized milk samples detected inadequate sanitary procedures during the phase of milk processing. Analysis of the swabs from employees hands revealed 1 positive sample for enumeration for Enterobacteriaceae and 7 samples with higher total viable count that did not comply withthe legislative, while the analysis of the swabs from working surfaces detected 5 samples positive for Enterobacteriaceae and 4 samples with higher total viable count that did not comply with the same legislative. The analysis of the water samples detected 2 samples with higher total viable count on 22°C, 2 samples for total viable count on 37°C and 1 sample for coliform bacteria that did not comply with the national legislative. None of the samples showed presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, sulphite reducing clostridia and intestinal enterococci. The analysis ofthe pasteurized milk confi rmed 3 samples with presence of Enterobacteriacae, 1 sample for coagulase-positive staphylococci and 2 samples with high total viable count at 30°C that did not comply with the national legislative. The analysis of fermented milk products and cheese samples confirmed the need for immediate corective measures and subsequently, improved sanitation procedures. The testing detected 9 samples of

  15. 7 CFR 58.519 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy products. 58.519 Section 58.519 Agriculture..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... Material § 58.519 Dairy products. (a) Raw skim milk. All raw skim milk obtained from a secondary...

  16. Transgenic plants and hairy roots: exploiting the potential of plant species to remediate contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Sabrina; Talano, Melina; Ontañon, Ornella; Suman, Jachym; Medina, María I; Macek, Tomas; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2016-09-25

    Phytoremediation has emerged as an attractive methodology to deal with environmental pollution, which is a serious worldwide problem. Although important advances have been made in this research field, there are still some drawbacks to become a widely used practice, such as the limited plant's metabolic rate and their difficulty to break down several organic compounds or to tolerate/accumulate heavy metals. However, biotechnology has opened new gateways in phytoremediation research by offering the opportunity for direct gene transfer to enhance plant capabilities for environmental cleanup. In this context, hairy roots (HRs) have emerged as an interesting model system to explore the potential of plants to remove inorganic and organic pollutants. Besides, their use in rhizoremediation studies has also been explored. In this minireview we will discuss the most recent advances using genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation capabilities of plants and HRs.

  17. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Phytoremediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouychai, Waraporn; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Lee, Hung

    2015-01-01

    The influence of three plant growth regulators, indolebutyric acid (IBA), thidiazuron (TDZ) and gibberellic acid (GA3), either individually or in pair-wise combinations, on the ability of waxy corn plant to remove hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) from contaminated soil was studied. Waxy corn seeds were immersed for 3 h in solutions of 1.0 mg/l IBA, 0.01 mg/l TDZ, 0.1 mg/l GA3, or a mixture of two of the growth regulators, and then inoculated in soil contaminated with 46.8 mg/kg HCH for 30 days. Pretreatment of corn seeds with the plant growth regulators did not enhance corn growth when compared with those immersed in distilled water (control), but the pretreatment enhanced HCH removal significantly. On day 30, HCH concentration in the bulk soil planted with corn seeds pretreated with GA3 or TDZ+GA3 decreased by 97.4% and 98.4%, respectively. In comparison, HCH removal in soil planted with non-pretreated control waxy corn seeds was only 35.7%. The effect of several growth regulator application methods was tested with 0.01 mg/l TDZ. The results showed that none of the methods, which ranged from seed immersion, watering in soil, or spraying on shoots, affected HCH removal from soil. However, the method of applying the growth regulators may affect corn growth. Watering the corn plant with TDZ in soil led to higher root fresh weight (2.2 g) and higher root dried weight (0.57 g) than the other treatments (0.2-1.7 g root fresh weight and 0.02-0.43 g root dried weight) on day 30. Varying the concentrations of GA3 did not affect the enhancement of corn growth and HCH removal on day 30. The results showed that plant growth regulators may have potential for use to enhance HCH phytoremediation.

  18. Inter-Taxa Differences in Iodine Uptake by Plants: Implications for Food Quality and Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siasou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although iodine is not essential for plants, they take it up readily and, in foodchains, are significant sources of iodine for organisms with an essential requirement for it. During several nuclear accidents radioiodine has been an important component of releases of radioactivity and has caused serious contamination of foodchains. Differences in iodine uptake by different plant taxa are, therefore, important to nutritional and radioecological studies. Using techniques we have developed for a range of other elements, we analyzed inter-taxa differences in radioiodine uptake by 103 plant species and between varieties of two species, and analyzed them using a recent, phylogenetically-informed, taxonomy. The results show that there are significant differences in uptake above and below the species level. There are significant differences between Monocots and Eudicots in iodine uptake, and, in particular, hierarchical ANOVA revealed significant differences between Genera within Families. These analyses of the taxonomic origin of differences in plant uptake of iodine can help the prediction of crop contamination with radioiodine and the management of stable iodine in crops for nutritional purposes.

  19. Monitoring arsenic contamination in agricultural soils with reflectance spectroscopy of rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tiezhu; Liu, Huizeng; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Yiyun; Fei, Teng; Wu, Guofeng

    2014-06-03

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and to investigate the mechanism for rapidly monitoring arsenic (As) contamination in agricultural soils with the reflectance spectra of rice plants. Several data pretreatment methods were applied to improve the prediction accuracy. The prediction of soil As contents was achieved by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using laboratory and field spectra of rice plants, as well as linear regression employing normalized difference spectral index (NDSI) calculated from fild spectra. For laboratory spectra, the optimal PLSR model for predicting soil As contents was achieved using Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), first derivative and mean center (MC) (root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP)=14.7 mg kg(-1); r=0.64; residual predictive deviation (RPD)=1.31). For field spectra, the optimal PLSR model was also achieved using SG, first derivative and MC (RMSEP=13.7 mg kg(-1); r=0.71; RPD=1.43). In addition, the NDSI with 812 and 782 nm obtained a prediction accuracy with r=0.68, RMSEP=13.7 mg kg(-1), and RPD=1.36. These results indicated that it was feasible to monitor the As contamination in agricultural soils using the reflectance spectra of rice plants. The prediction mechanism might be the relationship between the As contents in soils and the chlorophyll-a/-b contents and cell structure in leaves or canopies of rice plants.

  20. Distribution pathways of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a soil-plant-air system. A case study with Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp. plants grown in a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R Calvelo; Monterroso, C; Macías, F; Camps-Arbestain, M

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on the main routes of distribution and accumulation of different hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (mainly alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH) in a soil-plant-air system. A field assay was carried out with two plant species, Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp., which were planted either: (i) directly in the HCH-contaminated soil; or (ii) in pots filled with uncontaminated soil, which were placed in the HCH-contaminated soil. Both plant species accumulated HCH in their tissues, with relatively higher accumulation in above-ground biomass than in roots. The beta-HCH isomer was the main isomer in all plant tissues. Adsorption of HCH by the roots from contaminated soil (soil-->root pathway) and adsorption through the aerial biomass from either the surrounding air, following volatilization of the contaminant (soil-->air-->shoot pathway), and/or contact with air-suspended particles contaminated with HCH (soil particles-->shoot pathway) were the main mechanisms of accumulation. These results may have important implications for the use of plants for reducing the transfer of contaminants via the atmosphere.

  1. Cadmium and zinc in plants and soil solutions from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, S.E.; Hamon, R.E.; Holm, P.E.;

    1997-01-01

    In an experiment using ten heavy metal-contaminated soils from six European countries, soil solution was sampled by water displacement before and after the growth of radish. Concentrations of Cd, Zn and other elements in solution (K, Ca, Mg, Mn) generally decreased during plant growth, probably...... because of uptake by plants and the subsequent redistribution of ions onto soil exchange sites at lower ionic strength. Speciation analysis by a resin exchange method showed that most Cd and Zn in non-rhizospbere solutions was present as Cd2+ and Zn2+; respectively. The proportion of free ions.......70, respectively). This suggests that the great variability among soils in the solubility of Zn affected the rate of release of Zn into solution, and thus Zn uptake. There was no such effect for Cd, for which solubility varied much less. Furthermore, the plants may have partly controlled Zn uptake, as they took up...

  2. Arsenic as a food chain contaminant: mechanisms of plant uptake and metabolism and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P; Meharg, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is an environmental and food chain contaminant. Excessive accumulation of As, particularly inorganic arsenic (As(i)), in rice (Oryza sativa) poses a potential health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Rice is efficient at As accumulation owing to flooded paddy cultivation that leads to arsenite mobilization, and the inadvertent yet efficient uptake of arsenite through the silicon transport pathway. Iron, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon interact strongly with As during its route from soil to plants. Plants take up arsenate through the phosphate transporters, and arsenite and undissociated methylated As species through the nodulin 26-like intrinsic (NIP) aquaporin channels. Arsenate is readily reduced to arsenite in planta, which is detoxified by complexation with thiol-rich peptides such as phytochelatins and/or vacuolar sequestration. A range of mitigation methods, from agronomic measures and plant breeding to genetic modification, may be employed to reduce As uptake by food crops.

  3. Mercury fractionation, bioavailability, and ecotoxicity in highly contaminated soils from chlor-alkali plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagury, Gerald J; Neculita, Carmen-Mihaela; Bastien, Christian; Deschênes, Louise

    2006-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) fractionation, speciation, bioavailability, and ecotoxicity were investigated in three highly contaminated soils from chlor-alkali plants. Single extractions and a validated four-step sequential extraction scheme were used. Total, volatile, and methyl-Hg concentrations were determined. Mercury was then separated in fractions defined as water-soluble (F1), exchangeable (F2), organic (F3), and residual (F4). Germination and growth inhibition of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and mortality of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were assessed, and tissue-Hg concentrations of exposed organisms were determined. Results revealed highly (295 +/- 18-11,500 +/- 500 microg Hg/g) contaminated soils, but extracted fractions indicated relatively low mobility of Hg. Nevertheless, the water-soluble and the CaCl2-extractable fractions represented significant Hg concentrations (299 +/- 18 microg/g in soil 3, 67.4 +/- 2.3 microg/g in soil 1, and 9.5 +/- 0.3 microg/g in soil 2), and volatile Hg ranged between 14 and 98% of total Hg. Overall, Hg concentrations reached 6,560 +/- 240 microg/g in roots, 4,200 +/- 1,070 microg/g in aerial plants, and 1,410 +/- 120 microg/g in E. andrei. Earthworm mortality was 100% after exposure to the soil with the highest concentration of mobile Hg. In the latter soil, earthworm fragmentation and chlorotic plants were observed. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were higher in barley compared to earthworms, but BCFs yielded misleading values after exposure to the extremely contaminated soil. This study shows that Hg accumulated primarily in the roots, but results also indicate uptake of gaseous Hg by the aerial plants of barley. Tissue-Hg concentrations of both exposed organisms were correlated with water-soluble and CaCl2-extractable Hg, and growth inhibition was in agreement with Hg fractionation.

  4. 新西兰国家化学污染物监控计划--乳制品监控%New Zealand national chemical contaminants programme--The dairy monitoring programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良; 刘环; 焦阳; 张锡全; 贝君; 仇华磊; 张伟; 张雷

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:New Zealand national chemical contaminants programme (NCCP) is a statistically based pro-gramme designed to confirm that the control of chemical residues in milk and dairy products is appropriate and effective. It assures the safety, wholesomeness and truth of labeling of milk and dairy products for both domes-tic and export markets. NCCP enables Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) to assess the effectiveness of the New Zealand regulatory programme in preventing the risk of contamination from milk production to the final dairy product, generate information on chemical contaminants in dairy production and processing to enable the industry and MPI negotiations for access to export markets and mitigate trading risks, implement surveillance testing of dairy materials or processors that pose higher risks than normal, and provide assurances that the ex-ported dairy products meet the requirements of the destination countries. The MPI of New Zealand specially formulated operational criteria of the diary monitoring programme and made a detailed list of the technical re-quirements and expectations for relative parties to fulfill specified functions under the dairy NCCP. This paper introduced the dairy NCCP and the specific operational standards and the requirements of NCCP formulated by MPI as well as the legal basis, the scope of monitoring and the monitoring process.%新西兰在统计学基础上制定国家化学污染物监控计划(national chemical contaminants programme, NCCP)的目的是:确认对乳和乳制品中化学污染物的控制是恰当和有效的。通过监控乳和乳制品中(包括出口乳品)的化学残留和污染物,确保其供给国内外市场的乳和乳制品安全、卫生,并加贴了正确、真实的标签。NCCP帮助初级产业部(Ministry for Primary Industries, MPI)据此评估新西兰预防乳制品从生产到终产品过程中污染物风险因子官方管理程序的有效性;获得乳品生产和加工过程

  5. Screening of native plant species for phytoremediation potential at a Hg-contaminated mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2016-01-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury (Hg), and therefore, one of the major sources of Hg pollution in the environment. This study was conducted in the Alacrán gold-mining site, one of the most important ASGM sites in Colombia, to identify native plant species growing in Hg-contaminated soils used for agricultural purposes, and to assess their potential as phytoremediation systems. Twenty-four native plant species were identified and analysed for total Hg (THg) in different tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) and in underlying soils. Accumulation factors (AF) in the shoots, translocation (TF) from roots to shoots, and bioconcentration (BCF) from soil-to-roots were determined. Different tissues from all plant species were classified in the order of decreasing accumulation of Hg as follows: roots > leaves > stems. THg concentrations in soil ranged from 230 to 6320 ng g(-1). TF values varied from 0.33 to 1.73, with high values in the lower Hg-contaminated soils. No correlation was found between soils with low concentrations of Hg and plant leaves, indicating that TF is not a very accurate indicator, since most of the Hg input to leaves at ASGM sites comes from the atmosphere. On the other hand, the BCF ranged from 0.28 to 0.99, with Jatropha curcas showing the highest value. Despite their low biomass production, several herbs and sub-shrubs are suitable for phytoremediation application in the field, due to their fast growth and high AF values in large and easily harvestable plant parts. Among these species, herbs such as Piper marginathum and Stecherus bifidus, and the sub-shrubs J. curcas and Capsicum annuum are promising native plants with the potential to be used in the phytoremediation of soils in tropical areas that are impacted by mining.

  6. Plant-specific responses to zinc contamination in a semi-field lysimeter and on hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Roland [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verkleij, Jos A.C. [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jos.verkleij@falw.vu.nl; Nelissen, Hans J.M. [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vink, Jos P.M. [Department of Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, RIZA, PO Box 17, NL-8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    The species Agrostis stolonifera, Brassica napus and Trifolium repens representing different ecological strategies, were selected to study the effect of Zn contamination on Zn tolerance, uptake and accumulation patterns. Parallel tests were carried out with increasing concentrations of Zn in a semi-field lysimeter and hydroponics in the climate chamber. A significant reduction in biomass production or root length and an increase in shoot Zn concentration was observed for all species at increasing external Zn concentrations. However, shoot biomass production, Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation differed significantly among the tested species. The results in both experimental set-ups were quite similar concerning Zn tolerance and accumulation and improved the validity of the findings. The rather specific responses of the different plant species to Zn contamination interfere with the more generic approach used in risk assessment studies. Maximum amounts of Zn in shoot are not likely to cause a risk to herbivores. - Effects of Zn contamination showed different responses in uptake and accumulation patterns of site-specific plant species, which were similar in a semi-field experiment and under controlled conditions.

  7. Solubility analysis and disposal options of combustion residues from plants grown on contaminated mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Helga; Szemmelveisz, Katalin; Palotas, Arpad Bence

    2013-11-01

    Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is an excellent alternative for the partial replacement of fossil fuels in thermal and electric energy production. A new fuel type as biomass for energy utilisation includes ligneous plants with considerable heavy metal content. The combustion process must be controlled during the firing of significant quantities of contaminated biomass grown on brownfield lands. By implementing these measures, air pollution and further soil contamination caused by the disposal of the solid burning residue, the ash, can be prevented. For the test samples from ligneous plants grown on heavy metal-contaminated fields, an ore mine (already closed for 25 years) was chosen. With our focus on the determination of the heavy metal content, we have examined the composition of the soil, the biomass and the combustion by-products (ash, fly ash). Our results confirm that ash resulting from the combustion must be treated as toxic waste and its deposition must take place on hazardous waste disposal sites. Biomass of these characteristics can be burnt in special combustion facility that was equipped with means for the disposal of solid burning residues as well as air pollutants.

  8. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  9. Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids Is Dependent on Plant Species and Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass–clover mixture...... (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P

  10. Contaminant removal by wastewater treatment plants in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Wagner, Richard J.; Wolanek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human activities in most areas of the developed world typically release nutrients, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, and other contaminants into the environment, many of which reach freshwater ecosystems. In urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are critical facilities for collecting and reducing the amounts of wastewater contaminants (WWCs) that ultimately discharge to rivers, coastal areas, and groundwater. Most WWTPs use multiple methods to remove contaminants from wastewater. These include physical methods to remove solid materials (primary treatment), biological and chemical methods to remove most organic matter (secondary treatment), advanced methods to reduce the concentrations of various contaminants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and (or) synthetic organic compounds (tertiary treatment), and disinfection prior to discharge (Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1979). This study examined the extent to which 114 organic WWCs were removed by each of three WWTPs, prior to discharge to freshwater and marine ecosystems, in a rapidly developing area in northwestern Washington State. Removal percentages for each WWC were estimated by comparing the concentrations measured in the WWTP influents with those measured in the effluents. The investigation was carried out in the 700-mi2Stillaguamish River Basin, the fifth largest watershed that discharges to Puget Sound (fig. 1).

  11. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different responses to the high concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. Rice plants accumulated higher Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations and were more sensitive to high concentrations of these elements in the soil, absorbing them more easily compared to the soybean plants. However, high available Zn concentrations in the soil caused phytotoxicity symptoms in rice and soybean, mainly chlorosis and inhibited plant growth. Further, high Zn concentrations in the soil reduced the Fe concentration in the shoots of soybean and rice plants to levels considered deficient.

  12. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  13. Hydrologic modeling of aquatic plant treatment systems polishing dairy lagoon effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothren, G M; Chen, S; Rahman, M; Malone, R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of the hydrologic balance of an aquatic plant treatment system (APTS) has been developed. The mass balance approach has been adopted and the major components of the water balance, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET) and percolation have been incorporated into the model. For estimation of ET for duckweed and water hyacinth plants, mathematical relationships were established between ET and pan evaporation using data collected at the site. The observed ET rates of water hyacinths were up to 66% higher than the pan evaporation rates. But for duckweed, the observed ET rates were 10 to 20% lower than the pan evaporation rates. Using the available historic precipitation and pan evaporation data, several computer simulations of the model were run to estimate the HLR and HRT of the ponds under different design requirements. The results indicate that aquatic ponds with water hyacinths can operate at greater HLR's than ponds supporting duckweed. For a zero discharge system, the allowable HLR for a water hyacinth pond was found to be 5 times that of a pond containing duckweed.

  14. Enhancing Potentially Plant-Available Lead Concentrations in Contaminated Residential Soils Using a Biodegradable Chelating Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, S.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S.

    2007-12-01

    Chelation of heavy metals is an important factor in enhancing metal solubility and, hence, metal availability to plants to promote phytoremediation. In the present study, we compared the effects of application of a biodegradable chelating agent, namely, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) on enhancing plant available form of lead (Pb) in Pb-based paint contaminated residential soils compared to that of a more commonly used, but non-biodegradable chelate, i.e., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Development of a successful phytoremediation model for metals such as Pb depends on a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, along with the optimization of a chelate treatment to mobilize Pb from `unavailable' pools to potentially plant available fraction. In this context, we set out to perform batch incubation experiments to investigate the effectiveness of the two aforementioned chelates in enhancing plant available Pb at four different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 mM/kg soil) and three treatment durations (0, 10 and 30 days). We selected 12 contaminated residential soils from two major metropolitan areas (San Antonio, TX and Baltimore, MD) with varying soil physico-chemical properties - the soils from San Antonio were primarily alkaline and those from Baltimore were typically acidic. Total soil Pb concentrations ranged between 256 mg/kg and 4,182 mg/kg. Our results show that both chelates increased the solubility of Pb, otherwise occluded in the complex soil matrix. For both EDTA and EDDS, the exchangeable concentrations of soil Pb also increased with increase in chelate concentration and incubation time. The most effective treatment was 15 mM chelate kg-1 soil incubated for 30 days, which caused many fold increase in potentially plant available Pb (a combination of the soluble and exchangeable fractions) relative to the unamended controls. Step wise multiple linear regression analysis using chelate-extractable Pb and soil

  15. The effect of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei river on cytogenetic characteristics of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Medvedeva, M. [Institute of Biophysics SB Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Muratova, E. [Institute of Forest SB Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River, one of the world's largest rivers, is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian facilities producing weapons-grade plutonium (the Mining-and-Chemical Combine, MCC), which has been in operation for many years. Aquatic plants are an important component of water ecosystems, which can accumulate high levels of radionuclides and, thus, can be used in bio-monitoring and bioremediation. The purpose of the study was to assess levels of radionuclides and to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in samples of submerged plants collected in different parts of the Yenisei River. The following species were studied: Fontinalis antipyretica, Batrachium kauffmanii, Myriophyllum spicatum, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum and various Potamogeton species. Samples were collected at positions in the vicinity of the MCC discharge point, at a distance of 330 km downstream of Krasnoyarsk, and upstream of the MCC, during sampling campaigns in 2003-2012. Detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of aquatic plants of the Yenisei River revealed large-scale contamination of aquatic plants as far as 250 km downstream of the MCC. Before the last MCC reactor was shut down in 2010, about 30 radionuclides, including uranium and transuranium elements, were detected in the biomass of aquatic plants. The highest concentration factors of the major radionuclides were obtained for Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton lucens. Samples of the plants collected after the shutdown of the reactor contained considerably lower activity levels of artificial radionuclides, and their diversity was significantly decreased. Results of cytogenetic investigations of aquatic plants collected when the reactor was still operating (2003-2009) suggest that at the MCC discharge site and downstream the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in ana-telophase and metaphase cells of the plants was considerably higher (up to 30%) than in the control

  16. Zearalenone (ZEN) metabolism and residue concentrations in physiological specimens of dairy cows exposed long-term to ZEN-contaminated diets differing in concentrate feed proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Keese, Christina; Meyer, Ulrich; Starke, Alexander; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    A long-term feeding experiment with dairy cows was performed to investigate the effects of feeding a Fusarium toxin contaminated (FUS) and a background-contaminated control (CON) ration with a mean concentrate feed proportion of 50% during the first 11 weeks after parturition (Groups FUS-50, CON-50, Period 1), and with concentrate feed proportions of 30% or 60% during the remaining 17 weeks (Groups CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60, Period 2), on zearalenone (ZEN) residue levels in blood serum, milk, urine and bile. ZEN, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The ZEN concentrations of the rations fed to Groups CON-50, FUS-50 (Period 1), CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60 (Period 2) amounted to 53.1, 112.7, 35.0, 24.4, 73.8 and 72.5 µg/kg dry matter, respectively. The concentrations of ZEN, α-ZEL, β-ZEL, ZAN, α-ZAL and β-ZAL in serum, urine and milk were lower than 1, 1, 4, 100, 50 and 200 ng/g, respectively, while ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were detected in bile. Their levels changed with oral ZEN exposure in the course of the experiment and in a similar direction with concentrate feed proportion (Period 2 only). Thus the proportions of the individual β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN concentrations of their sum varied only in narrow ranges of 68-76%, 6-13% and 12-20%, respectively. Interestingly, the bile concentrations of β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN of Groups CON-60 and FUS-60 amounted to only approximately 50%, 45% and 62%, respectively, of those of Groups CON-30 and FUS-30 despite a similar or even lower ZEN exposure. The results indicate that conversion of ZEN to its detectable metabolites was not changed by different dietary concentrate feed proportions while their absolute levels were decreased. These findings might suggest concentrate feed proportion-dependent and rumen fermentation-mediated alterations in ZEN/metabolite degradation, and

  17. Effect of multiple metal resistant bacteria from contaminated lake sediments on metal accumulation and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kefeng; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2011-05-15

    Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in bioremediation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and wastewater. This study identified high levels of resistance to zinc, cesium, lead, arsenate and mercury in eight copper resistant Pseudomonas strains previously isolated from Torch Lake sediment. These strains showed variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. Furthermore, these metal resistant strains were capable of bioaccumulation of multiple metals and solubilization of copper. Bacterial strains TLC 3-3.5-1 and TLC 6-6.5-1 showed high bioaccumulation ability of Zn (up to 15.9 mg/g dry cell) and Pb (80.7 mg/g dry cell), respectively. All the strains produced plant growth promoting indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), iron chelating siderophore and solubilized mineral phosphate and metals. The effect of bacterial inoculation on plant growth and copper uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated using one of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. TLC 6-6.5-4) with higher IAA production and phosphate and metal solubilization, which resulted in a significant increase in copper accumulation in maize and sunflower, and an increase in the total biomass of maize. The multiple metal-resistant bacterial isolates characterized in our study have potential applications for remediation of metal contaminated soils in combination with plants and metal contaminated water.

  18. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammels, plants and sediments within Mortandad Canyon, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

    1996-01-01

    Small mammals, plants and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System outfall {number_sign}051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos County, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation ingestion, or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total U. With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring.

  19. Effect of multiple metal resistant bacteria from contaminated lake sediments on metal accumulation and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kefeng [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Ramakrishna, Wusirika, E-mail: wusirika@mtu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in bioremediation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and wastewater. This study identified high levels of resistance to zinc, cesium, lead, arsenate and mercury in eight copper resistant Pseudomonas strains previously isolated from Torch Lake sediment. These strains showed variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. Furthermore, these metal resistant strains were capable of bioaccumulation of multiple metals and solubilization of copper. Bacterial strains TLC 3-3.5-1 and TLC 6-6.5-1 showed high bioaccumulation ability of Zn (up to 15.9 mg/g dry cell) and Pb (80.7 mg/g dry cell), respectively. All the strains produced plant growth promoting indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), iron chelating siderophore and solubilized mineral phosphate and metals. The effect of bacterial inoculation on plant growth and copper uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated using one of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. TLC 6-6.5-4) with higher IAA production and phosphate and metal soubilization, which resulted in a significant increase in copper accumulation in maize and sunflower, and an increase in the total biomass of maize. The multiple metal-resistant bacterial isolates characterized in our study have potential applications for remediation of metal contaminated soils in combination with plants and metal contaminated water.

  20. Separate process wastewaters, part A: Contaminated flow collection and treatment system for the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assist the agency in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 as it applies to modification of ongoing groundwater treatment at DOE`s Kansas City Plant (KCP), located about 19 km (12 miles) south of the central business district of Kansas City, Missouri. The KCP is currently owned by DOE and is operated by the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. The plant manufactures nonnuclear components for nuclear weapons. The purpose of and need for the DOE action is to treat identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater at the KCP to ensure that human health and the environment are protected and to comply with groundwater treatment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3008(h) Administrative Order on Consent and the discharge requirements of the Kansas City, Missouri, ordinances for the city sewer system. Four source streams of toxic organic contaminated groundwater have been identified that require treatment prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The toxic organic contaminants of concern consist of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in the groundwater and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) predominantly associated with some soils near the Main Manufacturing Building. The no-action alternative is to continue with the current combination of treatment and nontreatment and to continue operation of the KCP groundwater treatment system in its current configuration at Building 97 (B97). The DOE proposed action is to collect and treat all identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The proposed action includes constructing an Organics Collection System and Organics Treatment Building, moving and expanding the existing groundwater treatment system, and operating the new groundwater treatment facility.

  1. Nitrogen fertilizer improves boron phytoextraction by Brassica juncea grown in contaminated sediments and alleviates plant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansoldati, Virginia; Tassi, Eliana; Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Pedron, Francesca; Barbafieri, Meri

    2012-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of different fertilizer treatments on Brassica plants grown on boron-contaminated sediments. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and on the lysimeter scale. At laboratory scale (microcosm), five different fertilizers were tested for a 35-d period. On the lysimeter scale, nitrogen fertilization was tested at three different doses and plants were allowed to grow until the end of the vegetative phase (70 d). Results showed that nitrogen application had effectively increased plant biomass production, while B uptake was not affected. Total B phytoextracted increased three-fold when the highest nitrogen dose was applied. Phytotoxicity on Brassica was evaluated by biochemical parameters. In plants grown in unfertilized B-contaminated sediments, the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) increased, whereas catalase (CAT) decreased with respect to control plants. Addition of N progressively mitigated the alteration of enzymatic activity, thus suggesting that N can aid in alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. SOD activity was restored to control levels just at the lowest N treatment, whereas the CAT inhibition was partially restored only at the highest one. N application also lowered the B-induced increase in APX and PPX activities. Increased glutathione reductase activity indicated the need to restore the oxidative balance of glutathione. Data also suggest a role of glutathione and phytochelatins in B defense mechanisms. Results suggest that the nitrogen fertilizer was effective in improving B phytoextraction by increasing Brassica biomass and by alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytoremediation potential of wild plants growing on soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čudić, Vladica; Stojiljković, Dragoslava; Jovović, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants to cleanup contaminated environments, including metal-polluted soils. Because it produces a biomass rich in extracted toxic metals, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. The aim of our study was to assess the five-year potential of the following native wild plants to produce biomass and remove heavy metals from a polluted site: poplar (Populus ssp.), ailanthus (Ailanthus glandulosa L.), false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), ragweed (Artemisia artemisiifolia L.), and mullein (Verbascum thapsus L). Average soil contamination with Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the root zone was 22,948.6 mg kg-1, 865.4 mg kg-1, 85,301.7 mg kg-1, 3,193.3 mg kg-1, 50.7 mg kg-1, 41.7 mg kg-1,and 617.9 mg kg-1, respectively. We measured moisture and ash content, concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the above-ground parts of the plants and in ash produced by combustion of the plants, plus gross calorific values. The plants' phytoextraction and phytostabilisation potential was evaluated based on their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF). Mullein was identified as a hyperaccumulator for Cd. It also showed a higher gross calorific value (19,735 kJ kg-1) than ragweed (16,469 kJ kg-1).The results of this study suggest that mullein has a great potential for phytoextraction and for biomass generation, and that ragweed could be an effective tool of phytostabilisation.

  3. Response of barley plants to Fe deficiency and Cd contamination as affected by S starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, S; Zuchi, S; Neumann, G; Cesco, S; Sanità di Toppi, L; Pinton, R

    2012-02-01

    Both Fe deficiency and Cd exposure induce rapid changes in the S nutritional requirement of plants. The aim of this work was to characterize the strategies adopted by plants to cope with both Fe deficiency (release of phytosiderophores) and Cd contamination [production of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins] when grown under conditions of limited S supply. Experiments were performed in hydroponics, using barley plants grown under S sufficiency (1.2 mM sulphate) and S deficiency (0 mM sulphate), with or without Fe(III)-EDTA at 0.08 mM for 11 d and subsequently exposed to 0.05 mM Cd for 24 h or 72 h. In S-sufficient plants, Fe deficiency enhanced both root and shoot Cd concentrations and increased GSH and phytochelatin levels. In S-deficient plants, Fe starvation caused a slight increase in Cd concentration, but this change was accompanied neither by an increase in GSH nor by an accumulation of phytochelatins. Release of phytosiderophores, only detectable in Fe-deficient plants, was strongly decreased by S deficiency and further reduced after Cd treatment. In roots Cd exposure increased the expression of the high affinity sulphate transporter gene (HvST1) regardless of the S supply, and the expression of the Fe deficiency-responsive genes, HvYS1 and HvIDS2, irrespective of Fe supply. In conclusion, adequate S availability is necessary to cope with Fe deficiency and Cd toxicity in barley plants. Moreover, it appears that in Fe-deficient plants grown in the presence of Cd with limited S supply, sulphur may be preferentially employed in the pathway for biosynthesis of phytosiderophores, rather than for phytochelatin production.

  4. Threat of heavy metal contamination in eight mangrove plants from the Futian mangrove forest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bei; Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    Mangrove plants play an important role in heavy metal maintenance in a mangrove ecosystem. To evaluate the characteristics of heavy metal contamination in the Futian mangrove forest, Shenzhen, China, eight heavy metals in mangrove sediments and plants were monitored, including essential elements such as Cu and Zn, and non-essential elements such as Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg. The results showed that the heavy metals exhibited the following scheme: Zn > As > Cu ≈ Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd ≈ Hg in sediment cores, among which Cd, As, Pb and Hg contents were nearly ten times higher than the background values. There was no significant difference in metal maintenance capability between native and exotic species. In mangrove plants' leaves and stems, concentrations of Cu, Zn and As were higher than other heavy metals. The low bioconcentration factors for most heavy metals, except for Cr, implied the limited ability of heavy metal accumulation by the plants. Mangrove plants seem to develop some degree of tolerance to Cr. The factor analysis implies that anthropogenic influences have altered metal mobility and bioavailability.

  5. Direct Conjugation of Emerging Contaminants in Arabidopsis: Indication for an Overlooked Risk in Plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Jianbo; Borchardt, Dan; Schlenk, Daniel; Gan, Jay

    2017-06-06

    Agricultural use of treated wastewater, biosolids, and animal wastes introduces a multitude of contaminants of emerging concerns (CECs) into the soil-plant system. The potential for food crops to accumulate CECs depends largely on their metabolism in plants, which at present is poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the metabolism of naproxen and ibuprofen, two of the most-used human drugs from the Profen family, in Arabidopsis thaliana cells and the Arabidopsis plant. The complementary use of high-resolution mass spectrometry and (14)C labeling allowed the characterization of both free and conjugated metabolites, as well as nonextractable residues. Naproxen and ibuprofen, in their parent form, were conjugated quickly and directly with glutamic acid and glutamine, and further with peptides, in A. thaliana cells. For example, after 120 h, the metabolites of naproxen accounted for >90% of the extractable chemical mass, while the intact parent itself was negligible. The structures of glutamate and glutamine conjugates were confirmed using synthesized standards and further verified in whole plants. Amino acid conjugates may easily deconjugate, releasing the parent molecule. This finding highlights the possibility that the bioactivity of such CECs may be effectively preserved through direct conjugation, a previously overlooked risk. Many other CECs are also carboxylic acids, such as the profens. Therefore, direct conjugation may be a common route for plant metabolism of these CECs, making it imperative to consider conjugates when assessing their risks.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

  7. Evaluating Leaf and Canopy Reflectance of Stressed Rice Plants to Monitor Arsenic Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Daughtry, Craig S; Codling, Eton E; Hansen, David J; White-Hansen, Susan; Green, Carrie E

    2016-06-18

    Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor arsenic in rice plants. Four arsenic levels were induced in hydroponically grown rice plants with application of 0, 5, 10 and 20 µmol·L(-1) sodium arsenate. Reflectance spectra of upper fully expanded leaves were acquired over visible and infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Additionally, canopy reflectance for the four arsenic levels was simulated using SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves) model for various soil moisture conditions and leaf area indices (LAI). Further, sensitivity of various vegetative indices (VIs) to arsenic levels was assessed. Results suggest that plants accumulate high arsenic amounts causing plant stress and changes in reflectance characteristics. All leaf spectra based VIs related strongly with arsenic with coefficient of determination (r²) greater than 0.6 while at canopy scale, background reflectance and LAI confounded with spectral signals of arsenic affecting the VIs' performance. Among studied VIs, combined index, transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI)/optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) exhibited higher sensitivity to arsenic levels and better resistance to soil backgrounds and LAI followed by red edge based VIs (modified chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (MCARI) and TCARI) suggesting that these VIs could prove to be valuable aids for monitoring arsenic in rice fields.

  8. Pioneer plant species contributing to phytoestabilization of contaminated soils in mine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Batista, Maria; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Oscar; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Carvalho, Luisa; Queralt, Ignasi

    2013-04-01

    Young and mature leaves from several plant species of the genus Cistus L. (C. crispus, C. ladanifer, C. monspeliensis, C. salviifolius), Erica australis L., and Lavandula sampaioana (Rozeira) Rivas Mart., T.E. Díaz& Fern. Gonz., as well as soils where plants grew, were sampled in various areas of São Domingos abandoned mine. The São Domingos mine, dating from pre-Roman times, is 60 km SE of Beja, Southeast Portugal. This mine belongs to the world class metallogenetic province of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Sampling occurred throughout spring and winter to better understand plant behaviour and natural attenuation of contaminated soils. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was used to synthesize the information and group characteristics that could justify different chemical concentrations. Soils are extremely acid (pH between 3.4 and 5.2) and present a wide range of Corganic concentrations (10.2-109 g/kg). Total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus concentrations are low to very low, but extractable potassium show medium to high concentrations. Chemical elements concentrations, analysed for total fraction, were great in soils, especially arsenic and lead that can attain 7.6 g/kg and 17.2 g/kg, respectively. However, only a small percentage (in general Cistus plants showed different behaviour on the trace-elements uptake and translocation. Winter and spring variations in most chemical elements concentrations in the plants leaves are not significantly different, except for arsenic, probably because plants were not exposed to important dry conditions during the sampling seasons. Nevertheless, MCA of the individuals makes a clear distinction between winter and spring leaves. Generally, mature leaves have higher concentrations of arsenic, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc than younger ones. However, in this study, sulfur concentrations show an opposite behaviour. Soil total and available fraction concentrations of the chemical elements have similar behaviour between

  9. Algorithmic Procedure to Design Water Utilization Systems Featuring Multiple Contaminants in Process Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东明; 杨凤林; 张兴文

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a non-iterative algorithmic procedure to design water utilization networks with multiple contaminants in process plants. According to the water pinch analysis rules, the processes in water utilization systems were first divided into three groups, then water-supply priority algorithm was proposed. The results of case studies showed that the water networks designed by this method gave water consumption lower than that estimated by other approaches. In addition, the procedure was subiect to no limitation on the problem scale.

  10. Heavy metals in contaminated environment: Destiny of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, oxidative status and phytoextraction in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari Lajayer, Behnam; Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Nikabadi, Shahab

    2017-11-01

    Contamination of soils, water and air with toxic heavy metals by various human activities is a crucial environmental problem in both developing and developed countries. Heavy metals could be introduced into medicinal plant products through contaminated environment (soil, water and air resources) and/or poor production practices. Growing of medicinal plants in heavy metal polluted environments may eventually affect the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, causing significant changes in the quantity and quality of these compounds. Certain medicinal and aromatic plants can absorb and accumulate metal contaminants in the harvestable foliage and, therefore, considered to be a feasible alternative for remediation of polluted sites without any contamination of essential oils. Plants use different strategies and complex arrays of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative defense systems to cope with overproduction of ROS causes from the heavy metals entered their cells through foliar and/or root systems. This review summarizes the reports of recent investigations involving heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants and its effects on elicitation of secondary metabolites, toxicity and detoxification pathways, international standards regarding in plants and plant-based products, and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-medicinal plants systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reintroduction of salt marsh vegetation and phosphorus fertilisation improve plant colonisation on seawater-contaminated cutover bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal bogs that are used for peat extraction are prone to contamination by seawater during storm events. Once contaminated, they remain mostly bare because of the combination of high salinity, low pH, high water table and low nutrient availability. The goal of this research was to investigate how plant colonisation at salt-contaminated bogs can be accelerated, in order to prevent erosion and fluvial export of the peat. At two seawater-contaminated bogs, we tested the application of rock phosphate and dolomitic lime in combination with five plant introduction treatments: transplantation of Carex paleacea; transplantation of Spartina pectinata; transfer of salt marsh diaspores in July; transfer of salt marsh diaspores in August; and no treatment (control. The effects of different doses of lime on the growth of C. paleacea and S. pectinata were also investigated in a greenhouse experiment. In the field, phosphorus fertilisation improved plant growth. Transplantation of C. paleacea resulted in the highest plant colonisation, whereas salt marsh diaspore transfer led to the highest species diversity. Lime applications did not improve plant establishment in either the field or the greenhouse. To promote revegetation of seawater-contaminated cutover bogs, adding P is an asset, Carex paleacea is a good species to transplant, and the transfer of salt marsh diaspores improves plant diversity.

  12. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Matthew R; Hopkins, Farrha B; Self, Adam J; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M; Baker, Matthew J

    2014-08-08

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve agent VX and its hydrolysis products by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of ethanol extracts of contaminated white mustard plants (Sinapis alba) which retained the compounds of interest for up to 45 days. VX is hydrolysed by the plants to ethyl methylphosphonic acid and then to methylphosphonic acid. The utility of white mustard as a nerve agent detector and remediator of nerve agent-polluted sites is discussed. The work described will help deter the employment of VX in conflict.

  13. Ways of adaptation of the plant populations to chemical and radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozolotina, V.; Bezel' , V.; Zhuykova, T.; Severu' Khina, O.; Ulyanova, E. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Chemical agents (heavy metals, acids, etc.) and radiation render their influence upon biota being clearly distinct in primary mechanisms of action. However, lively organisms demonstrate one and the same set [arsenal] of response reactions, and thus it is important to reveal the ways of their realization caused by different types of techno-genic impacts. Our work was intended to examine the seed progeny of the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, from radionuclides-contaminated coeno-populations (grown at the territories influenced by Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, in the Techa-river flood plain) and those situated in the nearest impact zone affected by a large metallurgical plant in the Urals. Plots, differently distanced from the enterprise, showed heavy metal contamination loads 8-33 times higher than the control site did. Radionuclides concentrations ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the contaminated zone exceeded the background values 4-40 times. The study allowed estimation of the seed progeny vitality level for different coeno-populations, comparison of their adaptive potential in regard to heavy metals tolerance and gamma radiation resistance, estimation of abnormal seedlings [sprouts] frequency values. It was shown [found] that under techno-genic pollution the dandelion coeno-populations usually demonstrate wider variations of different characteristics (vitality, mutability, root and leaf growth rates) as compared to those in the background zone. As a general regularity one can regard the phenomenon, that negative effects were not marked to be increased by heavier pollution loads, irrespectively of the agents nature. (author)

  14. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Luo, Jinxue; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-09-01

    Bio-augmentation is a promising technique for remediation of polluted soils. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-augmentation effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer (RBF) on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted over a period of 120 days, three methods for enhancing bio-augmentation were tested on TPH contaminated soils, including single addition RBF, planting, and combining of RBF and three crop species, such as wheat (W), cabbage (C) and spinach (S), respectively. The results demonstrated that the best removal of TPH from contaminated soil in the RBF bio-augmentation rhizosphere soils was found to be 46.2%, 65.4%, 67.5% for W+RBF, C+RBF, S+RBF rhizosphere soils respectively. RBF supply impacted on the microbial community diversity (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and the activity of soil enzymes, such as dehydrogenase (DH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and urease (UR). There were significant difference among the soil only containing crude oil (CK), W, C and S rhizosphere soils and RBF bio-augmentation soils. Moreover, the changes were significantly distinct depended on crops species. It was concluded that the RBF is a valuable material for improving effect of remediation of TPH polluted soils.

  16. Biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of rhizobacteria from Chinese fields with contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Ke, Linfeng; Mavrodi, Olga V; Yang, Mingming; Thomashow, Linda S; Zheng, Na; Weller, David M; Zhang, Jibin

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) present in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soils contaminated with heavy metals, recalcitrant organics, petroleum sewage or salinity in China. We screened 1223 isolates for antifungal activity and about 24% inhibited Rhizoctonia solani or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Twenty-four strains inhibitory to R. solani, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and/or S. sclerotiorum and representing the dominant morphotypes were assayed for PGPR activity. Seven strains contained phlD, prnD, pltC or phzF genes and produced the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and phenazines respectively. Six strains contained acdS, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phlD, phzF and acdS genes demonstrated that some strains identified as Pseudomonas were similar to model PGPR strains Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens 30-84 and P. brassicacearum Q8r1-96. Pseudomonas protegens- and P. chlororaphis-like strains had the greatest biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia root rot and take-all of wheat. Pseudomonas protegens and P. brassicacearum-like strains showed the greatest promotion of canola growth. Our results indicate that strains from contaminated soils are similar to well-described PGPR found in agricultural soils worldwide.

  17. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-02

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects.

  18. Biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of rhizobacteria from Chinese fields with contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Ke, Linfeng; Mavrodi, Olga V; Yang, Mingming; Thomashow, Linda S; Zheng, Na; Weller, David M; Zhang, Jibin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) present in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soils contaminated with heavy metals, recalcitrant organics, petroleum sewage or salinity in China. We screened 1223 isolates for antifungal activity and about 24% inhibited Rhizoctonia solani or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Twenty-four strains inhibitory to R. solani, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and/or S. sclerotiorum and representing the dominant morphotypes were assayed for PGPR activity. Seven strains contained phlD, prnD, pltC or phzF genes and produced the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and phenazines respectively. Six strains contained acdS, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phlD, phzF and acdS genes demonstrated that some strains identified as Pseudomonas were similar to model PGPR strains Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens 30–84 and P. brassicacearum Q8r1-96. Pseudomonas protegens- and P. chlororaphis-like strains had the greatest biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia root rot and take-all of wheat. Pseudomonas protegens and P. brassicacearum-like strains showed the greatest promotion of canola growth. Our results indicate that strains from contaminated soils are similar to well-described PGPR found in agricultural soils worldwide. Growth-promoting rhizobacteria in polluted soils PMID:25219642

  19. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    towards environmental pollution, since their metabolic equilibrium is not altered by increased metal uptake. This suggests that the selected plants could be useful in phytoremediation of metal contaminated sites. The phytoremediation ability of Salix species (S. eleagnos, S. purpurea and S. caprea) for heavy metals and in particular zinc was estimated. Plantago major has very high metal concentrations in the roots and could be recommended for phytostabilization.

  20. Mercury contamination in the vicinity of a derelict chlor-alkali plant. Part I: sediment and water contamination of Lake Balkyldak and the River Irtysh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Susanne M; Ilyushchenko, Mikhail A; Kamberov, Irken M; Tanton, Trevor W

    2007-08-01

    A mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant operated in Pavlodar, Northern Kazakhstan, for 18 years and caused widespread contamination of the surrounding environment. Untreated wastewater from the plant was discharged to Lake Balkyldak, a shallow impounded lake without an outlet. The nearby River Irtysh was also suspected to be impacted by mercury (Hg) via the transport of contaminated groundwater. We took sediment and water samples from both aquatic systems, and also sampled soils along the shoreline of the lake and in the Irtysh flood plain. Sediments from Lake Balkyldak were found to be very heavily contaminated, with Hg concentrations in the surface layer reaching up to approximately 1500 mg kg(-1) near the wastewater outfall pipe. The contaminated lake sediments are prone to wind-driven resuspension and are acting as a strong source of Hg to the water column. Unfiltered lake water samples taken in shallow areas within 10-15 m from the shoreline contained from 0.11 microg Hg L(-1) in the less contaminated northern part of the lake to 1.39 microg L(-1) near the pollutant outfall in the south (up to 7.3 microg L(-1) on windy days). Sediments from the River Irtysh were only slightly impacted, with maximum Hg concentrations of 0.046 mg kg(-1) in the old river channel and 0.36 mg kg(-1) in floodplain oxbow lakes. In water samples from the River Irtysh, Hg was generally not detected, although trace concentrations (3 to 9 ng L(-1)) were found in some samples taken from oxbow lakes. We conclude that the river is not significantly impacted by Hg, but the highly contaminated Lake Balkyldak poses a threat and is in need of remediation. Potential remediation options for the lake are reviewed and are discussed in the context of experiences made at other Hg-contaminated sites.

  1. Parasite contamination (helminth eggs) in sludge treatment plants: definition of a sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Philippe G; Schwartzbrod, Janine

    2003-03-01

    The use of sludge in agriculture must be carried out according to many guidelines, especially regarding a precise knowledge of the pathogenic microorganisms it contains. The control of the produced sludge requires a sampling strategy that is representative of the contamination present in the sludge. Thus, we evaluated the distribution of helminth eggs in sludge to determine how to sample and at what frequency. Two plants were studied, firstly we studied sludge that was undergoing biological treatment (anaerobic digestion, prolonged aeration), secondly we evaluated the dehydration step (centrifugation and filter press). The helminth egg concentrations were measured over short periods (between 5 minutes and 7 hours) and for periods of over 24 hours (7 to 28 days). The results showed that there was much homogeneity in periods of less than 7 hours, thus it was advisable to take grab samples. An appropriate sample weight was 30 g dry matter, because this allowed an analysis in triplicate when testing treatment processes according to standards of France, (less than 3 viable eggs/10 g dry matter). Determination of the egg concentration in the plants during periods of over 24 hours showed that the parasite flow was stable. In some cases, large variations were due to the treatment processes (storage or thickening, mixing of different sludges). These results have been confirmed with the study of 6 other plants during a one year period. Thus, the recommended sampling frequency can be limited to every 3 to 6 months, by adapting the sampling methods to the characteristics of the plant.

  2. Identification of As accumulation plant species growing on highly contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Carmina; Almela, Concepción; Vélez, Dinoraz; López-Moya, J Rafael; de Haro, Antonio; Serrano, Ramón; Montoro, Rosa; Navarro-Aviñó, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Soils from the alluvial flats of the Turia River, Valencia, Spain, which were highly contaminated by decades of industrial activity, were surveyed for native plant species that could be candidates useful in phytoremediation. Concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) in soils reached 25,000 mg Kg(-1) Pb, 12,000 mg Kg(-1) Zn, 70 mg Kg(-1) Cd, and 13500 mg Kg(-1) As. The predominant vegetation was collected and species identified. Soil samples and the corresponding plant shoots were analyzed to determine the amount of As accumulated by the various plant species. Several were able to tolerate more than 1000 mg Kg(-1) As in the soil. Bassia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) survive in soil with 8375 mg Kg(-1) As. Arsenic accumulation in shoots of the various plant species investigated ranged from 0.1 to 107 mg Kg(-1) dw. Bassia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae), Inula viscosa (Asteraceae), Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae), and Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) had the highest values for As accumulation.

  3. Factors affecting xylene-contaminated air removal by the ornamental plant Zamioculcas zamiifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2014-02-01

    Fifteen plant species-Alternanthera bettzickiana, Drimiopsis botryoides, Aloe vera, Chlorophytum comosum, Aglaonema commutatum, Cordyline fruticosa, Philodendron martianum, Sansevieria hyacinthoides, Aglaonema rotundum, Fittonia albivenis, Muehlenbeckia platyclada, Tradescantia spathacea, Guzmania lingulata, Zamioculcas zamiifolia, and Cyperus alternifolius-were evaluated for the removal efficiency of xylene from contaminated air. Among the test plants, Z. zamiifolia showed the highest xylene removal efficiency. Xylene was toxic to Z. zamiifolia with an LC50 of 3,464 ppm. Higher concentrations of xylene exhibited damage symptoms, including leaf tips turning yellow, holonecrosis, and hydrosis. TEM images showed that a low concentration of xylene vapors caused minor changes in the chloroplast, while a high concentration caused swollen chloroplasts and damage. The effect of photosynthetic types on xylene removal efficiency suggests that a mixture of Z. zamiifolia, S. hyacinthoides, and A. commutatum which represent facultative CAM, CAM, and C3 plants, is the most suitable system for xylene removal. Therefore, for maximum improvement in removing xylene volatile compounds under various conditions, multiple species are needed. The effect of a plant's total leaf area on xylene removal indicates that at lower concentrations of xylene, a small leaf area might be as efficient as a large leaf area.

  4. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  5. Cultural and wild plant species as bio indicators and phyto-remedies of PHC contaminated soils in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breus, I.; Larionova, N.; Semenova, E.; Breus, V. [Kazan State Univ., Dept. of Geography and Geoecology (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The biological indicators are widely used along with the chemical and physical soil characteristics for the ecological risk assessment for soils during and after anthropogenic impacts. In many cases it often happens that only biological indicators are capable of establishing the physiological activity of contaminant complex in soil and of revealing the critical levels of soil contamination. Bio-testing is often used to determine the toxicity of various environmental objects - soils, waters, sediments and wastes. Firstly bio-testing demands the selection of testable biological organisms adequate to studying objects. The test objects must be representative for a given contaminated ecosystem community which is influenced by toxicants. So one can obtain data adequate to the real situation and also minimise the mistakes during the extrapolation of data obtained in bio-testing. Among bio-testing methods the methods of soil toxicity determination using high plants gained wide distribution. And moreover, if such plants are relatively tolerant to soil contamination and can accumulate sufficient plant biomass, it is possible to expect their phyto-remediation effect, which can be realized by different mechanisms. But the experimental investigations of the plant use for soil remediation in Russia are now still under development. The aims of this work were: i) the determination and selection of informative bio-indicative parameters could be used for evaluation of PHC (petroleum hydrocarbons) - soil contamination levels; ii) the choose of test plants based on these values; and iii) the revelation of the possible phyto-remediation effects in soil contaminated with PHC.In laboratory experiments the phyto-toxicity of soil contaminated with PHC was evaluated in relation to 35 plant species and sorts traditional and non-traditional for Russia and cultivated for fodder green biomass purposes, and also for some wild plant species. The following parameters were determined in the

  6. Mercury speciation in highly contaminated soils from chlor-alkali plants using chemical extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neculita, Carmen-Mihaela; Zagury, Gérald J; Deschênes, Louise

    2005-01-01

    A four-step novel sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was developed to assess Hg fractionation and mobility in three highly contaminated soils from chlor-alkali plants (CAPs). The SEP was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) and pure Hg compounds. Total, volatile, and methyl Hg concentrations were also determined using single extractions. Mercury was separated into four fractions defined as water-soluble (F1), exchangeable (F2) (0.5 M NH4Ac-EDTA and 1 M CaCl2 were tested), organic (F3) (successive extractions with 0.2 M NaOH and CH3COOH 4% [v/v]), and residual (F4) (HNO3 + H2SO4 + HClO4). The soil characterization revealed extremely contaminated (295 +/- 18 to 11 500 +/- 500 mg Hg kg(-1)) coarse-grained sandy soils having an alkaline pH (7.9-9.1), high chloride concentrations (5-35 mg kg(-1)), and very low organic carbon content (0.00-18.2 g kg(-1)). Methyl Hg concentrations were low (0.2-19.3 microg kg(-1)) in all soils. Sequential extractions indicated that the majority of the Hg was associated with the residual fraction (F4). In Soils 1 and 3, however, high percentages (88-98%) of the total Hg were present as volatile Hg. Therefore, in these two soils, a high proportion of volatile Hg was present in the residual fraction. The nonresidual fraction (F1 + F2 + F3) was most abundant in Soil 1 (14-42%), suggesting a higher availability of Hg in this soil. The developed and validated SEP was reproducible and efficient for highly contaminated samples. Recovery ranged between 93 and 98% for the CRM and 70 and 130% for the CAP-contaminated soils.

  7. Rhizosphere effects of PAH-contaminated soil phytoremediation using a special plant named Fire Phoenix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Nan; Wei, Shuhe; Zhao, Lixing; An, Jing

    2014-03-01

    The rhizosphere effect of a special phytoremediating species known as Fire Phoenix on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, including changes of the enzymatic activity and microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. The study showed that the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs by Fire Phoenix was up to 99.40% after a 150-day culture. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly, especially after a 60-day culture, followed by a gradual reduction with an increase in the planting time. The activity of these enzymes was strongly correlated to the higher degradation performance of Fire Phoenix growing in PAH-contaminated soils, although it was also affected by the basic characteristics of the plant species itself, such as the excessive, fibrous root systems, strong disease resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and resistance to barren soil. The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) decreased during the whole growing period in this study, and the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs in the rhizosphere soil after having planted Fire Phoenix plants had a significant (R(2)=0.947) negative correlation with the change in the activity of PPO. Using an analysis of the microbial communities, the results indicated that the structure of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil could be changed by planting Fire Phoenix plants, namely, there was an increase in microbial diversity compared with the unplanted soil. In addition, the primary advantage of Fire Phoenix was to promote the growth of flora genus Gordonia sp. as the major bacteria that can effectively degrade PAHs.

  8. Biosorption and growth inhibition of wetland plants in water contaminated with a mixture of arsenic and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soyoung [Department of Ocean Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Daeseok; Kim, Youngyun; Lee, Suk Mo; Chung, Yonghyun; Sung, Kijune [Department of Ecological Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The potential of wetland plants as an onsite biosorbent and a biomonitor for combined pollution of arsenic and four heavy metals from non-point sources was investigated in this study. Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Hydrocharis dubia, and Salvinia natans were exposed to a water containing mixture of As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Growth inhibition and biosorption potential of the wetland plants in artificially contaminated conditions were studied. These contaminants significantly reduced the growth of the plants. The tested wetland plants accumulated appreciable amounts of the contaminants in the following order: Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn>As. H. verticillata showed distinct visual change and a high biosorption factor (BSF) rank for As and heavy metals among the plants used in the study. As an unspecific collector of contaminants, it might be useful as a biomonitor and biosorbent in the As and heavy metal-contaminated aquatic system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Assessment of a regulatory sanitization process in Egyptian dairy plants in regard to the adherence of some food-borne pathogens and their biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, Mohamed A; Kamal, Rania M; Abd El Aal, Salah F; Awad, Esmat I

    2012-09-03

    Food-borne pathogens may develop certain strategies that enable them to defy harsh conditions such as chemical sanitization. Biofilm formation represents a prominent one among those adopted strategies, by which food-borne pathogens protect themselves against external threats. Thus, bacterial biofilm is considered as a major hazard for safe food production. This study was designed to investigate the adherence and the biofilm formation ability of some food-borne pathogens on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces using chip assay, and to validate regular sanitizing process (sodium hypochlorite 250 mg/L) for effective elimination of those pathogens. Sixteen pathogenic bacterial strains, previously isolated from raw milk and dairy products at Zagazig city, Egypt (9 Staphylococcus aureus, 4 Cronobacter sakazakii and 3 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium), were chosen for this study. Strains showed different patterns of adherence and biofilm formation on tested surfaces with minor significance between surfaces. The ability of sodium hypochlorite to completely eradicate either adhered or biofilm-embedded pathogens varied significantly depending on the strain and type of surface used. Whilst, sodium hypochlorite reduced tested pathogens counts per cm² of produced biofilms, but it was not able to entirely eliminate neither them nor adherent Cronobacter sakazakii to stainless steel surface. This study revealed that biofilm is considered as a sustainable source of contamination of dairy products with these pathogens, and also emphasized the need of paying more attention to the cleaning and sanitizing processes of food contact surfaces.

  10. Detection, isolation, and preliminary characterization of bacteria contaminating plant tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kałużna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to limit the contamination problem in plant tissue cultures experiments on selection of media suitable for detection and isolation of bacteria contaminating plant tissue explants, and preliminary characterization of isolates were made. In the first experiment aiming at detection of bacteria in plant explants four strains representing genera most often occurring at our survey of plant tissue cultures, and earlier isolated and identified (Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas were streaked on five bacteriological media (NA, King B, K, R2A and 523 and on the medium used for plant culture initiation – ½ MS with milk albumin (IM. All strains grew on all media but on K and IM at the slowest rate and on 523 medium at the fastest. The IM medium proved to be useful for immediate bacteria detection at the initial stage of culture. In the second experiment, aiming at characterization of isolates on the basis of colony growth and morphology 14 strains (Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Flavobacterium, Lactobacillus, Methylobacterium – 2 strains Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus, Plantibacterium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Xanthomonas, and species Serratia marcescens were streaked on five microbiological media: KB, NBY, YDC, YNA and YPGA. All strains grew on all those media but at different rates. The only exception was the strain of Lactobacillus spp., which did not grow on King B medium. This medium allowed the detection of such characteristic traits as fluorescence (Pseudomonas and secretion of inclusions (Stenotrophomonas. The third experiment was focussed on assessment of the sensitivity of detection of specific bacteria in pure cultures and in plant tis- sue cultures using standard PCR and BIO-PCR techniques with genus specific primers and 2 methods of DNA isolation. Results showed that the use of Genomic Mini kit enabled an increase of the sensitivity by 100 times as compared to extraction of DNA by boiling

  11. A metagenomic assessment of viral contamination on fresh parsley plants irrigated with fecally tainted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cassi, X; Timoneda, N; Gonzales-Gustavson, E; Abril, J F; Bofill-Mas, S; Girones, R

    2017-09-18

    Microbial food-borne diseases are still frequently reported despite the implementation of microbial quality legislation to improve food safety. Among all the microbial agents, viruses are the most important causative agents of food-borne outbreaks. The development and application of a new generation of sequencing techniques to test for viral contaminants in fresh produce is an unexplored field that allows for the study of the viral populations that might be transmitted by the fecal-oral route through the consumption of contaminated food. To advance this promising field, parsley was planted and grown under controlled conditions and irrigated using contaminated river water. Viruses polluting the irrigation water and the parsley leaves were studied by using metagenomics. To address possible contamination due to sample manipulation, library preparation, and other sources, parsley plants irrigated with nutritive solution were used as a negative control. In parallel, viruses present in the river water used for plant irrigation were analyzed using the same methodology. It was possible to assign viral taxons from 2.4 to 74.88% of the total reads sequenced depending on the sample. Most of the viral reads detected in the river water were related to the plant viral families Tymoviridae (66.13%) and Virgaviridae (14.45%) and the phage viral families Myoviridae (5.70%), Siphoviridae (5.06%), and Microviridae (2.89%). Less than 1% of the viral reads were related to viral families that infect humans, including members of the Adenoviridae, Reoviridae, Picornaviridae and Astroviridae families. On the surface of the parsley plants, most of the viral reads that were detected were assigned to the Dicistroviridae family (41.52%). Sequences related to important viral pathogens, such as the hepatitis E virus, several picornaviruses from species A and B as well as human sapoviruses and GIV noroviruses were detected. The high diversity of viral sequences found in the parsley plants

  12. Plant secondary metabolite-induced shifts in bacterial community structure and degradative ability in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Musilova, Lucie; Ridl, Jakub; Hroudova, Miluse; Vlcek, Cestmir; Koubek, Jiri; Holeckova, Marcela; Mackova, Martina; Macek, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how selected natural compounds (naringin, caffeic acid, and limonene) induce shifts in both bacterial community structure and degradative activity in long-term polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil and how these changes correlate with changes in chlorobiphenyl degradation capacity. In order to address this issue, we have integrated analytical methods of determining PCB degradation with pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene tag-encoded amplicons and DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Our model system was set in laboratory microcosms with PCB-contaminated soil, which was enriched for 8 weeks with the suspensions of flavonoid naringin, terpene limonene, and phenolic caffeic acid. Our results show that application of selected plant secondary metabolites resulted in bacterial community structure far different from the control one (no natural compound amendment). The community in soil treated with caffeic acid is almost solely represented by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia (together over 99 %). Treatment with naringin resulted in an enrichment of Firmicutes to the exclusion of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. SIP was applied in order to identify populations actively participating in 4-chlorobiphenyl catabolism. We observed that naringin and limonene in soil foster mainly populations of Hydrogenophaga spp., caffeic acid Burkholderia spp. and Pseudoxanthomonas spp. None of these populations were detected among 4-chlorobiphenyl utilizers in non-amended soil. Similarly, the degradation of individual PCB congeners was influenced by the addition of different plant compounds. Residual content of PCBs was lowest after treating the soil with naringin. Addition of caffeic acid resulted in comparable decrease of total PCBs with non-amended soil; however, higher substituted congeners were more degraded after caffeic acid treatment compared to all other treatments. Finally, it appears that plant secondary metabolites

  13. Whey-biogas plant with combined heat and power unit for the Lateria Engiadinaisa dairy; Molke-Biogasanlage mit Blockheizkraftwerk fuer die Molkerei Lataria Engiadinaisa SA, Bever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohle, O.; Nusbaumer, H.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of study made on the disposal of whey that results from the manufacture of cheese at the Lateria Engiadinaisa dairy in Bever, Switzerland. The present method of disposal, which involves increasing the milk-sugar concentration of the whey using reverse osmosis, transport by road and subsequent use as pig-feed is described, whereby economical and environmental aspects are discussed. An alternative disposal method that involves the co-fermentation of the whey in a local wastewater treatment plant and the use of the resulting biogas as a fuel for a combined heat and power plant is proposed. The economics of this solution are examined in detail and balances of the energy, environmental and transport factors associated with the proposed solution are drawn up.

  14. Phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant-water systems amended with contaminated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougin, C.; Dappozze, F.; Brault, A.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the fate of C-14-labelled phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene applied to the soil by the way of contaminated sewage sludge in model ecosystems allowing the simultaneous assessment of physicochemical and biological descriptors. Here we show that the mineralisation of phthalic acid is highe......[a]pyrene is recalcitrant to biodegradation whatever the type of soil contamination. We show also that the chemicals present in the sludge are poorly transferred to soil leachates and plant seedlings....

  15. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  16. Plant uptake of radiocaesium from artificially contaminated soil monoliths covering major European soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waegeneers, Nadia [Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)], E-mail: nadia.waegeneers@agr.kuleuven.ac.be; Sauras-Yera, Teresa [Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Thiry, Yves [SCK.CEN, Radioecology Laboratory, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vallejo, V. Ramon [Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Parterna (Spain); Smolders, Erik [Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Madoz-Escande, Chantal; Brechignac, Francois [SERLAB, ISPN, Department for Environmental Protection, CE-Cadarache Batiment 159, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex 13108 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Uptake of {sup 137}Cs was measured in different agricultural plant species (beans, lettuce, barley and ryegrass) grown in 5 undisturbed soil monoliths covering major European soil types. The first cultivation was made three years after soil contamination and plants were grown during 3 successive years. The plant-soil {sup 137}Cs transfer factors varied maximally 12-fold among soils and 35-fold among species when grown on the same soil. Single correlations between transfer factors and soil properties were found, but they varied widely with plant type and can hardly be used as a predictive tool because of the few soils used. The variation of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in plants among soils was related to differences in soil solution {sup 137}Cs and K concentrations, consistent with previous observations in hydroponics and pot trials. Absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted based on a model validated for pot trials. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in soil solution decreased significantly (11- to 250-fold) for most soils in the 1997-1999 period and is partly explained by decreasing K in soil solution. Transfer factors of lettuce showed both increasing and decreasing trends between 2 consecutive years depending on soil type. The trends could be explained by the variation in {sup 137}Cs and K concentrations in soil solution. It is concluded that differences in {sup 137}Cs transfer factors among soils and trends in transfer factors as a function of time can be explained from soil solution composition, as shown previously for pot trials, although absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted.

  17. Plant uptake of radiocaesium from artificially contaminated soil monoliths covering major European soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Sauras-Yera, Teresa; Thiry, Yves; Vallejo, V Ramón; Smolders, Erik; Madoz-Escande, Chantal; Bréchignac, François

    2009-06-01

    Uptake of (137)Cs was measured in different agricultural plant species (beans, lettuce, barley and ryegrass) grown in 5 undisturbed soil monoliths covering major European soil types. The first cultivation was made three years after soil contamination and plants were grown during 3 successive years. The plant-soil (137)Cs transfer factors varied maximally 12-fold among soils and 35-fold among species when grown on the same soil. Single correlations between transfer factors and soil properties were found, but they varied widely with plant type and can hardly be used as a predictive tool because of the few soils used. The variation of (137)Cs concentrations in plants among soils was related to differences in soil solution (137)Cs and K concentrations, consistent with previous observations in hydroponics and pot trials. Absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted based on a model validated for pot trials. The (137)Cs activity concentration in soil solution decreased significantly (11- to 250-fold) for most soils in the 1997-1999 period and is partly explained by decreasing K in soil solution. Transfer factors of lettuce showed both increasing and decreasing trends between 2 consecutive years depending on soil type. The trends could be explained by the variation in (137)Cs and K concentrations in soil solution. It is concluded that differences in (137)Cs transfer factors among soils and trends in transfer factors as a function of time can be explained from soil solution composition, as shown previously for pot trials, although absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted.

  18. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes in a salami producing plant in Piedmont: use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis to trace contaminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive in different environments and establish persistent contaminations is an important issue for food producers. This study aimed to assess the environmental contamination level in an Italian salami producing plant and to identify possible sources of contamination using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE on L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from environmental (n=54 and meat samples (n=9 collected over 9 months. Detection of L. monocytogenes was performed using the UNI EN ISO 11290-1 procedure and every isolate was characterised with PFGE, using AscI and ApaI restriction enzymes. The environmental detection frequencies were constant both in the first (22% and the second (27% visit, thus suggesting the presence of strains adapted to the processing plant. Equipments can represent a reservoir of L. monocytogenes from which it can spread into the whole producing plant. The reservoir was documented by PFGE results which showed several persistent strains. Moreover, PFGE proved the cross-contamination between surfaces and semiprocessed products like pastes, which furthermore have been contaminated by L. monocytogenes in 100% of samples in the first two visits and in 33% in the last visit. This study gave evidence that detection methods and PFGE characterisation can be effective tools to detect possible sources and routes of contamination.

  19. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or

  20. Phytoremediation: a technology using green plants to remove contaminants from polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbisu, Carlos; Hernández-Allica, Javier; Barrutia, Oihana; Alkorta, Itziar; Becerril, José M

    2002-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging cost-effective, non-intrusive, esthetically pleasing, and low cost technology using the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to metabolize various molecules in their tissues. Phytoremediation technology is applicable to a broad range of contaminants, including metals and radionuclides, as well as organic compounds like chlorinated solvents, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides/insecticides, explosives, and surfactants. The use of plants to transport and concentrate metals from the soil into the harvestable parts of roots and above-ground shoots, usually called 'phytoextraction', has appeared on the scene as a valid alternative to traditional physicochemical remediation methods that do not provide acceptable solutions for the removal of metals from soils. Positive results are becoming available regarding the ability of plants to degrade certain organic compounds. Nonetheless, despite the firm establishment of phytoremediation technology in the literature and in extensive research study and in small-scale demonstrations, full-scale applications are currently limited to a small number of projects. At present, the phytoremediation of metal pollutants from the environment could be approaching commercialization.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on the survival of fungal and actinomycetal florae contaminating medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N.H.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Moussa, L.A.A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Abu-Shady, M.R. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of gamma radiation on the viability of fungi and actinomycetes that contaminate medicinal plants. The relationship between the total lipids of some fungi and actinomycetes and their sensitivity to gamma radiation is also investigated. The data reveal that the viable counts of these florae decrease approximately exponentially with the radiation dose, the effective dose for the elimination of these microorganisms being about 5 kGy for all the medicinal plants under study. Response of pure cultures of fungi and actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants to increasing absorbed doses of gamma radiation indicate that an increase in radioresistance is in the following order: Streptomyces rimosus, Fusarium solani, Nocardia kuroishii. F. oxysporum, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. ochraceus. The total lipid contents of molds and actinomycetes have been reported to be increased by increasing the radio-resistance of microorganisms, and hence there is a relationship between the radio-sensitivity of microorganisms and the total lipid mass of flora mycelia. (Author).

  2. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Phthalic Ester Degradation in Two Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rui-Rui; YIN Rui; LIN Xian-Gui; CAO Zhi-Hong

    2005-01-01

    A 60-day pot experiment was carried out using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a typical organic pollutant phthalic ester and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as the host plant to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on plant growth and degradation of DEHP in two contaminated soils, a yellow-brown soil and a red soil. The air-dried soils were uniformly sprayed with different concentrations of DEHP, inoculated or left uninoculated with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, and planted with cowpea seeds. After 60 days the positive impact of AM inoculation on the growth of cowpea was more pronounced in the red soil than in the yellow-brown soil, with significantly higher (P < 0.01)mycorrhizal colonization rate, shoot dry weight and total P content in shoot tissues for the red soil. Both in the yellowbrown and red soils, AM inoculation significantly (P < 0.01) reduced shoot DEHP content, implying that AM inoculation could inhibit the uptake and translocation of DEHP from roots to the aboveground parts. However, with AM inoculation no positive contribution to the degradation of DEHP was found.

  3. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  4. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  5. Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas.

  6. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  7. Evaluation of dairy powder products implicates thermophilic sporeformers as the primary organisms of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, M J; Kent, D J; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2014-01-01

    Dairy powder products (e.g., sweet whey, nonfat dry milk, acid whey, and whey protein concentrate-80) are of economic interest to the dairy industry. According to the US Dairy Export Council, customers have set strict tolerances (Raw, work-in-process, and finished product samples were collected from 4 dairy powder processing facilities in the northeastern United States over a 1-yr period. Two separate spore treatments: (1) 80°C for 12min (to detect sporeformers) and (2) 100°C for 30min (to detect highly heat resistant sporeformers) were applied to samples before microbiological analyses. Raw material, work-in-process, and finished product samples were analyzed for thermophilic, mesophilic, and psychrotolerant sporeformers, with 77.5, 71.0, and 4.6% of samples being positive for those organisms, respectively. Work-in-process and finished product samples were also analyzed for highly heat resistant thermophilic and mesophilic sporeformers, with 63.7 and 42.6% of samples being positive, respectively. Sporeformer prevalence and counts varied considerably by product and plant; sweet whey and nonfat dry milk showed a higher prevalence of thermophilic and mesophilic sporeformers compared with acid whey and whey protein concentrate-80. Unlike previous reports, we found limited evidence for increased spore counts toward the end of processing runs. Our data provide important insight into spore contamination patterns associated with production of different types of dairy powders and support that thermophilic sporeformers are the primary organism of concern in dairy powders.

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Thermophilic Spore Formers Isolated from a Dairy-Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Martien P. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kort, Remco; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Spores of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. Here, we report draft genome sequences of four thermophilic strains from a milk-processing plant or standard milk, namely, a Geobacillus thermoglucosidans isolate (TNO-09.023), Geobacillus stearothermophilus TNO-09.027, and two Anoxybacillus flavithermus isolates (TNO-09.014 and TNO-09.016). PMID:27516503

  9. Contamination of Soil, Water, Plant and Dust by Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in Southwest Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Esmaeilpourfard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to mining, considerable amounts of heavy metal bearing mineralsare scattered in the atmosphere in the form of dust and make the surrounding air, water and soils polluted.Runoff water movingfrom the mountainstowardsplains may also transport heavy metals from mines to the soils.One type ofpollutions is contamination withheavy metals.The purpose of the present research has been to investigate the effect of heavy metals of mine on soil, water, plant and dust pollution. Materials and Methods: Gushfil mine is located 3 kilometers southwest of Sepahanshahr, Isfahan. Soil profiles were dug 500 meters apart along three parallel transects, between east of Sepahanshahr and Gushfil mine. The profiles were described and samples were collected from their horizons. Ore, wells, plant and dust were sampled as well. Total concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium were measured in the samples. To find the origin of polluted dust and soil, lead isotopes contents in the samples were measured and regressional relationships between the ratios of these contents were investigated. Results and Discussion Sepahanshahr soils are not contaminated by zinc, lead and cadmium, but within a distance of one to two kilometers from the Gushfil mine, the soils are polluted by zinc and lead. Cadmium contamination was not observed in the studied soils. In all of the soils, the heavy metals content varies downwards irregularly. The reason for this variation trend is that the studied soils are alluvial. In different periods of time, alluvium parent materials have been transported by runoff water from the lead and zinc mines towards the alluvial piedmont plain. The studied heavy metals have been distributed irregularly in different horizons of the soils that have been formed in these parent materials. Lead and cadmium concentrations of drinking water in the studied area are much higher than the maximum amount allowed by the World Health Organization. Cadmium content in

  10. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray–Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg−1 hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities. PMID:23985744

  11. Association of plant injury with an air contaminant in a controlled environment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, L.L.; Tibbitts, T.W.

    1974-01-01

    Gaseous compounds are common, yet seldom recognized contaminants in controlled environments. Injury to several plant species has been observed in the Biotron which uses trichloroethylene as a coolant in its centrally controlled system. Sometimes this compound is present in the rooms at an average level of 2 ppm, as measured by gas chromatography. Injury symptoms, which vary between species, are characteristic of air pollution injury. Present studies with Tagetes patula show a distinctive necrosis on the upper leaf surfaces. Experiments are being conducted to determine whether trichloroethylene is the agent involved and to investigate aspects of the physiology of injury utilizing a procedure which may be applicable to other long-term, low-level pollution studies.

  12. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yokoduka, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and (137)Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ((137)Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. History of mercury use and environmental contamination at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R

    2011-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from ∼2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.

  14. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As. The target hazard quotient (THQ method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  15. Mycobial contamination and mycotoxinogenesis of Tinospora cordifolia: an important medicinal plant of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of mycoflora and associated mycotoxins was carried out from dried market samples of stem portions of Tinospora cordifolia, an important medicinal plant of India. These samples were collected from various wholesale and retail shops of eight districts of Jammu and Kashmir state viz., Kathua, Jammu, Udhampur, Rajouri, Poonch, Doda, Srinagar and Leh. A total of 39 fungal species representing 18 genera were recovered by using surface washing technique. Assessment of mycobial load of T. cordifolia showed the presence of many such fungal species that are widely acknowledged as the most important mycotoxin producers. Analyses of samples for mycotoxin contamination was done by multimycotoxin detection method. The dried samples of Tinospora cordifolia were detected to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, ochratoxin A, patulin and citrinin. Among the various mycotoxins detected, aflatoxins were present in maximum number of samples, which is probably because Aspergillus flavus was recovered from all the investigated samples. However, fusarial species and their toxins were not detected from the investigated samples.

  16. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  17. [Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing coking plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cui-ping; Liu, Hai-bin; Sun, Hong-wen

    2012-08-01

    Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae). Moreover, enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD). The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed. The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L. theobromae, which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group. At an optimum concentration of 2 g x kg(-1) for Tween 80 and 1 g x kg(-1) for HPCD, the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%, respectively, which was 50 percentage points higher than that of the control group. Hydrogen peroxidase and invertase activities in soil in the bioremediation group with only L. theobromae and the surfactant enhanced group were both enhanced twice more than that of the control group. These results showed that L. theobromae may produce hydrogen peroxidase and invertase or have synergic effect with indigenous microorganisms. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of PAHs degradation rate and maximum enzyme activities of hydrogen peroxidase and invertase were 0.781 and 0.837, respectively. Therefore, the correlation between invertase activities and degradation rate was higher.

  18. First On-Site True Gamma-Ray Imaging-Spectroscopy of Contamination near Fukushima Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Dai; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Takada, Atsushi; Komura, Shotaro; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Mizumura, Yoshitaka; Oda, Makoto; Tanimori, Toru

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC), which provides a well-defined Point Spread Function (PSF) by reconstructing a direction of each gamma as a point and realizes simultaneous measurement of brightness and spectrum of MeV gamma-rays for the first time. Here, we present the results of our on-site pilot gamma-imaging-spectroscopy with ETCC at three contaminated locations in the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants in Japan in 2014. The obtained distribution of brightness (or emissivity) with remote-sensing observations is unambiguously converted into the dose distribution. We confirm that the dose distribution is consistent with the one taken by conventional mapping measurements with a dosimeter physically placed at each grid point. Furthermore, its imaging spectroscopy, boosted by Compton-edge-free spectra, reveals complex radioactive features in a quantitative manner around each individual target point in the background-dominated environment. Notably, we successfully identify a “micro hot spot” of residual caesium contamination even in an already decontaminated area. These results show that the ETCC performs exactly as the geometrical optics predicts, demonstrates its versatility in the field radiation measurement, and reveals potentials for application in many fields, including the nuclear industry, medical field, and astronomy. PMID:28155883

  19. First On-Site True Gamma-Ray Imaging-Spectroscopy of Contamination near Fukushima Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Dai; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Takada, Atsushi; Komura, Shotaro; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Mizumura, Yoshitaka; Oda, Makoto; Tanimori, Toru

    2017-02-01

    We have developed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC), which provides a well-defined Point Spread Function (PSF) by reconstructing a direction of each gamma as a point and realizes simultaneous measurement of brightness and spectrum of MeV gamma-rays for the first time. Here, we present the results of our on-site pilot gamma-imaging-spectroscopy with ETCC at three contaminated locations in the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants in Japan in 2014. The obtained distribution of brightness (or emissivity) with remote-sensing observations is unambiguously converted into the dose distribution. We confirm that the dose distribution is consistent with the one taken by conventional mapping measurements with a dosimeter physically placed at each grid point. Furthermore, its imaging spectroscopy, boosted by Compton-edge-free spectra, reveals complex radioactive features in a quantitative manner around each individual target point in the background-dominated environment. Notably, we successfully identify a “micro hot spot” of residual caesium contamination even in an already decontaminated area. These results show that the ETCC performs exactly as the geometrical optics predicts, demonstrates its versatility in the field radiation measurement, and reveals potentials for application in many fields, including the nuclear industry, medical field, and astronomy.

  20. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored. PMID:28117709

  1. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  2. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  3. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi, E-mail: yoshi887@ffpri.affrc.go.jp [Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagaikyuutaro 68, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855 (Japan); Yokoduka, Tetsuya [Tochigi Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, Sarado 2599, Ohtawara, Tochigi 324-0404 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ({sup 137}Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat.

  4. Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrutia, O., E-mail: oihana.barrutia@ehu.es [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, C.; Epelde, L. [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Soil Microbial Ecology Group, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Sampedro, M.C.; Goicolea, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country/EHU, E-01006 Vitoria (Spain); Becerril, J.M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000 mg diesel kg{sup -1} DW soil. Thirty days after diesel addition, T. repens (white clover) and L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were sown in the pots and grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature 25/18 {sup o}C day/night, relative humidity 60/80% day/night and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 400 {mu}mol photon m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) for 5 months. A parallel set of unplanted pots was also included. Concentrations of n-alkanes in soil were determined as an indicator of diesel degradation. Seedling germination, plant growth, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}), pigment composition and lipophylic antioxidant content were determined to assess the impacts of diesel on the studied plants. Soil microbial community characteristics, such as enzyme and community-level physiological profiles, were also determined and used to calculate the soil quality index (SQI). The presence of plants had a stimulatory effect on soil microbial activity. L. perenne was far more tolerant to diesel contamination than T. repens. Diesel contamination affected soil microbial characteristics, although its impact was less pronounced in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. Rhizoremediation with T. repens and L. perenne resulted in a similar reduction of total n-alkanes concentration. However, values of the soil microbial parameters and the SQI showed that the more tolerant species (L. perenne) was able to better maintain its rhizosphere characteristics when growing in diesel-contaminated soil, suggesting a better soil health. We concluded that plant tolerance is of

  5. Health risks resulting from contaminants transfers in soil-plants systems: case study of Atrazine in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Camoin

    2015-04-01

    Food safety is presently at the center of great part of scientific and political debates. This represents a field of study in its own right of health risks, including ingestion by humans of hazardous biological, physical, chemical or radiological substances, from contaminated foods during different stages of production. Plant cultivation step is often one of the main sources of contamination, whether of voluntary (pesticide application) or accidental (nuclear, industrial waste, etc.) origin. As a result, the plants growth in an contaminated environment may increase the risk of transfer within the plant, and finally the exposure of humans. Furthermore, pesticides are among the main contaminants investigated in the frame of human health risks resulting from food intakes. However, most of these scientific works focus mainly on their occurrence and persistence in water bodies, and few of them are interested in soil/plants transfer. In this context, the understanding of the processes governing transfers of pesticides in plants is become a necessity, in particular to prevent human risks linked the ingestion of food produced in contaminated environments. This objective can be reached by studying the pollutants behavior in soils/plants transfers, and using various substances/plants couples. In our study, we selected a salad/pesticide couple as our experimental model. Atrazine was chosen as model contaminant because of its problematic presence in a large amount of environmental compartments, its physico-chemical properties and because of its long-term toxicity. Lactuca sativa has been selected as model plant because of its importance in French agriculture, and specifically in Languedoc-Roussillon. Salad has been cultivated in peats and irrigated with an atrazine spiked water solution (concentrations from 10 to 100 μg/L). Plant growth in such conditions has been compared to a growth in clean condition (irrigation with non spiked water). Measurements of atrazine contents in

  6. Does the soil-air-plant pathway contribute to the PCB contamination of apples from allotment gardens?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, M.; Moering, J.; Amelung, W. [Dept. of Soil Science, Inst. of Ecology, Berlin Univ. of Tech. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    The presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like PCBs in plants poses a risk to humans and animals as it determines an exposure through the terrestrial food chain. A number of studies have shown that the transfer from the atmosphere is the dominant pathway for an uptake of POPs by aboveground parts of plants, in which dry gaseous as well as wet and dry particulate deposition are involved. The relative contribution of the different pathways to the overall deposition depends strongly on the physical-chemical properties of the compounds, but also on microclimatic conditions and characteristics of the plant, which both contribute to diffusive resistance at the its surface. In contrast, root uptake and translocation in the shoot is probably much less important for these highly hydrophobic compounds, although there are contradicting results in the literature. While the air-plant distribution of POPs received increasing attention, the importance of the soilair- plant pathway has rarely been studied. It is not known whether the volatilisation of POPs from contaminated soils and subsequent deposition to plants may be a significant source compared to ''background'' deposition in the field, as well as a deposition of contaminated soil dust raised by wind or rain splash. Particularly the latter pathway can hardly be assessed under exposure chamber conditions; instead a field study is required despite the increased overall complexity, which renders process identification more difficult. The objective of our study was to assess whether the local soil contamination (soil-air-plant pathway) could contribute to the PCB contamination of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at an allotment garden site additionally to background deposition (air-plant pathway).

  7. A comprehensive study of the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora: implication for plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-05-01

    These pot experiments aimed to investigate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant uptake, rhizophere, endophytic bacteria, and phytoremediation potentials of contaminated sediments. Salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora was selected and cultivated in phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-contaminated sediments (for 70 days). The results indicated that the amount of PHE removed from the sediments ranged from 13 to 36 %, while PYR ranged from 11 to 30 %. In rhizophere sediment, dehydrogenase activities were significantly (P PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases isolated from gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHDα-GN) of rhizoplane and endophyte in roots were found at high concentration of PHE treatments and increased by more than 100- and 3-fold, respectively. These results suggested that PAH pollution would result in the comprehensive effect on S. alterniflora, whose endophytic bacteria might play important roles in the phytoremediation potential of PAH-contaminated sediments.

  8. Detection of genotoxic effects of heavy metal contaminated soils with plant bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knasmüller, S; Gottmann, E; Steinkellner, H; Fomin, A; Pickl, C; Paschke, A; Göd, R; Kundi, M

    1998-12-03

    Aim of the present study was the development of a bioassay which enables the detection of genotoxic effects of heavy metal contaminated soils. In the first part of the present study, the data base on metal effects in plant bioassays was extended. Four metal salts, namely Cr(VI)O3, Cr(III)Cl3, Ni(II)Cl2 and Sb(III)Cl3 were tested comparatively in MN tests with pollen tetrad cells of Tradescantia clone #4430 and in meristematic root tip cells of Vicia faba. With Cr6+ and Ni2+, clear-cut dose-effects were observed in a range between 0.75 and 10.0 mM, whereas this was not the case with Cr3+ (range tested 1.25-10 mM) and Sb3+ (range 0.30-5.25 mM). In Vicia, negative results were obtained with the four metal salts under all conditions of test. To compare the mutagenic potencies of the metals, the increases of the regression curves (k-values) were calculated, they indicate the number of MN induced per mM in 100 tetrad cells. The corresponding values for Cr6+ and Ni2+ are 0.87 and 1.05, respectively. It appears that the Tradescantia system is in particular sensitive towards those metal species which cause DNA damage in animals and man such as Cr6+, Cd2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+, whereas no clear positive results were obtained with less harmful metal ions such as Cu2+, Cr3+ or Sb3+. In the second part of the study, the mutagenic effects of four metal contaminated soils and two types of standardized leachates (pH 4.0 and pH 7.0) of these soils were tested in Tradescantia and in Vicia. In addition, chemical analyses were carried out to determine the metal concentrations in the soils and in the extracts. Two of the samples contained highly elevated levels of a number of metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb, As), one soil came from the Central Austrian Alps and contained high As levels only. Direct exposure of the Tradescantia plants in the soils resulted in a drastic increase of the MN frequencies over the background. The lowest effect was seen with the Slovakian soil which contained in

  9. Effect of polluted water on soil and plant contamination by heavy metals in El-Mahla El-Kobra, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem Mahmoud, Esawy; Ghoneim, Adel Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The discharge of untreated waste water in Zefta drain and drain no. 5 is becoming a problem for many farmers in the El-Mahla El-Kobra area, Egypt. The discharged water contains high levels of contaminants considered hazardous to the ecosystem. Some plants, soil, water, and sediment samples were collected from the El-Mahla El-Kobra area to evaluate the contamination by heavy metals. The results showed that the heavy metals, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water of Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded permissible limits for irrigation. In rice and maize shoots grown in soils irrigated by contaminated water from Zefta drain and drain no. 5, the bioaccumulation factors for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn were higher than 1.0. The heavy metals content of irrigated soils from Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded the upper limit of background heavy metals. In this study, the mean contaminant factor values of the drain no. 5 sediments revealed that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni > 6, indicating very high contamination. The bioaccumulation coefficient values of Cynodon dactylon, Phragmites australis, and Typha domingensis aquatic plants growing in Zefta drain are high. These species can be considered as hyperaccumulators for the decontamination of contaminated water.

  10. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  11. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  12. Assessment of soil contamination by (210)Po and (210)Pb around heavy oil and natural gas fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Doubal, A W; Awad, I; Al-Khatib, Y

    2014-06-01

    Soil contamination by (210)Pb and (210)Po around heavy oil and natural gas power plants has been investigated; fly and bottom ash containing enhanced levels of (210)Pb and (210)Po were found to be the main source of surface soil contamination. The results showed that (210)Pb and (210)Po in fly-ash (economizer, superheater) is highly enriched with (210)Pb and (210)Po, while bottom-ash (boiler) is depleted. The highest (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations were found to be in economizer ash, whereas the lowest activity concentration was in the recirculator ash. On the other hand, (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations in soil samples were found to be higher inside the plant site area than those samples collected from surrounding areas. The highest levels were found in the vicinity of Mhardeh and Tishreen power plants; both plants are operated by heavy oil and natural fuels, while the lowest values were found to be in those samples collected from Nasrieh power plant, which is only operated by one type of fuel, viz. natural gas. In addition, the levels of surface soil contamination have decreased as the distance from the power plant site center increased.

  13. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes contamination routes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants detected by DNA-based typing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Huss, Hans Henrik; Ojeniyi, B.;

    2001-01-01

    and environment could not be excluded. Contamination of the product occurred in specific areas (the brining and slicing areas). In plant I, the same RAPD type (RAPD type 12) was found over a 4-year period, indicating that an established in-house flora persisted and was not eliminated by routine hygienic...... to the ubiquitous nature of the organism, sporadic contamination occurred. A subset of strains was also typed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism profiling, and these methods confirmed the type division obtained by RAPD profiling.......The contamination routes of Listeria monocytogenes in cold- smoked salmon processing plants were investigated by analyzing 3,585 samples from products (produced in 1995, 1996, 1998, and 1999) and processing environments (samples obtained in 1998 and 1999) of two Danish smokehouses. The level...

  14. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  15. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals.

  16. The effectiveness of Mendong plant (Fimbrystilis globulosa as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium of industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Ferina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry produces sideline output in the form of dangerous waste. The textile industrial waste containing heavy metal, one of which is Chromium (Cr.  Chromium is very dangerous metal for environment, especially chromium hexavalent that has properties of soluble, carcinogenic, and toxic. The pollution of chromium in soil is a problem that the action to be taken with the technology of bioremediation. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with chromium using Mendong plant (Fimbrystilis globulosa, combined with association of microorganisms Agrobacterium sp I3 and compost. This study was conducted in field experiment plots using a completely randomized block design. Data were analyzed using Anova followed by Duncan and correlation tests. The results showed that the Mendong plant was an effective phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium and it can be used as a chromium accumulator plant. The highest decrease of soil chromium content of 58.39% was observed on the combined artificial fertilizer, Agrobacterium sp I3 and Mendong plant treatment (P1B1T1. Removal effectiveness of chromium at the treatments using Mendong plant was higher than without the Mendong plant. Chromium uptake in shoots was higher than in roots of Mendong plant. Bioremediation increased the total bacterial colonies, decreased soil pH, and increased cation exchange capacity of the soil. The growth of the Mendong plant was in a good condition during the process of bioremediation.

  17. Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Pentachlorophenol by Emergent Wetland Plant Phragmites australis (Common Reed) in Cadmium Co-contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on phytoremediation of soils contaminated with either heavy metals or organics, little information is available on the effectiveness of phytoremediation of co-occurring metal and organic pollutants especially by using wetland species. Phragmites australis is a common wetland plant and its potential for phytoremediation of cadmium pentachlorophenol (Cd-PCP) co-contaminated soil was investigated. A greenhouse study was executed to elucidate the effects of Cd (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1)) without or with PCP (0, 50, and 250 mg kg(-1)) on the growth of the wetland plant P. australis and its uptake, accumulation and removal of pollutant from soils. After 75 days, plant biomass was significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP and the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PCP. Coexistence of PCP at low level lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues. The dissipation of PCP in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PCP and plant presence or absence. As an evaluation of soil biological activities after remediation soil enzyme was measured.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus LCR12, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Isolated from a Heavy Metal-Contaminated Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Eleonora; Wood, Jennifer L; Mathews, Elizabeth; Fox, Edward; Liu, Wuxing; Franks, Ashley E

    2016-09-29

    Bacillus cereus LCR12 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, isolated from a heavy metal-contaminated environment. The 6.01-Mb annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its potential application to remediate contaminated soils in association with plants. Copyright © 2016 Egidi et al.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus LCR12, a Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium Isolated from a Heavy Metal–Contaminated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Eleonora; Wood, Jennifer L.; Mathews, Elizabeth; Fox, Edward; Liu, Wuxing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus LCR12 is a plant growth–promoting rhizobacterium, isolated from a heavy metal–contaminated environment. The 6.01-Mb annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its potential application to remediate contaminated soils in association with plants. PMID:27688340

  20. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  1. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels.

  2. (137)Cs contamination over Transylvania region (Romania) after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begy, R Cs; Simon, H; Vasilache, D; Kelemen, Sz; Cosma, C

    2017-12-01

    Following the radionuclide releases due to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, various studies were completed by researchers all over the world in order to measure the surface contaminations by artificial radionuclides. The aim of this study was to evaluate (137)Cs surface contamination and to create an inventory distribution for Transylvania region (Romania) after the Chernobyl event using γ spectrometric measurements on soil samples collected from 153 locations. The results were compared to measured data from the Danube Delta and Moldova Republic, as well as to (137)Cs concentrations from the rest of Europe reported by literature. The (137)Cs surface concentrations in soil samples ranged between 0.4±0.1kBqm(-2) and 301.1±3.0kBqm(-2), having an average of 8.3±0.2kBqm(-2), with more elevated values in the mountain areas (18.3±0.6kBqm(-2)) compared to the hills and plains (2.6±0.1kBqm(-2)). Taking into consideration the cardinal regions, the northern and western regions received the least amount of (137)Cs (2.9±0.1kBqm(-2)), while the southern part received 16.3±0.6kBqm(-2). Sampling points with eastern slope exposure received the highest average (27.8±0.5kBqm(-2)), while southern, north-western and north-eastern ones received less than 8kBqm(-2). Two hotspots are reported at Iezer-Ighiel (72.7±5.9kBqm(-2)) and Tulgheș areas (51.5±0.6kBqm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing the combined application of amendments to allow plant growth in a multielement-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Romero-Puertas, M C; Mingorance, M D

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to 1) properly understand the dynamics of toxic elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and As) in a sulphide-mine soil after combined application of compost from urban sewage sludge (SVC) and bottom ashes from biomass combustion (BA) and to 2) optimize the combination of both amendments for vegetation growth. Soil was amended following a D-optimal design and the mixtures (15 in total) were incubated during 30 d. At the end of the incubation, the effects of amendments on the assessed variables as well as the process modelling were evaluated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The process modelling confirmed that quadratic models were adequate to explain the behaviour of the assessed variables (R(2) ≥ 0.94 and Q(2) ≥ 0.75). Both amendments significantly increased pH and electrical conductivity, while reduced metal extractability. A different behaviour of As respect to metals was observed and high doses of BA sharply increased its extractability. The optimization process indicated that adequate conditions for vegetation growth would be reached adding the soil with 6.8% of SVC and 3.1% of BA (dry weight). After amendments application the germination and root elongation of three energy crops were significantly increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased. Therefore, the combined application of SVC and BA to a contaminated soil could improve soil conditions and might be expected to have an advantage during plant growth. Moreover, the RSM could be a powerful technique for the assessment of combined amendment effects on soil properties and their effective application in multielement-contaminated soils.

  4. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  5. Temporal and spatial contamination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in wastewater treatment plants in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dan; Chen, Hexiang; Tam, Nora F Y

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants which cause adverse effects to human health and environments. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) receive PBDEs from various discharges but also release them back to the environment via treated effluent and sludge, depending on the removal efficiency of WWTPs. This study investigated the contamination of PBDEs in primary influent, final effluent and dewatered sludge in four WWTPs in Hong Kong from October 2011 to January 2013. Results showed that the concentrations and composition profiles of eight PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154,-183 and -209) differed among WWTPs and fluctuated during the study period. Higher concentrations of PBDEs were detected in the influent and dewatered sludge from the two WWTPs receiving both domestic and industrial wastewaters than the two serve mainly residential and commercial districts. However, the PBDE concentrations in the effluent were comparable among WWTPs. The concentrations of Σ8PBDEs (total of eight congeners) in the influent of all WWTPs ranged from 1 to 254 ng L(-1) but decreased to 12-27 ng L(-1) in effluent, with removal efficiency ranged from 20 to 53%. High concentrations of PBDEs, ranging from 9 to 307 ng g(-1) dry weights, were detected in dewatered sludge. The predominated congeners in influent were BDE-47 and -209 but shifted to BDE-47 and -99 in effluent and BDE-209 in dewatered sludge. Every day, it is estimated 0.66-73 g PBDEs entered the four WWTPs, while 0.38-38 g and 0.17-17 g PBDEs were discharged to the surrounding waters via effluent and disposed to landfill sites in sludge form, respectively. These results indicated that the four WWTPs in Hong Kong were not designed for effectively removal of PBDEs, 52-80% of the incoming PBDEs were still remained in effluent and 21-45% was precipitated in sludge, both outputs became significant contamination sources.

  6. Effects of Secondary Plant Metabolites on Microbial Populations: Changes in Community Structure and Metabolic Activity in Contaminated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Musilova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs play an important role in plant survival in the environment and serve to establish ecological relationships between plants and other organisms. Communication between plants and microorganisms via SPMEs contained in root exudates or derived from litter decomposition is an example of this phenomenon. In this review, the general aspects of rhizodeposition together with the significance of terpenes and phenolic compounds are discussed in detail. We focus specifically on the effect of SPMEs on microbial community structure and metabolic activity in environments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Furthermore, a section is devoted to a complex effect of plants and/or their metabolites contained in litter on bioremediation of contaminated sites. New insights are introduced from a study evaluating the effects of SPMEs derived during decomposition of grapefruit peel, lemon peel, and pears on bacterial communities and their ability to degrade PCBs in a long-term contaminated soil. The presented review supports the “secondary compound hypothesis” and demonstrates the potential of SPMEs for increasing the effectiveness of bioremediation processes.

  7. Effects of Secondary Plant Metabolites on Microbial Populations: Changes in Community Structure and Metabolic Activity in Contaminated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Lucie; Ridl, Jakub; Polivkova, Marketa; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs) play an important role in plant survival in the environment and serve to establish ecological relationships between plants and other organisms. Communication between plants and microorganisms via SPMEs contained in root exudates or derived from litter decomposition is an example of this phenomenon. In this review, the general aspects of rhizodeposition together with the significance of terpenes and phenolic compounds are discussed in detail. We focus specifically on the effect of SPMEs on microbial community structure and metabolic activity in environments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, a section is devoted to a complex effect of plants and/or their metabolites contained in litter on bioremediation of contaminated sites. New insights are introduced from a study evaluating the effects of SPMEs derived during decomposition of grapefruit peel, lemon peel, and pears on bacterial communities and their ability to degrade PCBs in a long-term contaminated soil. The presented review supports the “secondary compound hypothesis” and demonstrates the potential of SPMEs for increasing the effectiveness of bioremediation processes. PMID:27483244

  8. Uptake of radioactive and stable Co and Zn isotopes by barley plants under mixed radioactive and chemical contamination of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. V.; Lavrent'eva, G. V.; Pivovarova, Yu. A.; Anisimov, V. S.

    2010-03-01

    The effect of Co and Zn on the accumulation of 60Co and 65Zn by plants was studied in experiments with growing barley on a soddy-podzolic soil and a chernozem containing the radionuclide and increasing concentrations (from the background level to a high degree of contamination) of the corresponding metal. The root uptake of 60Co was directly related to the soil contamination with Co and its accumulation in the plants, while an inverse relationship was observed between the activity of 65Zn in the plants and the content of Zn in the soil. It was concluded that the transfer of the radionuclide into the plants under mixed radioactive and chemical contamination depended, on the one hand, on the mobile reserve of the stable nuclide in the soil and the solid phase potential to release its ions into the soil solution and, on the other hand, on the requirement of the plants for this element and the uptake rate of its ions by the roots from the solution.

  9. Effects of Secondary Plant Metabolites on Microbial Populations: Changes in Community Structure and Metabolic Activity in Contaminated Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Lucie; Ridl, Jakub; Polivkova, Marketa; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2016-07-29

    Secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs) play an important role in plant survival in the environment and serve to establish ecological relationships between plants and other organisms. Communication between plants and microorganisms via SPMEs contained in root exudates or derived from litter decomposition is an example of this phenomenon. In this review, the general aspects of rhizodeposition together with the significance of terpenes and phenolic compounds are discussed in detail. We focus specifically on the effect of SPMEs on microbial community structure and metabolic activity in environments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, a section is devoted to a complex effect of plants and/or their metabolites contained in litter on bioremediation of contaminated sites. New insights are introduced from a study evaluating the effects of SPMEs derived during decomposition of grapefruit peel, lemon peel, and pears on bacterial communities and their ability to degrade PCBs in a long-term contaminated soil. The presented review supports the "secondary compound hypothesis" and demonstrates the potential of SPMEs for increasing the effectiveness of bioremediation processes.

  10. Antioxidant response in sesame plants grown on industrially contaminated soil: effect on oil yield and tolerance to lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2009-01-01

    The plants of sesame white (Sesamum indicum L. var. T55) grown on tannery sludge (TS) contaminated soil have shown that Cr level in the seeds was found below detection limits in 10% and 25% TS, however, the levels of Ni, Pb and Cd were found above the recommended limits. In roots, the level of antioxidants increased in the plants grown upto 35% TS at 30d over their respective controls. Total chlorophyll content increased significantly (poil content increased (35% increase over control) in the plants grown on 35% TS. No significant change was observed in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a lipid peroxidation index, in the plants (upto 50% TS). The number of trichomes in the leaves of treated plants was found more than control. In lower and upper leaves surfaces, the anterior end of the trichomes was found acute tipped and bent downwards, whereas, the trichome tip was straight and blunt in control. The stomata on upper and lower surfaces of the leaves were found partially or totally closed in the plants grown on 100% TS as compared to control. The toxicity was observed at higher amendments which are evident from the observed morphological changes and decrease in chlorophyll content. This study concludes that it is not advisable to grow the plants on contaminated area, besides its healthy growth.

  11. Plant species affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of associated endophytes during phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, K; Imran, A; Amin, I; Khan, Q M; Afzal, M

    2016-04-01

    Plants coupled with endophytic bacteria hold great potential for the remediation of polluted environment. The colonization patterns and activity of inoculated endophytes in rhizosphere and endosphere of host plant are among the primary factors that may influence the phytoremediation process. However, these colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the inoculated endophytes are in turn controlled by none other than the host plant itself. The present study aims to determine such an interaction specifically for plant-endophyte systems remediating crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortium (AP) of two oil-degrading endophytic bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BRRI54) was inoculated to two grasses, Brachiaria mutica and Leptochloa fusca, vegetated in crude oil-contaminated soil. Colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the endophytes were monitored in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the plants. Bacterial augmentation enhanced plant growth and crude oil degradation. Maximum crude oil degradation (78%) was achieved with B. mutica plants inoculated with AP consortium. This degradation was significantly higher than those treatments, where plants and bacteria were used individually or L. fusca and endophytes were used in combination. Moreover, colonization and metabolic activity of the endophytes were higher in the rhizosphere and endosphere of B. mutica than L. fusca. The plant species affected not only colonization pattern and biofilm formation of the inoculated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the host plant but also affected the expression of alkane hydroxylase gene, alkB. Hence, the investigation revealed that plant species can affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of inoculated endophytic bacteria and ultimately the phytoremediation process.

  12. The responses of two native plant species to soil petroleum contamination in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenjun; Zhang, Yanpeng; Li, Rui; Yang, Hongjun; Wu, Tao; Zhao, Liping; Lu, Zhaohua

    2017-09-11

    Petroleum contamination is a significant environmental problem in the Yellow River Delta. The responses of two native salt-tolerant plant species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and bristle grass (Setaria uiridis Beauv), to soil petroleum contamination were investigated at five levels between 0 and 2.0% (w/w). Results showed that the total, aboveground and underground plant biomasses of both species were significantly reduced by petroleum contamination (p contamination. Following 100 days of exposure, the number of soil petroleum degraders increased greatly, with a trend of initial increase followed by a decrease at 1.5% contamination or higher. Compared to bulk soils, bacteria-degrading alkanes, total hydrocarbons and PAHs in alfalfa rhizosphere soils increased by 1.33-4.18-, 0.85-3.01- and 4.12-12.75-fold, respectively, with an increase of 2.80-10.00-, 4.42-14.44- and 7.30-26.00-fold in bristle grass rhizosphere soils, respectively. The greatest number of petroleum degraders in bristle grass rhizosphere soils resulted in the highest petroleum degradation rate. Bristle grass may be the optimal species for petroleum remediation in the studied area.

  13. Degradation of phenanthrene by Novosphingobium sp. HS2a improved plant growth in PAHs-contaminated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Conde, Sara; Molina, Lázaro; González, Paola; García-Puente, Alicia; Segura, Ana

    2016-12-01

    At the same time that the European Union (EU) policy recommend to direct efforts towards reductions of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mining residues, there is the need to increase the cultivable areas within Europe to cope with the increasing demands for food and energy crops. Bioremediation is a good technique for the restoration of contaminated soils; however, it has not been used extensively because of the variability of the outcome. This variability is frequently due to a bad establishment of foreign degrading populations in soil. We have demonstrated that Novosphingobium sp. HS2aR (i) is able to compete with other root colonizers and with indigenous bacteria, (ii) is able to establish in high numbers in the contaminated environments and (iii) is able to remove more than 90 % of the extractable phenanthrene in artificially contaminated soils. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the capacity to remove phenanthrene is linked to the ability to promote plant growth in contaminated environments. The fact that the presence of Novosphingobium sp. HS2aR improves the growth of plants in contaminated soil suggests that it may be a useful strain for utilization in amelioration of soil quality while improving the growth of economically important energy crops, thus adding value to the bioremediation strategy.

  14. Case of Contamination by Listeria Monocytogenes in Mozzarella Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolli, Rita; Bossù, Teresa; Rodas, Eda Maria Flores; Di Giamberardino, Fabiola; Di Sirio, Alessandro; Vita, Silvia; De Angelis, Veronica; Bilei, Stefano; Sonnessa, Michele; Gattuso, Antonietta; Lanni, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Following a Listeria monocytogenes detection in a mozzarella cheese sampled at a dairy plant in Lazio Region, further investigations have been conducted both by the competent Authority and the food business operatordairy factory (as a part of dairy factory HACCP control). In total, 90 dairy products, 7 brine and 64 environmental samples have been tested. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 24.4% in mozzarella cheese, and 9.4% in environmental samples, while brines were all negatives. Forty-seven strains of L. monocytogenes have been isolated, all belonging to 4b/4e serotype. In 12 of these, the macrorestriction profile has been determined by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The profiles obtained with AscI enzyme showed a 100% similarity while those obtained with ApaI a 96.78% similarity. These characteristics of the isolated strains jointly with the production process of mozzarella cheese has allowed to hypothesise an environmental contamination. PMID:27800317

  15. Assessment of airborne microorganism contamination in an industrial area characterized by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisoli, Pietro; Rodolfi, Marinella; Villani, Simona; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Berri, Angelo; Picco, Anna Maria; Dacarro, Cesare

    2009-02-01

    In order to assess the potential exposure hazard to workers and people living in the immediate surroundings of an area characterized by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant, a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of airborne microorganisms were carried out. Air sampling was performed once a week for four consecutive weeks in summer and winter. Six sites were selected as air sampling sites: one was upwind at approximately 40 m from the facilities; the other five were downwind at increasing distances from the facilities, with the furthest at 100 m away. Monitoring permitted us to verify the influence that the composting activities and wastewater treatment had on the bacterial and fungal contamination of the air. The results obtained have been expressed by means of contamination indexes that have already been used in previous works: a major microbiological contamination near the plants was evidenced. Near the facilities, mesophilic bacteria, psychrophilic bacteria and microfungi showed the highest median concentrations, respectively, of 307.5, 327.5 and 257.5 CFU/m(3). Moreover, the season generally influenced the concentration of the bacteria as well as of the fungi; higher in summer than in winter. The contamination index global index of microbial contamination (GIMC/m(3)) showed mean values of 4058.9 in summer and 439.7 in winter and the contamination index-amplification index (AI) showed values of 4.5 and 1.1 in the same seasons, respectively. Controlling the seasonal effect, mesophilic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae showed a significant decline in concentration with respect to upwind air samples and with increasing distance. Both GIMC and AI showed a significant decline with respect to upwind air samples by increasing the distance from facilities after adjusting for the seasonal effect. In conclusion, even if these plants do not represent a potential risk for nearby populations, they may pose a potential health risk

  16. Behaviour of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane in the soil-plant system of a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelo Pereira, R; Camps-Arbestain, M; Rodríguez Garrido, B; Macías, F; Monterroso, C

    2006-11-01

    The behaviour of the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is investigated. The concentrations of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-HCH isomers were measured in soils, rhizosphere and vegetation in a contaminated area in Galicia (NW Spain). The total concentration of HCH in soils reached values close to 20,000 mgkg(-1). The plants analysed (Avena sativa L., Chenopodium spp., Solanum nigrum L., Cytisus striatus (Hill) Roth, and Vicia sativa L.) accumulated HCH, especially the beta-HCH isomer, in their tissues. The most likely mechanisms of HCH accumulation in plants were sorption of soil HCH on roots and sorption of volatilized HCH on aerial plant tissues. The concentrations of HCH obtained from the bulk and rhizosphere soils of selected plant species suggest that roots tend to reduce levels of the HCH isomers in the rhizosphere. The results reflect the importance of vegetation in the distribution of organochlorine compounds in the soil-plant system.

  17. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and...

  18. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  19. Disposal options for polluted plants grown on heavy metal contaminated brownfield lands - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Helga; Szemmelveisz, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Reducing or preventing damage caused by environmental pollution is a significant goal nowadays. Phytoextraction, as remediation technique is widely used, but during the process, the heavy metal content of the biomass grown on these sites special treatment and disposal techniques are required, for example liquid extraction, direct disposal, composting, and combustion. These processes are discussed in this review in economical and environmental aspects. The following main properties are analyzed: form and harmful element content of remains, utilization of the main and byproducts, affect to the environment during the treatment and disposal. The thermal treatment (combustion, gasification) of contaminated biomass provides a promising alternative disposal option, because the energy production affects the rate of return, and the harmful elements are riched in a small amount of solid remains depending on the ash content of the plant (1-2%). The biomass combustion technology is a wildely used energy production process in residential and industrial scale, but the ordinary biomass firing systems are not suited to burn this type of fuel without environmental risk.

  20. Evaluation of emerging contaminants in a drinking water treatment plant using electrodialysis reversal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Gernjak, W; Valero, F; Barceló, A; Petrovic, M; Rodríguez-Roda, I

    2016-05-15

    Emerging contaminants (EC) have gained much attention with globally increasing consumption and detection in aquatic ecosystems during the last two decades from ng/L to lower ug/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and related compounds in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) treating raw water from the Mediterranean Llobregat River. The DWTP combined conventional treatment steps with the world's largest electrodialysis reversal (EDR) facility. 49 different PhACs, EDCs and related compounds were found above their limit of quantification in the influent of the DWTP, summing up to a total concentration of ECs between 1600-4200 ng/L. As expected, oxidation using chlorine dioxide and granular activated carbon filters were the most efficient technologies for EC removal. However, despite the low concentration detected in the influent of the EDR process, it was also possible to demonstrate that this process partially removed ionized compounds, thereby constituting an additional barrier against EC pollution in the product. In the product of the EDR system, only 18 out of 49 compounds were quantifiable in at least one of the four experimental campaigns, showing in all cases removals higher than 65% and often beyond 90% for the overall DWTP process.

  1. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae ( Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to arsenic by 40-50 %; whereas, water hyacinth could reduce arsenic by only 20 %. Cladophora sp. is thus suitable for co-treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  2. Contamination of soil, medicinal, and fodder plants with lead and cadmium present in mine-affected areas, Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Mahmood, Qaisar; Gul, Nayab; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the soil and plants (medicinal and fodder) grown in chromite mining-affected areas, Northern Pakistan. Soil and plant samples were collected and analyzed for Pb and Cd concentrations using atomic absorption spectrometer. Soil pollution load indices (PLIs) were greater than 2 for both Cd and Pb, indicating high level of contamination in the study area. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in the soil surrounding the mining sites exceeded the maximum allowable limit (MAL) (0.6 mg kg(-1)), while the concentrations of Pb were lower than the MAL (350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) for agriculture soil. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher (P soil of the mining-contaminated sites as compared to the reference site, which can be attributed to the dispersion of toxic heavy metals, present in the bed rocks and waste of the mines. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in majority of medicinal and fodder plant species grown in surrounding areas of mines were higher than their MALs set by World Health Organization/Food Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO) for herbal (10 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), respectively) and edible (0.3 and 0.2 mg kg(-1), respectively) plants. The high concentrations of Cd and Pb may cause contamination of the food chain and health risk.

  3. The investigation of the possibility for using some wild and cultivated plants as hyperaccumulators of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Miroslava; Antonijevic, Milan; Alagic, Sladjana

    2013-02-01

    The copper production in Bor (East Serbia) during the last 100 years presents an important source of the pollution of environment. Dust, waste waters, tailing, and air pollutants influence the quality of soil, water, and air. Over 2,000 ha of fertile soil have been damaged by the flotation tailing from Bor's facilities. The goal of the present work has been to determine the content of Pb, Cu, and Fe in wild plants (17 species) naturally growing in the damaged soil and in fodder crops (nine species) planted at the same place. The content of Pb, Cu, and Fe has been analyzed in damaged soil as well. This study has also searched for native (wild) and cultivated plants which are able to grow in contaminated soil in the area of the intense industrial activity of copper production in Bor, which means that they can accumulate and tolerate heavy metals in their above-ground tissues. It has been found out that the content of all metals in contaminated soil decreases considerably at the end of the experiment. As it has been expected, all plant species could accumulate investigated metals. All tested plants, both wild-growing and cultivated plants, seem to be quite healthy on the substrate which contained extremely high concentrations of copper.

  4. Behaviour of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane in the soil-plant system of a contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvelo Pereira, R. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: edrobert@usc.es; Camps-Arbestain, M. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez Garrido, B. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Macias, F. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Monterroso, C. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    The behaviour of the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is investigated. The concentrations of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-HCH isomers were measured in soils, rhizosphere and vegetation in a contaminated area in Galicia (NW Spain). The total concentration of HCH in soils reached values close to 20 000 mg kg{sup -1}. The plants analysed (Avena sativa L., Chenopodium spp., Solanum nigrum L., Cytisus striatus (Hill) Roth, and Vicia sativa L.) accumulated HCH, especially the {beta}-HCH isomer, in their tissues. The most likely mechanisms of HCH accumulation in plants were sorption of soil HCH on roots and sorption of volatilized HCH on aerial plant tissues. The concentrations of HCH obtained from the bulk and rhizosphere soils of selected plant species suggest that roots tend to reduce levels of the HCH isomers in the rhizosphere. The results reflect the importance of vegetation in the distribution of organochlorine compounds in the soil-plant system. - This paper describes the soil-plant relationship of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a contaminated site, with special focus on the rhizosphere effect.

  5. Behavior of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal contaminated field: Plant metal concentration and phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidar, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Garcon, G. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, C. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Dewaele, D. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Cazier, F. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Douay, F. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, P. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: pirouz.shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-06-15

    The use of a vegetation cover for the management of heavy metal contaminated soils needs prior investigations on the plant species the best sustainable. In this work, behaviors of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne, growing in a metal-polluted field located near a closed lead smelter, were investigated through Cd, Pb and Zn-plant metal concentrations and their phytotoxicity. In these plant species, metals were preferentially accumulated in roots than in shoots, as follow: Cd > Zn > Pb. Plant exposure to such metals induced oxidative stress in the considered organs as revealed by the variations in malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activities. These oxidative changes were closely related to metal levels, plant species and organs. Accordingly, L. perenne seemed to be more affected by metal-induced oxidative stress than T. repens. Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that both the plant species could be suitable for the phytomanagement of metal-polluted soils. - Usefulness of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne for the phytomanagement of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  6. Building classification trees to explain the radioactive contamination levels of the plants; Construction d'arbres de discrimination pour expliquer les niveaux de contamination radioactive des vegetaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, B

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this thesis is the development of a method allowing the identification of factors leading to various radioactive contamination levels of the plants. The methodology suggested is based on the use of a radioecological transfer model of the radionuclides through the environment (A.S.T.R.A.L. computer code) and a classification-tree method. Particularly, to avoid the instability problems of classification trees and to preserve the tree structure, a node level stabilizing technique is used. Empirical comparisons are carried out between classification trees built by this method (called R.E.N. method) and those obtained by the C.A.R.T. method. A similarity measure is defined to compare the structure of two classification trees. This measure is used to study the stabilizing performance of the R.E.N. method. The methodology suggested is applied to a simplified contamination scenario. By the results obtained, we can identify the main variables responsible of the various radioactive contamination levels of four leafy-vegetables (lettuce, cabbage, spinach and leek). Some extracted rules from these classification trees can be usable in a post-accidental context. (author)

  7. Repression of fungal plant pathogens and fungal-related contaminants: Selected ecosystem services by soil fauna communities in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Brunotte, Joachim; Weinert, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    In agroecosystems soil-borne fungal plant diseases are major yield-limiting factors which are difficult to control. Fungal plant pathogens, like Fusarium species, survive as a saprophyte in infected tissue like crop residues and endanger the health of the following crop by increasing the infection risk for specific plant diseases. In infected plant organs, these pathogens are able to produce mycotoxins. Mycotoxins like deoxynivalenol (DON) persist during storage, are heat resistant and of major concern for human and animal health after consumption of contaminated food and feed, respectively. Among fungivorous soil organisms, there are representatives of the soil fauna which are obviously antagonistic to a Fusarium infection and the contamination with mycotoxins. Specific members of the soil macro-, meso-, and microfauna provide a wide range of ecosystem services including the stimulation of decomposition processes which may result in the regulation of plant pathogens and the degradation of environmental contaminants. Investigations under laboratory conditions and in field were conducted to assess the functional linkage between soil faunal communities and plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium culmorum). The aim was to examine if Fusarium biomass and the content of its mycotoxin DON decrease substantially in the presence of soil fauna (earthworms: Lumbricus terrestris, collembolans: Folsomia candida and nematodes: Aphelenchoides saprophilus) in a commercial cropping system managed with conservation tillage located in Northern Germany. The results of our investigations pointed out that the degradation performance of the introduced soil fauna must be considered as an important contribution to the biodegradation of fungal plant diseases and fungal-related contaminants. Different size classes within functional groups and the traits of keystone species appear to be significant for soil function and the provision of ecosystem services as in particular L. terrestris revealed to

  8. Listeriosis outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, caused by soft ripened cheese contaminated from environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  9. Marketing Operations of Dairy Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The Nation's 435 dairy cooperatives marketed 95.6 billion pounds of milk, or about 77 percent of all milk sold to plants and dealers in 1980. There were 146 cooperatives with no milk handling facilities, 97 with only milk and cream receiving stations, and 192 operating 456 dairy processing and manufacturing plants. Cooperatives sold about 16 percent of the Nation's packaged fluid products, 10 percent of the ice cream, 64 percent of the butter, 87 percent of the dry milk products, 22 percent o...

  10. Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Zn from contaminated soil to various plants and evaluation of soil remediation with indicator plant (Plantago lanceolata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupan, M.; Lobnik, F.; Kadunc, V. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Agronomy Dept., Center for Soil and Environmental Science; Hudnik, V. [National Institute of Chemistry Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-12-31

    The accumulation of cadmium, lead, and zinc by different major cultivated plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals, is presented. The vegetables, crops, and the indicator plant narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) were used in a field experiment including 3 areas with different levels of pollution. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were observed in edible green parts of vegetables (endive, spinach, lettuce) and roots (carrot, red beet, radish). The heavy metal content in leguminous plants (pods and seeds) was very low compared to high soil concentrations. Wheat and maize showed lower concentrations in grains and kernels than in green parts. Lime and vermiculite were used for reduction of Cd availability to plants in polluted soil. The Cd concentration decreased in the narrow leaf plantain in the presence of both lime and vermiculite in acid soil. In the higher-pH soil the Cd availability to spinach was greatly reduced in the presence of vermiculite

  11. Influence of plant root exudates on the mobility of fuel volatile compounds in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Kidd, Petra S; Monterroso, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation and its associated microorganisms play an important role in the behaviour of soil contaminants. One of the most important elements is root exudation, since it can affect the mobility, and therefore, the bioavailability of soil contaminants. In this study, we evaluated the influence of root exudates on the mobility of fuel derived compounds in contaminated soils. Samples of humic acid, montmorillonite, and an A horizon from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were contaminated with volatile contaminants present in fuel: oxygenates (MTBE and ETBE) and monoaromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene). Natural root exudates obtained from Holcus lanatus and Cytisus striatus and ten artificial exudates (components frequently found in natural exudates) were added to the samples, individually and as a mixture, to evaluate their effects on contaminant mobility. Fuel compounds were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, the addition of natural and artificial exudates increased the mobility of all contaminants in humic acid. In A horizon and montmorillonite, natural or artificial exudates (as a mixture) decreased the contaminant mobility. However, artificial exudates individually had different effects: carboxylic components increased and phenolic components decreased the contaminant mobility. These results established a base for developing and improving phytoremediation processes of fuel-contaminated soils.

  12. Massive PCDD/F contamination at the Khimprom organochlorine plant in Ufa--a review and recommendations for future management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirova, Zarema; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    The Khimprom plant in Ufa was one of the largest organochlorine production facilities in Russia. This paper summarises the residual pollution of the site with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and highlights the current and future challenges in relation to remediation of the site. Preliminary assessment of the pollution shows large-scale PCDD/F contamination at the site from half a century production of organochlorine pesticides and solvents. This contamination is affecting the city, and 2500 residents live within 3 km with a further 350,000 living within 7 km of the factory. The current PCDD/F pollution of the site and the continuing releases highlight the urgent need for further investigations, for the site to be secured and for the contamination to be remediated. The production history of the plant means that also other unintentionally POPs, mercury and chlorinated solvents need to be considered. The current regulatory framework for PCDD/F-contaminated soil and for defining hazardous waste in the Russian Federation is not appropriate for the management of PCDD/F-contaminated sites. It is therefore suggested that a science-based regulatory framework should be developed. The Russian Federation recently ratified the Stockholm Convention providing a foundation for the development of appropriate regulations and for further assessment, securing and remediation of the site. The impacts of pollution from the Khimprom plant demonstrate that the assessment and management of the organochlorine production sites should be a priority in the implementation of the Stockholm Convention by the Russian Federation and other countries.

  13. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a Farm-Scale Biogas Plant Supplied with Manure from Paratuberculosis-Affected Dairy Cattle▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (101 cells/g) was demonstrated in all anaerobic fermentors and digestate 16 months after initiation of work at a biogas plant, using IS900 qPCR. F57 qPCR was able to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (102 cells/g) at up to 12 months. According to these results, a fermentation process that extended beyond 2 months removed all viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and therefore rendered its product M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free. However, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was found during all the examined periods (more than 1 year), which could be explained by either residual DNA being released from dead cells or by the presence of viable cells whose amount was under the limit of cultivability. As the latter hypothesis cannot be excluded, the safety of the final products of digestion used for fertilization or animal bedding cannot be defined, and further investigation is necessary to confirm or refute this risk. PMID:21398476

  14. Characterization and assessment of contaminated soil and groundwater at an organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-04-01

    Contamination from organic chemical plants can cause serious pollution of soil and groundwater ecosystems. To characterize soil contamination and to evaluate the health risk posed by groundwater at a typical organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, China, 91 soil samples and seven groundwater samples were collected. The concentrations of different contaminants and their three-dimensional distribution were determined based on the 3D-krige method. Groundwater chemistry risk index (Chem RI) and cancer risk were calculated based on TRIAD and RBCA models. The chemistry risk indices of groundwater points SW5, SW18, SW22, SW39, SW52, SW80, and SW82 were 0.4209, 0.9972, 0.9324, 0.9990, 0.9991, 1.0000, and 1.0000, respectively, indicating that the groundwater has poor environmental status. By contrast, the reference Yangtse River water sample showed no pollution with a Chem RI of 0.1301. Benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were the main contaminants in the groundwater and were responsible for the elevated cancer risk. The cumulative health risk of groundwater points (except SW5 and SW18) were all higher than the acceptable baselines of 10(-6), which indicates that the groundwater poses high cancer risk. Action is urgently required to control and remediate the risk for human health and groundwater ecosystems.

  15. Arsenic in soils and plants of woodland regenerated on an arsenic-contaminated substrate. A sustainable natural remediation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejon, Paula; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Plant As accumulation at three As-polluted sites where spontaneous re-vegetation has taken place is examined. Each site had a different source of soil As (coal fly ash, LeBlanc process waste, canal dredging). Plant analysis indicates that soil-plant As transfer is poor at each site. Any mobile As is retained in root tissues, with little transfer to shoots. Bryophytes, pteridophytes, herbaceous and woody plants sampled at each site predominantly showed As concentrations of < 3 mg kg{sup -} {sup 1} dry wt, whilst total soil As ranged between 50 and 220 mg kg{sup -} {sup 1} dry wt. Risk associated with food chain transfer at these sites is low when compared to other routes such as direct ingestion/inhalation of As-contaminated particulates re-entrained from an unvegetated or unstable substrate. (author)

  16. Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Soil Using Willow: Exploiting Plant-Associated Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production and Metal Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jolien; Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Beckers, Bram; Meiresonne, Linda; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar is proposed for economic valorization and concurrently as remediation strategy for metal contaminated land in northeast-Belgium. However, metal phytoextraction appears insufficient to effectuate rapid reduction of soil metal contents. To increase both biomass production and metal accumulation of SRC, two strategies are proposed: (i) in situ selection of the best performing clones and (ii) bioaugmentation of these clones with beneficial plant-associated bacteria. Based on field data, two experimental willow clones, a Salix viminalis and a Salix alba x alba clone, were selected. Compared to the best performing commercial clones, considerable increases in stem metal extraction were achieved (up to 74% for Cd and 91% for Zn). From the selected clones, plant-associated bacteria were isolated and identified. All strains were subsequently screened for their plant growth-promoting and metal uptake enhancing traits. Five strains were selected for a greenhouse inoculation experiment with the selected clones planted in Cd-Zn-Pb contaminated soil. Extraction potential tended to increase after inoculation of S. viminalis plants with a Rahnella sp. strain due to a significantly increased twig biomass. However, although bacterial strains showing beneficial traits in vitro were used for inoculation, increments in extraction potential were not always observed.

  17. Enhancing plant-microbe associated bioremediation of phenanthrene and pyrene contaminated soil by SDBS-Tween 80 mixed surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hewei; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2014-05-01

    The use of surfactants to enhance plant-microbe associated dissipation in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a promising bioremediation technology. This comparative study was conducted on the effects of plant-microbe treatment on the removal of phenanthrene and pyrene from contaminated soil, in the presence of low concentration single anionic, nonionic and anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and Tween 80 were chosen as representative anionic and nonionic surfactants, respectively. We found that mixed surfactants with concentrations less than 150 mg/kg were more effective in promoting plant-microbe associated bioremediation than the same amount of single surfactants. Only about (m/m) of mixed surfactants was needed to remove the same amount of phenanthrene and pyrene from either the planted or unplanted soils, when compared to Tween 80. Mixed surfactants (Tween 80. These results may be explained by the lower sorption loss and reduced interfacial tension of mixed surfactants relative to Tween 80, which enhanced the bioavailability of PAHs in soil and the microbial degradation efficiency. The higher remediation efficiency of low dosage SDBS-Tween 80 mixed surfactants thus advanced the technology of surfactant-enhanced plant-microbe associated bioremediation.

  18. Bioaccumulation of zinc, lead, copper, and cadmium from contaminated sediments by native plant species and Acrida cinerea in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Song, Na; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jia-Chao; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, An-Wei; Zhen, Jia-Mei

    2014-03-01

    This research was conducted to search and identify spontaneously growing heavy metal-tolerant plant species that are potentially useful for phytoremediation in contaminated sediment. Five sites were selected for collection of plants growing on polluted shore (river bank) sediment of the Xiang River, China. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in plants, sediments, and grasshoppers were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS700, Perkin-Elmer, USA). Considering translocation factor and bioaccumulation factor, Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae), Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae), and Lagopsis supina (Labiatae) could be potentially useful for phytostabilization of metals. R. crispus can be considered potentially useful for phytoextraction of Cd. In light of the biomagnification factors, grasshoppers are deconcentrators for Pb and Cd, microconcentrators for Zn and macroconcentrators for Cu to the plants, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd accumulation in R. crispus and L. supina, providing a pioneer contribution to the very small volume of data available on the potential use of native plant species from contaminated sediments in phytostabilization and phytoremediation technologies.

  19. The effects of simultaneous application of plant growth regulators and bioaugmentation on improvement of phytoremediation of pyrene contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Saeid; Azhdarpoor, Abooalfazl; Rostami, Majid; Samaei, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refer to a wide group of soil contaminants whose presence in the environment is a cause of concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the phytoremediation activities of sorghum bicolor and increase in pyrene removal efficiency in the soil. The initial concentration of pyrene was 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) in this experiment. The treatments included unplanted soil (T0), planted soil with sorghum (T1), planted soil with application of IAA (T2), planted soil with application of Pseudomonas sp. (T3), and planted soil with simultaneous application of IAA and Pseudomonas sp. (T4). The pyrene removal rate in the soil was measured every 30 days. Moreover, plant biomass and soil bacteria were measured after 90 days. The results showed that pyrene removal rate significantly increased in the planted treatments compared to the unplanted ones. After 90 days, at the initial concentration of 150-300 mg kg(-1), pyrene removal efficiency was 52-92% in T1-T4 and 35-47% in the unplanted treatment (T0). Application of IAA and Pseudomonas sp. significantly increased plant biomass, soil bacteria, and pyrene removal rate in T2, T3, and T4 compared to T1. Therefore, application of IAA in the planted treatments with sorghum could have a significant effect on increasing the removal efficiency of pyrene.

  20. Effect of compost and manure amendments on zinc soil speciation, plant content, and translocation in an artificially contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Chami, Ziad; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-07-01

    The addition of organic matter in soil can modify the bioavailability of heavy metals. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out using an edible plant species Eruca vesicaria L. Cavalieri grown on an artificially contaminated soil with Zn (665 mg kg(-1)). In this study, the effect of compost at 20 t ha(-1) (C20) and at 60 t ha(-1) (C60), manure at 10 t ha(-1) (M10) and at 30 t ha(-1) (M30), and chemical fertilizers (NPK) on Zn fate in a soil-plant system was evaluated. At the end of the experiment, the main growth parameters and Zn content in plants were determined. In addition, Zn speciation in the soil was assessed using the original Community Bureau of Reference sequential extraction and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid extraction. Zinc, though an essential element for plant growth, caused toxicity effects in plants grown on control and manure treatments, while in the compost treatments, plants showed no visual toxicity symptoms. The concentrations of Zn in roots were similar for all treatments, while significant differences were observed for shoots. In fact, in the compost treatments, plants showed the lowest Zn concentration in shoots. Zinc speciation seems not to be affected by the applied treatments. Indeed, Zn plant content and translocation to shoots seems to be affected. Compost amendments significantly reduced Zn content and translocation in comparison to other treatments.

  1. A geoprocessing model for the selection of populations most affected by diffuse industrial contamination: the case of oil refinery plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pasetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. A method to select populations living in areas affected by diffuse environmental contamination is presented, with particular regard to oil refineries, in the Italian context. The reasons to use municipality instead of census tract populations for environment and health small-area studies of contaminated sites are discussed. METHODS. Populations most affected by diffuse environmental contamination are identified through a geoprocessing model. Data from the national census 2001 were used to estimate census tract level populations. A geodatabase was developed using the municipality and census tract layers provided by the Italian National Bureau of Statistics (ISTAT. The orthophotos of the Italian territory - year 2006 - available on the geographic information systems (GIS of the National Cartographic Portal, were considered. The area within 2 km from the plant border was used as an operational definition to identify the area at major contamination. RESULTS. The geoprocessing model architecture is presented. The results of its application to the selection of municipality populations in a case study are shown. CONCLUSIONS. The application of the proposed geoprocessing model, the availability of long time series of mortality and morbidity data, and a quali-quantitative estimate of contamination over time, could allow an appraisal of the health status of populations affected by oil refinery emissions.

  2. Assessment of contamination of soil due to heavy metals around coal fired thermal power plants at Singrauli region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prashant; Mittal, Anugya; Prakash, Rajiv; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, T B; Tripathi, S K

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to measure contamination of soil around four large coal-based Thermal Power Plants. The concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was estimated in all four directions from Thermal Power Plants. The soil in the study area was found to be contaminated to varying degrees from coal combustion byproducts. The soil drawn from various selected sites in each direction was largely contaminated by metals, predominantly higher within 2-4 km distance from Thermal Power Plant. Within 2-4 km, the mean maximum concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was 0.69, 13.69, 17.76, and 3.51 mg/kg, respectively. It was also observed that concentration was maximum in the prevalent wind direction. The concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was highest 0.69, 13.23, 17.29 and 3.56 mg/kg, respectively in west direction where wind was prevalent.

  3. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  4. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin; Qian, Linbo [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Science; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are largely accumulated in soils in China. The immobilized-microorganism technique (IMT) is a potential approach for abating soil contamination with PAHs. However, few studies about the application of IMT to contaminated soil remediation were reported. Due to recalcitrance to decomposition, biochar application to soil may enhance soil carbon sequestration, but few studies on the application of biochars to remediation of contaminated soil were reported. In this study, we illustrated enhanced bioremediation of soil having a long history of PAH contamination by IMT using plant residues and biochars as carriers. Two PAH-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and an unidentified indigenous bacterium, were selected for IMT. The extractability and biodegradation of 15 PAHs in solution and an actual PAH-contaminated soil amended with immobilized-bacteria materials were investigated under different incubation periods. The effects of carriers and the molecular weight of PAHs on bioremediation efficiency were determined to illustrate their different bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs in soil. The IMT can considerably enhance the removal of PAHs. Carriers impose different effects on PAH bio-dissipation by amended soil with immobilized-bacteria, which can directly degrade the carrier-associated PAHs. The removal of PAHs from soil depended on PAH molecular weight and carrier types. Enhanced bio-dissipation by IMT was much stronger for 4- and 5-ring PAHs than for 3- and 6-ring ones in soil. Only P400 biochar-immobilized bacteria enhanced bio-dissipation of all PAHs in contaminated soil after a 90-day incubation. Biochar can promote bioremediation of contaminated soil as microbial carriers of IMT. It is vital to select an appropriate biochar as an immobilized carrier to stimulate biodegradation. It is feasible to use adsorption carriers with high sorptive capabilities to concentrate PAHs as well as microorganisms and thereby enhance

  5. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge on the Highveld of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Naude

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30 % drop in milk yield occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n = 240 and n = 150 milking cows, respectively on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n = 5 fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28 % on dry matter base of the TMR. The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively. The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that

  6. Airborne peptidoglycans as a supporting indicator of bacterial contamination in a metal processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Cyprowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins and peptidoglycans (PGs as well as possibility of using PGs as a surrogate measure of bacterial exposure in workplaces in a metal processing plant. Material and Methods: Personal dosimetry (N = 11 was used to obtain data on concentrations of viable bacteria, total number of bioaerosol particles, endotoxins and peptidoglycans. To investigate the size distributions of aerosol particles responsible for transport of endotoxins and PGs, air samples (N = 5 were additionally collected using the 8-stage cascade impactor. Endotoxins and PGs were assayed with the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL test and a kinetic version of the silkworm larvae plasma (SLP test, respectively. Results: Median concentrations of airborne PGs (14.6 ng/m3, endotoxins (0.2 ng/m3, viable bacteria (1.16×103 CFU/m3 and the total number of bioaerosol particles (1.81×106 cells/m3 were determined. Qualitative analysis revealed presence of 19 bacterial species belonging to 14 genera. The calculations showed strong, significant correlations (p < 0.05 between endotoxins, viable bacteria (r = 0.75 and the total number of bioaerosol particle concentrations (r = 0.76 as well as between PGs and the total number of bioaerosol particle concentrations (r = 0.72. Size distribution analysis showed that the highest concentrations of bacterial aerosols occurred in the range of 2.1–3.3 μm. In the case of endotoxins, an increase of concentrations in 2 ranges of aerodynamic diameters: 1.1–3.3 μm and 5.8–9 μm was shown. For PGs there was a visible gradual increase of their concentrations in the range 2.1–9 μm. Conclusions: Peptidoglycans can be treated as a supporting indicator of bacterial contamination in metal processing plants, particularly when an assessment of an immunotoxic potential of microbiological hazards needs to be performed. However, to be extrapolated to other occupational and non

  7. Effect of biotic lignin decomposition on the fate of radiocesium-contaminated plant litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Yoshihara, Toshihiro [Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko 1646, Abiko-shi, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Fungi are the most important components in the fate of radionuclides deposited in forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Pruned woody parts and litter contain a considerable amount of radiocesium. Studies that focused on the migration of radiocesium have demonstrated that its ecological half-life is lower in the humus layer than in the deeper soil zone, suggesting a substantial contribution of litter decomposition on the mobilization of radiocesium. Furthermore, white-rot fungi appear to play a key role in the mobilization of radiocesium because they are the primary source of enzymes necessary to degrade the litter organic matter. Cell walls are the primary component of plant litter; they are composed of cellulose, hemi-cellulose, and lignin. Although cellulose is the most abundant organic compound in litter, the strength of the cell wall is limited by rigid hemi-cellulose complexes that protect the surrounding cellulose microfibrils. In the cell wall, lignin fills the spaces between cellulose and hemi-cellulose; thus, the biotic degradation of lignin could be considered a primary step in litter decomposition. The contribution of the amount of lignin on the fate of radiocesium has not been identified, which limits the possibility of predicting the effect of the bacterial community structure that determines the biodegradation activity of lignin on the vertical migration of radiocesium. Here, we directly addressed the role of lignin as controller of the distribution of radiocesium in soil-ecosystems. Radiocesium-contaminated litter samples were collected with traps set under the target stands, i.e., Japanese flowering cherry trees (Prunus x yedoensis cv. Somei-Yoshino) and Japanese cedars (Cryptomeria japonica) at Abiko (Laboratory of Environmental Science, CRIEPI) located approximately 200 km SSW from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. The litter samples were inoculated with white-rot fungi having ligno-celluloses-degrading activity, i

  8. Rainfall erosivity in catchments contaminated with fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Cerdan, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 resulted in the fallout of significant quantities of radiocesium over the Fukushima region. After reaching the soil surface, radiocesium is quickly bound to fine soil particles. Thereafter, rainfall and snowmelt run-off events transfer particle-bound radiocesium downstream. Characterizing the precipitation regime of the fallout-impacted region is thus important for understanding post-deposition radiocesium dynamics. Accordingly, 10 min (1995-2015) and daily precipitation data (1977-2015) from 42 meteorological stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP were analyzed. Monthly rainfall erosivity maps were developed to depict the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall erosivity for catchments entirely contained within this radius. The mean average precipitation in the region surrounding the FDNPP is 1420 mm yr-1 (SD 235) with a mean rainfall erosivity of 3696 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 1327). Tropical cyclones contribute 22 % of the precipitation (422 mm yr-1) and 40 % of the rainfall erosivity (1462 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 637)). The majority of precipitation (60 %) and rainfall erosivity (82 %) occurs between June and October. At a regional scale, rainfall erosivity increases from the north to the south during July and August, the most erosive months. For the remainder of the year, this gradient occurs mostly from northwest to southeast. Relief features strongly influence the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity at a smaller scale, with the coastal plains and coastal mountain range having greater rainfall erosivity than the inland Abukuma River valley. Understanding these patterns, particularly their spatial and temporal (both inter- and intraannual) variation, is important for contextualizing soil and particle-bound radiocesium transfers in the Fukushima region. Moreover, understanding the impact of tropical cyclones will be important for managing sediment and sediment-bound contaminant

  9. The influence of a formula supplemented with dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in healthy full-term infants: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Giannì Maria; Roggero Paola; Baudry Charlotte; Ligneul Amandine; Morniroli Daniela; Garbarino Francesca; le Ruyet Pascale; Mosca Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human milk is the optimal nutrition for infants. When breastfeeding is not possible, supplementation of infant formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to promote neurodevelopmental outcome and visual function. Plant oils, that are the only source of fat in most of infant formulas, do not contain specific fatty acids that are present in human and cow milk and do not encounter milk fat triglyceride structure. Experimental data suggest that a mix of dairy ...

  10. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  11. Occurrence of Bacillus cereus in raw milk receiving from UF-Feta Cheese Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhila Moradi-Khatoonabadi

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: It seems that for classifying raw milk quality, AeSC might be used as a more effective quality factor than TVC. Management commitment is effective to improve quality by balance between the amount and quality of receiving raw milk. This leads to the lower contamination in dairy plants and final products.

  12. Effects of local-scale decontamination in a secondary forest contaminated after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether local-scale decontamination (removal of the litter layer, superficial soil layer, and understory) in a secondary forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reduced (137)Cs contamination of the soil and litter. We also measured (137)Cs concentrations in plants and in the web-building spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida), as an indicator species, to examine (137)Cs contamination in arthropods. One month after decontamination, the total (137)Cs contamination (soil + litter) was reduced by 20% (100 kBq·m(-2)) relative to that in an adjacent untreated (i.e., contaminated) area, which was however not statistically significant. Four months after decontamination, (137)Cs in the decontaminated area had increased to a level similar to those in the untreated area, and the air radiation dose in the decontaminated area was about 2.1 μSv·h(-1), significantly higher than that in the untreated area (1.9 μSv·h(-1)). This may have been attributed to a torrential rain event. Although no statistically significant reduction was observed, most spiders had a lower (137)Cs contamination than that before the decontamination. This implied that the decontamination may have reduced (137)Cs transfer from soil via litter to N. clavata through the detrital food chains, but may not have reduced the amount of (137)Cs transfer through grazing food chains because the concentration of (137)Cs in living tree leaves was not reduced by the decontamination. In autumn, about 2 kBq·m(-2) of (137)Cs was supplied from foliage to the ground by litterfall. The results suggested that removal of the litter and superficial soil layers in a contaminated forest may be ineffective. The present study suggests that the local-scale decontamination in a secondary forest had no effect on the reduction of (137)Cs contamination in the treated area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phosphate Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Effects on Water Quality, Plant Uptake, and Lead Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality threats associated with using phosphate-based amendments to remediate Pb-contaminated soils are a concern, particularly in riparian areas. This study investigated the effects of P application rates to a Pb-contaminated alluvial soil on Pb and P loss via surface wat...

  14. Microbial and plant ecology of a long-term TNT-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, Emma R. [Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bower Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.travis@bio.gla.ac.uk; Bruce, Neil C. [CNAP, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ncb5@york.ac.uk; Rosser, Susan J. [Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bower Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.rosser@bio.gla.ac.uk

    2008-05-15

    The contamination of the environment with explosive residues presents a serious ecological problem at sites across the world, with the highly toxic compound trinitrotoluene (TNT) the most widespread contaminant. This study examines the soil microbial community composition across a long-term TNT-contaminated site. It also investigates the extent of nitroaromatic contamination and its effect on vegetation. Concentrations of TNT and its metabolites varied across the site and this was observed to dramatically impact on the extent and diversity of the vegetation, with the most heavily contaminated area completely devoid of vegetation. Bryophytes were seen to be particularly sensitive to TNT contamination. The microbial population experienced both a reduction in culturable bacterial numbers and a shift in composition at the high concentrations of TNT. DGGE and community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) revealed a clear change in both the genetic and functional diversity of the soil when soil was contaminated with TNT. - Long-term contamination of soil with TNT reduces the extent and diversity of vegetation, decreases culturable bacterial numbers and shifts the microbial community composition.

  15. The effects of calcium hydroxide-treated whole-plant and fractionated corn silage on intake, digestion, and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D E; Bender, R W; Shinners, K J; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate, in dairy cattle, the effects of calcium hydroxide treatment of whole-plant corn and a treatment applied to the bottom stalk fraction of the corn plant, achieved by harvesting corn in 2 crop streams. The treatments were calcium hydroxide-treated corn silage (TRTCS), toplage supplemented with calcium hydroxide-treated stalklage (TPL), a positive control of brown midrib corn silage (BMR), and a negative control of conventional whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). The toplage was harvested at a height of 82 cm with 2 of the 6 rows set as ear-snapping to incorporate higher tissues into the stalklage. Stalklage was harvested at 12 cm, and other corn silages were harvested at 27 cm. Sixteen pens, each with 8 Holstein cows averaging 70±25 d in milk and 46±11 kg of milk d(-1), were assigned 4 per treatment in a completely randomized design. The diet was approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate on a dry matter basis. A 2-wk covariate period with conventional corn silage was followed by an 8-wk treatment period in which the 4 corn silage treatments were the only effective difference in diets. Cows fed TPL and TRTCS consumed more (1.9 and 1.4 kg of organic matter d(-1), respectively) than did cows fed WPCS. Milk yield was greater for cows fed BMR, TPL, and TRTCS. Cows fed BMR and TPL produced 2.9 and 2.7 kg d(-1), respectively, more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed WPCS, and cows fed TRTCS had the greatest ECM production (4.8 kg of ECM d(-1) greater than cows fed WPCS). No differences in body weight or body condition scored were observed. Milk fat concentration was similar among treatments and milk protein concentration was reduced for TRTCS. Starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were greater for cows fed TRTCS.

  16. Contrasting the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from hydrocarbon-contaminated and uncontaminated soils following willow (Salix spp. L.) planting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saad El-Din; Bell, Terrence H; Stefani, Franck O P; Denis, David; Hijri, Mohamed; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive alternative to chemical treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but its success depends heavily on identifying factors that govern the success of root-associated microorganisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth stimulation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with many terrestrial plants, and are known to stimulate plant growth, although both species identity and the environment influence this relationship. Although AMF are suspected to play a role in plant adaptation to hydrocarbon contamination, their distribution in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is not well known. In this study, we examined how AMF communities were structured within the rhizosphere of 11 introduced willow cultivars as well as unplanted controls across uncontaminated and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at the site of a former petrochemical plant. We obtained 69 282 AMF-specific 18S rDNA sequences using 454-pyrosequencing, representing 27 OTUs. Contaminant concentration was the major influence on AMF community structure, with different AMF families dominating at each contaminant level. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in each sample represented a large proportion of the total community, and this proportion was positively associated with increasing contamination, and seemingly, by planting as well. The most contaminated soils were dominated by three phylotypes closely related to Rhizophagus irregularis, while these OTUs represented only a small proportion of sequences in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils. These results suggest that in situ inoculation of AMF strains could be an important component of phytoremediation treatments, but that strains should be selected from the narrow group that is both adapted to contaminant toxicity and able to compete with indigenous AMF species.

  17. Contrasting the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from hydrocarbon-contaminated and uncontaminated soils following willow (Salix spp. L. planting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad El-Din Hassan

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive alternative to chemical treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but its success depends heavily on identifying factors that govern the success of root-associated microorganisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth stimulation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form symbioses with many terrestrial plants, and are known to stimulate plant growth, although both species identity and the environment influence this relationship. Although AMF are suspected to play a role in plant adaptation to hydrocarbon contamination, their distribution in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is not well known. In this study, we examined how AMF communities were structured within the rhizosphere of 11 introduced willow cultivars as well as unplanted controls across uncontaminated and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at the site of a former petrochemical plant. We obtained 69 282 AMF-specific 18S rDNA sequences using 454-pyrosequencing, representing 27 OTUs. Contaminant concentration was the major influence on AMF community structure, with different AMF families dominating at each contaminant level. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in each sample represented a large proportion of the total community, and this proportion was positively associated with increasing contamination, and seemingly, by planting as well. The most contaminated soils were dominated by three phylotypes closely related to Rhizophagus irregularis, while these OTUs represented only a small proportion of sequences in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils. These results suggest that in situ inoculation of AMF strains could be an important component of phytoremediation treatments, but that strains should be selected from the narrow group that is both adapted to contaminant toxicity and able to compete with indigenous AMF species.

  18. Effective pre-treatment of dairy wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Drev, Darko; Panjan, Jože

    2012-01-01

    Milk processing effluents typically present a considerable burden to the environemnt. The level of burden can be determined with the use of ATV (Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen), VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure) and BAT (Best Available Techniques) standards, or via operational monitoring. Water emissions from dairy plants are associated with high water pollution costs. In our survey of dairy processing plants, we found water emissions in excess of ATV and BAT standard predictions. ...

  19. Pilot plant investigations on cleaning efficiencies to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination in industrial manufacture of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Ibach, Anja; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Janise, Annabella; Suwelack, Carola; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Shared equipment in industrial food manufacture has repeatedly been described as a potential source of unlabeled food allergens, i.e., hidden allergens. However, the impact of shared equipment on allergen cross-contamination is basically unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate systematically the extent of hazelnut cross-contamination in fine bakery wares as a model. A product change from cookies with 10% hazelnut to cookies without hazelnuts was simulated on pilot plant equipment. The extent of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each production device (kneaders, rotary molder, wire cutting machine, and steel band oven) and various cleaning procedures used between products. The experiments were performed repeatedly with finely ground hazelnuts and with roughly chopped hazelnut kernels. Cross-contamination from chopped kernels was distributed statistically but not homogeneously, and sampling and analysis with the ELISA was therefore not reproducible. Further analysis concentrated on homogenously distributed HNCC from ground hazelnut. Apart from product changes without intermediate cleaning, the highest HNCC was found after mechanical scraping: Up to 100 mg/kg hazelnut protein was found in the follow-up product after processing by one machine. After additional cleaning with hot water, the HNCC decreased regardless of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg/kg hazelnut protein. In our pilot plant study, the application of an appropriate wet cleaning procedure in combination with quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency reduced the hazelnut protein cross-contamination to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  20. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Klop, Arie; Herbes, Rik; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Zeilmaker, Marco J; van Vuuren, Ad M; Traag, Wim A

    2015-10-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated by a fire with PVC materials, and with sugar beet pulp contaminated by drying with coal, containing particles from a plastic roof. Levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in the maize silage were 0.93 and 0.25 ng TEQ kg(-1), those in beet pulp 1.90 and 0.15 ng TEQ kg(-1) (both on 88% dry matter (DM)). Dairy cows (3 per treatment) received either 16.8 kg DM per day of maize silage or 5.6 kg DM per day of sugar beet pellets for a 33-d period, followed by clean feed for 33 days. This resulted in a rapid increase of PCDD/F levels in milk within the first 10 days with levels at day 33 of respectively 2.6 and 1.7 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for maize silage and beet pulp. Levels of dl-PCBs at day 33 were lower, 1.0 and 0.5 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. In the case of the maize silage, the carry-over rates (CORs) at the end of the exposure were calculated to be 25% and 32% for the PCDD/F- and dl-PCB-TEQ, respectively. For the dried beet pulp the CORs were 18% and 35%. This study shows that the carry-over of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs formed during drying processes or fires can be substantial.

  1. Losses of Sr/sup 90/, Sr/sup 89/, and I/sup 131/ from fallout-contaminated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.E.

    1964-11-01

    During the early period following local fallout, and during periods of maximal worldwide fallout, the entry of radionuclides into terrestrial food-chains is due primarily to the external contamination of plants and secondarily to the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated soil. Studies were undertaken to estimate the rates of radionuclide loss from fallout-contaminated vegetation and hence from the diets of herbivores living in a fallout field. On the fifth, fifteenth, thirtieth, and sixtieth days after an underground nuclear explosion (Operation Sedan) at the Nevada Test Site, plant samples were collected from twenty representative locations in the fallout field and analyzed to determined the concentrations (pc/g dry wt) of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 89/Sr, and /sup 131/I at the times of collections. While the radioactive half lives of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 89/Sr, and /sup 131/I are approximately 27.7 years, 53 days, and 8.04 days respectively, their average effective half-lives on fallout-contaminated plants, during the period from 5 to 30 days after the detonation, were 27.8 days, 17.8 days, and 5.0 days respectively. Losses of /sup 90/Sr were attributed to radioactive decay and to the removal of fallout particles and foliage by wind and/or other mechanical disturbances. Losses of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr were attributed to radioactive decay and to the removal of fallout particles and foliage by wind and/or other mechanical disturbances. Losses of /sup 131/I were attributed to radioactive decay, to mechanical disturbance, and to the vaporization of /sup 131/I from the fallout particles retained on foliage.

  2. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  3. Contamination of wild plants near neonicotinoid seed-treated crops, and implications for non-target insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botías, Cristina; David, Arthur; Hill, Elizabeth M; Goulson, Dave

    2016-10-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly-used as seed treatments on flowering crops such as oilseed rape. Their persistence and solubility in water increase the chances of environmental contamination via surface-runoff or drainage into areas adjacent to the crops. However, their uptake and fate into non-target vegetation remains poorly understood. In this study, we analysed samples of foliage collected from neonicotinoid seed-treated oilseed rape plants and also compared the levels of neonicotinoid residues in foliage (range: 1.4-11ng/g) with the levels found in pollen collected from the same plants (range: 1.4-22ng/g). We then analysed residue levels in foliage from non-target plants growing in the crop field margins (range: ≤0.02-106ng/g). Finally, in order to assess the possible risk posed by the peak levels of neonicotinoids that we detected in foliage for farmland phytophagous and predatory insects, we compared the maximum concentrations found against the LC50 values reported in the literature for a set of relevant insect species. Our results suggest that neonicotinoid seed-dressings lead to widespread contamination of the foliage of field margin plants with mixtures of neonicotinoid residues, where levels are very variable and discontinuous, but sometimes overlap with lethal concentrations reported for some insect species. Understanding the distribution of pesticides in the environment and their potential effects on biological communities is crucial to properly assess current agricultural management and schemes with biodiversity conservation aims in farmland.

  4. Colonization on root surface by a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium and its application for reducing plant phenanthrene contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    Full Text Available A phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium, Pn2, was isolated from Alopecurus aequalis Sobol grown in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Based on morphology, physiological characteristics and the 16S rRNA gene sequence, it was identified as Massilia sp. Strain Pn2 could degrade more than 95% of the phenanthrene (150 mg · L(-1 in a minimal salts medium (MSM within 48 hours at an initial pH of 7.0 and a temperature of 30 °C. Pn2 could grow well on the MSM plates with a series of other PAHs, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, and degrade them to different degrees. Pn2 could also colonize the root surface of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam, invade its internal root tissues and translocate into the plant shoot. When treated with the endophyte Pn2 under hydroponic growth conditions with 2 mg · L(-1 of phenanthrene in the Hoagland solution, the phenanthrene concentrations in ryegrass roots and shoots were reduced by 54% and 57%, respectively, compared with the endophyte-free treatment. Strain Pn2 could be a novel and useful bacterial resource for eliminating plant PAH contamination in polluted environments by degrading the PAHs inside plants. Furthermore, we provide new perspectives on the control of the plant uptake of PAHs via endophytic bacteria.

  5. Root development of non-accumulating and hyperaccumulating plants in metal-contaminated soils amended with biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Frédéric; Sterckeman, Thibault; Morel, Jean Louis

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may be used as an amendment in contaminated soils in phytoremediation processes. The mechanisms controlling plant metal uptake in biochar-amended soils remain however unclear. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of biochar on root development and its consequence on plant metal uptake, for two non-hyperaccumulating plants (Zea mays and Lolium perenne) and one hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn (Noccaea caerulescens). We conducted rhizobox experiments using one acidic and one alkaline soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn. Biochar was present either homogeneously in the whole soil profile or localized in specific zones. A phenomenon of root proliferation specific to biochar-amended zones was seen on the heterogeneous profiles of the acidic soil and interpreted by a decrease of soil phytotoxicity in these zones. Biochar amendments also favored root growth in the alkaline soil as a result of the lower availability of certain nutrients in the amended soil. This increase of root surface led to a higher accumulation of metals in roots of Z.mays in the acidic soil and in shoots of N. caerulescens in the alkaline soil. In conclusion, biochar can have antagonist effects on plant metal uptake by decreasing metal availability, on one hand, and by increasing root surface and inducing root proliferation, on the other hand.

  6. Phytomanagement of Cd-contaminated soils using maize (Zea mays L.) assisted by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Marques, Ana P G C; Franco, Albina R; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-01-01

    Zea mays (L.) is a crop widely cultivated throughout the world and can be considered suitable for phytomanagement due to its metal resistance and energetic value. In this study, the effect of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Ralstonia eutropha and Chryseobacterium humi, on growth and metal uptake of Z. mays plants in soils contaminated with up to 30 mg Cd kg(-1) was evaluated. Bacterial inoculation increased plant biomass up to 63% and led to a decrease of up to 81% in Cd shoot levels (4-88 mg Cd kg(-1)) and to an increase of up to 186% in accumulation in the roots (52-134 mg Cd kg(-1)). The rhizosphere community structure changed throughout the experiment and varied with different levels of Cd soil contamination, as revealed by molecular biology techniques. Z. mays plants inoculated with either of the tested strains may have potential application in a strategy of soil remediation, in particular short-term phytostabilization, coupled with biomass production for energy purposes.

  7. Bioaccumulation and phyto-translocation of arsenic, chromium and zinc by Jatropha curcas L.: impact of dairy sludge and biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Juwarkar, Asha A; Kumar, G Phani; Thawale, Prashant R; Singh, Sanjeev K; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-10-01

    The present study was planned to remediate the metalloid and metal contaminated soil by using non-edible and economic plant species Jatropha curcas L. The experiment was conducted on pots to improve the survival rate, metal tolerance and growth response of the plant on soil; having different concentrations of arsenic, chromium and zinc. The soil was amended with dairy sludge and bacterial inoculum (Azotobacter chroococcum) as biofertilizer. The results of the study showed that the bioaccumulation potential was increased with increase in metalloid and metal concentration in soil system. Application of dairy sludge significantly reduces the DTPA-extractable As, Cr and Zn concentration in soil. The application of organic amendment stabilizes the As, Cr and Zn and reduced their uptake in plant tissues.

  8. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species.

  9. Remediation of metal-contaminated land for plant cultivation in the Arctic/subarctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gorbacheva, Tamara T.; Ferreira, Carla S.

    2017-04-01

    Hazardous activities and/or industries involve the use, storage or disposal of hazardous substances. These substances can sometimes contaminate the soil, which can remain contaminated for many years. The metals can have severe effects of on ecosystems. In the Arctic/subarctic regions, the Kola Peninsula (66-70°N and 28°30'-41°30'E) in Russia is one of the seriously polluted regions: close to the nickel-copper smelters, the deposition of metal pollutants has severely damaged the soil and ground vegetation, resulting in a desert area. An area of 10-15 km around the smelters on the Kola Peninsula is today dry sandy and stony ground. A great amount of financial aid is usually required to recover theland. Considering cost performance, a pilot-scale (4ha) field test was carried out to investigate how to apply municipal sewage sludge for rehabilitation of degraded land near the Ni-Cu smelter complex on the Kola Peninsula. The above-mentioned field test for soil rehabilitation was performed while smelting activities were going on; thus, the survey fields were suffering from pollution emitted by the metallurgical industry, and may continue to suffer in the future. After the composting of sewage sludge, the artificial substratum made from the compost was introduced to the test field for the polluted-land remediation, and then willows, birches and grasses were planted on the substratum. The following remarkable points in pollution load were observed between the background field and the rehabilitation test field (e.g. polluted land): (i) the annual precipitation amount of SO42- (5668 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was over 5 times greater than that in the background field; (ii) the Pb amount (1.5 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was 29 times greater than that in the background field; (iii) the Co amount (10.9 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was 54 times greater than that in the background field; (iv) the Cu amount (752 g/ha) in the rehabilitation field

  10. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Rubio, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquifer than NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br−) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br− and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly (30−60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20−90% recovered as 14CO2in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  11. Investigation of increased listeriosis revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination in Finland in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakari, U-M; Rantala, L; Pihlajasaari, A; Toikkanen, S; Johansson, T; Hellsten, C; Raulo, S M; Kuusi, M; Siitonen, A; Rimhanen-Finne, R

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, a marked increase in listeriosis incidence was observed in Finland. Listeria monocytogenes PFGE profile 96 was responsible for one-fifth of the reported cases and a cluster of PFGE profile 62 was also detected. Investigations revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination. It appears likely that the plants were at least partly responsible for the increase of listeriosis. Epidemiological investigation revealed that 57% (31/54) of cases with underlying immunosuppressive condition or medication reported eating gravad or cold-smoked fish. Two public notices were issued by THL and Evira informing which groups were most at risk from the effects of listeriosis and should therefore be cautious in consuming certain products. Systematic sampling of foods and adequate epidemiological investigation methods are required to identify the sources of Listeria infections. Continuous control measures at fishery production plants producing risk products are essential.

  12. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals.

  13. Considerations for Managing Agricultural Co-Existence between Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cultivars of Outcrossing Perennial Forage Plants in Dairy Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the major forage species used in agriculture are outcrossing and rely on the exchange of pollen between individuals for reproduction; this includes the major species used for dairy production in grazing systems: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L.. Cultivars of these species have been co-existing since contrasting cultivars were developed using plant breeding, but the consequences and need for strategies to manage co-existence have been made more prominent with the advent of genetic modification. Recent technological developments have seen the experimental evaluation of genetically modified (GM white clover and perennial ryegrass, although there is no current commercial growing of GM cultivars of these species. Co-existence frameworks already exist for two major cross-pollinated grain crops (canola and maize in Europe, and for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in the US, so many of the principles that the industry has developed for co-existence in these crops such as detection techniques, segregation, and agronomic management provide lessons and guidelines for outcrossing forage species, that are discussed in this paper.

  14. Mercury contamination of riverine sediments in the vicinity of a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Sagua River, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Álvarez, Yoelvis; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos Manuel; Morabito, Roberto; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Pinto, Valentina; Gómez-Batista, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Sediment is a great indicator for assessing coastal mercury contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of mercury pollution in the sediments of the Sagua River, Cuba, where a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant has operated since the beginning of the 1980s. Surface sediments and a sediment core were collected in the Sagua River and analyzed for mercury using an Advanced Mercury Analyser (LECO AMA-254). Total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.165 to 97 μg g(-1) dry weight surface sediments. Enrichment Factor (EF), Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and Sediment Quality Guidelines were applied to calculate the degrees of sediment contamination. The EF showed the significant role of anthropogenic mercury inputs in sediments of the Sagua River. The result also determined that in all stations downstream from the chlor-alkali plant effluents, the mercury concentrations in the sediments were higher than the Probable Effect Levels value, indicating a high potential for adverse biological effects. The Igeo index indicated that the sediments in the Sagua River are evaluated as heavily polluted to extremely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material. This study could provide the latest benchmark of mercury pollution and prove beneficial to future pollution studies in relation to monitoring works in sediments from tropical rivers and estuaries.

  15. Potentially toxic element contamination in soil and accumulation in maize plants in a smelter area in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannoni, Francesco; Rossi, Sara; Protano, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A biogeochemical field study was carried out in the industrial area of Kosovska Mitrovica in northern Kosovo, where agricultural soils were contaminated by potentially toxic elements due to smelting activity. Total and bioavailable contents of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, U and Zn in soil and their concentrations in maize roots and grains were determined. Soil contamination by As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn was variable from slightly to highly contaminated soils and influenced both the bioavailable fraction and accumulation of these potentially toxic elements in maize tissues. The comparison between potentially toxic element concentrations in roots and grains indicated that maize is able to limit the transfer of non-essential elements to edible parts. The plant-to-soil bioconcentration indices suggested that the transfer of potentially toxic elements from soil to plant was predicted better by bioavailable concentrations than by the total contents. These indices further identified some competitions and interactions among these elements in root uptake and root-to-grain translocation.

  16. [Health risk analysis of VOC/SVOC contaminated soil in an abandoned chemical plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guan-lin; Wang, Shi-jie; Shi, Lie-yan; Li, Hui-ying; Han, Chun-mei; Gu, Qing-bao; Cao, Yun-zhe; Li, Fa-sheng

    2010-02-01

    Environmental health risk of contaminated soil in a typical abandoned industry was analyzed based on the full field investigation according to the site assessment procedure of American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM). Parameters were modified with the combination of Chinese crowd character and site specifics. Results indicated that the site was mainly contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil profiles. And the contents of carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, pentachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachloroethane and hexachlorobenzene in soil samples were exceeded the national environmental standard. These contaminants ranked the carcinogenic risks and hazard quotients more than 10(-2) and 1 in some locations with the exposure by oral ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation. Contaminants in this site had resulted in the high health risks to the residents and surrounding communities. The risk should be reduced to the health acceptable level by the treatment and remediation before further development for residential and commercial utilization.

  17. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Fou...

  18. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20... Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. An... for payment when dairy products are contaminated by chemicals, toxic substances (other than...

  19. Does a Low-Fat Dairy Habit Boost Parkinson's Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... findings didn't prove that eating dairy products causes Parkinson's. "This was an observational study, so like any ... levels of urate (but not high enough to cause the condition known as gout) are linked with a lower risk of Parkinson's. Contaminants in dairy products, such as pesticides, may ...

  20. A pilot-plant study for destruction of PCBs in contaminated soils using fluidized bed combustion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dilip L; Anthony, Edward J; Wang, Jinsheng

    2007-08-01

    Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils and wastes using circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology was studied using a pilot plant and simulated waste material. The results show that the technology is effective and particularly promising for treatment of PCB-containing materials like the toxic sludge from a large contaminated site. Destruction of the toxics in the gas phase appears to be very fast, and over 99.9999% destruction and removal efficiency can be achieved in the temperature range 875-880 degrees C. Heat transfer in the fluidized bed also appears adequate. Toxic residues in treated soil can be reduced to very low levels. Rate-controlling factors of the decontamination process are analyzed, and key issues for determination of the process conditions are discussed.

  1. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    focuses on the radiation doses that may be received by workers at such a power plant. By Monte Carlo modelling based on a Danish biofuel power plant design it was found that the highest dose rates within the power plant would be those to people standing near the fly ash silo, bottom ash containers and so...

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  3. Remediation and reclamation of soils heavily contaminated with toxic metals as a substrate for greening with ornamental plants and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2015-11-01

    Soils highly contaminated with toxic metals are currently treated as waste despite their potential inherent fertility. We applied EDTA washing technology featuring chelant and process water recovery for remediation of soil with 4037, 2527, and 26 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively in a pilot scale. A high EDTA dose (120 mmol kg(-1) of soil) removed 70%, 15%, and 58% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, and reduced human oral bioaccessibility of Pb below the limit of quantification and that of Zn and Cd 3.4 and 3.2 times. In a lysimeters experiment, the contaminated and remediated soils were laid into two garden beds (4×1×0.15 m) equipped with lysimeters, and subjected to cultivation of ornamental plants: Impatiens walleriana, Tagetes erecta, Pelargonium×peltatum, and Verbena×hybrida and grasses: Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Festuca pratensis. Plants grown on remediated soil demonstrated the same or greater biomass yield and reduced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd up to 10, 2.5 and 9.5 times, respectively, compared to plants cultivated on the original soil. The results suggest that EDTA remediation produced soil suitable for greening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of a formula supplemented with dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in healthy full-term infants: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Roggero, Paola; Baudry, Charlotte; Ligneul, Amandine; Morniroli, Daniela; Garbarino, Francesca; le Ruyet, Pascale; Mosca, Fabio

    2012-10-17

    Human milk is the optimal nutrition for infants. When breastfeeding is not possible, supplementation of infant formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to promote neurodevelopmental outcome and visual function. Plant oils, that are the only source of fat in most of infant formulas, do not contain specific fatty acids that are present in human and cow milk and do not encounter milk fat triglyceride structure. Experimental data suggest that a mix of dairy lipids and plant oils can potentiate endogenous synthesis of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This trial aims to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in full-term infants (primary outcome). Erythrocyte membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level, the gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes throughout the study in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition are evaluated as secondary outcomes. In a double-blind controlled randomized trial, 75 healthy full-term infants are randomly allocated to receive for four months a formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils or a formula containing only plant oils or a formula containing plant oils supplemented with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Twenty-five breast-fed infants constitute the reference group. Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the other fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level are measured after four months of intervention. Gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition, assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system, are also evaluated throughout the study. The achievement of an appropriate long chain

  5. The influence of a formula supplemented with dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in healthy full-term infants: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannì Maria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human milk is the optimal nutrition for infants. When breastfeeding is not possible, supplementation of infant formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to promote neurodevelopmental outcome and visual function. Plant oils, that are the only source of fat in most of infant formulas, do not contain specific fatty acids that are present in human and cow milk and do not encounter milk fat triglyceride structure. Experimental data suggest that a mix of dairy lipids and plant oils can potentiate endogenous synthesis of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This trial aims to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in full-term infants (primary outcome. Erythrocyte membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level, the gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes throughout the study in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition are evaluated as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design In a double-blind controlled randomized trial, 75 healthy full-term infants are randomly allocated to receive for four months a formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils or a formula containing only plant oils or a formula containing plant oils supplemented with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Twenty-five breast-fed infants constitute the reference group. Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the other fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level are measured after four months of intervention. Gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition, assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system, are also evaluated throughout the study

  6. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  7. Heavy metal contamination in soils around the Tunçbilek Thermal Power Plant (Kütahya, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkul, Cafer

    2016-05-01

    Tunçbilek, one of the major thermal power plants (TTPP) in Turkey running on coal, has capacity to generate 365 MW (per year) electricity. Fifty top soil samples were collected from a depth about 0-20 cm in the close vicinity of the TTPP from random points and at different distances. The samples were analyzed using ICP-MS for heavy metals. Heavy metal contents in soils around TTPP varied from 4.4 to 317.5 mg/kg for As, 0.03 to 0.26 mg/kg for Cd, 20.3 to 1028 mg/kg for Cr, 4.8 to 76.8 mg/kg for Cu, 0.09 to 9.3 mg/kg for Hg, 16.6 to 2385 mg/kg for Ni, 4.8 to 58.6 mg/kg for Pb, and 14.5 to 249.5 mg/kg for Zn. Geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF) have been calculated in order to evaluate heavy metal pollution in the soils. According to the I geo calculations, the surface soils around TTPP are contaminated by As, Hg, and Ni from uncontaminated to extremely contaminated. I geo values for Cr show practically uncontaminated to be heavily contaminated. The contamination of soil samples changes from practically uncontaminated to moderately contaminated degree for Pb and Zn. The soil samples were uncontaminated for Cd and Cu metals. The enrichment factors of As, Cr, Hg, and Ni in most of the sampling locations indicate significant to extremely high enrichment. The EF for Pb is also high and indicates moderate to very high enrichment of chromium in the soils. The average EF values for Cd, Cu, and Zn are showing moderate enrichment.

  8. The red mud accident in ajka (hungary): plant toxicity and trace metal bioavailability in red mud contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyters, Stefan; Mertens, Jelle; Vassilieva, Elvira; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, André; Smolders, Erik

    2011-02-15

    The red mud accident of October 4, 2010, in Ajka (Hungary) contaminated a vast area with caustic, saline red mud (pH 12) that contains several toxic trace metals above soil limits. Red mud was characterized and its toxicity for plants was measured to evaluate the soil contamination risks. Red mud radioactivity (e.g., (238)U) is about 10-fold above soil background and previous assessments revealed that radiation risk is limited to indoor radon. The plant toxicity and trace metal availability was tested with mixtures of this red mud and a local noncontaminated soil up to a 16% dry weight fraction. Increasing red mud applications increased soil pH to maximally 8.3 and soil solution EC to 12 dS m(-1). Shoot yield of barley seedlings was affected by 25% at 5% red mud in soil and above. Red mud increased shoot Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ni concentrations; however, none of these exceed toxic limits reported elsewhere. Moreover, NaOH amended reference treatments showed similar yield reductions and similar changes in shoot composition. Foliar diagnostics suggest that Na (>1% in affected plants) is the prime cause of growth effects in red mud and in corresponding NaOH amended soils. Shoot Cd and Pb concentrations decreased by increasing applications or were unaffected. Leaching amended soils (3 pore volumes) did not completely remove the Na injury, likely because soil structure was deteriorated. The foliar composition and the NaOH reference experiment allow concluding that the Na salinity, not the trace metal contamination, is the main concern for this red mud in soil.

  9. CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL OF SPECIFIC IONS IN SOIL TREATED WITH REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDLER MILTON PAIVA DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percolation columns constructed in the Laboratory can predict the degree of contamination in soil due to reject brine disposal and can be a tool for reducing environmental impacts. This study aim to evaluate the mobilization of ions in reject brine from desalination process by reverse osmosis. The mobilization of the contaminant ions in the saline waste was studied in glass percolation columns, which were filled with soil of contrasting textures (eutrophic CAMBISOL, typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, ENTISOL Quartzipsamment. Experiments ware repeated three times each, and the initial and final concentrations of the ion contaminants were analyzed. The pollution potential of this wastewater was determined by the retardation factor and dispersion-diffusion coefficient of K+, Cl- and Na+ for each studied soil. The differences in the displacement curves of the ions present in the saline waste among various soil types were analyzed. The Entisol Quartzipsamment showed a higher forward speed of the ions K+ and Cl- (greater retardation factor, i.e., greater power of the subsurface contamination for these ions. In typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, the ions move with greater ease and therefore produced greater groundwater contamination. In eutrophic CAMBISOL, the low coefficient of diffusion-dispersion in all ions was evaluated (i.e., reduced ion mobility is directly influenced by their exchangeable levels.

  10. Natural attenuation in a slag heap contaminated with cadmium: The role of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C. [Programa de Edafologia. Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo. Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5. Montecillo, Texcoco, Mexico, 56230 (Mexico)], E-mail: carmeng@colpos.mx; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Gutierrez-Castorena, M.C. [Programa de Edafologia. Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo. Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5. Montecillo, Texcoco, Mexico, 56230 (Mexico)

    2009-01-30

    A field study of the natural attenuation occurring in a slag heap contaminated with high available cadmium was carried out. The aims of this research were: to determine plants colonizing this slag heap; to analyze colonization and morphological biodiversity of spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF); to determine spore distribution in undisturbed samples; to know mycelium and glomalin abundance in the rhizosphere of these plants, and to investigate glomalin participation in Cd-stabilization. Forming vegetal islands, 22 different pioneering plant species from 11 families were colonizing the slag heap. The most common plants were species of Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae. Almost all plants were hosting AMF in their roots, and spores belonging to Gigaspora, Glomus, Scutellospora and Acaulospora species were observed. Micromorphological analysis showed that spores were related to decomposing vegetal residues and excrements, which means that mesofauna is contributing to their dispersion in the groundmass. Mycelium mass ranged from 0.11 to 26.3 mg/g, which contained between 13 and 75 mg of glomalin/g. Slag-extracted total glomalin was between 0.36 and 4.74 mg/g. Cadmium sequestered by glomalin extracted from either slag or mycelium was 0.028 mg/g. The ecological implication of these results is that organisms occupying vegetal patches are modifying mine residues, which contribute to soil formation.

  11. Control of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in an Iberian pork processing plant and selection of benzalkonium chloride-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sagrario; López, Victoria; Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the different strains of Listeria monocytogenes collected at an Iberian pork processing plant and to investigate whether their specific characteristics were associated with prolonged survival in the plant. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 29 PFGE types were previously identified during a three-year period. Eight of these PFGE types persisted in the plant during that period. In the present study, a subset of 29 PFGE type strains, which represented the 29 different PFGE types, was further characterized by assessing the potential virulence, and using motility, surface attachment, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. After changing the disinfection procedures in the plant, the isolation rate of L. monocytogenes decreased, and only four of the 29 PFGE types, including three of the eight persistent PFGE types, were found the following year. These four "surviving" PFGE types included three from PCR serogroup IIa that were characterized by their low virulence mutations and low-level resistance to benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Furthermore, these PFGE types comprised the only BAC-resistant isolates found in the study, and they appear to have been selected due to the control of Listeria contamination. The resistance to increased sublethal concentrations of disinfectants may lead to prolonged survival of L. monocytogenes in food plants.

  12. Petroleum Contamination and Plant Identity Influence Soil and Root Microbial Communities While AMF Spores Retrieved from the Same Plants Possess Markedly Different Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Iffis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising in situ green technology based on the use of plants to cleanup soils from organic and inorganic pollutants. Microbes, particularly bacteria and fungi, that closely interact with plant roots play key roles in phytoremediation processes. In polluted soils, the root-associated microbes contribute to alleviation of plant stress, improve nutrient uptake and may either degrade or sequester a large range of soil pollutants. Therefore, improving the efficiency of phytoremediation requires a thorough knowledge of the microbial diversity living in the rhizosphere and in close association with plant roots in both the surface and the endosphere. This study aims to assess fungal ITS and bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity using high-throughput sequencing in rhizospheric soils and roots of three plant species (Solidago canadensis, Populus balsamifera, and Lycopus europaeus growing spontaneously in three petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sedimentation basins. Microbial community structures of rhizospheric soils and roots were compared with those of microbes associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF spores to determine the links between the root and rhizosphere communities and those associated with AMF. Our results showed a difference in OTU richness and community structure composition between soils and roots for both bacteria and fungi. We found that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP concentrations have a significant effect on fungal and bacterial community structures in both soils and roots, whereas plant species identity showed a significant effect only on the roots for bacteria and fungi. Our results also showed that the community composition of bacteria and fungi in soil and roots varied from those associated with AMF spores harvested from the same plants. This let us to speculate that in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils, AMF may release chemical compounds by which they recruit beneficial microbes to tolerate

  13. Petroleum Contamination and Plant Identity Influence Soil and Root Microbial Communities While AMF Spores Retrieved from the Same Plants Possess Markedly Different Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising in situ green technology based on the use of plants to cleanup soils from organic and inorganic pollutants. Microbes, particularly bacteria and fungi, that closely interact with plant roots play key roles in phytoremediation processes. In polluted soils, the root-associated microbes contribute to alleviation of plant stress, improve nutrient uptake and may either degrade or sequester a large range of soil pollutants. Therefore, improving the efficiency of phytoremediation requires a thorough knowledge of the microbial diversity living in the rhizosphere and in close association with plant roots in both the surface and the endosphere. This study aims to assess fungal ITS and bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity using high-throughput sequencing in rhizospheric soils and roots of three plant species (Solidago canadensis, Populus balsamifera, and Lycopus europaeus) growing spontaneously in three petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sedimentation basins. Microbial community structures of rhizospheric soils and roots were compared with those of microbes associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) spores to determine the links between the root and rhizosphere communities and those associated with AMF. Our results showed a difference in OTU richness and community structure composition between soils and roots for both bacteria and fungi. We found that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP) concentrations have a significant effect on fungal and bacterial community structures in both soils and roots, whereas plant species identity showed a significant effect only on the roots for bacteria and fungi. Our results also showed that the community composition of bacteria and fungi in soil and roots varied from those associated with AMF spores harvested from the same plants. This let us to speculate that in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils, AMF may release chemical compounds by which they recruit beneficial microbes to tolerate or degrade the

  14. Ecotoxicity evaluation of an amended soil contaminated with uranium and radium using sensitive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Lopes, J.; Magalhães, M. C. F.; Santos, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the centre-north granitic regions of Portugal, during the twenty century radium and uranium were exploited from approximately 60 mines. The closure of all uranium mines, in 2001, raised concerns regarding the possible chemical and radiological effects on the inhabitants health around the mine areas. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of organic amendments and organic hydroxiapatite in the ecotoxicity reduction of agricultural soils contaminated with uranium and radium, by germination and growth tests of two sensitive plants (Lactuca sativa L. and Zea mays L.). Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during two months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Fluvisol from Urgeiriça region containing large concentration of Utotal (635 mg/kg) and 226Ra (2310 Bq/kg) was used. The soil available fraction, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to 90% and 25% of total concentration of Utotal and 226Ra, respectively. Fine ground bone (FB) and sheep manure (OM) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Four treatments, plus control were carried out in triplicate: (A) soil+40 Mg/ha of FB; (B) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM; (C) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+40 Mg/ha of FB; (D) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+20 Mg/ha of FB. After the incubation moist soils were kept at 4-5 °C and subsamples were used for leachates extraction following DIN 38414-S4 method. Maize and lettuce seeds were sown in filter paper moistened with the leachates aqueous solutions and in the moist soil for germination and growth tests. Seedlings after three days of germination were used for growth tests in hydroponic, during seven days, using the leachates. Five seeds per replicate were used. Soil presented: pH(H2O)=5.15, EC=7.3 µS/cm; and Corgnic=12.5 g/kg. After two months of incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.53 in amended samples, and EC showed a dramatic increase when compared to the control (0.398 dS/m), from 1.5 dS/m (treatment-A) to 4.7 d

  15. Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubič Mlakar, Tanja; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Jeran, Zvonka; Vuk, Tomaž; Mrak, Tanja; Fajon, Vesna

    2011-10-01

    The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant's regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg²⁺, which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m⁻³). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant

  16. The influence of cadmium contamination and salinity on the survival, growth and phytoremediation capacity of the saltmarsh plant Salicornia ramosissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Carmen A; Santos, Márcia S S; Ferreira, Susana M F; Gonçalves, Sílvia C

    2013-12-01

    The major aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of Salicornia ramosissima on Cadmium phytoremediation under distinct salinities and, consequently, the toxic effects on the plant's development. A greenhouse experiment was performed, using two Cd concentrations (50 and 100 μg l(-1)) in different salinities (0, 5 and 10). Mortality and weight variation, observed at the end of the experiment, showed significant differences between some treatments, meaning that these variables were affected by the salinity and Cd concentrations. The highest Cd accumulation was detected in the roots, and decreased with the increase of salinity and Cd concentration. S. ramosissima is a potential candidate for Cd phytoremediation at salinities close to 0 and its capabilities in Cd phytoaccumulation and phytoestabilization proved to be quite interesting. The optimization of phytoremediation processes by S. ramosissima could turn possible the use of this plant in the recovery of contaminated ecosystems.

  17. Plant-bacteria partnership: phytoremediation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil and expression of catabolic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamna Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are harmful to living organisms when they are exposed in natural environment. Once they come in contact, it is not an easy to remove them because many of their constituents are persistent in nature. To achieve this target, different approaches have been exploited by using plants, bacteria, and plant-bacteria together. Among them, combined use of plants and bacteria has gained tremendous attention as bacteria possess set of catabolic genes which produce catabolic enzymes to decontaminate hydrocarbons. In return, plant ooze out root exudates containing nutrients and necessary metabolites which facilitate the microbial colonization in plant rhizosphere. This results into high gene abundance and gene expression in the rhizosphere and, thus, leads to enhanced degradation. Moreover, high proportions of beneficial bacteria helps plant to gain more biomass due to their plant growth promoting activities and production of phytohromones. This review focuses functioning and mechanisms of catabolic genes responsible for degradation of straight chain and aromatic hydrocarbons with their potential of degradation in bioremediation. With the understanding of expression mechanisms, rate of degradation can be enhanced by adjusting environmental factors and acclimatizing plant associated bacteria in plant rhizosphere.

  18. Plant-bacteria partnership: phytoremediation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil and expression of catabolic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamna Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are harmful to living organisms when they are exposed in natural environment. Once they come in contact, it is not an easy to remove them because many of their constituents are persistent in nature. To achieve this target, different approaches have been exploited by using plants, bacteria, and plant-bacteria together. Among them, combined use of plants and bacteria has gained tremendous attention as bacteria possess set of catabolic genes which produce catabolic enzymes to decontaminate hydrocarbons. In return, plant ooze out root exudates containing nutrients and necessary metabolites which facilitate the microbial colonization in plant rhizosphere. This results into high gene abundance and gene expression in the rhizosphere and, thus, leads to enhanced degradation. Moreover, high proportions of beneficial bacteria helps plant to gain more biomass due to their plant growth promoting activities and production of phytohromones. This review focuses functioning and mechanisms of catabolic genes responsible for degradation of straight chain and aromatic hydrocarbons with their potential of degradation in bioremediation. With the understanding of expression mechanisms, rate of degradation can be enhanced by adjusting environmental factors and acclimatizing plant associated bacteria in plant rhizosphere.

  19. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  20. Spoilage microorganisms in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoilage microorganisms cause changes of primary characteristics and properties of milk and dairy products. The product defects depends on the specific species and number of microorganisms involved in pre- and post- technological processing. Most often, these changes are related to single undesirable sensory characteristic, smell, flavour or conistency. However, in the case of heavier microbial contamination all these undesirable characteristics can occur simultaneously. Besides, even small changes caused by presence of spoilage microorganisms lead to decreased quality of milk and various dairy products. Despite of the importance for the overall quality, the control of spoilage microorganisms for dairy industry is not obligated and therefore, only a few producers control them. Therefore, the present study describes the undesirable effect of spoilage microorganisms on quality of raw, pasteurized and sterilized milk, fermented milk, butter, sour cream and cheeses with the intention to emphasize the importance and significance of their control in the dairy industry.

  1. Arundo donax L., a candidate for phytomanaging water and soils contaminated by trace elements and producing plant-based feedstock. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsanganwimana, F; Marchand, L; Douay, F; Mench, M

    2014-01-01

    Plants and associated microorganisms are used to remediate anthropogenic metal(loid) contamination of water, soils and sediments. This review focuses on the potential of Arundo donax L. (Giant reed) for alleviating risks due to soils, water, and sediments contaminated by trace elements (TE), with emphasis on its advantages and limits over macrophytes and perennial grasses used for bioenergy and plant-based feedstock. Arundo donax is relevant to phytomanage TE-contaminated matrices, notably in its native area, as it possesses characteristics of large biomass production even under nutrient and abiotic stresses, fast growth rate, TE tolerance and accumulation mainly in below ground plant parts. Cultivating A. donax on contaminated lands and in constructed wetlands can contribute to increase land availability and limit the food vs. plant-based feedstock controversy. To gain more tools for decision-taking and sustainable management,further researches on A. donax should focus on: interactions between roots, TE exposure, and rhizosphere and endophytic microorganisms; biomass response to (a)biotic factors; sustainable agricultural practices on marginal and contaminated land; integration into local, efficient, energy and biomass conversion chains with concern to biomass quality and production; Life-Cycle Assessment including contaminant behavior, as well as environmental, agricultural and socio-economic benefits and drawbacks.

  2. In situ degradation of phenol and promotion of plant growth in contaminated environments by a single Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujing; Song, Jing; Zhao, Wei; He, Xiaoli; Chen, Jun; Xiao, Ming

    2011-08-15

    For bioremediation of contaminated environments, a bacterial strain, SZH16, was isolated and found to reduce phenol concentration in a selective medium. Using the reaction vessel containing the soil mixed with phenol and bacteria, we found that the single strain degraded efficiently the phenol level in soil samples. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the basis of biochemical tests and by comparison of 16S rDNA sequences, and phosphate solubilization and IAA production were not observed in the strain. Simultaneous examination of the role of strain SZH16 in the plant growth and phenol biodegradation was performed. Results showed that inoculation of the single strain in the phenol-spiked soil resulted in corn growth promotion and in situ phenol degradation and the increase in plant biomass correlated with the decrease in phenol content. Colonization experiments showed that the population of the SZH16 strain remained relatively constant. All these findings indicated that the corn growth promotion might be due to reduction in phytotoxicity, a result of phenol biodegradation by the single strain SZH16. Furthermore, the strain was found to stimulate corn growth and reduce phenol concentration simultaneously in phenol-containing water, and even historically contaminated field soils. It is attractive for environment remediation and agronomic applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by membrane-integrated hybrid plant: optimization and control using Visual Basic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortty, S; Sen, M; Pal, P

    2014-03-01

    A simulation software (ARRPA) has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic platform for optimization and control of a novel membrane-integrated arsenic separation plant in the backdrop of absence of such software. The user-friendly, menu-driven software is based on a dynamic linearized mathematical model, developed for the hybrid treatment scheme. The model captures the chemical kinetics in the pre-treating chemical reactor and the separation and transport phenomena involved in nanofiltration. The software has been validated through extensive experimental investigations. The agreement between the outputs from computer simulation program and the experimental findings are excellent and consistent under varying operating conditions reflecting high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. High values of the overall correlation coefficient (R (2) = 0.989) and Willmott d-index (0.989) are indicators of the capability of the software in analyzing performance of the plant. The software permits pre-analysis, manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. Performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units is possible using the tool. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater.

  4. The aflatoxin M1 crisis in the Serbian dairy sector: the year after.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocinovic, Jelena; Keskic, Tanja; Miloradovic, Zorana; Kos, Andrea; Tomasevic, Igor; Pudja, Predrag

    2017-03-01

    During the last 3 years, high aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk and dairy products occurred in Serbia. It resulted in periodical change of the official regulations regarding maximum levels (MLs) of AFM1 as set by the Serbian Government. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of AFM1 in raw milk and dairy products during 2015 and also to determine whether there were some differences in AFM1 level among seasons. The AFM1 level exceeded the European Union ML in 29.3% of raw milk and 4.2% of milk product samples. The highest level of AFM1 in raw milk was found during the autumn season, while during the rest of the 2015, it was significantly lower. Although the improvement of dairy products safety was evident in 2015 when compared to 2013 and 2014, the cause of high concentrations in raw milk remained unresolved yet. This study indicates that dairy plants introduced control measures and refused reception of too high contaminated raw milk.

  5. Assessment of hydrocarbon degradation potentials in plant-microbe interaction system with oil sludge contamination: A sustainable solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Anil; Jajoo, Anjana; Juwarkar, Asha

    2017-05-25

    A pot culture experiment was conducted for 90 days for evaluation of oil and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation in vegetated and non-vegetated treatments of real field oil sludge contaminated soil. Five different treatments include, (T1) control, 2% oil sludge contaminated soil; (T2), augmentation of microbial consortium; (T3), Vertiver zizanioide; (T4), bio-augmentation along with Vertiver zizanioide and (T5), bio-augmentation with Vertiver zizanioide and bulking agent. During the study, oil reduction, TPH and degradation of its fractions was determined. Physic-chemical and microbiological parameters of soil were also monitored simultaneously. At the end of the experimental period, oil content (85%) was reduced maximally in bio-augmented rhizospheric treatments (T4 and T5) as compared to control (27%). TPH reduction was observed to be 88% and 89% in bio-augmented rhizospheric soil (T4 and T5 treatments), whereas in non-rhizospheric and control (T2 and T1) TPH reduction was 78% and 37% respectively. Degradation of aromatic fraction after 90 days in bio-augmented rhizosphere of treatment T4 and T5 was found to 91% and 92%. In microbial (T2) and Vertiver treatment (T3) degradation of aromatic fraction was 83% and 68% respectively. A threefold increase in soil dehydrogenase activity and noticeable changes in organic carbon content, water holding capacity were also observed which indicated maximum degradation of oil and its fractions in combined treatment of plants and microbes. It is concluded that plant-microbe-soil system helps to restore soil quality and can be used as an effective tool for remediation of oil sludge contaminated sites.

  6. RNA Interference (RNAi) as a Potential Tool for Control of Mycotoxin Contamination in Crop Plants: Concepts and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Rajtilak; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Cary, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in food and feed crops is a major concern worldwide. Fungal pathogens of the genera Aspergillus. Fusarium, and Penicillium are a major threat to food and feed crops due to production of mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, 4-deoxynivalenol, patulin, and numerous other toxic secondary metabolites that substantially reduce the value of the crop. While host resistance genes are frequently used to introgress disease resistance into elite germplasm, either through traditional breeding or transgenic approaches, such resistance is often compromised by the evolving pathogen over time. RNAi-based host-induced gene silencing of key genes required by the pathogen for optimal growth, virulence and/or toxin production, can serve as an alternative, pre-harvest approach for disease control. RNAi represents a robust and efficient tool that can be used in a highly targeted, tissue specific manner to combat mycotoxigenic fungi infecting crop plants. Successful transgenic RNAi implementation depends on several factors including (1) designing vectors to produce double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that will generate small interfering RNA (siRNA) species for optimal gene silencing and reduced potential for off-target effects; (2) availability of ample target siRNAs at the infection site; (3) efficient uptake of siRNAs by the fungus; (4) siRNA half-life and (5) amplification of the silencing effect. This review provides a critical and comprehensive evaluation of the published literature on the use of RNAi-based approaches to control mycotoxin contamination in crop plants. It also examines experimental strategies used to better understand the mode of action of RNAi with the aim of eliminating mycotoxin contamination, thereby improving food and feed safety.

  7. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  8. Implementation of statistical tools to support identification and management of persistent Listeria monocytogenes contamination in smoked fish processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Thomas J V; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Roof, Sherry; Warchocki, Steven; Nightingale, Kendra; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes persistence in food processing plants is a key source of postprocessing contamination of ready-to-eat foods. Thus, identification and elimination of sites where L. monocytogenes persists (niches) is critical. Two smoked fish processing plants were used as models to develop and implement environmental sampling plans (i) to identify persistent L. monocytogenes subtypes (EcoRI ribotypes) using two statistical approaches and (ii) to identify and eliminate likely L. monocytogenes niches. The first statistic, a binomial test based on ribotype frequencies, was used to evaluate L. monocytogenes ribotype recurrences relative to reference distributions extracted from a public database; the second statistic, a binomial test based on previous positives, was used to measure ribotype occurrences as a risk factor for subsequent isolation of the same ribotype. Both statistics revealed persistent ribotypes in both plants based on data from the initial 4 months of sampling. The statistic based on ribotype frequencies revealed persistence of particular ribotypes at specific sampling sites. Two adaptive sampling strategies guided plant interventions during the study: sampling multiple times before and during processing and vector swabbing (i.e., sampling of additional sites in different directions [vectors] relative to a given site). Among sites sampled for 12 months, a Poisson model regression revealed borderline significant monthly decreases in L. monocytogenes isolates at both plants (P = 0.026 and 0.076). Our data indicate elimination of an L. monocytogenes niche on a food contact surface; niches on nonfood contact surfaces were not eliminated. Although our data illustrate the challenge of identifying and eliminating L. monocytogenes niches, particularly at nonfood contact sites in small and medium plants, the methods for identification of persistence we describe here should broadly facilitate science-based identification of microbial persistence.

  9. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R. [Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States); Collins, W. [Dept. of the Army, Fort Ord, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  10. Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on contaminated sites and their potential accumulation capacity in Heqing, Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohai; Gao, Yuntao; Khan, Sardar; Duan, Gang; Chen, Aikui; Ling, Li; Zhao, Leil; Liu, Zhonghan; Wu, Xuecan

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is one of the cost-effective and environmental friendly technologies used to remove contaminants from contaminated soils, which has been intensively studied during the last decade. Presently, few economical and effective remediation methods are available for the remediation of Pb contaminated sites. This study was conducted to assess the potential of 19 plants growing on contaminated sites in Pb mine area. Plants and associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total metal concentrations. While total soil Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations varied from 1,239 to 4,311, 36 to 1,020 and 240 to 2,380 mg/kg, those in the plant shoots ranged from 6.3 to 2,029, 20 to 570, and 36 to 690 mg/kg, respectively. Among the plants, we found that one cultivated crop (Ricinus communis L.) and two native species (Tephrosia candida and Debregeasia orientalis) have a great potential for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soils, the Pb hyperaccumulation capacity of the 3 plants was found as the order: R. communis > D. orientalis > T. candida in the investigated area.

  11. Accumulation of Pb,Cu,and Zn in native plants growing on contaminated sites and their potential accumulation capacity in Heqing,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaohai; GAO Yuntao; Sardar Khan; DUAN Gang; CHEN Aikui; LING Li; ZHAO Lei; LIU Zhonghan; WU Xuecan

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is one of the cost-effective and environmental friendly technologies used to remove contaminants from contaminated soils, which has been intensively studied during the last decade. Presently, few economical and effective remediation methods are available for the remediation of Pb contaminated sites. This study was conducted to assess the potential of 19 plants growing on contaminated sites in Pb mine area. Plants and associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total metal concentrations. While total soil Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations varied from 1,239 to 4,311, 36 to 1,020 and 240 to 2,380 mg/kg, those in the plant shoots ranged from 6.3 to 2,029, 20 to 570, and 36 to 690 mg/kg, respectively. Among the plants, we found that one cultivated crop (Ricinus communis L.) and two native species (Tephrosia candida and Debregeasia orientalis) have a great potential for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soils, the Pb hyperaccnmulation capacity of the 3 plants was found as the order: R. communis D. orientalis T. candida in the investigated area.

  12. Self-Potential (SP) and Active Electrical Geophysical Assessment of Bioremediation at a Contaminated Gasworks Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulessa, B.; Kalin, R.; Doherty, R.; Phillips, D.

    2006-05-01

    We have surveyed a former gasworks site in Portadown, Northern Ireland, using self-potential (SP), electrical resistivity, induced polarisation (IP), and ground conductivity (EM-31, EM-34, EM-61). Site lithology and hydrogeology were mapped in numerous trial pits, and groundwater redox conditions together with a host of associated biogeochemical and microbiological parameters have been monitored in several boreholes. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) together with groundwater flow control (slurry wall) and monitored natural attenuation (MNA) are used for remediation of the complex site contamination, including hydrocarbon and heavy metals. The electrical geophysical surveys mapped the foundations of former infrastructure at the site and detected a formerly unknown tar well and a pit filled with mixed waste. In the contaminated regions of the site the total, measured SP signal is comprised of streaming potential and electrochemical components; in the uncontaminated regions the streaming potential is dominant and electrochemical potentials are negligible. The streaming potential coupling coefficient is estimated by relating the hydraulic potentials from borehole monitoring and groundwater flow modelling to the total SP signal measured in the uncontaminated regions. Residual SP is determined by subtracting the calculated streaming potential component from the total SP data, and the impact of spatially variable, bulk ground conductivity on streaming potential is elucidated. We investigate the relationship between residual SP and redox potential measured in several successive, contaminated aquifer layers separated by aquitards. The SP and electrical geophysical signatures of microbial processes naturally degrading the subsurface contaminants are examined. Preliminary findings from SP and electrical geophysical monitoring of artificially disturbed microbial processes and subsurface redox conditions are also presented.

  13. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Stuart E.

    2002-06-01

    Several varieties of transgenic poplar containing cytochrome P-450 2E1 have been constructed and are undergoing tests. Strategies for improving public acceptance and safety of transgenic poplar for chlorinated hydrocarbon phytoremediation are being developed. We have discovered a unique rhizobium species that lives within the stems of poplar and we are investigating whether this bacterium contributes nitrogen fixed from the air to the plant and whether this endophyte could be used to introduce genes into poplar. Studies of the production of chloride ion from TCE have shown that our present P-450 constructs did not produce chloride more rapidly than wild type plants. Follow-up studies will determine if there are other rate limiting downstream steps in TCE metabolism in plants. Studies of the metabolism of carbon tetrachloride in poplar cells have provided evidence that the native plant metabolism is due to the activity of oxidative enzymes similar to the mammalian cytochrome P-450 2E1.

  14. New research discovery may mean less radioactive contamination, safer nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-20

    Murph has now made another nanoparticle breakthrough that could benefit various work environments such as nuclear power plants. Murph and her team have created nanoparticle treated stainless steel filters that are capable to capturing radioactive vapor materials. Just like air filters capture dust and dirt, these filters are capable of capturing large amounts of radioactive vapors. The new research may one day mean that nuclear power plant workers, and other workers in related fields, will have a safer working environment.

  15. Quality characteristics of selected dairy products in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Djekic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess and compare the compliance of the chosen quality characteristics of commercially available dairy products with the requirements of the current Serbian legislation. A total of 706 samples of liquid milks (pasteurized and UHT-treated, fermented milks (liquid and solid yoghurt and milk powders (skimmed and whole milk powder were collected from the market and analysed for milk fat content, pH value, water content and protein content, depending on the type of product. The obtained results were interpreted in relation to the dairy plants capacities in which the analysed dairy products were produced. Except the fermented milk samples with a declared milk fat content of 3.2 %, all other analysed compositional and quality parameters of the selected dairy products were in compliance with the current legislation. It was observed that dairy plants of smaller capacity had a higher variation of quality characteristics of dairy products.

  16. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on oats in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum to enhance phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Feifei; Xie, Baoming; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Changhong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on phytoremediation in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum, saline-alkali soil samples were artificially mixed with different amount of oil, 5 and 10 g/kg, respectively. Pot experiments with oat plants (Avena sativa) were conducted under greenhouse condition for 60 days. Plant biomass, physiological parameters in leaves, soil enzymes, and degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon were measured. The result demonstrated that petroleum inhibited the growth of the plant; however, inoculation with PGPR in combination with AMF resulted in an increase in dry weight and stem height compared with noninoculated controls. Petroleum stress increased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and free proline and the activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. Application of PGPR and AMF augmented the activities of three enzymes compared to their respective uninoculated controls, but decreased the MDA and free proline contents, indicating that PGPR and AMF could make the plants more tolerant to harmful hydrocarbon contaminants. It also improved the soil quality by increasing the activities of soil enzyme such as urease, sucrase, and dehydrogenase. In addition, the degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon during treatment with PGPR and AMF in moderately contaminated soil reached a maximum of 49.73%. Therefore, we concluded the plants treated with a combination of PGPR and AMF had a high potential to contribute to remediation of saline-alkali soil contaminated with petroleum.

  17. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contamination is a significant concern in the Columbia River Basin in Washington and Oregon. To help water managers and policy makers in decision making about future sampling efforts and toxic-reduction activities, a reconnaissance was done to assess contaminant concentrations directly contributed to the Columbia River through wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff from adjacent urban environments and to evaluate instantaneous loadings to the Columbia River Basin from these inputs.

  18. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow.

  19. The role of dark septate endophytic fungal isolates in the accumulation of cesium by chinese cabbage and tomato plants under contaminated environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane Diene

    Full Text Available Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm. On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments.

  20. The role of dark septate endophytic fungal isolates in the accumulation of cesium by chinese cabbage and tomato plants under contaminated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diene, Ousmane; Sakagami, Nobuo; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm). On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated) plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments.

  1. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Strand

    2004-09-27

    The research objectives for this report are: (1) Transform poplar and other tree species to extend and optimize chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) oxidative activities. (2) Determine the mechanisms of CHC oxidation in plants. (3) Isolate the genes responsible for CHC oxidation in plants. We have made significant progress toward an understanding of the biochemical mechanism of CHC transformation native to wild-type poplar. We have identified chloral, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid as products of TCE metabolism in poplar plants and in tissue cultures of poplar cells.(Newman et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1999) Use of radioactively labeled TCE showed that once taken up and transformed, most of the TCE was incorporated into plant tissue as a non-volatile, unextractable residue.(Shang et al. 2001; Shang and Gordon 2002) An assay for this transformation was developed and validated using TCE transformation by poplar suspension cells. Using this assay, it was shown that two different activities contribute to the fixation of TCE by poplar cells: one associated with cell walls and insoluble residues, the other associated with a high molecular weight, heat labile fraction of the cell extract, a fixation that was apparently catalyzed by plant enzymes.

  2. Sparingly-soluble phosphate rock induced significant plant growth and arsenic uptake by Pteris vittata from three contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q

    2013-05-21

    We evaluated the ability of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) to remove As from As-contaminated soils over five harvests in 2.5 years in raised beds (162 kg soil/bed). We tested the hypothesis that a P-limiting environment would enhance PV growth and As uptake owing its unique ability to uptake P under As-rich environment. In Dec. 2009, PV was transplanted to three As-contaminated soils (pH of 5.5-7.2) containing 25-129 mg kg(-1) As, which was amended with sparingly-soluble phosphate rock (PR-soil) or soluble P fertilizer (P-soil). During the 2.5-year, PV obtained sufficient P (1882 vs 2225 mg kg(-1)) from PR-soils, with increased root biomass (33%) and root exudation (53%) compared to P-soils. In addition, its frond biomass increased by 20% consecutively with each harvest (six month interval) from 18 to 36 g plant(-1). Its frond biomass in PR-soils (52.2 g plant(-1) year(-1) or ∼12 mt ha(-1) year(-1)) averaged 39% more than that in P-soils. To our knowledge, this represented the largest PV frond biomass reported, demonstrating the unique ability of PV in using insoluble P from PR in alkaline soils. In addition to biomass increase, PV from PR-soils had ∼1.5 times more As in fronds (2540, 780, and 920 mg kg(-1)) than those from P-soils (1740, 570, and 400 mg kg(-1)), with soils containing 129, 25, and 30 mg kg(-1) As, respectively. The low available P in PR-soils induced substantial plant growth and As uptake by PV. This translated into significantly more As removal from soil, averaging 48% reduction in PR-soils and 36% in P-soils in 2.5 years. With multiple harvests and PR amendments, our results showed As removal by PV from contaminated soils was ∼7 times faster than published studies.

  3. Influence of irradiated chitosan on rice plants growing in hydroponic medium contaminated with salt and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Diep, T.B. [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique-VAEC, Nghiado, Cau giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Effect of chitosan and radiation-degraded chitosan on rice seedlings of a Vietnam's original variety was investigated. Potential of irradiated chitosan in plant tolerance for several stress factors (salt, zinc, and vanadium) also was studied as well. Chitosan represented in hydroponic medium clearly inhibited the growth of rice seedlings at concentrations arranging from 50 ppm. Radiation processing of chitosan with dose higher than 100 kGy reduced toxicity of chitosan and the efficacy was of dose proportion. Rice plant of 203 origin was almost normally grown in hydroponic solution containing chitosan that has been irradiated with dose of 150 and 200 kGy. Irradiated chitosan increased plant resistance to environmental stress caused by vanadium (V); thereby the seedlings could be recovered completely, even gained in biomass. This effect was not appeared when applied chitosan to rice in media contaminated by zinc (Zn) and salt (NaCl). The selectness of irradiated chitosan on various stress factors partly clarified the assistant action of chitosan in the vanadium intoxication because chelating with metal ions could not be evaluated as main mechanism. (author)

  4. Opportunities for Phytoremediation and Bioindication of Arsenic Contaminated Water Using a Submerged Aquatic Plant:Vallisneria natans (lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xingmei; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    The identification of plants with high arsenic hyperaccumulating efficiency from water is required to ensure the successful application of phytoremediation technology. Five dominant submerged plant species (Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara., Potamageton crispus L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) in China were used to determine their potential to remove As from contaminated water. V. natans had the highest accumulation of As among them. The characteristics of As accumulation, transformation and the effect of phosphate on As accumulation in V. natans were then further studied. The growth of V. natans was not inhibited even when the As concentration reached 2.0 mg L(-1). After 21 d of As treatment, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached 1300. The As concentration in the environment and exposure time are major factors controlling the As concentration in V. natans. After being absorbed, As(V) is efficiently reduced to As(III) in plants. The synthesis of non-enzymic antioxidants may play an important role under As stress and increase As detoxication. In addition, As(V) uptake by V. natans was negatively correlated with phosphate (P) uptake when P was sufficiently supplied. As(V) is probably taken up via P transporters in V. natans.

  5. Plant uptake/bioavailability of heavy metals from the contaminated soil after treatment with humus soil and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Virendra; Chaturvedi, Pranav Kumar

    2007-10-01

    Uptake /bioavailability study using the Indian mustard plant (Brassica juncea) was undertaken at the interval of 7, 14 and 21 days to test the immobilization of heavy metals from contaminated soil that were amended with humus soil and/or hydroxyapatite. For this, four sets consisting of non-humus soil + metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb), humus soil + metals, non-humus and humus soil in the ratio of 1:3 + metals and non-humus soil: humus soil in the ratio of 1:3 + metals + 1% hydroxyapatite were prepared. The bioavailability of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in non-humus soil system was 58%, 67%, 65% and 63%, respectively in 7 days, more than 80% in 14 days and more than 90% in 21 days. Use of non-humus, humus soil in the ratio of 1:3 and addition of 1% hydroxyapatite decreased the bioavailability of lead around 21 to 22.5%, Cd 35 to 36%, Cr 25.5 to 26.9%, Ni 34 to 39% in 7, 14 and 21 days. Apart from this increase in the fresh weight of the plant was also noticed during the experiment. The data showed that addition of 1% hydroxyapatite in the non-humus-humus soil system caused the increase in the fresh weight around 90% in 7, 14 and 21 days as compared to plant grown in non-humus and metal soil system.

  6. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  7. [Cytogenetic studies on submerged plants from the Yenisei river area in the zone of radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, E N; Goriachkina, O V; Kornilova, M G; Pimenov, A V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies on three species of submerged plants from different parts of the Yenisei river area subjected to radioactive impact of the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Plant and the Electrochemical Factory have been conducted. A high level of irregularities in anatelophase and metaphase of mitoses has been revealed in test samples compared to the control: agglutination and fragmentation of chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, bridges, fragments, misdivisions, and others. The natuie of the disorders indicates that they are related in part to the direct damage to the chromosome structure and in part to damage to the spindle.

  8. Assessment of reproductive capacity of seeds sampled from natural populations of plants from a territory contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhusheva, O.; Evseeva, T. [Institute of biology Komi SC Ural Branch of RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Plants are an essential component of any ecosystem and are permanently exposed to soil contamination. Therefore, they are widely used for characterization of ecological situation of the territory. Located at the base of the food chain, plants are exposed to toxic agents before the organisms at higher trophic levels. Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant (Kirov, Russia) is one of the biggest chemical enterprises in Europe. Vascular plant communities from surrounding area are exposed to industrial wastes, including uranium production wastes from 1938. The aim of this work was to estimate reproductive capacity of Urtica dioica L., Cirsium setosum (Willd.) Bess and Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim - natural populations inhabiting the chemical plant industrial zone. The plant species studied are common for the meadow communities of south taiga zone, and are characterized by high seed yield and living in wide range of ecological conditions. Plant seeds were collected from two experimental sites with different soil contamination levels, located in the vicinity of the Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant, as well as from the reference site, in 2011 and 2012. Soil specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg and Cu were measured and ecological criteria of the radioactive (C{sub r}) and chemical (C{sub c}) contamination of the soil cover were calculated. Seeds germination, germinative energy and seedling survival rate were used for assessing reproductive capacity. Urtica dioicawas found to be the most sensitive among plant species studied. Germination of seeds from contaminated sites was significantly lower compared with the reference values. Exponential relationship was found between the levels of soil radioactive contamination and seeds germination (R{sup 2}=0.8, p<0.001). Germination of Cirsium setosum seeds, sampled from contaminated sites, exceeded the values obtained for the reference plant population and was linearly dependent (R{sup 2

  9. Study of element uptake in plants from the soil to assess environmental contamination by toxic elements

    CERN Document Server

    En, Z; Tsipin, V V; Tillaev, T; Jumaniyazova, G I

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of various elements by plants through the root system from the soil was studied. Vegetation experiments with cotton and white beet were carried out in the control and test fields. The test fields were enriched with phyto-bacterial strains capable of dissolving insoluble phosphate compounds. Analytical work involved analysis of blank, control and test soil samples and analysis of plants sampled in different growing periods: periods of first sprouts, florescence and ripening of the plants. Multielement analyses of soil and plant samples were carried out by instrumental neutron activation techniques using our WWR-SM research reactor. Results of the measurements have shown that macro- and microelement composition of the analyzed soil samples were consistent to clark contents except for copper. Our experiments have resulted that the concentration levels of copper in the soils were within 300-450 mg/kg, and its average concentration in cotton leaves was about similar to 35 mg/kg while in beet leaves it reach...

  10. Zn—Cu Interaction Affecting Zn Adsorption and Plant Availability in a Metal—Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.L.Rimmer; LuoYongming

    1996-01-01

    In a previous greenhouse experiment,we showed that there was an interaction between cu and Zn,which affected growth and metal uptake by young barley plants grown on soil to which Cd,Cu,Pb,and Zn had been added.We suggested that the underlying mechanism was the control of the amount of plant-available Zn by competitive adsorption between Cu and Zn,In order to test this hypothesis,the adsorption of Zn alone,and in the presence of added Cd,Cu and Pb,has been measured using the same soil.Following adsorption,the extractability of the Zn in CaCl2 solution was measured .The adsorption isotherms showed that of the added metals only Cu had a large effect on Zn adsorption.The effect of Cu was to reduce Zn adsoption and to increase the amount of CaCl2-extractable(i.e.plant-available) Zn,in agreement with the conclusions from the greenhouse experiment.The magnitude of the effect of Cu on plant-avalilable Zn was similar in both experiments.

  11. Consequence of irrigation with arsenic and zinc contaminated water on accumulation of zinc in radishes plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Banejad

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: It was found that zinc concentration in radish roots, tubers, and leafs is correlated with the concentration of zinc in water. Moreover, there was a competition between the absorption of zinc and arsenic in plants. With increasing arsenic in irrigation water, transition of Zn was reduced to aerial part.

  12. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended.

  13. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-te