WorldWideScience

Sample records for contaminate soil groundwater

  1. Bioremediation of contaminated soil beds and groundwater

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bioremediation of contaminated soil beds and groundwater 45. 3. Simulation. The coupled set of ODEs is integrated by using IMSL (1991) subroutine DIVPAG. This employs Green's algorithm for stiff equations and is based on backward differentiation formulas. It requires an algebraic system of equations to be Solved at ...

  2. Use of Additives in Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews application of additives used in bioremediation of chlorinated solvents and fuels for groundwater and soil remediation. Soluble carbon substrates are applicable to most site conditions except aquifers with very high or very low groundwater flow. Slow-release ...

  3. Sources of arsenic and fluoride in highly contaminated soils causing groundwater contamination in Punjab, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, A.; Masuda, H.; Siddiqui, R.; Naseem, M. [Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2009-05-15

    Highly contaminated groundwater, with arsenic (As) and fluoride (F{sup -}) concentrations of up to 2.4 and 22.8 mg/L, respectively, has been traced to anthropogenic inputs to the soil. In the present study, samples collected from the soil surface and sediments from the most heavily polluted area of Punjab were analyzed to determine the F{sup -} and As distribution in the soil. The surface soils mainly comprise permeable aeolian sediment on a Pleistocene terrace and layers of sand and silt on an alluvial flood plain. Although the alluvial sediments contain low levels of F, the terrace soils contain high concentrations of soluble F{sup -} (maximum, 16 mg/kg; mean, 4 mg/kg; pH > 8.0). Three anthropogenic sources were identified as fertilizers, combusted coal, and industrial waste, with phosphate fertilizer being the most significance source of F{sup -} accumulated in the soil. The mean concentration of As in the surface soil samples was 10.2 mg/kg, with the highest concentration being 35 mg/kg. The presence of high levels of As in the surface soil implies the contribution of air pollutants derived from coal combustion and the use of fertilizers. Intensive mineral weathering under oxidizing conditions produces highly alkaline water that dissolves the F{sup -} and As adsorbed on the soil, thus releasing it into the local groundwater.

  4. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  5. Evidence for groundwater contamination by heavy metals through soil passage under acidifying conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkens, B.J,

    1995-01-01

    The research reported here is aimed at improving the knowledge of the mobility of the heavy metals cadmium and zinc in vulnerable soil types. We use the term vulnerable with reference to vulnerability of groundwater for contamination by soil leaching. At diffuse soil immissions of heavy

  6. Evidence for groundwater contamination by heavy metals through soil passage under acidifying conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkens, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The research reported here is aimed at improving the knowledge of the mobility of the heavy metals cadmium and zinc in vulnerable soil types. We use the term vulnerable with reference to vulnerability of groundwater for contamination by soil leaching. At diffuse soil immissions of heavy metals,

  7. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  8. Dissipation of the herbicide oxyfluorfen in subtropical soils and its potential to contaminate groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jui-Hung; Sheu, Wey-Shin; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2003-02-01

    The dissipation and mobility of the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-p-tolyl 3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in field soil of Taiwan were investigated in the laboratory with six tea garden soils. The dissipation coefficients of oxyfluorfen in soils of different moisture content (30%, 60%, and 90% of soil field capacity) and soil temperature (10 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) were studied. Results indicate that the half-life of oxyfluorfen ranged from 72 to 160 days for six tea garden soils. It was found that if the temperature is high, the dissipation rate is rapid, and there is almost no dissipation at 10 degrees C. Possible contamination of groundwater by the herbicide oxyfluorfen was assessed using the behavior assessment model and the groundwater pollution-potential (GWP) model. The results obtained after evaluating the residue and travel time using the GWP model illustrated that oxyfluorfen is not very mobile in soil and may not contaminate groundwater under normal conditions. But in the case of soil of extremely low organic carbon content and coarse texture, oxyfluorfen has the potential to contaminate groundwater less than 3m deep.

  9. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  10. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  11. Biochar- and phosphate-induced immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil and water: implication on simultaneous remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Arellano, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Long-term wastewater irrigation or solid waste disposal has resulted in the heavy metal contamination in both soil and groundwater. It is often separately implemented for remediation of contaminated soil or groundwater at a specific site. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the hypothesis of simultaneous remediation of both heavy metal contaminated soil and groundwater by integrating the chemical immobilization and pump-and-treat methods. To accomplish the objective, three experiments were conducted, i.e., an incubation experiment was first conducted to determine how dairy-manure-derived biochar and phosphate rock tailing induced immobilization of Cd in the Cd-contaminated soils; second, a batch sorption experiment was carried out to determine whether the pre-amended contaminated soil still had the ability to retain Pb, Zn and Cd from aqueous solution. BCR sequential extraction as well as XRD and SEM analysis were conducted to explore the possible retention mechanism; and last, a laboratory-scale model test was undertaken by leaching the Pb, Zn, and Cd contaminated groundwater through the pre-amended contaminated soils to demonstrate how the heavy metals in both contaminated soil and groundwater were simultaneously retained and immobilized. The incubation experiment showed that the phosphate biochar were effective in immobilizing soil Cd with Cd concentration in TCLP (toxicity characteristics leaching procedure) extract reduced by 19.6 % and 13.7 %, respectively. The batch sorption experiment revealed that the pre-amended soil still had ability to retain Pb, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solution. The phosphate-induced metal retention was mainly due to the metal-phosphate precipitation, while both sorption and precipitation were responsible for the metal stabilization in the biochar amendment. The laboratory-scale test demonstrated that the soil amended with phosphate removed groundwater Pb, Zn, and Cd by 96.4 %, 44.6 %, and 49.2 %, respectively, and the

  12. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  13. A Geochemical Reaction Model for Titration of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Parker, J. C.; Gu, B.; Luo, W.; Brooks, S. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Jardine, P. M.; Watson, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates geochemical reactions during titration of contaminated soil and groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee. The soils and groundwater exhibits low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, various trace metals such as nickel and cobalt, and radionuclides such as uranium and technetium. The mobility of many of the contaminant species diminishes with increasing pH. However, base additions to increase pH are strongly buffered by various precipitation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions. The ability to predict acid-base behavior and associated geochemical effects is thus critical to evaluate remediation performance of pH manipulation strategies. This study was undertaken to develop a practical but generally applicable geochemical model to predict aqueous and solid-phase speciation during soil and groundwater titration. To model titration in the presence of aquifer solids, an approach proposed by Spalding and Spalding (2001) was utilized, which treats aquifer solids as a polyprotic acid. Previous studies have shown that Fe and Al-oxyhydroxides strongly sorb dissolved Ni, U and Tc species. In this study, since the total Fe concentration is much smaller than that of Al, only ion exchange reactions associated with Al hydroxides are considered. An equilibrium reaction model that includes aqueous complexation, precipitation, ion exchange, and soil buffering reactions was developed and implemented in the code HydroGeoChem 5.0 (HGC5). Comparison of model results with experimental titration curves for contaminated groundwater alone and for soil- water systems indicated close agreement. This study is expected to facilitate field-scale modeling of geochemical processes under conditions with highly variable pH to develop practical methods to control contaminant mobility at geochemically complex sites.

  14. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.

    1997-01-01

    A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soils...... and subsurface sediments and some even exceeded guidelines fixed to preserve the fertility of soil. However, the contamination decreased rapidly with depth. None of the measured metal concentrations in simulated soil solutions exceeded defined drinking water quality standards. Surprisingly, the surface...... and the sub-surface infiltration system seemed to be equally good at retaining pollution. This indicates that the runoff sludge found in such infiltration systems plays an important role both as a source and a sorbent for stormwater contaminants. The study does not point at a considerable risk for groundwater...

  15. Hydrogeologic and soil gas evaluation of groundwater contamination at a municipal landfill in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danahy, T.V.; Howard, W.O.; Wolterding, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    A hydrogeologic study of municipal sanitary landfill located in east-central New York was performed under contract with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). Project activities included a volatile organic soil gas survey using the Petrex Static Collection Technique, installation of six monitoring wells, surface and downhole geophysics, surface and groundwater sampling and hydrogeologic interpretation. The soil gas survey identified downgradient areas of soil and/or groundwater contamination which were further investigated by the installation of monitoring wells. At the site the unconfined water table aquifer consists of fluvial (K = 3.5 x 10 -3 cm/sec), glaciodeltaic (K = 8.5 x 10 -3 cm/sec) and glaciolacustrine (K = 4.1 x 10 -3 cm/sec) sediments. Groundwater flow is generally to the south in a semi-radial pattern at approximately 2 to 5 feet per day. The base of this primary water supply aquifer is defined by a leaky glacial till aquitard which occurs above the siltstone-shale bedrock aquifer. Reasonably good correlation exists between volatile organic soil gas mapping and groundwater contamination. Headspace analysis of pre-existing monitoring wells substantiated the migration and volatilization of organic compounds. Groundwater quality results include elevated levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, metal and indicator parameters with respect to background conditions. Iron, manganese, phenol, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and two PCB compounds exceeded New York State groundwater standards or guidance values. GC/MS and Carbon-14 analyses indicate a significant amount of methane gas has been generated by landfilling activities

  16. Use of LCA as decision support for the selection of remedial strategies for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    , there is a trade-off between obtaining local beneficial effects from the remediation and generating environmental impacts on the regional and global scale due to the remedial actions. Therefore there is a need for including the impact of soil contaminants that will potentially leach to the groundwater, e......Groundwater is the dominant source of drinking water in Denmark and the general policy is to maintain the groundwater as a clean source of drinking water. The risk of groundwater contamination is therefore often the prime reason for remediating a contaminated site. Chlorinated solvents are among...... the contaminants most frequently found to be threatening the groundwater quality in Denmark and worldwide. Life cycle assessment has recently been applied as part of decision support for contaminated site management and subsurface remediation techniques. Impacts in the groundwater compartment have only gained...

  17. Methodology for setting risk-based concentrations of contaminants in soil and groundwater and application to a model contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, Aiichiro; Uchiyama, Iwao; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Yoneda, Minoru; Sasamoto, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, environmental standards for contaminants in groundwater and in leachate from soil are set with the assumption that they are used for drinking water over a human lifetime. Where there is neither a well nor groundwater used for drinking, the standard is thus too severe. Therefore, remediation based on these standards incurs excessive effort and cost. In contrast, the environmental-assessment procedure used in the United States and the Netherlands considers the site conditions (land use, existing wells, etc.); however, a risk assessment is required for each site. Therefore, this study proposes a new framework for judging contamination in Japan by considering the merits of the environmental standards used and a method for risk assessment. The framework involves setting risk-based concentrations that are attainable remediation goals for contaminants in soil and groundwater. The framework was then applied to a model contaminated site for risk management, and the results are discussed regarding the effectiveness and applicability of the new methodology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated surface water, groundwater, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation is currently receiving considerable attention as a remediation option for sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. There is an enormous amount of interest in bioremediation, and numerous journals now publish research articles concerning some aspect of the remediation approach. A review of the literature indicates that two basic forms of bioremediation are currently being practiced: the microbiological approach and the microbial ecology approach. Each form has its advocates and detractors, and the microbiological approach is generally advocated by most of the firms that practice bioremediation. In this paper, the merits and disadvantages of these forms are reviewed and a conceptual approach is presented for assessing which form may be most useful for a particular contaminant situation. I conclude that the microbial ecology form of bioremediation may be the most useful for the majority of contaminant situations, and I will present two case histories in support of this hypothesis

  19. Characterization of contaminated soil and groundwater surrounding an illegal landfill (S. Giuliano, Venice, Italy) by principal component analysis and kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critto, Andrea; Carlon, Claudio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Information on soil and groundwater contamination was used to develop a site conceptual model and to identify exposure scenarios. - The characterization of a hydrologically complex contaminated site bordering the lagoon of Venice (Italy) was undertaken by investigating soils and groundwaters affected by the chemical contaminants originated by the wastes dumped into an illegal landfill. Statistical tools such as principal components analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to obtain the spatial distribution of chemical contaminants. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO 4 2- and Cl - were used to trace the migration of the contaminants from the top soil to the underlying groundwaters. The chemical and hydrogeological available information was assembled to obtain the schematic of the conceptual model of the contaminated site capable to support the formulation of major exposure scenarios, which are also provided

  20. Characterization and assessment of contaminated soil and groundwater at an organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-04-01

    Contamination from organic chemical plants can cause serious pollution of soil and groundwater ecosystems. To characterize soil contamination and to evaluate the health risk posed by groundwater at a typical organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, China, 91 soil samples and seven groundwater samples were collected. The concentrations of different contaminants and their three-dimensional distribution were determined based on the 3D-krige method. Groundwater chemistry risk index (Chem RI) and cancer risk were calculated based on TRIAD and RBCA models. The chemistry risk indices of groundwater points SW5, SW18, SW22, SW39, SW52, SW80, and SW82 were 0.4209, 0.9972, 0.9324, 0.9990, 0.9991, 1.0000, and 1.0000, respectively, indicating that the groundwater has poor environmental status. By contrast, the reference Yangtse River water sample showed no pollution with a Chem RI of 0.1301. Benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were the main contaminants in the groundwater and were responsible for the elevated cancer risk. The cumulative health risk of groundwater points (except SW5 and SW18) were all higher than the acceptable baselines of 10(-6), which indicates that the groundwater poses high cancer risk. Action is urgently required to control and remediate the risk for human health and groundwater ecosystems.

  1. Biochemical processes in soil and groundwater contaminated by leachates from municipal landfills (Mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu N. Vodyanitskii

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available World clean water deficit grows by increasing pollution on the planet. Landfill of solid domestic waste is one of the most important sources of pollution, where the leachate seeping through soil, gets into the soil and groundwater. Area of landfills of solid household waste, reaches tens of hectares and the mass of waste reaches millions of tones. The specificity of the leachate is the high content of soluble organic substances, providing reduction conditions in contaminated soil and groundwater. Reduction environment is defines biogeochemical processes under landfills with the participation of: ammonium, iron, manganese, bicarbonate, sulfate, methane. The main processes in polluted soil stream are including: biological degradation of organic matter and a variety of biological and abiotic processes. Wide discrimination of the most diverse groups of microorganisms in the polluted leachate is occurs, overlay neighboring redox zones. Microbial population is identifies specific redox zones more contaminated leachate nucleus than on the borders of the leachate with oxygen-enriched by the background thread. Biological reduction processes in the leachate are developing at different speeds: fast evolving and denitrification reduction of iron, slow – methanogenesis.

  2. [Assessment of TVOC and odor in the remediation site of contaminated soil and groundwater using electronic nose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiu-Ying; Cai, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2013-02-01

    According to the conditions of a contaminated soil and groundwater remediation site in Shanghai, the self-built electronic nose was applied to detect VOCs and odor of previously remedied soil and groundwater, remedying soil and groundwater, and the air above and around the site. Combining the formula of TPI and OPI, the value of each point was got and was shown in figures. Results showed: 1. Comparing the determination results of previously remedied with remedying contaminated soil and groundwater, the concentration of TVOC and odor was overall declined. The result was consistent with the fact. The detection result of electronic nose was proved to be right; 2. In the remediation process of soil and groundwater, the volatilization of VOCs and odor was inflected by temperature and works of crushing, adding medicine and turning the soil on time. The concentration showed a trend of overall decline with stage rising, so the electronic noses can be used for dynamic monitoring of the whole remediation process; 3. Combined with the GIS, the electronic noses can preliminary assess space pollution situation caused by the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater and the influence on the residence in the surrounding region. However, further study on the refined classification of the impact degree is needed.

  3. Development of Enhanced Remedial Techniques for Petroleum Fuel and Related Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-10

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with Earth Tech and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was to identify proper sites with soils and/or groundwater contaminated by petroleum constituents and MTBE. Biodegradation rates would have been quantitatively assessed in both laboratory and field tests to achieve the optimal destruction of contaminants of concern. WRI and Earth Tech identified a site contaminated with high concentrations of methanol associated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The site was assessed and a remediation project plan was prepared; however, the site was soon acquired by a new company. An agreement between Earth Tech, WRI, and the new site owners could not be reached; therefore, a work was performed to identify a new project site. Task 33 was terminated and the available funding was redeployed to other Tasks after receiving approval from the U.S. DOE task manager.

  4. In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater Using Persulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Petri, B.; Crimi, M.

    2010-01-01

    are presented, with a focus on the different activation methods, the amenable contaminants, and the reactions of persulfate with porous media, based primarily on a critical review of the peer-reviewed scientific literature and to a lesser extent on non-reviewed professional journals and conference proceedings......Persulfate is the newest oxidant that is being used for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) in the remediation of soil and groundwater. In this review, the fundamental reactions and governing factors of persulfate relevant to ISCO are discussed. The latest experiences for ISCO with persulfate...

  5. Groundbreaking technology: in-situ anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation is a technique often used to cleanse contaminated soil and groundwater. 'Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation' is a phrase with distinct terms all having relevance in the application of this technique. 'Anaerobic' implies the absence of dissolved oxygen, while 'in-situ' simply means that the environmental cleansing occurs with out removing, displacing, or significantly disturbing the specimen or surrounding area. 'Bioremediation' is a term used to describe the biological use of microbes or plants to detoxify the environment. In order to properly implement this complex process, one must have an understanding of microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, metabolic processes, and structure and function of natural microbial communities. (author)

  6. Groundbreaking technology: in-situ anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation is a technique often used to cleanse contaminated soil and groundwater. 'Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation' is a phrase with distinct terms all having relevance in the application of this technique. Anaerobic implies the absence of dissolved oxygen, while 'in-situ' simply means that the environmental cleansing occurs with out removing, displacing, or significantly disturbing the specimen or surrounding area. 'Bioremediation' is a term used to describe the biological use of microbes or plants to detoxify the environment. In order to properly implement this complex process, one must have an understanding of microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, metabolic processes, and structure and function of natural microbial communities. (author)

  7. Groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic contamination in farming villages of Bangladesh - A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi -Ku, Fukuoka 812 8581 (Japan)], E-mail: kurosawa@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Egashira, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581 (Japan); Tani, Masakazu [Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 815 8540 (Japan); Jahiruddin, M.; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md. [Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Zulfikar Md. [Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh)

    2008-11-15

    To clarify the groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic (As) contamination, As concentration was measured in tubewell (TW) water, surface soil from farmyards and paddy fields, and fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves from farmyards in the farming villages of Bangladesh. The As concentration in TW water from farmyards was at least four times higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard, and the concentration in fresh taro leaves was equal to or higher than those reported previously for leafy vegetables in Bangladesh. As concentration of surface soils in both farmyards and paddy fields was positively correlated with that of the TW water. Further, the concentration in surface soil was positively correlated with levels in fresh taro leaves in the farmyard. This study, therefore, clarified the groundwater-soil-crop relationship in farmyards and the relationship between groundwater-soil in paddy fields to assess the extent of As contamination in Bangladeshi villages. - By extracting arsenic contaminated groundwater from a well, surface soil surrounding the well and crops planted in the surface soil became contaminated with arsenic.

  8. Groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic contamination in farming villages of Bangladesh - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Egashira, Kazuhiko; Tani, Masakazu; Jahiruddin, M.; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md.; Rahman, Zulfikar Md.

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic (As) contamination, As concentration was measured in tubewell (TW) water, surface soil from farmyards and paddy fields, and fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves from farmyards in the farming villages of Bangladesh. The As concentration in TW water from farmyards was at least four times higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard, and the concentration in fresh taro leaves was equal to or higher than those reported previously for leafy vegetables in Bangladesh. As concentration of surface soils in both farmyards and paddy fields was positively correlated with that of the TW water. Further, the concentration in surface soil was positively correlated with levels in fresh taro leaves in the farmyard. This study, therefore, clarified the groundwater-soil-crop relationship in farmyards and the relationship between groundwater-soil in paddy fields to assess the extent of As contamination in Bangladeshi villages. - By extracting arsenic contaminated groundwater from a well, surface soil surrounding the well and crops planted in the surface soil became contaminated with arsenic

  9. Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils and Groundwater in Northern Climates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Charles

    1998-01-01

    ...-landfarming, recirculating leachbeds, and infiltration galleries. Landfarming involves adding water and nutrients to contaminated soil to stimulate microbial activity and contaminant degradation...

  10. Delineation of ground-water contamination using soil-gas analyses near Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water resources near Jackson, West Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. The study included determination of the occurrence of contaminants in the shallow aquifer using soil-gas analyses in the unsaturated zone. Between 1980 and 1988, an underground fuel-storage tank leaked about 3,000 gallons of unleaded fuel to the water table about 4 feet below land surface. A survey of soil gas using a gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionization detector showed concentrations of volatile organic compounds greater than IO, 000 parts per million near the leak These compounds were detected in an area about 240 feet long and 110 feet wide extending west from the point source. The chromatograms provided two distinct 'fingerprints' of volatile organic compounds. The first revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, andxylenes, which are constituents of unleaded fuel, in addition to other volatile compounds, in soil gas in the area near the leak The second did not reveal any detectable benzene, toluene, or xylenes in the soil-gas samples, but showed the presence of other unidentified volatile organic compounds in soil gas north of the storage tank. The distribution of total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone indicated that a second plume about 200 feet long and 90 feet wide was present about 100 feet north of the storage tank The second plume could have been the result of previous activities at this site during the 1950's or earlier. Activities at the site are believed to have included storage of solvents used at the nearby railyard and flushing of tanks containing tar onto a gravel-covered parking area. The delineation of these plumes has shown that soil-gas analyses can be a useful technique for identifying areas of contamination with volatile organic compounds in shallow water-table aquifers and may have broad applications in similar situations where the water table is relatively close to the surface.

  11. Contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbons release. Contaminacion de suelos y aguas subterraneas por fugas de hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzikar, R.; Rogel Quesada, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the fundamentals driving the transfer of hydrocarbons at the geological media, the state of the art on contamination R and D and decontamination technologies for both soils and groundwater. A real example is given located at the Slovnaft Refinery in Bratislava (Slovakia). (Author)

  12. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  13. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  14. Soil and groundwater VOCs contamination: How can electrical geophysical measurements help assess post-bioremediation state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessouri, P.; Johnson, T. C.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Johnson, C. D.

    2016-12-01

    The former Brandywine MD (Maryland, USA) Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) was designated a hazardous waste Superfund site in 1999. The site was used as a storage area for waste and excess government equipment generated by several U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force installations, leading to soil and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Active bioremediation through anaerobic reductive dehalogenation was used to treat the groundwater and the aquifer unconsolidated materials in 2008, with electrical geophysical measurements employed to track amendment injections. Eight years later, we used spectral induced polarization (SIP) and time domain induced polarization (TDIP) on 2D surface lines and borehole electrical arrays to assess the long term impact of active remediation on physicochemical properties of the subsurface. Within the aquifer, the treated zone is more electrically conductive, and the phase shift describing the polarization effects is higher than in the untreated zone. Bulk conductivity and phase shift are also locally elevated close to the treatment injection well, possibly due to biogeochemical transformations associated with prolonged bacterial activity. Observed SIP variations could be explained by the presence of biofilms coating the pore space and/or by-products of the chemical reactions catalyzed by the bacterial activity (e.g. iron sulfide precipitation). To investigate these possibilities, we conducted complementary well logging measurements (magnetic susceptibility [MS], nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], gamma-ray) using 5 boreholes installed at both treated and untreated locations of the site. We also collected water and soil samples on which we conducted microbiological and chemical analyses, along with geophysical observations (SIP, MS and NMR), in the laboratory. These measurements provide further insights into the physicochemical transformations in the subsurface resulting from the treatment and highlight

  15. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  16. Assessment of Soil, Surface-Water, and Ground-Water Contamination at Selected Sites at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelan, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... Only emergency disposal operations have been conducted at J-Field since the early 1980's. Soil, surface-water, and ground-water contamination has resulted from the migration of unburned chemicals and fuels from the disposal...

  17. Leaching and soil/groundwater transport of contaminants from coal combustion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelmar, O.; Hansen, E.A.; Larsen, F.; Thomassen, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this project the results of accelerated laboratory leaching tests on coal fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products from the spray dryer absorption process (SDA) were evaluated by comparison to the results of large scale lysimeter leaching tests on the same residues. The mobility of chromium and molybdenum - two of the kev contaminants of coal combustion residue leachates - in various typical soil types was investigated by batch and column methods in the laboratory. Some of the results were confirmed by field observations at an old coal fly ash disposal site and by a lysimeter attenuation test with coal fly ash leachate on a clayed till. A large number of groundwater transport models and geochemical models were reviewed, and two of the models (Gove-Stollenwerk and CHMTRNS) were modified and adjusted and used to simulate column attenuation tests performed in the laboratory. One of the models (Grove-Stollenwerk) was used to illustrate a recommended method of environmental impact assessment, using lysimeter leaching data and laboratory column attenuation data to describe the emission and migration of Mo from a coal fly ash disposal site

  18. Soil and groundwater contamination with heavy metals at two scrap iron and metal recycling facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Holm, P. E.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Field studies were performed at two actual scrap iron and metal recycling facilities in order to evaluate the extent of heavy metal migration into subsoil and groundwater caused by more than 25 years of handling scrap directly on the ground without any measures to prevent leaching. Surface soil s...

  19. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; Talbot, J.C.; Crane, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ is generally used to refer to compounds previously not considered or known to be significant to groundwater (in terms of distribution and/or concentration) which are now being more widely detected. As analytical techniques improve, previously undetected organic micropollutants are being observed in the aqueous environment. Many emerging contaminants remain unregulated, but the number of regulated contaminants will continue to grow slowly over th...

  20. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  1. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  2. They all like it hot: faster cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Clean up a greasy kitchen spill with cold water and the going is slow. Us hot water instead and progress improves markedly. So it makes sense that cleanup of greasy underground contaminants such as gasoline might go faster if hot water or steam were somehow added to the process. The Environmental Protection Agency named hundreds of sites to the Superfund list - sites that have been contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum products or solvents. Elsewhere across the country, thousands of properties not identified on federal cleanup lists are contaminated as well. Given that under current regulations, underground accumulations of solvent and hydrocarbon contaminants (the most serious cause of groundwater pollution) must be cleaned up, finding a rapid and effective method of removing them is imperative. In the early 1990`s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore developed dynamic underground stripping. This method for treating underground contaminants with heat is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods.

  3. Arsenic contamination of the soil-wheat system irrigated with high arsenic groundwater in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junting; Guo, Huaming; Wei, Chao

    2014-10-15

    As one of the most important crop in the world, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was irrigated with low As water and high As water. However, little is known about As cycling in the soil-wheat-water system. Two wheat fields (site G and site Y), irrigated with high dissolved As (178 μg L(-1)) groundwater and low dissolved As (8.2 μg L(-1)) surface water, respectively, were systematically sampled in the Hetao Basin, including irrigation water, soils and plants. The annual As (including dissolved As and suspended As) input per m(2) was estimated at 140 and 36.7 mg in site G and site Y, respectively. Topsoils of site G contained relatively higher As content (average 18.8 mg kg(-1)) than those of site Y (13.8 mg kg(-1)). Arsenic content of wheat grains in site G is systematically higher than in the site Y, which were positively correlated with non-specifically sorbed-As and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound As in topsoils. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater led to As accumulation in irrigated soils and the increase in As bioavailability, and subsequently resulted in the increase in As content of wheat grain. It suggested that less problematic water resources should be used for wheat irrigation in order to avoid As accumulation in the soil-plant system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Health risk estimates for groundwater and soil contamination in the Slovak Republic: a convenient tool for identification and mapping of risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajčíková, K; Cvečková, V; Stewart, A; Rapant, S

    2014-10-01

    We undertook a quantitative estimation of health risks to residents living in the Slovak Republic and exposed to contaminated groundwater (ingestion by adult population) and/or soils (ingestion by adult and child population). Potential risk areas were mapped to give a visual presentation at basic administrative units of the country (municipalities, districts, regions) for easy discussion with policy and decision-makers. The health risk estimates were calculated by US EPA methods, applying threshold values for chronic risk and non-threshold values for cancer risk. The potential health risk was evaluated for As, Ba, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, NO3 (-), Pb, Sb, Se and Zn for groundwater and As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn for soils. An increased health risk was identified mainly in historical mining areas highly contaminated by geogenic-anthropogenic sources (ore deposit occurrence, mining, metallurgy). Arsenic and antimony were the most significant elements in relation to health risks from groundwater and soil contamination in the Slovak Republic contributing a significant part of total chronic risk levels. Health risk estimation for soil contamination has highlighted the significance of exposure through soil ingestion in children. Increased cancer risks from groundwater and soil contamination by arsenic were noted in several municipalities and districts throughout the country in areas with significantly high arsenic levels in the environment. This approach to health risk estimations and visualization represents a fast, clear and convenient tool for delineation of risk areas at national and local levels.

  5. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  6. Agricultural contamination in soil-groundwater-surface water systems in the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje

    of China’s main agricultural production zones, accounting for about one third of the national grain output. The dominant crop system is a winter wheat and summer maize rotation. Beginning in the 1980s, in an effort to increase agricultural productivity, China’s government heavily promoted the use....... Additionally, nitrate was infiltrating from the surface of the field into the aquifer. Anammox, denitrification, and cation exchange were the suggested dominant removal processes in the soil-surface water-groundwater system examined in this study, which showed a very high nitrogen removal capacity. However......, if the composition of the river water were to change (if, for instance, the ammonium concentration were to decrease) the removal processes in the system would also be altered. Consequently, further monitoring of nitrate pollution is suggested. Regarding pesticides, a literature review and data assessment revealed...

  7. Assessment of groundwater, soil-gas, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the groundwater, soil gas, and soil for contaminants at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility (VATF) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic compounds in the groundwater and soil gas, and inorganic compounds in the soil. In addition, organic contaminant assessment included organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Four passive samplers were deployed in groundwater wells at the VATF in Fort Gordon. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level at all four wells. The only other volatile organic compounds detected above their method detection level were undecane and pentadecane, which were detected in two of the four wells sampled. Soil-gas samplers were deployed at 72 locations in a grid pattern across the VATF. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 71 of the 72 samplers (one sampler was destroyed in the field and not analyzed) at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene was detected above the detection level in 31 of the 71 samplers that were analyzed. Other volatile organic compounds detected above their respective method detection levels were naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, tridecane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. Subsequent to the soil-gas survey, four areas determined to have elevated contaminant mass were selected and sampled for explosives and chemical agents. No detections of explosives or chemical agents above their

  8. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  9. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Recommendations toaddress contaminated soils, concrete, and corrective action managementunit/groundwater contamination at Ashtabula, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoglu, Emily; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Gombert, Dirk; Hazen, Terry; Johnson, Bob; Looney, Brian; Krstich, Michael A.; Rautman, Chris; Tripp,Julia; Whitmill, Larry

    2002-08-26

    The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP) at Department of Energy-Ohio (DOE-OH) requested technical assistance from the EM-50 Lead Lab to aid in defining new cost and time effective approaches in the following problem areas: soils, concrete, and groundwater/Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) at RMIES in Ashtabula, Ohio. Attachment 1 provides the site request for assistance. The technical assistance team assembled for this request is provided in Attachment 2. These individuals reviewed key site information prior to convening with DOE and contractor personnel (RMIES and Earthline) for a three-and-a-half-day meeting to better understand baseline technologies, limitations, and site-specific issues. After listening to presentations about the nature and extent of known contamination, the team broke out into several groups to brainstorm ideas and develop viable solutions. This executive summary details unresolved issues requiring management attention as well as recommendations to address soils, concrete, and groundwater/CAMU. It also provides a summary of additional technical assistance that could be provided to the site. More details are presented in the body of this report.

  10. The use of vinasse as an amendment to ex-situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the possibility of using vinasse as an amendment in ex-situ bioremediation processes. Groundwater and soil samples were collected at petrol stations. The soil bioremediation was simulated in Bartha biometer flasks, used to measure the microbial CO2 production, during 48 days, where vinasse was added at a concentration of 33 mL.Kg-1of soil. Biodegradation efficiency was also measured by quantifying the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH by gas chromatography. The groundwater bioremediation was carried out in laboratory experiments simulating aerated (bioreactors and not aerated (BOD flasks conditions. In both the cases, the concentration of vinasse was 5 % (v/v and different physicochemical parameters were evaluated during 20 days. Although an increase in the soil fertility and microbial population were obtained with the vinasse, it demonstrated not to be adequate to enhance the bioremediation efficiency of diesel oil contaminated soils. The addition of the vinasse in the contaminated groundwaters had negative effects on the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons, since vinasse, as a labile carbon source, was preferentially consumed.Este trabalho investigou a possibilidade de se usar a vinhaça como um agente estimulador de processos de biorremediação ex-situ. Amostras de água subterrânea e solo foram coletadas em três postos de combustíveis. A biorremediação do solo foi simulada em frascos de Bartha, usados para medir a produção de CO2, durante 48 dias, onde a vinhaça foi adicionada a uma concentração de 33 mL.Kg-1 de solo. A eficiência de biodegradação também foi medida pela quantificação de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH por cromatografia gasosa. A biorremediação da água subterrânea foi realizada em experimentos laboratoriais simulando condições aeradas (bioreatores e não aeradas (frascos de DBO. Em ambos os casos, a concentração de vinhaça foi de 5 % (v/v e diferentes parâmetros f

  11. Contaminants in groundwater: Chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.A.; Gillham, R.W.; Barker, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The movement of most toxic contaminants in groundwater is affected by chemical reactions that cause transfer of contaminant mass between the liquid and solid phases or conversion of dissolved species from one form to another. The chemical attenuation of inorganic contaminants occurs mainly by adsorption, precipitation, oxidation, or reduction. organic contaminants can be adsorbed or degraded by microbiological processes, but at present little is known about their behavior, particularly under the anaerobic conditions that are common in contaminated groundwater. Field and laboratory studies have established that various toxic heavy metals, transition metals, metalloids, radionuclides, and other inorganic species can be mobile or immobile in the groundwater zone, depending on the hydrogeochemical conditions represented by the pH, the redox condition, the ionic strength, the mineralogy, the solid-phase surface area, and the complexing capacity. Although the importance of chemical reactions in the attenuation of contaminants is widely recognized, the capabilities for attenuation predictions are not well developed. This is the case because the chemical processes within dynamic groundwater systems are complex; consequently, many of the geochemical parameters in predictive models are problematic. The prediction problem is complicated by the fact that the chemical processes are continually influenced by the redistribution of dissolved species caused by molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion. The complexities of these mixing processes contribute to the difficulties in developing reliable methods for predicting the chemical behavior of contaminants in the groundwater zone

  12. Assessment of groundwater, soil-gas, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the groundwater, soil gas, and soil for contaminants at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility (VATF) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2011. The assessment included the detection of organic compounds in the groundwater and soil gas, and inorganic compounds in the soil. In addition, organic contaminant assessment included organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. This report is a revision of "Assessment of soil-gas, surface-water, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010," Open-File Report 2011-1200, and supersedes that report to include results of additional samples collected in July 2011. Four passive samplers were deployed in groundwater wells at the VATF in Fort Gordon. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene and octane were detected above the method detection level at all four wells. The only other volatile organic compounds detected above their method detection level were undecane and pentadecane, which were detected in two of the four wells. Soil-gas samplers were deployed at 72 locations in a grid pattern across the VATF on June 3, 2010, and then later retrieved on June 9, 2010. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 71 of the 72 samplers (one sampler was destroyed in the field and not analyzed) at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene (BTEX) was detected above the detection level in 31 of the 71 samplers that were analyzed. Other volatile organic compounds

  13. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base

  14. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  15. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with MTBE and benzene: the potential of vertical-flow soil filter systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afferden, M. van; Rahman, K.Z.; Mosig, P.; De Biase, C.; Thullner, M.; Oswald, S.E.; Müller, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations on the treatment of MTBE and benzene from contaminated groundwater in pilot or full-scale constructed wetlands are lacking hugely. The aim of this study was to develop a biological treatment technology that can be operated in an economic, reliable and robust mode over a long

  16. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  17. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Johnsen, Anders R.; Christensen, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    and either hydroxylated or oxidized to carboxylic acids at the methyl group. The metabolism of the sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC resulted in sulfate conjugates. The sorption of the PAC metabolites to three soils was determined using a batch equilibrium method, and partition coefficients (Kd's) were......-methylphenanthrene, 1-methylpyrene), and one sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC (dibenzothiophene). Fifty-eight metabolites were tentatively identified; metabolites from the un-substituted PACs were hydroxylated and sulfate conjugated, whereas metabolites from alkyl-substituted PACs were sulfate conjugated...... calculated for fourteen representative metabolites. Sulfate conjugated metabolites displayed Kd's below 70 whereas the metabolites with both a sulfate and a carboxylic acid group had Kd's below 2.8. The low Kd's of water-soluble PAC metabolites indicate high mobility in soil and a potential for leaching...

  18. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  19. Soil and groundwater contamination after 60 years of oil production in Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallnischkies, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the Post-Conflict and Disaster Management Branch of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) carried out an investigation of the environmental contamination caused by the production of crude oil in Ogoniland in the Niger Delta. Oil production in the Niger-Delta has been a cause of conflicts between the local population of this under-developed region and the oil producing companies (OPCs) since the mid-1950s. The objective of the project was to quantify environmental damage, determine transfer pathways and to assess institutional and technical capacities. The assessment showed that considerable environmental damages have been caused by spilled crude oil and distilled product during more than half a century. On the other hand, most remediation efforts carried out by OPCs turned out to be insufficient. Changes on all levels of legislation, administration, law enforcement and technical implementation are necessary to remediate oil contamination and mitigate the effects in the region or even in the whole of Niger Delta according to international standards. UNEP estimates that future remediation activities may take as long as 25-30 years. UNEP recommends setting up an Environmental Restoration Fund for Ogoniland with an initial capital of 1 billion US dollars, to be contributed by the OPCs and the Nigerian Government. Remediation of Ogoniland could be an example for the rest of Niger Delta.

  20. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  1. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (ECs) are compounds now being found in groundwater from agricultural, urban sources that were previously not detectable, or thought to be significant. ECs include pesticides and degradates, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as ‘life-style’ compounds such as caffeine and nicotine. ECs may have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Freq...

  2. Long-term behaviour of organic contaminants in soil and groundwater; Langzeitverhalten organischer Schadstoffe in Boden und Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grathwohl, P. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften

    2006-09-15

    The experience of the last decades demonstrated that pollutants at contaminated sites can not or only very slowly be removed by in situ treatment methods. This is due to uncertainties in the exact location of contamination hot spots (unknown hot spots obviously can't be removed), but also because of slow dissolution and desorption of various compounds. The latter two processes are treated in this paper in a simplified type-scenario approach. For estimation of sorption capacities of organic compounds a new method based on the water solubilities of the compounds is presented. The results show, that hot spots typical for many organic pollutants are stable for many decades to centuries and that natural attenuation in source zones is not very efficient. In pollutant plumes down-gradient of hot spots, however, natural attenuation plays an important role in risk assessment and decisions about necessity and goals of groundwater remediation. Since partial removal of hot spots may lead to a very significant shortening of pollutant plumes in groundwater, partial treatment of source zones gained increasing importance recently. (orig.)

  3. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  4. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  5. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.

  6. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  7. Behaviour of cyanides in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Most people associate the word cyanide with an extremely dangerous and fast-acting poison. However, there are several cyanide species, of varying toxicity, depending on the source to cyanide contamination. The most important cyanide compounds, as well as the most important sources of cyanide...... contamination in soils and groundwater are discussed. Toxicological and analytical aspects of cyanide containing compounds are briefly touched. The behaviour of cyanide compounds in soil and groundwater is governed by many interacting chemical and microbial processes. Redox conditions and pH are of importance...... for the leaching and degradation of iron cyanide complexes. Free cyanide is degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, while documentation of the degradability of iron cyanide complexes only exists under aerobic conditions. The risk associated to the cyanide contained in the different types of sources...

  8. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Eckersten, Henrik; Reinlert, Andre; Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo; Greger, Maria

    2009-10-01

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  9. Hydrogeochemistry of alluvial groundwaters in an agricultural area: an implication for groundwater contamination susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Kim, Kangjoo; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Soon-Oh; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Rhee, Chul Woo

    2004-04-01

    Alluvial groundwaters in the area where intensive agricultural activity takes place were geochemically investigated to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality of alluvial aquifers. For this study, 55 groundwater samples were taken from the uniformly distributed irrigation wells and were classified into three distinct groups according to their geochemical characteristics. This study reveals that the groundwater quality and the geochemical characteristics of the clustered groups are consistent with the geology of the area. The samples collected from the area where a thick silt bed overlies the sand aquifer are clustered into Group II and show water quality that is only slightly affected by the contaminants originating from the land surface. However, groundwaters of this group are very high in Fe and Mn levels due to strong anoxic condition caused by the thick silt bed. In contrast, Group I shows water quality largely influenced by agricultural activities (i.e., fertilization, liming) and occurs in the area adjacent to the river where the silt bed is not observed and the sand aquifer is covered with sandy soils. Group III mostly occurs in the upgradient of Group I where a thin, silty soil covers the sand aquifer. In overall, the results show that the clustered groups closely reflect the groundwater susceptibility to the contaminants originated from the land surface. This suggests that groundwater clustering based on water chemistry could be applied to the contamination susceptibility assessment for groundwaters in the agricultural area.

  10. Distribution of Groundwater Contaminants at the RCA Taoyuan Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, I.; Wang, Y.; Chia, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The RCA Taoyuan plant is the first announced remediation site due to groundwater contamination in Taiwan in 2004. From 1970 through 1992, Radio Corporation of America (RCA) Taoyuan Plant in Taiwan operated as a television assembly plant producing related electronic equipment. In 1987, the soil and the groundwater of the site area were discovered with contamination of chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The primary contaminants are tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1, 1, 1- trichloroethane (1, 1, 1-TCA). The source of the contamination may be caused by improper dumping or leakage of the chemical solvents. The remediation of soil were finished in 1998 and qualified with Republic of China Environmental Protection Administration (ROCEPA) soil pollution control standards. On the other hand, after more detailed site investigations and many pilot tests, the remediation of groundwater has been started since 2005 and is still in progress. Because the chlorinated VOCs are Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs), they are hardly dissolved in groundwater and couldn't be cleaned up by extraction and treatment. In addition, the densities of DNAPLs are higher than water, so they would keep moving downward till aquitards or interval mud layers between aquifers. The movement was controlled by many complex factors, including the gravity, hydraulic gradient, capillary pressure, etc. Then DNAPLs would move along the surface of layers horizontally leaving slight remains on the paths. The remains would keep slowly dissolving in groundwater to become long-term contamination sources. The Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) method has been conducted to remediate the groundwater in site area with successful effects, but some of the monitoring wells in off-site area are still detected with high concentrations of VOCs, exceeding the pollution standards. Furthermore, the concentration of primary contaminants was lowered by the remediation, but some secondary

  11. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  12. Investigating Remediation Reagents Injection and Rainfall Effect by using Self-Potential Method in a Soil and Groundwater Contamination Site located in Yung Kang, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Pin; Dong, Tien-Hsing; Chen, Yao-Tsung; Lin, Su-Tien; Ho, Ching-Jen

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have proposed the use of time-lapse SP (self-potential) monitoring system to investigate a remediation reagents injection and rainfall effect in the soil and groundwater contamination site which was located in Yung Kang, Taiwan. We set up two mutually perpendicular survey lines to continuously record the SP data at a sampling rate of 25 Hz. One extended in N-S direction for a total length of 85 m with 17 potential electrodes and 1 common reference electrode. Another extended in E-W direction for a total length of 35 m with 7 potential electrodes and 1 common reference electrode. By averaging 1 day hourly SP median data, we calculated the time-lapse SPT (self-potential tomography) with a published code SP2DINV, and got the following results. First and foremost, from the daily SPTs, we found some artificial structures at a depth of circa 5 m. Then, by observing the positive and negative electric potential distributions in both N-S and E-W SPTs, we determined that the regional groundwater flow direction was in NE. Besides, making use of interpolation scheme, we filtered the rainfall effect out of the raw SP data. Then from the SPTs within the rainy days, we successfully demonstrated the SP response to the precipitation. And this phenomenon was interpreted as streaming potential which was caused from the enhancement of groundwater pressure. In addition, we correlated the charge density variation above 5m from SPTs with daily rainfall from August to September, to evaluate the Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient. Last but not the least, by analyzing the SPTs variation from 13th to 18th October 2015 and from 23th to 25th November 2015, we compared the SPTs difference between two remediation reagents injection periods. And we also computed the passing time of the equal-potential lines between two fixed points, to evaluate the apparent hydraulic conductivities in this study area.

  13. A technical approach to groundwater contamination problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Leser, C.; Rose, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has been performing technical investigations at sites in Nebraska and Kansas that have identified groundwater contamination by carbon tetrachloride. This comprehensive program will ultimately provide the affected communities with safe drinking water. The first step in the program is to evaluate the available data and identify sites that will require an Alternate Water Supply Study (AWSS). The objective of the AWSS is to identify options for providing a safe drinking water supply to all users, in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. The AWSS consists of an engineering and cost evaluation followed by implementation of the selected alternative. For sites with contamination less than a specific concentration, the AWSS is regarded as a satisfactory long term solution, and no further action is taken. For those sites with concentrations above that specific limit, the AWSS implementation is regarded as only a stopgap measure, and the site is selected for additional remedial action. The first step of the remedial action is an Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The ESC was developed at Argonne to decrease the cost and time of the remedial investigation and feasibility study while producing a high-quality technical investigation. The ESC is designed to characterize the contaminant plume configuration and movement, which requires an understanding of the geological and hydrogeologic controls on groundwater movement as well as the nature and extent of any remaining carbon tetrachloride source in the soils. The ESC program uses a multidisciplinary technical approach that incorporates geology, geochemistry, geohydrology, and geophysics. Field activities include sampling, chemical analysis, and borehole and surface geophysical surveys

  14. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study on the geochemistry of groundwater was carried out in a river basin of Andhra Pradesh to probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA transforms the chemical variables, pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO 3 − , Cl−, SO 4 2 − , NO 3 ...

  15. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  16. Modelling assessment of regional groundwater contamination due to historic smelter emissions of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Griffioen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Historic emissions from ore smelters typically cause regional soil contamination. We developed a modelling approach to assess the impact of such contamination on groundwater and surface water load, coupling unsaturated zone leaching modelling with 3D groundwater transport modelling. Both historic

  17. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  18. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquiett, C.; Gerke, M.; Datskou, I.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Remediation for contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivekaes, L. [Lohja Envirotec, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    A versatile remediation centre for contaminated soils has operated at Virkkala close to Helsinki since 1998. It is the first regional soil remediation centre in Finland and serves a large area in south- western Finland. Contaminated soils are collected from tens of small and large sites each year and transported to Virkkala for a very high class and environmentally safe treatment under controlled conditions. The centre consists of a 2 ha large hall for storage and treatment of the soils, a 1 ha outside bio-remediation field and a service and truck washing hall. Three treatment technologies are available at the centre: Stabilization/solidification, washing and bio-remediation. With these methods all the most common types of contamination can be treated: Heavy metals, oils, PAHs, creosotes and chlorophenols. Special care has been taken with prevention of environmental emissions, because the centre is located close to a housing area and on a lake-front. All the storage and treatment areas are covered with a double or triple bottom liner system and all environmental emissions are being monitored constantly. EU's Life Environment -fund has supported the project. (orig.)

  20. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  1. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.; Lyman, C.G.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established

  2. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  3. Groundwater resources and regional environmental radionuclide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zektser, Igor S.; Rogachevskaya, Liliya M.

    2002-01-01

    Drinking water of good quality is considered as an absolutely necessary component of sustainable development of territories and their inhabitants. The environmental radionuclide contamination problem after human activities is at the edge in modern world in accordance with the sustainable development task. The regional contamination is affected the local and regional surface water-catchment areas, as well as the recharge areas of shallow unconfined and some stratum aquifers used for centralized water supply of the population. The obtained new data (UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) Project RUS/95/004 of the Russian Federation) on the radioecological state and the preliminary predictions within contaminated territories do not enable to consider groundwater as throughout reliably protected against radionuclide contamination. During exploitation shallow water the location of water wells within divides essentially decreases the low-quality drinking water obtaining risk The strategy must be aimed at obligatory of reliably protected deep groundwater in water supply systems. (author)

  4. Groundwater contamination and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and License retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. Most noteworthy among the areas of contamination are seven private drinking water wells up to 3 000 feet to the southeast, and one private drinking water well approximately 1 000 feet to the northeast, that have been found to contain tetra-chloro-ethylene ('PCE'), trichloroethylene ('TCE'), and other contaminants associated with their environmental degradation. Potential sources of this contamination include approximately 40 large unlined on-site burial pits and 2 evaporation ponds in which previous operators of the facility disposed of uranium contaminated wastes and a variety of other hazardous substances. This paper discusses Westinghouse's response to the discovery of drinking water contamination, and the significance of its community relations program within that response. (author)

  5. Advanced oxidation for groundwater remediation and for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.

    2001-01-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP) used in this paper is based on EB irradiation of water in the presence and absence of ozone. The paper describes two distinct sets of experiments, one dealing with groundwater contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) and some genotoxic compounds, and the other dealing with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The combination of ozone and EB irradiation has shown to be able to mineralize trace amounts of PCE contained in groundwater in a single stage process without formation of any by-product to be disposed of. Moreover, experiments performed with real groundwater have demonstrated that the combined ozone/EB irradiation process is also apt for total removal of some genotoxic compounds detected in groundwater contaminated with PCE. The design of an ozone/EB irradiation plant for treating 108 m 3 /h is presented. The issue concerning both the occurrences of genotoxic compounds in oxygen containing groundwater and possible processes for their removal is discussed. In the second part soil contaminated with PAHs has been treated in aqueous suspension using ozone and EB irradiation, respectively. Experiments were performed with low contaminated soil (total PAHs about 332 mg/kg soil). With an ozone consumption of 10 g C) 3 /kg soil a total PAH decomposition of about 21% was recorded. EB irradiation with a reasonable radiation dose of 100 kGy results in about 7% total PAH decomposition at room temperature and about 16%, respectively at 55-60 deg. C. It was recorded that almost no transfer of the PAH takes place from the soil into the water when soil is merely suspended in water. Ozone mainly attacked the high molecular fraction (i.e. consisting of 5 or 6 aromatic rings) of the PAHs investigated while EB irradiation of the aqueous soil suspension mostly decomposed the lower fraction (i.e. consisting up to 4 aromatic rings). (author)

  6. Ecological Role of Soils upon Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetnov, Evgeny; Shcheglov, Alexei; Tsvenova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The ecological role of soils upon radioactive contamination is clearly manifested in the system of notions about ecosystems services, i.e., benefits gained by humans from ecosystems and their components, including soils (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For the soils, these services are considered on the basis of soil functions in the biosphere that belong to the protective ecosystem functions within the group of soil functions known under the names of "Buffer and protective biogeocenotic shield" (at the level of particular biogeocenoses) and "Protective shield of the biosphere" (at the global biospheric level) (according to Dobrovol'skii & Nikitin, 2005). With respect to radionuclides, this group includes (1) the depositing function, i.e., the accumulation and long-term sequestration of radioactive substances by the soil after atmospheric fallout; (2) the geochemical function, i.e., the regulation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of radionuclides in the system of geochemically conjugated landscapes and in the soil-groundwater and soil-plant systems; and (3) the dose-forming function that is manifested by the shielding capacity of the soil with respect to the external ionizing radiation (lowering of the dose from external radiation) and by the regulation of the migration of radionuclides in the trophic chain (lowering of the dose from internal radiation). The depositing and geochemical functions of the soils are interrelated, which is seen from quantitative estimates of the dynamics of the fluxes of radionuclides in the considered systems (soil-plant, soil-groundwater, etc.). The downward migration of radionuclides into the lower soil layers proceeds very slowly: for decades, more than 90% of the pool of radionuclides is stored in the topmost 10 cm of the soil profile. In the first 3-5 years after the fallout, the downward migration of radionuclides with infiltrating water flows decreases from several percent to decimals and hundredths of percent from the

  7. Salt works and their impact on soil and groundwater. The cases of Anghelohori and Kitros, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulos Angelopoulos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil and groundwater caused to salt works occurs due to infiltration of a part of seawater from the lakes of salt works through the soil and into phreatic aquifers and from there percolating to artesian aquifers. In the same time, while salt remaining in place is washed out by rain, contaminating soil and both phreatic and artesian aquifers. In the areas of Angelohori and Kitros this contamination of soil has been detected through chemical analysis while groundwater contamination has been suggested through pressure level contours.

  8. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  9. Purification of contaminated groundwater by membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Soo; Chung, Chin Ki; Kim, Byoung Gon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study is to apply the membrane separation technology to the purification of contaminated ground water in Korea. Under this scope, the purification was aimed to the drinking water level. The scale of the membrane system was chosen to a small filtration plant for local clean water supplies and/or heavy purifiers for buildings and public uses. The actual conditions of ground water contamination in Korea was surveyed to determine the major components to remove under the drinking water requirements. To set up a hybrid process with membrane methods, conventional purification methods were also investigated for the comparison purpose. The research results are summarized as follows : 1) Contamination of the groundwater in Korea has been found to be widespread across the country. The major contaminant were nitrate, bacteria, and organic chlorides. Some solvents and heavy metals are also supposed to exist in the ground water of industrial complexes, cities, and abandoned mines. 2) The purification methods currently used in public filtration plants appear not to be enough for new contaminants from recent industrial expanding. The advanced purification technologies generally adopted for this problem have been found to be unsuitable due to their very complicated design and operation, and lack of confidence in the purification performance. 3) The reverse osmosis tested with FilmTec FT30 membrane was found to remove nitrate ions in water with over 90 % efficiency. 4) The suitable membrane process for the contaminated groundwater in Korea has been found to be the treatments composed of activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, and disinfection. The activated carbon treatment could be omitted for the water of low organic contaminants. The microfiltration and the reverse osmosis treatments stand for the conventional methods of filtration plants and the advanced methods for hardly removable components, respectively. It is recommended

  10. Assessment of soil and groundwater contamination by potentially toxic and trace elements in an impounded vehicle scrapyard: Case study: Ribeirão Pires, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila Neves

    2018-01-01

    Impounded vehicle scrapyard (IVS) overcrowding is currently a subject of concern in Brazilian scenario. The aim of this study was to assess the total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and trace elements (TE) in soil and groundwater in an IVS located in the city of Ribeirão Pires. In order to achieve this objective, topsoil, three soil cores and groundwater of three monitoring wells were analyzed. It was verified that the area is mainly affected by three factors: (1) a landfill layer with construction waste; (2) an oily residue from past industrial activities in the area; (3) vehicles parked on topsoil. For the evaluation of the results, statistical techniques, such as multivariate analysis, calculation of pollution, ecological and human health risk index were used. Mass fractions of all PTEs, except Co, Cu, Mo and Zn, were higher than reference values. Hot spots were observed for most elements suggesting vehicular source. The Geoaccumulation Index showed minimal to moderate pollution in soil for most elements, except for As and Ba, which showed higher accumulation than other elements. The enrichment factor pointed to a significant enrichment of As and Pb. Arsenic content in soil may pose a moderate to high potential ecological risk. The results of PTEs and as statistical approaches indicated that As, Ce, Co, Cu, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb and Zn are mainly from anthropogenic sources. The content of most PTEs in topsoil does not pose a potential human health risk, except Cr content. Groundwater levels for most PTEs were below the drinking water recommendation limits, except Mn and Fe content. (author)

  11. Biodegradation of creosote and pentachlorophenol in contaminated groundwater: chemical and biological assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, J G; Middaugh, D P; Lantz, S E; Chapman, P J

    1991-01-01

    Shake flask studies examined the rate and extent of biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 42 components of coal-tar creosote present in contaminated groundwater recovered from the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Fla. The ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to remove these contaminants from aqueous solutions was determined by gas chromatographic analysis of organic extracts of biotreated groundwater. Changes in potential environmental and human health hazards a...

  12. Bioremediation of Creosote - contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied employing the methods of soil microbial biology and using new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analytical approach. The changes of the soil microbial community under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution impact were analyzed and described, as well as the changes during the bioremediation experiments. Laboratory-scale bioremediation experiments using the soil microbial community (consisted of bacteria...

  13. Development of one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code 'GFLOW' for groundwater flow and contaminant transport analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahatgaonkar, P. S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of groundwater movement and contaminant transport in soil is an important problem in many branches of science and engineering. This includes groundwater hydrology, environmental engineering, soil science, agricultural engineering and also nuclear engineering. Specifically, in nuclear engineering it is applicable in the design of spent fuel storage pools and waste management sites in the nuclear power plants. Ground water modeling involves the simulation of flow and contaminant transport by groundwater flow. In the context of contaminated soil and groundwater system, numerical simulations are typically used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standard. A one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics code GFLOW had been developed based on the Finite Difference Method for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport through saturated and unsaturated soil. The code is validated with the analytical model and the benchmarking cases available in the literature. (authors)

  14. Persistent Norovirus Contamination of Groundwater Supplies in Two Waterborne Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2018-03-01

    Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures. Moreover, the long-term persistence of noro- and adenovirus genomes was investigated. Noroviruses were detected in water samples from both outbreaks after the intrusion of wastewater into the drinking water sources. In the outbreak I, the removal efficiency of norovirus genome (3.0 log 10 removal) in the sand filter of onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and during the transport through the soil into the groundwater well was lower than the removal efficiencies of E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, and spores of C. perfringens (6.2, 6.0, > 5.9, and > 4.8 log 10 removals, respectively). In the outbreak II, cleaning of massively contaminated groundwater well and drinking water distribution network proved challenging, and noro- and adenovirus genomes were detected up to 3 months (108 days). The long-term persistence study showed that noro- and adenovirus genomes can remain detectable in the contaminated water samples up to 1277 and 1343 days, respectively. This study highlights the transport and survival properties of enteric viruses in the environment explaining their potency to cause waterborne outbreaks.

  15. Calculation of human-toxicological serious soil contamination concentrations and proposals for intervention values for clean-up of soil and groundwater: Third series of compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreule P; Berg R van den; Waitz MFW; Swartjes FA; LBG

    1995-01-01

    Recently implemented have been the thoroughly revised intervention values for soil clean-up. In this report, proposals will be presented for intervention values for 15 additional compounds on the basis of an ecotoxicological and a human-toxicological evaluation. For all compounds the

  16. Tracing groundwater recharge in the San Luis Valley, Colorado: Groundwater contamination susceptibility in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tanya; Hindshaw, Ruth; Singer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Water is a vital resource in any agricultural watershed, yet in the arid western United States farming practices threaten the quality and availability of groundwater. This is a pressing concern in the San Luis Valley, southern Colorado, where agriculture comprises 30% of the local economy, and employs over half the valley population. Although 54 % of the water used for irrigation is surface water, farmers do not usually apply this water directly to their fields. Instead, the water is often diverted into pits which recharge the aquifer, and the water is subsequently pumped during the following irrigation season. The Rio Grande Water Conservation District recognises that recharge to the unconfined aquifer has been outpaced by commercial irrigation for at least four decades, resulting in a decline in groundwater levels. Recycled irrigation water, and leakage from unlined canals now represent the greatest recharge contribution to the unconfined aquifer in this region. This makes the shallow groundwater particularly susceptible to agricultural contamination. The purpose of this study is to assess groundwater contamination in the unconfined and upper confined aquifers of the San Luis Valley, which are the most susceptible to contamination due to their close proximity to the surface. Although concentrations of potentially harmful contaminants from agricultural runoff are regularly monitored, the large spatial and temporal fluctuations in values make it difficult to determine long-term trends. We have analysed δ18O, δ2H and major-ion chemistry of 57 groundwater, stream and precipitation samples, collected in June 2014, and interpreted them alongside regional stream flow data and groundwater levels. This will allow us to study the seasonality and locality of groundwater recharge to provide greater insight into the watershed's potential for pollution. A groundwater vulnerability assessment was performed using the model DRASTIC (Depth to water, Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil

  17. Statistical modeling of global geogenic arsenic contamination in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Manouchehr; Abbaspour, Karim C; Berg, Michael; Winkel, Lenny; Hug, Stephan J; Hoehn, Eduard; Yang, Hong; Johnson, C Annette

    2008-05-15

    Contamination of groundwaters with geogenic arsenic poses a major health risk to millions of people. Although the main geochemical mechanisms of arsenic mobilization are well understood, the worldwide scale of affected regions is still unknown. In this study we used a large database of measured arsenic concentration in groundwaters (around 20,000 data points) from around the world as well as digital maps of physical characteristics such as soil, geology, climate, and elevation to model probability maps of global arsenic contamination. A novel rule-based statistical procedure was used to combine the physical data and expert knowledge to delineate two process regions for arsenic mobilization: "reducing" and "high-pH/ oxidizing". Arsenic concentrations were modeled in each region using regression analysis and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inferencing followed by Latin hypercube sampling for uncertainty propagation to produce probability maps. The derived global arsenic models could benefit from more accurate geologic information and aquifer chemical/physical information. Using some proxy surface information, however, the models explained 77% of arsenic variation in reducing regions and 68% of arsenic variation in high-pH/oxidizing regions. The probability maps based on the above models correspond well with the known contaminated regions around the world and delineate new untested areas that have a high probability of arsenic contamination. Notable among these regions are South East and North West of China in Asia, Central Australia, New Zealand, Northern Afghanistan, and Northern Mali and Zambia in Africa.

  18. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In previous studies at Sandia National Laboratories, the electromigration of chromate ions and anionic dye ions have been demonstrated. This paper reports on a series of experiments that were conducted to study the effect of moisture content on the electromigration rate of anionic contaminants in unsaturated soil and determine the limiting moisture content for which electromigration occurs

  19. Organics in soils and groundwater at non-arid sites (A-1) integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J.L.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most common environmental problems in the United States is soils and groundwater contaminated with volatile chemical solvents classified as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which were used as degreasers and cleaning agents. Leakage of solvents (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) from an underground process sewer line has contaminated soils and underlying groundwaters at SRS. This site was chosen for DOE-OTD's integrated demonstration program to demonstrate innovative technologies for cleanup of soils and groundwater contaminated with VOCs. The Savannah River Site was especially well suited as the test bed for this integrated demonstration project due to the presence of a pre-existing line source of soil and groundwater-based contamination, on-going environmental remediation efforts at the site, and full cooperation from the concerned environmental regulatory agencies. The Integrated Demonstration (ID) at the Savannah River Site has demonstrated systems of technologies and evaluated them with respect to performance, safety and cost effectiveness

  20. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  1. Limitations of sorption isotherms on modeling groundwater contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eduardo Figueira da

    2007-01-01

    Design and safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, as well as remediation of radionuclide contaminated groundwater require the development of models capable of accurately predicting trace element fate and transport. Adsorption of trace radionuclides onto soils and groundwater is an important mechanism controlling near- and far- field transport. Although surface complexation models (SCMs) can better describe the adsorption mechanisms of most radionuclides onto mineral surfaces by directly accounting for variability of system properties and mineral surface properties, isotherms are still used to model contaminant transport in groundwater, despite the much higher system dependence. The present work investigates differences between transport model results based on these two approaches for adsorption modeling. A finite element transport model is used for the isotherm model, whereas the computer program PHREEQC is used for the SCM approach. Both models are calibrated for a batch experiment, and one-dimensional transport is simulated using the calibrated parameters. At the lower injected concentrations there are large discrepancies between SCM and isotherm transport predictions, with the SCM presenting much longer tails on the breakthrough curves. Isotherms may also provide non-conservative results for time to breakthrough and for maximum concentration in a contamination plume. Isotherm models are shown not to be robust enough to predict transport behavior of some trace elements, thus discouraging their use. The results also illustrate the promise of the SCM modeling approach in safety assessment and environmental remediation applications, also suggesting that independent batch sorption measurements can be used, within the framework of the SCM, to produce a more versatile and realistic groundwater transport model for radionuclides which is capable of accounting more accurately for temporal and spatial variations in geochemical conditions. (author)

  2. Feasibility of phytoremediation for common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    , it considers phytoremediation from a more technical perspective, setting up a mass balance for a generic plant-soil system. On basis of the data review and the mass balance application, an initial assessment of the feasibility of phytoremediation for common soil and groundwater pollutants is conducted. Several......, there are several limitations which strongly inhibit the applicability. Phytoremediation is assessed to be feasible for nutrients and organic pollutants which can be degraded aerobically. Most trace elements are too strongly bound to the soil matrix to be available for plant extraction and are thus not feasible......During the past two to three decades numerous studies reporting highly efficient remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by plants have been published. The promises of phytoremediation has been great but till now the technology has not been widely applied and recognized, commercially...

  3. Effects of natural attenuation processes on groundwater contamination caused by abandoned waste sites in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerndorff, Helmut; Kühn, Stephan; Minden, Thomas; Orlikowski, Dagmar; Struppe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to identify, characterize and quantify natural attenuation (NA) processes in groundwater affected by emissions of abandoned waste disposal sites in Berlin-Kladow/Gatow, Germany. It is part of the funding priority called KORA established by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) to explore the extent to which NA can be used for remedial purposes for varied forms of soil and groundwater contamination. Information on the emission behaviour of individual parameters is generated on the basis of hydrogeochemical comparison of 20 years old and new data. Using groundwater-modelling and CFC-analysis, information on the transport and retention of pollutants in groundwater is compiled. The microbial colonization of contaminated aquifers is characterized by molecular biological methods [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] to differentiate between contaminated and not contaminated zones.

  4. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS' contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe +6 ) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern

  5. Record of Decision Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact of groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank far soil and groundwater at INTEC.

  6. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactive contamination of groundwater utilized for water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugai, D.A.; Shestopalov, V.M.; Rudenko, Y.F.; Onischenko, I.P.; Gudzenko, I.P.; Bublyas, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    According to the notions of classic hydrogeology, the groundwaters of deep-laying aquifers were considered to be safely protected against various external contaminants, due to high sorption properties of aeration zone soils, regional distribution of aquitards, and very long periods of ground water formation. Contamination of upper subsurface aquifer and a part of artesian aquifers is exclusively significant in Chernobyl exclusion zone characterized by high levels of surface contamination with radionuclides

  7. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  8. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  9. Characteristics and factors of groundwater contamination in Asian coastal megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Onodera, S. I.; Jin, G.; Shimizu, Y.; Admajaya, F. T.

    2017-12-01

    For the sustainable use of groundwater resources for the future, it is important to conserve its quality as well as quantity. Especially in the developing megacities, land subsidence and groundwater pollution by several contaminants (e.g. nitrogen, trace metals and organic pollutants etc.) is one of a critical environmental problems, because of the intensive extraction of groundwater and huge amount of contaminant load derived from domestic wastewater as well as agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, the process of groundwater degradation, including depletion and contamination with urbanization, has not been examined well in the previous studies. In the present study, we aim to confirm the characteristics and factors of groundwater contamination in coastal Asian megacities such as Osaka and Jakarta. In Osaka, groundwater was used as a water resource during the period of rapid population increase before 1970, and consequently groundwater resources have been degraded. Hydraulic potential of groundwater has been recovered after the regulation for abstraction. However, it is still below sea level in the deeper aquifer (>20 m) of some regions, and higher Cl-, NH4+-N and PO43-P concentrations were detected in these regions. The results also suggest that shallower aquifer (>10 m) is influenced by infiltration of sewage to groundwater. In the Jakarta metropolitan area, current hydraulic potential is below sea level in because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The distribution of Cl- and Mn concentration in groundwater suggests that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. It implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. On the other hands, NO3-N in groundwater is suggested to be attenuated by the processes of denitrification and dilution in the coastal area.

  10. Biological reduction of uranium in groundwater and subsurface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelouas, A.; Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E.H.; Strietelmeier, B.A.; Travis, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    Biological reduction of uranium is one of the techniques currently studied for in situ remediation of groundwater and subsurface soil. We investigated U(VI) reduction in groundwaters and soils of different origin to verify the presence of bacteria capable of U(VI) reduction. The groundwaters originated from mill tailings sites with U concentrations as high as 50 mg/l, and from other sites where uranium is not a contaminant, but was added in the laboratory to reach concentrations up to 11 mg/l. All waters contained nitrate and sulfate. After oxygen and nitrate reduction, U(VI) was reduced by sulfate-reducing bacteria, whose growth was stimulated by ethanol and trimetaphosphate. Uranium precipitated as hydrated uraninite (UO 2 ·xH 2 O). In the course of reduction of U(VI), Mn(IV) and Fe(III) from the soil were reduced as well. During uraninite precipitation a comparatively large mass of iron sulfides formed and served as a redox buffer. If the excess of iron sulfide is large enough, uraninite will not be oxidized by oxygenated groundwater. We show that bacteria capable of reducing U(VI) to U(IV) are ubiquitous in nature. The uranium reducers are primarily sulfate reducers and are stimulated by adding nutrients to the groundwater

  11. Modelling tools for integrating geological, geophysical and contamination data for characterization of groundwater plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola

    Contaminated sites are a major issue threatening the environment and the human health. The large number of contaminated sites require cost effective investigations to perform risk assessment and prioritize the sites that need remediation. Contaminated soil and groundwater investigations rely...... on borehole investigations to collect the geological, hydrological, and contaminant data. These data are integrated in conceptual and mathematical models describing the lithology, the groundwater flow, and the distribution of contaminant concentrations. Models are needed to analyze the potential risks to all...... receptors, including streams. Key risk assessment parameters, such as contaminant mass discharge estimates, and tools are then used to evaluate the risk. The cost of drilling often makes investigations of large and/or deep contaminant plumes unfeasible. For this reason, it is important to develop cost...

  12. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater in the vicinity of an oil refinery -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppaluri, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of an oil refinery in Algeria was found to be contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Free floating product, which was found after analysis to be crude oil, was noticed in some of the domestic water supply wells, and also in some irrigation wells which were situated close to the refinery. It was observed that the water in none of the shallow dug wells was contaminated. On the other hand, most of the borewells had contaminated groundwater. The studies included detailed hydrogeological investigations, verification of all the installations carrying crude oil, such as reservoirs and pipe lines. Due to the huge withdrawals from the regional water supply wells, steep hydraulic gradients were observed towards the well field. By modifying the pattern of groundwater withdrawals in the area a provisional containment of the contamination was achieved. The above ground storage tanks were found to be heavily pitted, and corroded at the bottom. Nine monitoring wells were drilled around the storage tanks. Soil and groundwater samples were analyzed from these monitoring wells. From these analyses, the contaminant plume was delineated. Tracer tests in these monitoring wells were conducted to determine the groundwater flow direction. To remediate the problems, the existing crude oil tanks were verified, cleaned and painted with non corrosive paints; the contaminated wells were pumped and the water was treated in the normal treatment system installed at the refinery. Groundwater quality was monitored over a period of six months to ensure the quality of water

  13. Statistical modeling of global geogenic fluoride contamination in groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Manouchehr; Mueller, Kim; Abbaspour, Karim C; Rosenberg, Thomas; Afyuni, Majid; Møller, Klaus N; Sarr, Mamadou; Johnson, C Annette

    2008-05-15

    The use of groundwater with high fluoride concentrations poses a health threat to millions of people around the world. This study aims at providing a global overview of potentially fluoride-rich groundwaters by modeling fluoride concentration. A large database of worldwide fluoride concentrations as well as available information on related environmental factors such as soil properties, geological settings, and climatic and topographical information on a global scale have all been used in the model. The modeling approach combines geochemical knowledge with statistical methods to devise a rule-based statistical procedure, which divides the world into 8 different "process regions". For each region a separate predictive model was constructed. The end result is a global probability map of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. Comparisons of the modeled and measured data indicate that 60-70% of the fluoride variation could be explained by the models in six process regions, while in two process regions only 30% of the variation in the measured data was explained. Furthermore, the global probability map corresponded well with fluorotic areas described in the international literature. Although the probability map should not replace fluoride testing, it can give a first indication of possible contamination and thus may support the planning process of new drinking water projects.

  14. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to

  15. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  16. Novel Technology for Wide-Area Screening of ERC-Contaminated Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Long-term use of high explosives (HE) on DoD training ranges and other defense installations has in some cases resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater with residues of HE and explosive-related compounds (ERCs...

  17. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  18. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  20. Review of soil contamination guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable

  1. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Tayfur, Gokmen

    2011-12-01

    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described. Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal fluid(s). The major sources of anthropogenic groundwater contamination are agricultural activities, mining waste, industrial waste, on-site septic tank systems, and pollution from imperfect well constructions. The analysis results revealed that natural contamination due to salt and gypsum are mostly found in Central and Mediterranean regions and arsenic in Aegean region. Geothermal fluids which contain fluoride poses a danger for skeleton, dental, and bone problems, especially in the areas of Denizli, Isparta, and Aydın. Discharges from surface water bodies contaminate groundwater by infiltration. Evidence of such contamination is found in Upper Kızılırmak basin, Gediz basin, and Büyük Melen river basin and some drinking water reservoirs in İstanbul. Additionally, seawater intrusion causes groundwater quality problems in coastal regions, especially in the Aegean coast. Industrial wastes are also polluting surface and groundwater in industrialized regions of Turkey. Deterioration of water quality as a result of fertilizers and pesticides is another major problem especially in the regions of Mediterranean, Aegean, Central Anatolia, and Marmara. Abandoned mercury mines in the western regions of Turkey, especially in Çanakkale, İzmir, Muğla, Kütahya, and Balıkesir, cause serious groundwater quality problems.

  2. Groundwater contamination in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Egbinola, Christiana Ndidi; Amanambu, Amobichukwu Chukwudi

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water for domestic use in Nigeria because it is perceived to be clean. The presence of geogenic contaminants (arsenic and fluoride), and the level of awareness of their presence in groundwater in Ibadan, Nigeria was examined in this study. A total of one hundred and twenty groundwater samples were collected from hand dug wells which tap into shallow aquifers and their location taken with the aid of a GPS. The concentration of arsenic was determined by Atomic ...

  3. Modeling In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Secody, Roland E

    2007-01-01

    .... An innovative technology was recently developed which uses dual-screened treatment wells to mix an electron donor into perchlorate-contaminated groundwater in order to effect in situ bioremediation...

  4. Innovative reactive barrier technologies for regional contaminated groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkel, P.; Weiβ, H.; Teutsch, G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    At many industrial sites inadequate waste disposal, leakages and war damages have led to severe groundwater contamination on a regional scale. Standard hydraulic groundwater remediation methods, such as pump-and-treat, in most cases do not lead to satisfactory results, due to the persistence of

  5. Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination of groundwater due to heavy metals is one of the most important concerns that have received attention at regional, local and global levels because of their toxicological importance in ecosystems and impact on public health. The present study was designed to assess the quality of groundwater in relation to ...

  6. Human health risks of petroleum-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Eva; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2008-05-01

    The volatile organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX) are commonly found in petroleum derivatives and, at relatively high levels, can be associated with human health risks. Due to industrial activities, accidental petroleum spills are the main route of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the indoor health risks due to tap water consumption contaminated by BTEX. BTEX indoor exposure can occur through three principal pathways: inhalation, ingestion and dermal absorption. A multiphase and multicomponent model was used to simulate BTEX transport in groundwater. For evaluation of human risks due to the use of contaminated tap water, a mathematical model was elaborated. BTEX concentrations in a drinking well were obtained as a function over time. These concentrations were used to obtain the exposure due to the use of water from the contaminated drinking well. In addition to showing the highest concentration in water, benzene was the compound that remained for a longer period before being completely degraded. For all the evaluated BTEX, oral ingestion was also the main pathway of exposure for adults, whereas the contribution of inhalation and oral exposition in children were seen to be of the same magnitude. The sensitivity analysis of BTEX total dose for adults showed that direct ingestion was the most significant factor, followed by shower time, volume of the shower room, inhalation rate, and shower flow rate. For children, the most significant variable was also direct ingestion, followed by shower time, volume of the shower room, and body weight. In the current design situation, there would not be any health risks by the use of BTEX-contaminated water to the general population living in the neighborhood of the petroleum spill. Therefore, no remediation measures in the area of the spill would be necessary. The present results indicate that the design of a good scenario can perform an accuracy risk

  7. Transformations of carbon hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, V. L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon 1 4 labelled organic contaminants were used to describe the transformation of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons into new biomass, carbon dioxide, or partially transformed metabolites by soil microorganisms in two aged contaminated soil samples. Both soils have mineralized 50 per cent of the applied C 1 4 to 14 C O 2 within the first three months of a 12-month incubation period. The addition of dichloromethane to these soils reduced the degree to which the contaminants were transformed. There was a 50 per cent decrease in oil-contaminated soil and a 98 per cent decrease in soil contaminated by creosote. The addition of non-type model organic contaminants appeared to limit the ability of indigenous micro-organism to mineralize the soil. It appears that contaminant-derived carbon is no obstacle to bioremediation; rather, the compounds added simply serve as additional substrate for the indigenous microbial populations

  8. Transformations of carbon hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, V. L.

    1999-07-01

    Carbon{sup 1}4 labelled organic contaminants were used to describe the transformation of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons into new biomass, carbon dioxide, or partially transformed metabolites by soil microorganisms in two aged contaminated soil samples. Both soils have mineralized 50 per cent of the applied C{sup 1}4 to 14{sup C}O{sub 2} within the first three months of a 12-month incubation period. The addition of dichloromethane to these soils reduced the degree to which the contaminants were transformed. There was a 50 per cent decrease in oil-contaminated soil and a 98 per cent decrease in soil contaminated by creosote. The addition of non-type model organic contaminants appeared to limit the ability of indigenous micro-organism to mineralize the soil. It appears that contaminant-derived carbon is no obstacle to bioremediation; rather, the compounds added simply serve as additional substrate for the indigenous microbial populations.

  9. Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wu, Linwei; Rocha, Andrea M.; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Bo; Qin, Yujia; Wang, Jianjun; Yan, Qingyun; Curtis, Daniel; Ning, Daliang; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; Watson, David B.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Alm, Eric J.; Adams, Paul D.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth’s biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN), representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate) increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate) increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5) increased significantly (P contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. PMID:29463661

  10. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  11. Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhili; Zhang, Ping; Wu, Linwei; Rocha, Andrea M; Tu, Qichao; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Bo; Qin, Yujia; Wang, Jianjun; Yan, Qingyun; Curtis, Daniel; Ning, Daliang; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Yunfeng; Elias, Dwayne A; Watson, David B; Adams, Michael W W; Fields, Matthew W; Alm, Eric J; Hazen, Terry C; Adams, Paul D; Arkin, Adam P; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-02-20

    Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth's biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN), representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate) increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate) increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5) increased significantly ( P contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. IMPORTANCE Disentangling the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is an important but poorly understood topic in ecology. Predicting ecosystem functioning on the basis of biodiversity is even more difficult, particularly with microbial biomarkers. As an exploratory effort, this study used key microbial functional genes as biomarkers to provide predictive understanding of environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. The results indicated that the overall functional gene richness/diversity decreased as uranium increased in groundwater, while specific key microbial guilds increased significantly as

  12. Bioremediation of contaminated soil: Strategy and case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    Microorganisms are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of micro-organisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental conditions. Two general reasons account for the failure of microbes to degrade pollutants in any environment: (1) inherent molecular recalcitrance of the contaminants and (2) environmental factors. The inherent molecular recalcitrance is usually associated with xenobiotic compounds where the chemical structure of the molecule is such that microbes and enzymes required for its catabolism have not evolved yet in nature. The environmental factors include a range of physicochemical conditions which influence microbial growth and activity. Biological remediation of contaminated sites can be accomplished using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. Only particular groups of microorganisms are capable of decomposing specific compounds. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: thorough site/soil/waste characterization; treatability studies; and design and implementation of the bioremediation plan. The results of in situ and ex situ treatment programs involving the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil will be discussed in detail. The paper will address key issues affecting the success of the bioremediation process such as nutrient transport, metal precipitation and potential soil clogging, microbial inoculation, etc

  13. Complex relationship between groundwater velocity and concentration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszeta, F.E.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper uses the results from the Multi-component Mass Transport model to examine the complex interrelationship between groundwater velocity and contaminant dispersion, decay, and retardation with regard to their influence on the contaminant concentration distribution as it travels through the geosphere to the biosphere. The rate of transport of contaminants through the geosphere is governed by groundwater velocity, leach rate, and contaminant retardation. The dominant characteristics of the contaminant concentration distribution are inherited during leaching and modified during transport by dilution, dispersion and decay. For a hypothetical non-decaying, non-dispersing contaminant with no retardation properties, the shape of the source term distribution is governed by the groundwater velocity (dilution) and leach rate. This distribution remains unchanged throughout transport. Under actual conditions, however, dispersion, decay and retardation modify the concentration distribution during both leaching and transport. The amount of dispersion is determined by the distance traveled, but it does have a greater peak-reducing influence on spiked distributions than square-shaped distributions. Decay acts as an overall scaling factor on the concentration distribution. Retardation alters the contaminant travel time and therefore indirectly influences the amount of dilution, dispersion and decay. Simple relationships between individual parameters and groundwater velocity as they influence peak concentration do not exist. For those cases where the source term is not solubility-limited and flow past the waste is independent of regional hydrologic conditions, a threshold concentration occurs at a specific groundwater velocity where the effects of dilution balance those of dispersion and decay

  14. Proceedings of the 2010 PTAC soil and groundwater forum and poster session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This conference focused on emerging environmental issues and advances in soil and groundwater remediation research. It provided a forum to discuss current research and environmental regulations pertaining to the remediation and reclamation of oil and gas production sites as well as soils along pipeline routes. Methods for accurately identifying the source of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and wetlands were also presented. Recent advances in technological solutions for soil and groundwater remediation were reviewed along with methods for addressing salts, petroleum hydrocarbons, and process chemicals. The conference featured 18 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Cleaning up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arniella, E.F.; Holley, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes one new technology used to clean up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks. Topics covered include cleanup criteria, soil remediation technologies, air stripping-soil venting system and process design and performance. This contaminated site was located in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area

  16. Biodegradation of thiocyanate in mining-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, L. P.; Watts, M. P.; Moreau, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ SCN- biodegradation as a strategy for remediating contaminated groundwater remains largely unproven. This study aimed to culture and characterise a community of SCN--degrading microbes from mining-contaminated groundwater, and to optimize the efficiency of this process under varied geochemical conditions. A gold ore processing plant in Victoria, Australia, has generated high amounts of thiocyanate (SCN-)-contaminated waste effluent. This effluent collects in a tailings storage facility (TSF) on site and seepage has contaminated local groundwater. This SCN- plume recently escaped the mine lease in a plume flowing partly through a confined aquifer and partly along buried paleochannel gravels. Groundwater samples were collected using a low-flow pump from two bores near the TSF. The pH of the SCN- contaminated groundwater typically varies between 4 and 6, and dissolved O2 varies between 1 and 40 ppm. SCN- concentrations in off-lease groundwater have increased from 10 ppm in 2010 to over 150 ppm in 2015. Cultures were inoculated directly from the groundwater, and filtered groundwater was used with amendments as the basal growth medium Cultures were subjected to geochemical amendments including changes in dissolved O2, pH, SCN- concentration and additions of organic carbon, phosphate or both. The enriched microbial consortia could not degrade thiocyanate under anoxic conditions, but some could completely degrade high concentrations of SCN- (>800mg L-1) under oxic conditions. Biodegradation accelerated with the addition of phosphate, while the addition of organic carbon actually limited the rate. SCN- degrading cultures are undergoing DNA sequencing for species identification and comparison to SCN--degrading cultures inoculated from surface waters in the TSF.

  17. As contamination in Mercedes aquifer groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C; Manganelli, A; Fernandez, T; Garcia, M; Gimeno, D; Perez, C.

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the quality of the groundwater an the arsenic content in different aquifers in Uruguay. The first data obtained of arsenic concentrations are from subterranes water in the Mercedes aquifers

  18. Laboratory scale electrokinetic remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, M.; Ahmed, N.

    2008-01-01

    Pakistan hosts a variety of waste soils around industrial sites located in and around large population centers. Clean up of these waste soils is essential to save potable groundwater reserves beneath these waste soils. Among several waste remediation approaches, the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) technology has fast emerged as a reliable, powerful and highly prominent candidate for effective in situ removal of soluble and leachable toxic species of metals, radionuclides, organics from contaminated soils and water environment. This paper presents results of the first laboratory trial experiment performed at PINSTECH, Islamabad, Pakistan to demonstrate applicability of EKR approach for removal of aqueous phase chromium from silty clay soil around Islamabad. The electro osmotic flow rate was 3.13 ml/hour while the mass balance calculations revealed that the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was 44.58% for the experimental soil during a period of 24 hours of electro remediation. (author)

  19. Determination of solute organic concentration in contaminated soils using a chemical-equilibrium soil column system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Jesper; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater risk assessment of contaminated soils implies determination of the solute concentration leaching out of the soil. Determination based on estimation techniques or simple experimental batch approach has proven inadequate. Two chemical equilibrium soil column leaching tests...... for determination of solute concentration in a contaminated soil were developed; (1) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Volatile organic chemicals (ER-V) and (2) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Hydrophobic organic chemicals (ER-H). The two test systems were evaluated...... using two soils with different content of organic carbon (f(oc) of 1.5 and 6.5%, respectively). A quadruple blind test of the ER-V system using glass beads in stead of soil showed an acceptable recovery (65-85%) of all of the 11 VOCs tested. Only for the most volatile compound (heptane, K-H similar...

  20. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was then mixed in a ratio ...

  1. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was.

  2. Investigating the Role of Soil Texture in Vapor Intrusion from Groundwater Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Wang, Yue; Zhong, Zhong; Tang, Mengling; Suuberg, Eric M

    2017-07-01

    Soil texture is believed to play a significant role in the migration of subsurface volatile chemicals into buildings at contaminated sites, an exposure process known as vapor intrusion (VI). In this study, we investigated the role of soil texture in determining the attenuation of contaminant soil gas concentration from groundwater source to receptor building. We performed soil column experiments, numerical simulations, and statistical analysis of the USEPA's VI database. The soil column experiments were conducted with commercial sand and soils with sand and sandy loam textures. Measured one-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles were compared with numerical predictions. Good agreement between experiments and model results supports the use of the classical multiphase chemical transport equation for simulating contaminant vapor transport from groundwater through the vadose zone. A full three-dimensional numerical model was then used to simulate typical VI scenarios with groundwater sources. Results indicate that, although soil particle texture can play a role in determining subslab-to-indoor air concentration attenuation, there is no obvious relationship between soil particle size and groundwater source-to-subslab except in the case of a shallow contaminant source. This conclusion is consistent with results reported in USEPA's VI database, in which variation in soil particle size does not affect source-to-subslab attenuation factors but does influence subslab-to-indoor air concentration attenuation factors by an average of about 0.4 order of magnitude. This finding suggests that an appropriate focus of VI site investigation should include the shallow soil beneath the building foundation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well a...

  4. Soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    Methanol is used by oil and gas operators to inhibit hydrate formation in the recovery of heavy oils, in natural gas production and transport, as well as in various other production applications. Emissions from methanol primary occur from miscellaneous solvent usage, methanol production, end-product manufacturing, and storage and handling losses. This document provided soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol releases into the environment. The guidelines were consistent with the Alberta Environment tier 1 soil and groundwater framework. The chemical and physical properties of methanol were reviewed. The environmental fate and behavior of methanol releases was discussed, and the behaviour and effects of methanol in terrestrial and aquatic biota were evaluated. The toxicity of methanol and its effects in humans and mammalian species were reviewed. Soil quality and ground water quality guidelines were presented. Surface water and soil guideline calculation methods were provided, and ecological exposure and ground water pathways were discussed. Management limits for methanol concentrations were also provided. 162 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  6. Removal of contaminants from fine grained soils using electrokinetic (EK) flushing. Final report, September 30, 1987--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B.E.; Berg, M.T.

    1993-10-01

    Recently, attention has focused on developing cost effective techniques to remove inorganic contaminants from soils in-situ. For most in-situ techniques hydraulic pressure is used to disperse the chemical additives and collect the contaminated groundwater. In-situ treatment technologies have had success at sites containing sandy soils but have not shown much promise for soils with large amounts of clay and silt. This is due primarily to difficulty in transporting groundwater, contaminants, and chemical additives through the subsurface. Unfortunately, soils high in clay and silt are known to sequester large quantities of inorganic and organic contaminants. Thus, soils having low hydraulic conductivity`s are generally efficient in sequestering pollutants but are resistant to standard in-situ remediation techniques because of the difficulty in transporting groundwater and contaminants. A candidate technology for the in-situ remediation of low permeability soils is electrokinetic (EK) soil flushing. In EK soil flushing, groundwater and contaminants are transported under an a plied voltage. The transport of groundwater electroosmotically does not depend directly on the soil`s hydraulic conductivity. Thus, soils that would otherwise require excavation and treatment can be remediated in-situ if electrokinetics is used as the driving force for liquid and contaminant transport. This report details the results from work conducted on the use of EK soil flushing to remediate a fine grained soil contaminated with lead. The first portion of the experimental work entailed soil collection and characterization, soil adsorption and desorption of lead, and EK reactor construction and testing. The second phase of the research consisted of investigating the efficacy of using EK soil flushing on an actual soil using bench-scale EK reactors. For the second phase of the research the affect of initial conditions on the efficiency of EK soil flushing was studied.

  7. for Phytoremediation of Motor Oil Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, phytoremediation study was made with laterite soil artificially contaminated with motor oil. Three replicates of 3 kg of the air dried soil fertilized with 10% (w/w) organic fertilizer were each contaminated with 200ml of motor oil thoroughly mixed and placed in a 35 cm high plastic bowl. Six young plants of sweet ...

  8. Remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine ways of remediating soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with crude oil. The study involves the use of planted cowpeas, mushrooms, algae, dead vegetable and live earthworm, and fire-heating of the contaminated garden soil collected from the ...

  9. Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

    1993-08-01

    A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site

  10. 18O isotopic characterisation of non-point source contributed heavy metals (Zn and Cu) contamination of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.; Manjaiah, K.M.; Tyagi, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    In many urbanised areas, fast depletion and severe degradation of the of groundwater resource with contaminants such as nitrate, fluoride, and heavy metals is a common phenomenon, resulting in zonal disparity in fresh water availability. Therefore, for protection of groundwater from pollution and depletion, it is a matter of concern for the planners and decision makers to clearly characterise the sources of contamination and to search for an alternative approach for groundwater development and management. In this context, a new approach is presented here, based on monitoring of 18 O stable isotopic and heavy metals composition of groundwater, to clearly characterise non-point source contributed heavy metals pollution of groundwater in northern parts of Delhi area. In the investigated area, the Cu content in the groundwater ranges from 3-41 μg/l and Zn content ranges from 5-182 μg/l, showing considerable variation from location to location as well as within the small parts of a location. Wide variation in the 18 O stable isotope content of groundwater (δ value of -5.7 per mille to -8.5 per mille) is due to significant variation in the δ 18 O-contents of rainfall with space and time, as well as intensity and distribution of rainfall. Enrichment in 18 O composition with increasing Cu and Zn levels in groundwater suggest that infiltration of rain water, irrigation water and surface run-off water from the surrounding farm lands, along with agrochemicals and other salts present in the soil, to be the main processes causing groundwater contamination. The concentration of Cu and Zn in groundwater vary spatially, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge, amounts of fertiliser applied and wastes disposed, adsorption/dispersion of species in the soils and lateral mixing of groundwater. Two opposite mechanisms adsorption and redistribution of infiltrating water along with Zn and Cu species in the soil zone are likely to affect the movement of the Zn and Cu species

  11. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    main occupation of the people in the study area. Long-term irrigation is in active ...... Health 41. 107–114. Giridharan L, Venugopal T and Jayaprakash M 2008 Evalu- ation of the seasonal variation on the geochemical param- eters and quality assessment of the groundwater in the proximity of River Cooum, Chennai, India; ...

  12. Investigation of shallow groundwater contamination near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants were found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. 21 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, D.L.; Hogue, J.I.; Peterson, J.C.; Guerra, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Baldwin Waste Oil Site was an abandoned waste oil recycling facility located in Robstown, Nueces County, Texas. As part of their site assessment activities, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested that the Ecology and Environment, Inc., Technical Assistance Team (TAT) investigate the feasibility of using in-situ bioremediation to remediate soils contaminated with oil and grease components, petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Bioremediation based on the land treatment concept was tested. The land treatment concept uses techniques to optimize indigenous microbial populations and bring them in contact with the contaminants. The study was designed to collect data upon which to base conclusions on the effectiveness of bioremediation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioremediation under field conditions, and to identify potential problems in implementing a full-scale project. Bioremediation effectiveness was monitored through total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and Oil and Grease (O and G) analyses. Site specific treatment goals for the pilot project were concentrations of less than 1% for O and G and less than 10,000 mg/kg for TPH. Based on the reduction of TPH and O and G concentrations and the cost effectiveness of bioremediation based on the land treatment concept, full-scale in-situ bioremediation was initiated by the EPA at the Baldwin Waste Oil Site in February of 1993

  14. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  15. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  16. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact

  17. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for 90 Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of 90 Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially 85 Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as 90 Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl 2 solution. Most of the 85 Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of 85 Sr and 90 Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected 85 Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for 90 Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Assessment of ground-water contamination from a leaking underground storage tank at a defense supply center near Richmond, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.D.; Wright, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988-89, 24 wells were installed in the vicinity of the post-exchange gasoline station on the Defense General Supply Center, near Richmond, Virginia, to collect and analyze groundwater samples for the presence of gasoline contamination from a leaking underground storage tank. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene were as high as 8.2 mg/L and 9,000 microg/L, respectively, in water from wells in the immediate vicinity of the former leaking tank, and benzene concentrations were as high as 2,300 microg/L in a well 600 ft down gradient from the gasoline station. Groundwater flow rate are estimated to be about 60 to 80 ft/yr; on the basis of these flow rates, the contaminants may have been introduced into the groundwater as long as 7-10 yrs ago. Groundwater might infiltrate a subsurface storm sewer, where the sewer is below the water table, and discharge into a nearby stream. Preliminary risk assessment for the site identified no potential human receptors to the groundwater contamination because there were no groundwater users identified in the area. Remediation might be appropriate if exposure of future potential users is concern. Alternatives discussed for remediation of groundwater contamination in the upper aquifer at the PX Service Station include no-action, soil vapor extraction, and groundwater pumping and treatment alternatives

  19. Review: Micro-organic contaminants in groundwater in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Xie, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Wen, Chuanlei; Cao, Zhipeng; Wan, Yuyu

    2018-03-01

    Micro-organic contaminants (MOs) in groundwater, which may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems worldwide, are gaining increased attention in China. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate their sources, occurrences and behavior in aquifers. This paper reviews the main sources, distribution, concentrations and behavior of a wide range of MOs in groundwater in China. These MOs include well-established persistent organic pollutants—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA)—and some contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (antibiotics, caffeine, shampoos) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The results reveal that the main MOs in groundwater are PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PBDEs, PAEs, and antibiotics. Moreover, some PFCs such as perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have only recently been observed in groundwater as emerging organic contaminants. Additionally, most MOs are distributed in populated and industrialized areas such as the southeast coast of China. Finally, industrial emissions, wastewater treatment plant effluents and agricultural wastewater are found to be dominant sources of MOs in groundwater. Based on the existing pollution levels, regulation and amelioration of MOs are warranted.

  20. Simulation–optimization model for groundwater contamination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For transient groundwater flow in homogeneous confined isotropic media in 2D, Eq. (1) is written as (Bear 1979):. ∂2h. ∂x2 + .... (1995), inspired by social behaviour of bird flocking or fish schooling. There are two variants ... is the updated velocity of the particle; c1, c2 are the cognitive and social parameters; r1, r2 are the ...

  1. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; indexed wells; river basin; ... contamination. The numerical values of principal component (PC) loadings and scores are used (i) to interpret the relative importance of the chemi- ...... Berner E K and Berner R A 1987 The global water cycle ...

  2. Transformers as a potential for soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stojić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of PCBs and heavy metals in the surrounding soil and also in the soil of the receiving pit located below the PCB contaminated transformer. Concentrations of PCBs in our samples are ranged from 0,308 to 0,872 mg/kg of absolutely dry soil.

  3. Potential contamination of groundwater in the World Heritage Site of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid population growth, high levels of tourism and poor sewage waste disposal (at least for the foreseeable future) in St. Katherine have resulted in potential contamination of groundwater and subsequent high risk to human health. To evaluate the ... pathogenic bacteria. Egyptian Journal of Botany Vol.5 2003: 1-9.

  4. Assessing potential contaminants in groundwater in a typical open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the potential contaminants in a refuse dump. Standard sampling and analytical methods were followed. The results revealed that the groundwater is generally acidic with pH values varying between 4.01 to 6.01 in the boreholes around the dumpsite and basic in the boreholes away from the dumpsite.

  5. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  6. Attenuation of groundwater contamination caused by cattle slurry: a plot-scale experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periago, E.L. [Department of Vegetal Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, As Lagoas (Spain); Delgado, A.N.; Diaz-Fierros, F. [Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    Infiltration of contaminants was investigated in a flat pasture plot Lolium perenne L. which received 250 m{sup 3}/ha of cattle slurry. Lysimeters and piezometers had previously been installed in the plot to sample groundwater at different depths. Water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity.NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, orthophosphate, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and for faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. Contaminant concentrations in water samples taken in lysimeters at a depth of 5 cm (2 h after slurry application) were already from 22% to 83% of raw slurry. After slurry application and after 150 mm of rainfall, contaminant concentrations in groundwater were in all depths less than 95% of those initially measured in the slurry. For all contaminants except Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, K{sup +} and COD, concentrations in groundwater measured before application were reached within 15 days. Mechanical retention was the principal mechanism of attenuation of microorganism and COD levels, whereas cations were attenuated by sorption to soil matrix. Dilution by rain water had less significant effects, accounting for about a tenfold reduction in contaminant levels. (author)

  7. Predicting nitrate contamination in recently recharged groundwater: High Plains regional aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Qi, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    The High Plains regional aquifer, a nationally important groundwater resource, has widespread elevated nitrate concentrations in recently recharged groundwater. This condition has created a potential health concern for nearly 2 million people who rely on the aquifer for drinking water. Concentrations and spatial distribution of nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activity, particularly from non-point source contamination. A novel groundwater vulnerability assessment encompassing the entire High Plains aquifer is presented that predicts areas of the aquifer where nitrate concentrations are expected to exceed a background value of 4 mg/L as N in recently recharged groundwater, defined as less than 50-years old. This model couples particle-tracking simulations and multivariate logistic regression analysis within a GIS framework, thereby incorporating site-specific hydrogeologic parameters and the groundwater flow regime. Contributing areas, delineated by a 90-degree sector, represented the capture zone up gradient from the well location and defined the area for GIS-based extraction of explanatory variables for statistical modeling. Particle-tracking simulations identified the appropriate radial length for the sector and well screen depths corresponding to recently recharged groundwater. Horizontal and vertical particle movements were most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and estimates of recharge, respectively. The final multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated statistical significance (p fertilizer on irrigated agricultural land (p = 0.050), and percent clay in the unsaturated zone (p = 0.040). Predicted groundwater vulnerability corroborated our conceptual model that nitrate concentrations are directly related to nitrogen loading at land surface and infiltration in the soil zone, and inversely related to impedances to downward advective chemical movement through the unsaturated zone. The nitrate vulnerability model and map offer a predictive tool

  8. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2007-11-06

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  9. Linking bacterial diversity and geochemistry of uranium-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kelly; Zholi, Alma; Frabutt, Dylan; Flood, Matthew; Floyd, Dalton; Tiquia, Sonia M

    2012-01-01

    To understand the link between bacterial diversity and geochemistry in uranium-contaminated groundwater, microbial communities were assessed based on clone libraries of 16S rDNA genes from the USDOE Oak Ridge Field Research Centre (FRC) site. Four groundwater wells (GW835, GW836, FW113-47 and FW215-49) with a wide range of pH (3 to 7), nitrate (44 to 23,400 mg L(-1)), uranium (0.73 to 60.36 mg L(-1)) and other metal contamination, were investigated. Results indicated that bacterial diversity correlated with the geochemistry of the groundwater. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. The highly contaminated well (FW113-47) had lower gene diversity than less contaminated wells (FW215-49, GW835 and GW836). The high concentrations of contaminants present in well FW113-47 stimulated the growth of organisms capable of reducing uranium (Shewanella and Pseudomonas), nitrate (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter and Xanthomonas) and iron (Stenotrophomonas), and which were unique to this well. The clone libraries consisted primarily of sequences closely related to the phylum Proteobacteria, with FW-113-47 almost exclusively containing this phylum. Metal-reducing bacteria were present in all four wells, which may suggest that there is potential for successful bioremediation of the groundwater at the Oak Ridge FRC. The microbial community information gained from this study and previous studies at the site can be used to develop predictive multivariate and geographical information system (GIS) based models for microbial populations at the Oak Ridge FRC. This will allow for a better understanding of what organisms are likely to occur where and when, based on geochemistry, and how these organisms relate to bioremediation processes at the site.

  10. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-02-08

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities.

  11. Treatment of chromium contaminated soil using bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanti, Ipung Fitri; Putri, Tesya Paramita; Kurniawan, Setyo Budi

    2017-11-01

    Chromium contamination in soil occurs due to the disposal of chromium industrial wastewater or sludge that excess the quality standard. Chromium concentration in soil is ranged between 1 to 300 mg/kg while the maximum health standard is 2.5 mg/kg. Bioremediation is one of technology that could be used for remediating heavy metal contamination in soil. Bacteria have an ability to remove heavy metal from soil. One bacteria species that capable to remove chromium from soil is Bacillus subtilis. The aim of this research was to know the chromium removal percentage in contaminated soil by Bacillus subtilis. Artificial chromium contaminated soil was used by mixing 425gram sand and chromium trichloride solution. Concentration of chromium added into the spiked soil were 50, 75, and 100 mg/L. During 14 days, pH, soil temperature and soil moisture were tested. Initial and final number of bacterial colony and chromium concentration analysed. The result showed that the highest percentage of chromium removal was 11% at a chromium concentration of 75 mg/L

  12. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation

  13. Microbial contamination of groundwater at small community water supplies in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Karinen, Päivi; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Lettojärvi, Heidi; Heikkilä, Annika; Maunula, Reetta; Aula, Vesa; Kuronen, Henry; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Nousiainen, Liina-Lotta; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2011-06-01

    The raw water quality and associations between the factors considered as threats to water safety were studied in 20 groundwater supplies in central Finland in 2002-2004. Faecal contaminations indicated by the appearance of Escherichia coli or intestinal enterococci were present in five small community water supplies, all these managed by local water cooperatives. Elevated concentrations of nutrients in raw water were linked with the presence of faecal bacteria. The presence of on-site technical hazards to water safety, such as inadequate well construction and maintenance enabling surface water to enter into the well and the insufficient depth of protective soil layers above the groundwater table, showed the vulnerability of the quality of groundwater used for drinking purposes. To minimize the risk of waterborne illnesses, the vulnerable water supplies need to be identified and appropriate prevention measures such as disinfection should be applied.

  14. Task 21 - Field Demonstration of Ex-Situ Biological Treatability of Contaminated Groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), formerly the Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA), and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities.

  15. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canete, Socrates Jose P.; Palad, Lorna Jean H.; Enriquez, Eliza B.; Garcia, Teofilo Y.; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially 226 Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of 226 Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of 226 Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the 226 Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of 226 Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of 226 Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of 226 Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no 226 Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area. (Authors)

  16. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Socrates Jose P; Palad, Lorna Jean H; Enriquez, Eliza B; Garcia, Teofilo Y; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2008-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially (226)Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of (226)Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of (226)Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the (226)Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of (226)Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of (226)Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of (226)Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no (226)Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area.

  17. Comparative metagenomics reveals impact of contaminants on groundwater microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Hemme

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand patterns of geochemical cycling in pristine versus contaminated groundwater ecosystems, pristine shallow groundwater (FW301 and contaminated groundwater (FW106 samples from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC were sequenced and compared to each other to determine phylogenetic and metabolic difference between the communities. Proteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Pseudomonas are the most abundant lineages in the pristine community, though a significant proportion (>55% of the community is composed of poorly characterized low abundance (individually <1% lineages. The phylogenetic diversity of the pristine community contributed to a broader diversity of metabolic networks than the contaminated community. In addition, the pristine community encodes redundant and mostly complete geochemical cycles distributed over multiple lineages and appears capable of a wide range of metabolic activities. In contrast, many geochemical cycles in the contaminated community appear truncated or minimized due to decreased biodiversity and dominance by Rhodanobacter populations capable of surviving the combination of stresses at the site. These results indicate that the pristine site contains more robust and encodes more functional redundancy than the stressed community, which contributes to more efficient nutrient cycling and adaptability than the stressed community.

  18. Emerging contaminants: strategies for the assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants 

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine. Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these compounds could be important

  19. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.H.; Herson, D.S.; Vercellon-Smith, P.; Cronce, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A utility company discovered soils in their plant contaminated with diesel fuel and related fuel oils (300-450 ppm). The soils were excavated and removed to a concrete pad for treatment. The authors conducted laboratory studies to determine if biostimulation or bioaugmentation would be appropriate for treating the soils. Microbial numbers and soil respiration were monitored in microcosms supplemented with: (1) organic nutrients, (2) inorganic nutrients, and (3) inorganic nutrients plus additional adapted microorganisms. Their studies indicated that biostimulation via the addition of inorganic nutrients would be appropriate at this site. Treatment cells for the contaminated soils were constructed. Initial data indicates that a 35% reduction in the concentration of contaminants has occurred within the first month of operation

  20. Global aquifers dominated by fossil groundwaters but wells vulnerable to modern contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.; Befus, K. M.; Bayani Cardenas, M.; Ferguson, G.; Gleeson, T.; Luijendijk, E.; McDonnell, J. J.; Taylor, R. G.; Wada, Y.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability of groundwater to contamination is closely related to its age. Groundwaters that infiltrated prior to the Holocene have been documented in many aquifers and are widely assumed to be unaffected by modern contamination. However, the global prevalence of these ‘fossil’ groundwaters and their vulnerability to modern-era pollutants remain unclear. Here we analyse groundwater carbon isotope data (12C, 13C, 14C) from 6,455 wells around the globe. We show that fossil groundwaters co...

  1. Frozen Soil Barrier. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area. OST Reference No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Problem: Hazardous and radioactive materials have historically been disposed of at the surface during operations at Department of Energy facilities. These contaminants have entered the subsurface, contaminating soils and groundwater resources. Remediation of these groundwater plumes using the baseline technology of pump and treat is expensive and takes a long time to complete. Containment of these groundwater plumes can be alternative or an addition to the remediation activities. Standard containment technologies include slurry walls, sheet piling, and grouting. These are permanent structures that once installed are difficult to remove. How It Works: Frozen Soil Barrier technology provides a containment alternative, with the key difference being that the barrier can be easily removed after a period of time, such as after the remediation or removal of the source is completed. Frozen Soil Barrier technology can be used to isolate and control the migration of underground radioactive or other hazardous contaminants subject to transport by groundwater flow. Frozen Soil Barrier technology consists of a series of subsurface heat transfer devices, known as thermoprobes, which are installed around a contaminant source and function to freeze the soil pore water. The barrier can easily be maintained in place until remediation or removal of the contaminants is complete, at which time the barrier is allowed to thaw.

  2. Waste management of actinide contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.; Kochen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Waste management processes have been developed to reduce the volume of Rocky Flats soil contaminated with plutonium and americium and to prepare the contaminated fraction for terminal storage. The primary process consists of wet-screening. The secondary process uses attrition scrubbing and wet screening with additives. The tertiary process involves volume reduction of the contaminated fraction by calcination, or fixation by conversion to glass. The results of laboratory scale testing of the processes are described

  3. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  4. Denitrification as an adaptive trait in soil and groundwater bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergwall, C.

    1997-09-01

    The focus of this thesis is on selection and adaptation processes in bacteria with emphasis on denitrifying bacteria in groundwater. Other nitrogen transformation processes such as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (nitrate ammonification) and nitrification of forest soil bacteria are briefly discussed. Microcosms with sterile sediment and groundwater were inoculated with single denitrifying strains isolated from three groundwater aquifers, two of which are agricultural aquifers (in situ NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N was 24.1 and 35.2 mg1{sup -1}) and the third which is a pristine lake water infiltration aquifer (in situ NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N was 6.3 mg1{sup -1}). The average denitrification activity for strains from the nitrate contaminated sites were twice as high as the activity of the strains from the pristine site. Denitrification were carbon limited and glucose amendment increased the denitrification activity about a 2-fold for all strains. The strain specific differences in denitrification rates increased to a 2.5-fold after carbon addition indicating that the differences in reduction rates cannot be explained by different carbon utilisation rates but rather reflect innate differences in the reductases of the strains. A preliminary identification of the molecular target for adaptation was performed with artificial electron donors and electron acceptors for all enzymatic steps in the denitrification pathway. Nitrous oxide reductase activity was significantly higher in denitrifiers from the nitrate contaminated sites. This suggests that nos genes may be the molecular target, possibly by mutation or gene duplication for adaptation to high nitrate concentrations. Two anaerobic denitrifiers from each of the contaminated sites were capable of aerobic denitrification indicating that high nitrate concentrations may select for strains that denitrifies in the presence of both oxygen and nitrate. Microcosm experiments with fertilized coniferous forest soil showed that the

  5. Analysis and determination of age of oil spills in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedl, P.; Schindlbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extensive searching for hydrocarbon-based spills in soil and groundwater during the last few years rises the question of whom caused these contaminations. The answer to this very specific question is not easy and often requires the exact determination of age of the contamination. Therefore, the sampling of all imaginable data around the spilled material is necessary. Beginning at the precise check-up of the geological surrounding, including the definition of the condition and construction of the soil as well as the determination of the flow-direction of the groundwater, the chemical analysis should describe the containing substances and/or the products in the best possible way. Summing all these data and taking into consideration of the well-known microbiological pathways of decomposition for one- and/or a group of substances, it should be possible to determine the age of a contamination. (orig.) [de

  6. Critical assessment of the available technologies for sanitation of contaminated soil and their limits of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, M.; Glaeser, E.

    1993-01-01

    Sanitation of polluted land comprises safety measures and soil purification measures. Soil purification can take place either in situ, or on-site or off-site after digging up the contaminated soil. In-situ processes are soil deaeration, groundwater purification and biological methods. Soil deaeration is suited for volatile pollutants in the unsaturated zone of loose soils, while groundwater purification is commonly applied for water-soluble pollutants in the saturated zone of soils with a high k f value. On-site or off-site purification of contaminated soils can take place by thermal processes, by soil washing, by microorganisms, or by physical processes. Thermal processes have the widest range of applications; they are suited for most soils polluted with mostly organic pollutants, and the residual contamination is lowest. Soil washing is limited to sandy and noncohesive soils and for emulsifiable or elutable pollutants. Biological on-site and off-line methods are limited to biodegradable pollutants which are not in phase. Loosening agents may be added in order to overcome geotechnical limitations. Physical purification of soils is limited to specific applications e.g. removal of volatile hydrocarbons. (orig.) [de

  7. Fungal Bioremediation of Creosote-contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    The influence of two ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus) on bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied. The thesis describes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration decrease during the laboratory-scale experiments and reveals the changes in the present soil microbial community under the influence of either fungus. The thesis compares different impact on PAH concentrations and soil microbial community depending on the fungus applied.

  8. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunao Marui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  9. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  10. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  11. Soil washing of fluorine contaminated soil using various washing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Jo, Raehyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-03-01

    Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97 % from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3 M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6 < NaOH < H2SO4 < HNO3 < HCl.

  12. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk using hazard quantification, a modified DRASTIC model and groundwater value, Beijing Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; He, Jiangtao; Chen, Honghan

    2012-08-15

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment is an effective tool for groundwater management. Most existing risk assessment methods only consider the basic contamination process based upon evaluations of hazards and aquifer vulnerability. In view of groundwater exploitation potentiality, including the value of contamination-threatened groundwater could provide relatively objective and targeted results to aid in decision making. This study describes a groundwater contamination risk assessment method that integrates hazards, intrinsic vulnerability and groundwater value. The hazard harmfulness was evaluated by quantifying contaminant properties and infiltrating contaminant load, the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability was evaluated using a modified DRASTIC model and the groundwater value was evaluated based on groundwater quality and aquifer storage. Two groundwater contamination risk maps were produced by combining the above factors: a basic risk map and a value-weighted risk map. The basic risk map was produced by overlaying the hazard map and the intrinsic vulnerability map. The value-weighted risk map was produced by overlaying the basic risk map and the groundwater value map. Relevant validation was completed by contaminant distributions and site investigation. Using Beijing Plain, China, as an example, thematic maps of the three factors and the two risks were generated. The thematic maps suggested that landfills, gas stations and oil depots, and industrial areas were the most harmful potential contamination sources. The western and northern parts of the plain were the most vulnerable areas and had the highest groundwater value. Additionally, both the basic and value-weighted risk classes in the western and northern parts of the plain were the highest, indicating that these regions should deserve the priority of concern. Thematic maps should be updated regularly because of the dynamic characteristics of hazards. Subjectivity and validation means in assessing the

  13. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  14. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha -1 and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h -1 after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO 3 -N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO 3 -N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly

  15. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume

  16. Nitrate contamination of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Klepper O; Willems WJ; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    De aanwezigheid van stikstofverbindingen in bodem en grondwater van Europa (van de Oeral tot de Atlantische Oceaan) wordt veroorzaakt door bemesting in de landbouw en door atmosferische depositie. De per gebied varierende hoeveelheden kunstmest en dierlijke mest kunnen voor de huidige situatie

  17. Work Plan for a Limited CCC/USDA Investigation of the Current Carbon Tetrachloride Contamination in Groundwater at Navarre, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-05-01

    During private well testing in 1990-1991, carbon tetrachloride was identified in the groundwater at several locations in the town of Navarre, Kansas, at levels exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 level and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 μg/L. Several subsequent investigations through 2006 evaluated the concentrations and distribution of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater. This work included the identification of the contaminant sources (Argonne 2007). The history of activities to address the contamination in soil and groundwater is summarized in Table 1.1. The most recent studies, conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), include a brownfields investigation initiated in 2013 (Phase I) and continuing in early 2014 (Phase II), as well as private well testing.

  18. Study of a waste disposal site and it's groundwater contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The choice of an old borrow pit at Avu village in the outskirts of Owerri Urban as the permanent dump for wastes from Owerri Urban is evaluated in terms of the hydrogeology of the site. The depth to the groundwater table or the vadose zone is 9 – 9.5m; the texture of the soils shows fine attenuative materials that can inhibit ...

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  20. Arsenic and metallic trace elements cycling in the surface water-groundwater-soil continuum down-gradient from a reclaimed mine area: Isotopic imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Sassine, Lara; Cary, Lise; Bruguier, Olivier; Verdoux, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    One decade after closure of the Salsigne mine (SW France), As contamination persisted in surface water, groundwater and soil near and down-gradient from the reclaimed ore processing site (OPS). We assess the fate of As and other associated chalcophilic MTEs, and their transport in the surface-water/groundwater/soil continuum down-gradient from the reclaimed OPS, using Sr-isotopic fingerprinting. The Sr-isotope ratio was used as a tracer of transfer processes in this hydro-geosystem and was combined to sequential extraction of soil samples to evaluate the impact of contaminated soil on the underlying phreatic groundwater. The contrast in Sr isotope compositions of the different soil fractions reflects several Sr sources in the soil. In the complex hydro-geosystem around the OPS, the transport of As and MTEs is affected by a succession of factors, such as (1) Existence of a reducing zone in the aquifer below the reclaimed OPS, where groundwater shows relatively high As and MTEs contents, (2) Groundwater discharge into the stream near the reclaimed OPS causing an increase in As and MTE concentrations in surface water; (3) Partial co-precipitation of As with Fe-oxyhydroxides, contributing to some attenuation of As contents in surface water; (4) Infiltration of contaminated stream water into the unconfined aquifer down-gradient from the reclaimed OPS; (5) Accumulation of As and MTEs in soil irrigated with contaminated stream- and groundwater; (6) Release of As and MTEs from labile soil fractions to underlying the groundwater.

  1. Nitrate and fluoride contamination in groundwater of an intensively managed agroecosystem: a functional relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati; Hazra, Gora Chand

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the potential of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater as a function of lithology, soil characteristics and agricultural activities in an intensively cultivated district in India. Two hundred and fifty two groundwater samples were collected at different depths from various types of wells and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), NO(3)-N load and F content. Database on lithology, soil properties, predominant cropping systems, fertilizer and pesticide uses were also recorded for the district. The NO(3)-N load in groundwater samples were low ranging from 0.12 to 6.58 microg mL(-1) with only 8.7% of them contained greater than 3.0 microg mL(-1) well below the 10 microg mL(-1), the threshold limit fixed by WHO for drinking purpose. Samples from the habitational areas showed higher NO3-N content over the agricultural fields. The content decreased with increasing depth of wells (r=-0.25, Pgeology of the district. The content showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.234, P=< or =0.01) with the amount of phosphatic fertilizer (single super phosphate) used for agriculture. Results thus indicated that the groundwater of the study area is presently safe for drinking purpose but some anthropogenic activities associated with intensive cultivation had a positive influence on its loading with NO(3)-N and F.

  2. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  3. Biodegradation of creosote and pentachlorophenol in contaminated groundwater: chemical and biological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J G; Middaugh, D P; Lantz, S E; Chapman, P J

    1991-05-01

    Shake flask studies examined the rate and extent of biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 42 components of coal-tar creosote present in contaminated groundwater recovered from the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Fla. The ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to remove these contaminants from aqueous solutions was determined by gas chromatographic analysis of organic extracts of biotreated groundwater. Changes in potential environmental and human health hazards associated with the biodegradation of this material were determined at intervals by Microtox assays and fish toxicity and teratogenicity tests. After 14 days of incubation at 30 degrees C, indigenous microorganisms effectively removed 100, 99, 94, 88, and 87% of measured phenolic and lower-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and S-heterocyclic, N-heterocyclic, and O-heterocyclic constituents of creosote, respectively. However, only 53% of the higher-molecular-weight PAHs were degraded; PCP was not removed. Despite the removal of a majority of the organic contaminants through biotreatment, only a slight decrease in the toxicity and teratogenicity of biotreated groundwater was observed. Data suggest that toxicity and teratogenicity are associated with compounds difficult to treat biologically and that one may not necessarily rely on indigenous microorganisms to effectively remove these compounds in a reasonable time span; to this end, alternative or supplemental approaches may be necessary. Similar measures of the toxicity and teratogenicity of treated material may offer a simple, yet important, guide to bioremediation effectiveness.

  4. Remediation of lead-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1992-01-01

    Excavation and transport of soil contaminated with heavy metals has generally been the standard remediation technique for treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. This approach is not a permanent solution; moreover, off-site shipment and disposal of contaminated soil involves high expense, liability, and appropriate regulatory approval. Recently, a number of other techniques have been investigated for treating such contaminated sites, including flotation, solidification/stabilization, vitrification, and chemical extraction. This paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation determining the efficiency of using chelating agents to extract lead from contaminated soils. Lead concentrations in the soils ranged from 500 to 10,000 mg/kg. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were examined for their potential extractive capabilities. Concentrations of the chelating agents ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 M. The pH of the suspensions in which the extractions were performed ranged from 4 to 12. Results showed that the removal of lead using NTA and water was ph-dependent, whereas the removal of lead using EDTA was ph-insensitive. Maximum removals of lead were 68.7%,19.1%, and 7.3% using EDTA, NTA, and water, respectively (as compared with initial lead concentrations)

  5. Monitoring Groundwater Contaminant Plumes Using Airborne Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Martin; Oftendinger, Ulrich; Ruffell, Alastair; Cowan, Marie; Cassidy, Rachel; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Wilson, Christopher; Desissa, Mohammednur

    2013-04-01

    Under the European Union Water Framework Directive, Member States are required to assess water quality across both surface water and groundwater bodies. Subsurface pollution plumes, originating from a variety of sources, pose a significant direct risk to water quality. The monitoring and characterisation of groundwater contaminant plumes is generally invasive, time consuming and expensive. In particular, adequately capturing the contaminant plume with monitoring installations, when the extent of the feature is unknown and the presence of contamination is only evident from indirect observations, can be prohibitively expensive. This research aims to identify the extent and nature of subsurface contaminant plumes using airborne geophysical survey data. This data was collected across parts of the island of Ireland within the scope of the original Tellus and subsequent Tellus Border projects. The rapid assessment of the airborne electro-magnetic (AEM) data allowed the identification of several sites containing possible contaminant plumes. These AEM anomalies were assessed through the analysis of existing site data and field site inspections, with areas of interest being examined for metallic structures that could affect the AEM data. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and ground-based electro-magnetic (EM) surveys were performed to ground-truth existing airborne data and to confirm the extent and nature of the affected area identified using the airborne data. Groundwater and surface water quality were assessed using existing field site information. Initial results collected from a landfill site underlain by basalt have indicated that the AEM data, coupled with ERT and GPR, can successfully be used to locate possible plumes and help delineate their extent. The analysis of a range of case study sites exhibiting different geological and environmental settings will allow for the development of a consistent methodology for examining the

  6. Distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benhua; Chen, Liang; Huang, Linxian; Wang, Yongseng; Li, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China. At least one VOC was detected in each of the 20 sampling sites, and the maximum number of VOCs detected in the surface water, groundwater, and soil were 13, 16, and 14, respectively. Two of the 10 VOCs with elevated concentrations detected in surface water, groundwater, and soil were chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. The characteristics of VOCs, which include volatility, boiling point, and solubility, could significantly affect their distribution in surface water, soil, and groundwater. However, due to the direct discharging of chemical industry wastewater into surface water, higher concentrations of VOCs (except chloroform) were detected in surface water than in soil and groundwater. Fortunately, the higher volatility of VOCs prevents the VOCs from impacting groundwater, which helps to maintain a lower concentration of VOCs in the groundwater than in both surface water and soil. This is because pollutants with relatively higher boiling points and lower solubilities have higher detection frequencies in soil, and contaminants with relatively lower boiling points and higher solubilities have higher detection frequencies in water, notably in surface water.

  7. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alleppey is one of the thickly populated coastal towns of the Kerala state in southern India. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the 240,991 people living in this region. The groundwater is being extracted from a multi-layer aquifer system of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sedimentary formations, which range in age from Recent to Tertiary. The public water distribution system uses dug and tube wells. Though there were reports on fluoride contamination, this study reports for the first time excess fluoride and excess salinity in the drinking water of the region. The quality parameters, like Electrical Conductivity (EC ranges from 266 to 3900 μs/cm, the fluoride content ranges from 0.68 to 2.88 mg/L, and the chloride ranges between the 5.7 to 1253 mg/L. The main water types are Na-HCO3, Na-CO3 and Na-Cl. The aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− show positive correlation whereas F− and Ca2+ show negative correlation. The source of fluoride in the groundwater could be from dissolution of fluorapatite, which is a common mineral in the Tertiary sediments of the area. Long residence time, sediment–groundwater interaction and facies changes (Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 during groundwater flow regime are the major factors responsible for the high fluoride content in the groundwater of the area. High strontium content and high EC in some of the wells indicate saline water intrusion that could be due to the excess pumping from the deeper aquifers of the area. The water quality index computation has revealed that 62% of groundwater belongs to poor quality and is not suitable for domestic purposes as per BIS and WHO standards. Since the groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the area, proper treatment strategies and regulating the groundwater extraction are required as the quality deterioration poses serious threat to human health.

  8. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤ 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤ 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  9. Bacterial contamination of groundwater in urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, A.; Rippey, B.

    1999-01-01

    Well-water samples (in=193) were collected from urban areas of five districts of Karachi during the period 1993 to 1995 to evaluate its bacteriological quality and their impact on city environment and morbidity patterns of inhabitants. Samples were analyzed by the standard method American Public Health Association. The bacteriological contamination level suggest that the groundwater of Chaahi is mainly affected by contamination of wastewater containing high levels of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria. This study points towards serious need to control the seepage from sewerage system and use of contaminated well-water should be discouraged to reduce the incidence of water-borne diseases in order to improve the quality of life and health. (author)

  10. Assessment of environmental degradation of soil and groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of its extent, it is pertinent to understand its pedo-geological and hydrogeological setting in order to assess the impact of the waste disposal on the soil and groundwater systems. Random; 11 soil (pool) samples at 0.0 to 0.5 m depth, and eight groundwater samples from pumping boreholes, 0.5 to 10.0 m on both ...

  11. Agriculture and groundwater nitrate contamination in the Seine basin. The STICS-MODCOU modelling chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, E. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France)]. E-mail: emmanuel.ledoux@ensmp.fr; Gomez, E. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France); Monget, J.M. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France); Viavattene, C. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France); Viennot, P. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France); Ducharne, A. [Laboratoire Sisyphe, CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Benoit, M. [INRA, Station de Recherche SAD, 662 avenue Louis Buffet, 88500 Mirecourt (France); Mignolet, C. [INRA, Station de Recherche SAD, 662 avenue Louis Buffet, 88500 Mirecourt (France); Schott, C. [INRA, Station de Recherche SAD, 662 avenue Louis Buffet, 88500 Mirecourt (France); Mary, B. [INRA, Unite d' Agronomie Laon-Reims-Mons, Laon (France)

    2007-04-01

    A software package is presented here to predict the fate of nitrogen fertilizers and the transport of nitrate from the rooting zone of agricultural areas to surface water and groundwater in the Seine basin, taking into account the long residence times of water and nitrate in the unsaturated and aquifer systems. Information on pedological characteristics, land use and farming practices is used to determine the spatial units to be considered. These data are converted into input data for the crop model STICS which simulates the water and nitrogen balances in the soil-plant system with a daily time-step. A spatial application of STICS has been derived at the catchment scale which computes the water and nitrate fluxes at the bottom of the rooting zone. These fluxes are integrated into a surface and groundwater coupled model MODCOU which calculates the daily water balance in the hydrological system, the flow in the rivers and the piezometric variations in the aquifers, using standard climatic data (rainfall, PET). The transport of nitrate and the evolution of nitrate contamination in groundwater and to rivers is computed by the model NEWSAM. This modelling chain is a valuable tool to predict the evolution of crop productivity and nitrate contamination according to various scenarios modifying farming practices and/or climatic changes. Data for the period 1970-2000 are used to simulate the past evolution of nitrogen contamination. The method has been validated using available data bases of nitrate concentrations in the three main aquifers of the Paris basin (Oligocene, Eocene and chalk). The approach has then been used to predict the future evolution of nitrogen contamination up to 2015. A statistical approach allowed estimating the probability of transgression of different concentration thresholds in various areas in the basin. The model is also used to evaluate the cost of the damage resulting of the treatment of drinking water at the scale of a groundwater management

  12. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  13. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as caffeine and nicotine. Many are relatively small polar molecules which may not be effectively removed by drinking water treatment. Data from the UK Environment Agency's groundwater screening programme for organic pollutants found within the 30 most frequently detected compounds a number of EGCs such as pesticide metabolites, caffeine and DEET. Specific determinands frequently detected include pesticides metabolites, pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine and triclosan, nicotine, food additives and alkyl phosphates. This paper discusses the routes by which these compounds enter groundwater, their toxicity and potential risks to drinking water and the environment. It identifies challenges that need to be met to minimise risk to drinking water and ecosystems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Soil Desiccation Techniques Strategies For Immobilization Of Deep Vadose Contaminants At The Hanford Central Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benecke, M.W.; Chronister, G.B.; Truex, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

  15. SOIL DESICCATION TECHNIQUES STRATEGIES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF DEEP VADOSE CONTAMINANTS AT THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE MW; CHRONISTER GB; TRUEX MJ

    2012-01-30

    Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

  16. Emerging contaminants in urban groundwater sources in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Lapworth, D J; Nkhuwa, D C W; Stuart, M E; Gooddy, D C; Bell, R A; Chirwa, M; Kabika, J; Liemisa, M; Chibesa, M; Pedley, S

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic contaminants within the aquatic environment in Africa is currently unknown. This study provides early insights by characterising a broad range of emerging organic contaminants (n > 1000) in groundwater sources in Kabwe, Zambia. Groundwater samples were obtained during both the dry and wet seasons from a selection of deep boreholes and shallow wells completed within the bedrock and overlying superficial aquifers, respectively. Groundwater sources were distributed across the city to encompass peri-urban, lower cost housing, higher cost housing, and industrial land uses. The insect repellent DEET was ubiquitous within groundwater at concentrations up to 1.8 μg/L. Other compounds (n = 26) were detected in less than 15% of the sources and included the bactericide triclosan (up to 0.03 μg/L), chlorination by-products - trihalomethanes (up to 50 μg/L), and the surfactant 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (up to 0.6 μg/L). Emerging contaminants were most prevalent in shallow wells sited in low cost housing areas. This is attributed to localised vulnerability associated with inadequate well protection, sanitation, and household waste disposal. The five-fold increase in median DEET concentration following the onset of the seasonal rains highlights that more mobile compounds can rapidly migrate from the surface to the aquifer suggesting the aquifer is more vulnerable than previously considered. Furthermore it suggests DEET is potentially useful as a wastewater tracer in Africa. There was a general absence of personal care products, life-style compounds, and pharmaceuticals which are commonly detected in the aquatic environment in the developed world. This perhaps reflects some degree of attenuation within the subsurface, but could also be a result of the current limited use of products containing emerging contaminants by locals due to unaffordability and unavailability. As development and population increases in Africa, it is

  17. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  18. Organic contaminants in soil : desorption kinetics and microbial degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlebaum, W.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of organic contaminants in soils or sediments for microbial degradation or removal by physical means (e.g.) soil washing or soil venting) depends on the desorption kinetics of these contaminants from the soil matrix. When the organic contaminants desorb very slow from the

  19. Regional hydrocarbon contaminated soil recycling facility standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to protect the environment from uncontrolled releases of petroleum products, the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute member companies have initiated environmental upgrading programs for their underground fuel storage systems in British Columbia. These programs have been restricted in recent years as a result of environmental regulations targeting contaminated soil, which is generated when underground storage tanks are upgraded to current standards. The soil requiring treatment is typically sand backfill containing a nominal value of petroleum product. These soils can be treated in an engineered basin using bioremediation technology to reduce the level of contamination. Depending on the degree of treatment, the soil can be recycled as backfill or reused as landfill cover. An overview is presented of the basin treatment process and design. Natural bioremediation is enhanced with nutrients, water and oxygen addition. 4 figs

  20. Depth and Well Type Related to Groundwater Microbiological Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Halimy Maran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of groundwater from private wells in households has increased considerably, owing to a better cost/benefit ratio than that of water provided by local utilities for a fee. However, this water is usually untreated, which makes it a vehicle for diseases. Thus, monitoring this water is necessary to ensure its integrity and quality. We aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of untreated groundwater drawn from different types of wells, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the bacteria isolated from this water. Wellwater samples were collected in two Brazilian cities. Although physical and chemical parameters of the water were suitable for drinking, Escherichia coli was detected in 33% of the samples. E. coli contaminated 65% of dug wells and 10.25% of drilled wells. Many bacteria isolated were resistant to multiple antibacterial agents, including β-lactams. Microbial contamination of this water was related to the well depth, and was more common in dug wells, making this water unfit for human consumption. Consumption of such contaminated and untreated water is a public health concern. Thus, individuals who regularly use such water must be alerted so they may either take preventive measures or connect to the water distribution system operated by local utilities.

  1. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  2. Contamination of soils. La contaminacion del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Garcia-Delgado, R.A.; Garcia-Herruzo, F.; Gomez-La Hoz, C. (Universidad de Malaga. Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The contamination of soils has received less attention from the public opinion than atmospheric pollution and water pollution. This article makes a review of different transfer pathways and decontamination techniques. Detoxification techniques can be broken down into two different groups. : Those implying excavation and transportation of the soil and those not requiring excavation. At the present time there is an increasing trend of giving up those techniques requiring immobilization or on site treatment. (Author) (32 refs.)

  3. Characterizing Soil Lead Contamination Near Streams in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanouye, D.

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soils, groundwater, and surface waters is a major concern because of the potential health risks related to accumulation of high levels of lead in blood. This is a pervasive issue in many low-income neighborhoods throughout the United States, and is documented to be particularly acute in West Oakland, California. The fate and transport of lead in the environment is largely dependent on how it will bind to various solids and compounds in solution. These adsorption mechanisms are a principal aspect of metal dissolution and chemical speciation. Stream channels are natural drainage areas for urban runoff, and may represent a hot spot for increased levels of lead. This study evaluates the environmental conditions at 15 sites near streams in West Oakland using in-situ soil sampling with the handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to measure concentrations of lead in soil. Results from this study suggest that the levels of lead in soils near stream channels are generally lower than the regional regulatory screening level of 80 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), but the highest concentrations are found near stream banks. The spatial distribution can be explained by a contaminant transport process related to the presence of fluvial channels.

  4. Heteroaromatic compounds and their biodegradation products in creosote-contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, S.S.; Arvin, E.; Mosbæk, H.

    1998-01-01

    Creosote contamination of groundwater in the vicinity of old gasworks and woodtreatment facilities is a well‐known problem. Risk assessments typically include measurements of mono‐ and poly‐aromatic compounds and phenols. The content of nitrogen‐, sulphur‐ and oxygen‐containing heteroaromatic...... products, and their occurrence and fate in groundwater under various redox conditions to assess their potential as groundwater contaminants at creosote‐contaminated sites....

  5. Groundwater contamination by Temik Aldicarb pesticide: The first 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Daniel

    1988-02-01

    In 1979, Temik aldicarb pesticide was detected in the groundwater of Suffolk County, New York. Concentrations detected in drinking water supplies exceeded health guidelines, causing concern among thousands of residents. In spite of suggestive evidence prior to detection and inquiries from local investigators, EPA did not consider contamination a likely event. Upon detection of the contamination, EPA officials instituted an emergency response. Then, when they were sure there was no acute hazard, they left the situation in the hands of local health authorities, who struggled without adequate resources or sufficient in-house expertise. The local officials' failure to acknowledge these limitations led to public mistrust and discontent. From this case study one sees the consequences of limited implementation of the federal pesticide regulatory system. More stringent requirements would have likely prevented the contamination. In addition, an integrated response from agencies at many levels of government would have helped prevent similar contamination elsewhere and provided more comprehensive management of this episode on Long Island. Openness by government officials on the limitations of the health data would have helped defuse public animosity and encouraged a more satisfactory resolution of the contamination.

  6. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  7. Bacterial sulfate reduction limits natural arsenic contamination in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Holm, Thomas R.; Park, Jungho; Jin, Qusheng; Sanford, Robert A.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Bethke, Craig M.

    2004-11-01

    Natural arsenic contamination of groundwater, increasingly recognized as a threat to human health worldwide, is characterized by arsenic concentrations that vary sharply over short distances. Variation in arsenic levels in the Mahomet aquifer system, a regional glacial aquifer in central Illinois, appears to arise from variable rates of bacterial sulfate reduction in the subsurface, not differences in arsenic supply. Where sulfate-reducing bacteria are active, the sulfide produced reacts to precipitate arsenic, or coprecipitate it with iron, leaving little in solution. In the absence of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis is the dominant type of microbial metabolism, and arsenic accumulates to high levels.

  8. Nondestructive analysis of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.E.; Taylor, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil is currently being removed from a covered liquid waste disposal trench near the Pu Processing facility on the Hanford Project. This soil with the plutonium is being mined using remote techniques and equipment. The mined soil is being packaged for placement into retrievable storage, pending possible recovery. To meet the requirements of criticality safety and materials accountability, a nondestructive analysis program has been developed to determine the quantity of plutonium in each packing-storage container. This paper describes the total measurement program: equipment systems, calibration techniques, matrix assumption, instrument control program and a review of laboratory operating experience

  9. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  10. Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2015-01-01

    distributions of the contaminant plume concentration (Gaussian, homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution) are considered. The model considering the plume discharged through the bank of the river, with a uniform concentration distribution was the most appropriate for risk assessment due to its simplicity...... measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained...... with existing point source models, with a distributed source leading to a larger mixing length and different concentration field. The dilution model can also provide recommendations for sampling locations and the size of impact zones in streams. This is of interest for regulators, for example when developing...

  11. Evaluation of groundwater contamination in a coastal area of south-eastern Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Antoci, Maria Lucia; Brugaletta, Luana; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was under taken to evaluate the groundwater resources contamination due to intensive agricultural practices (particularly greenhouses). The study-area is located in the coastal area of the Ragusa province (South-East Sicily), where numerous existing greenhouses may cause the contamination of groundwater systems (unconfined and confined aquifers) beneath the cropped land. The pollution risk is mainly related with the seepage process of macro-elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), held in the irrigation water and the massive use of fertilizers and pesticides, that may pass through the unsaturated zone of the soil profile. Moreover, the area is characterized by the presence of several wells (about 15 wells/km²) for agricultural use that cause the aquifer overexploitation and the consequent risk of seawater intrusion. The agriculture practices adopted in the study area (irrigation volumes, fertilizer concentrations, use of pesticides…) were monitored since February 2009; moreover, the pollution risk of the aquifers was evaluated through the analysis of groundwater water samples collected (monthly) in the monitoring wells; in particular, nitrogen compounds, soluble phosphorous (PO₄²⁻), potassium, as well as the main pesticides commonly used in the study area, were measured.The results show that electrical conductivity and chloride concentration values can cause reduction of production and leaf damage problems, respectively, for most of the monitored farm systems. The high nitrogen compounds concentrations observed in the monitored wells can cause health and environmental problems. Moreover high pesticide contamination of groundwater was found in two of the five monitored wells.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Soil Contamination Rate, Prevalence, Intensity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... January 2018. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i1.8. 64. INTRODUCTION. Soil contamination with parasite eggs, infective larvae, cysts and oocysts constitutes the most important risk factor for some human parasitic .... 0.05 since no report was recorded for infection prevalence of intestinal parasitic ...

  13. Characterizing Groundwater and Contaminant Flux in Fractured Rock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M. A.; Cho, J.; Hatfield, K.; Klammler, H.; Annable, M. D.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J.; Kroeker, R.; Pedler, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    Complex hydrogeologic conditions such as fractured and karst bedrock settings pose substantial economic and technical challenges both to the characterization and remediation of DNAPL source zones. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate the fractured rock passive flux meter (FRPFM) as new technology for measuring the magnitudes and directions of cumulative water and contaminant fluxes in fractured rock aquifers. The sensor consists of an inflatable core that compresses a reactive fabric against the wall of a borehole and to any water-filled fractures intersected by a borehole. The reactive fabric is designed to intercept and retain target groundwater contaminants (e.g. TCE, DCE, VC); in addition, the fabric releases non-toxic tracers, some of which visibly indicate active fracture location, aperture, orientation, and direction of fracture flow along a borehole, while others quantify cumulative groundwater discharge within the fractures. Demonstration and validation studies are in progress comparing multiple technologies (including fractured rock passive flux meters, hydrophysical logging, scanning colloidal borescope, and borehole dilution tests). The technologies are being evaluated based upon their ability to: identify flowing fractures, determine flow direction, and quantify both water and contaminant mass flux in flowing fractures. Laboratory tests comparing capabilities of each technology have been performed in two separate flow simulators: a planar single fracture simulator (performed multiple tests for varying duration; fracture aperture = 0.5 mm; specific discharge range 25 - 2500 cm/day) and a large-scale three-dimensional aquifer box with layered high contrast flow zones (physical flow domain 2 m length, 0.5 m width, and 1 m height; alternating layers of low permeability sand separated by high permeability gravel; specific discharge range 25 to 4000 cm/day (per layer)). The primary objective of these tests is to develop a

  14. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  15. Derivation of validated methods of sampling and analysis for intermediate and final products of the anaerobic material utilization of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (LCFC) in groundwater in the context of analyses of contaminated soils; Ableitung validierter Probenahme- und Analysenmethoden fuer Zwischen- und Endprodukte der anaeroben Stoffverwertungsprozesse von Leichtfluechtigen Chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser im Rahmen von Altlastenuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgerloh, Ute; Becker, Roland; Win, Tin [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Theissen, Hubert [IMAGO GbR (Germany)

    2010-06-17

    The results of the project ''Methods of sampling and analysis of intermediate and final products of the anaerobic degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater in frame of analysis of contaminated sites'' of the German Federal States Program ''Water, Soil, Waste'' (Laenderfinanzierungsprogramm ''Wasser, Boden, Luft'') LFP B2.08 are presented in these report. Different methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of hydrogen, methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in groundwater are developed and validated: For the sampling are described and discussed: i. active sampling: purge and sample of water samples and purging of solvated gases in groundwater in gas sampling tubes ii. passive sampling: diffusion sampling in polyethylene diffusion bags (PDB) and plastic syringes as diffusion sampler for solvated gases The use of active (purge and sample, downhole sampler) and passive (diffusion sampling) sampling techniques for the quantification of VOC, ethene, and methane are evaluated from the viewpoint of public authorities and regarding the reproducibility of measurement results. Based on a groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride it is shown that passive sampling is restricted by low groundwater flow and biological activity inside the well casing. Therefore, active sampling is to be preferred in case of unknown or insufficient flow conditions in the aquifer. The methods of chromatography for the determination of the compounds are validated and compared with other appropriate analytical methods: I. Headspace-GC-FID for the determination of methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in water of the purged sample (i) and the water of the PDB (ii) II. Direct injection - GC-PDD for the determination of hydrogen from the collected gas samples of the gas sampling tube (i) and the plastic syringes (ii) The gas chromatographic procedure for vinyl chloride using

  16. Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Naghiyev, J.A.; Samadov, P.A.

    2010-11-01

    Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

  17. Enhanced ex-situ bioremediation of soil contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contaminated soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of using electrical biostimulation processes to enhance ex-situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. The effect of ...

  18. Screening of French groundwater for regulated and emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Ollivier, Patrick; Togola, Anne; Baran, Nicole; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-15

    Nationwide screening of 411 emerging contaminants and other regulated compounds, including parent molecules and transformation products (TPs) having various uses and origins, was done at 494 groundwater sites throughout France during two sampling campaigns in the Spring and the Fall of 2011. One hundred and eighty substances (44% of the targeted compounds) were quantified in at least one sampling point. These included pharmaceuticals, industrial products, pesticides, their transformation products and other emerging compounds. Fifty-five compounds were quantified in more than 1% of the samples. Both regulated and emerging compounds were found. Among the unregulated compounds, acetaminophen, carbamazepine, perfluorinated compounds, dioxins/furans, tolyltriazole, bisphenol A, triazine transformation products, and caffeine were quantified in more than 10% of the samples analyzed. Concentrations exceeding the threshold of toxicological concern of 0.1 μg/L were found for tolyltriazole, bisphenol A and some of the triazine transformation products (DEDIA). These new results should help the water resource managers and environmental regulators develop sound policies regarding the occurrence and distribution of regulated and emerging contaminants in groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transport using the deterministic-probabilistic contaminant transport (DPCT) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, E.D.; Johnson, T.M.; Reade, M.T.; Schwartz, F.W.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents 10 sample problems as examples of the use and features of the 2-dimensional deterministic-probabilistic contaminant transport (DPCT) computer program. DPCT provides solutions to the mass balance equation, known as the dispersion-convection equation, which represents mathematically the physiochemical and nuclear processes that are involved in the subsurface groundwater transport of a contaminant. Because DPCT has a stochastic component for the treatment of dispersion, it is inherently stable and free of the numerical dispersion that can occur with most other codes and produce unrealistic results

  20. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kopruoren Basin (Kutahya), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, S.; Dokuz, U.; Celik, M.; Cheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater quality in the Kopruoren Basin located to the west of Kutahya city in western Anatolia was investigated. Kopruoren Basin is about 275 km2 with about 6,000 residents, but the surface and ground-water quality in this basin impacts a much larger population since the area is located upstream of Kutahya and Eskisehir plains. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. The only silver deposit of Turkey is developed in the metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gumuskoy. The amount of silver manufactured annually comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The cyanide-rich wastes of the Eti Gumus silver plant is stored in waste pools. There have been debates about the safety of this facility after a major collapse occurred in one of the pools in May 2011. In this study samples from 31 wells and 21 springs were collected in July and October 2011 and May 2012. The groundwaters are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, with arsenic, zinc and antimony occurring at high concentrations. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are as high as 48 ug/L in springs and 734 ug/L in well water. Arsenic in 57% of the springs and 68% of the wells exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ug/L). Natural sources of arsenic in the area include the dissolution of arsenic-rich minerals such as realgar and orpiment associated with the mineral deposits in the southern part of the study area. In the northern part, arsenic is enriched due to the dissolution of arsenic-bearing coal deposits. Besides these natural sources of contamination, the silver mining activity could be an important anthropogenic source. The leakage of cyanide and arsenic, together with other trace elements to the environment from the waste pools, will continue to poison the environment if necessary precautions are not taken immediately.

  1. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, M.A.; Jerger, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation techniques were successfully employed in the cost-effective cleanup of approximately 8400 gallons of diesel fuel which had been accidentally discharged at a warehouse in New Jersey. Surrounding soils were contaminated with the diesel fuel at concentrations exceeding 1,470 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbons as measured by infrared spectroscopy (TPH-IR, EPA method 418.1, modified for soils). This paper reports on treatment of the contaminated soils through enhanced biological land treatment which was chosen for the soil remediation pursuant to a New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System - Discharge to Ground Water (NJPDES-DGW) permit. Biological land treatment of diesel fuel focuses on the breakdown of the hydrocarbon fractions by indigenous aerobic microorganisms in the layers of soil where oxygen is made available. Metabolism by these microorganisms can ultimately reduce the hydrocarbons to innocuous end products. The purpose of biological land treatment was to reduce the concentration of the petroleum hydrocarbon constituents of the diesel fuel in the soil to 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)

  2. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  3. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  4. Comparative study of surrogate models for groundwater contamination source identification at DNAPL-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of groundwater contamination sources is critical for effectively protecting groundwater resources, estimating risks, mitigating disaster, and designing remediation strategies. Many methods for groundwater contamination source identification (GCSI) have been developed in recent years, including the simulation-optimization technique. This study proposes utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) model and a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) model to enrich the content of the surrogate model. The surrogate model was itself key in replacing the simulation model, reducing the huge computational burden of iterations in the simulation-optimization technique to solve GCSI problems, especially in GCSI problems of aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A comparative study between the Kriging, SVR, and KELM models is reported. Additionally, there is analysis of the influence of parameter optimization and the structure of the training sample dataset on the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model. It was found that the KELM model was the most accurate surrogate model, and its performance was significantly improved after parameter optimization. The approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model did not always improve with increasing numbers of training samples. Using the appropriate number of training samples was critical for improving the performance of the surrogate model and avoiding unnecessary computational workload. It was concluded that the KELM model developed in this work could reasonably predict system responses in given operation conditions. Replacing the simulation model with a KELM model considerably reduced the computational burden of the simulation-optimization process and also maintained high computation accuracy.

  5. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian; Ferguson Jones, Andrea; Case, Glenn; Yule, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground surface

  6. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  7. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  8. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pH<7), hydrolisis and metal leaching, precipitation of oxides and sulphates. The restoration of these sites, therefore, is a primary objective, in order to reduce/eliminate the risk associated to the contamination sources of past activities, and the consequent environmental and human health hazard. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could

  9. A biogeochemical transport model to simulate the attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant fluxes across the groundwater-surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons originating from point sources are amongst the most prevalent contaminants of ground water and surface water resources. Riparian zones may play an important role in the attenuation of contaminant concentrations when contaminant plumes flow from groundwater to surface water...... because of the occurrence of redox gradients, strongly reductive conditions and high biological activity. In order to meet the expectations of the EU Water Framework Directive, an evaluation of the impact of such plumes on surface water is needed. The aim of this work is to develop a groundwater transport...... number of geochemical processes, allows the simulation of soil geochemical transformations when microbial by-products are released to surface water, and the consideration of non-linear feedbacks on bacterial growth and pollutant transformations. Sensitivity analysis is performed through Monte Carlo...

  10. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brain B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, Miles E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  11. Hexavalent Chromium: Analysis of the Mechanism of Groundwater Contamination in a Former Industrial Site in the Province of Vicenza (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Accoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted in the analysis of the mobilization mechanisms of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI into groundwater from a decommissioned contaminated factory. The site is located in the Province of Vicenza and formerly was a chrome-plating plant. The subsoil consists predominantly of gravelly deposits with a thickness of at least one hundred meters. An unconfined aquifer is present with water table at about 23 m depth bgl. During the seven years of monitoring (2008-2014, the fluctuation of groundwater level was more than 6 m; hydraulic conductivity is about 1.0E-03 m/s and groundwater seepage velocity about 12 m/day. At the area of the source of contamination, the unsaturated soil is contaminated by hexavalent chromium throughout the thickness: concentrations range from 200 to 500 mg/kg. At the bottom of zone of groundwater level fluctuation, the hexavalent chromium concentration decreases to below the detection limit. The available data (e.g. hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwater, groundwater level, local rainfall give the opportunity to assess the effects, on the magnitude of groundwater contamination, of the effective infiltration versus the fluctuation of groundwater level. The main analysis was performed on a statistical basis, in order to find out which of the two factors was most likely related to the periodic peaks of hexavalent chromium concentration in groundwater. Statistical analysis results were verified by a mass balance. Data show that at the site both the effective infiltration through the unsaturated zone and the leaching of soil contaminated by groundwater, when it exceeds a certain piezometric level, lead to peak concentrations of hexavalent chromium, even if with characteristics and effects different.

  12. Phytoremediation of sewage sludge in soils contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main source of heavy metals in most soils is sewage sludge. Naturally, the heavy metals in soils are transported to vegetations and cultivated crops. These pollutants need to be either reduced or eliminated in the soil to remediate the effects to man, animals, plants, soils, and groundwater. Hence, Jatropha curcas ...

  13. Soil biotransformation of thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of mustard gas: understanding the factors governing remediation of mustard gas contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Muir, Robert; McFarlane, Neil R; Soilleux, Richard J; Yu, Xiaohong; Thompson, Ian P; Jackman, Simon A

    2013-02-01

    Thiodiglycol (TDG) is both the precursor for chemical synthesis of mustard gas and the product of mustard gas hydrolysis. TDG can also react with intermediates of mustard gas degradation to form more toxic and/or persistent aggregates, or reverse the pathway of mustard gas degradation. The persistence of TDG have been observed in soils and in the groundwater at sites contaminated by mustard gas 60 years ago. The biotransformation of TDG has been demonstrated in three soils not previously exposed to the chemical. TDG biotransformation occurred via the oxidative pathway with an optimum rate at pH 8.25. In contrast with bacteria isolated from historically contaminated soil, which could degrade TDG individually, a consortium of three bacterial strains isolated from the soil never contaminated by mustard gas was able to grow on TDG in minimal medium and in hydrolysate derived from an historical mustard gas bomb. Exposure to TDG had little impacts on the soil microbial physiology or on community structure. Therefore, the persistency of TDG in soils historically contaminated by mustard gas might be attributed to the toxicity of mustard gas to microorganisms and the impact to soil chemistry during the hydrolysis. TDG biodegradation may form part of a remediation strategy for mustard gas contaminated sites, and may be enhanced by pH adjustment and aeration.

  14. Transport of reactive colloids and contaminants in groundwater: effect of nonlinear kinetic interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.; Leijnse, A.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Transport of reactive colloids in groundwater may enhance the transport of contaminants in groundwater. Often, the interpretation of results of transport experiments is not a simple task as both reactions of colloids with the solid matrix and reactions of contaminants with the solid matrix and

  15. The resistivity imaging application in groundwater exploration: resistivity value and soil type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khardzir Husain

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is rich in water resources. Water development has fueled socio-economic development of the country during the past decades. Dams and thousands of kilometers of pipes and canals divert water from the rivers to sustain domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Lately, the water situation for the country has changed from one of relative abundance to one of relative scarcity. The population growth and the expansion in urbanization, industrialization and irrigated agriculture are imposing rapidly growing demands and pressure on the water resources, besides contributing to the rising water pollution. Surface water resource, the traditional source of water supply in the past, has become inadequate in some areas. The problem becomes more acute in areas where surface water is affected by the increasing pollution from industrial and agricultural waste and where changes in land have adversely affected the quantity and quality of surface water supply. The development of groundwater as a source of water supply or as an alternative source is therefore a timely outlook. Lack in groundwater development will becoming disasters to country. Electrical resistivity had been used in groundwater exploration to get an accuracy result in a short time. This method measures the apparent resistivity of the subsurface, including effects of any or all of the following: soil type, bedrock fractures, contaminants and ground water. Variations in electrical resistivity may indicate changes in composition, layer thickness or contaminant levels. The resistivity values obtained from various groundwater exploration and experimental sites shows that the value differs also in related to the soil type. (Author)

  16. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and

  17. Feasilbility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.M.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and

  18. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Nepal—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, arsenic (As contamination is a major issue of current drinking water supply systems using groundwater and has recently been one of the major environmental health management issues especially in the plain region, i.e., in the Terai districts, where the population density is very high. The Terai inhabitants still use hand tube and dug wells (with hand held pumps that are bored at shallow to medium depth for their daily water requirements, including drinking water. The National Sanitation Steering Committee (NSSC, with the help of many other organizations, has completed arsenic blanket test in 25 districts of Nepal by analysing 737,009 groundwater samples. Several organizations, including academic institutions, made an effort to determine the levels of arsenic concentrations in groundwater and their consequences in Nepal. The results of the analyses on 25,058 samples tested in 20 districts, published in the status report of arsenic in Nepal (2003, demonstrated that the 23% of the samples were containing 10–50 µg/L of As, and the 8% of the samples were containing more than 50 µg/L of As. Recent status of over 737,009 samples tested, the 7.9% and 2.3% were contaminated by 10–50 µg/L and >50 µg/L, respectively of As. The present paper examines the various techniques available for the reduction of arsenic concentrations in Nepal in combination with the main results achieved, the socio-economic status and the strategies. This paper aims to comprehensively compile all existing data sets and analyze them scientifically, by trying to suggest a common sustainable approach for identifying the As contamination in the nation, that can be easily adopted by local communities for developing a sustainable society. The paper aims also to find probable solutions to quantify and mitigate As problem without any external support. The outcome of this paper will ultimately help to identify various ways for: identify risk areas; develop awareness; adopt

  19. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals with an emphasis on immobilization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan Nejad, Zahra; Jung, Myung Chae; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-04-26

    The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s. Besides, the immobilization technique in contaminated soils is evaluated through the manipulation of the bioavailability of heavy metals using a range of soil amendment conditions. This technique is expected to efficiently alleviate the risk of groundwater contamination, plant uptake, and exposure to other living organisms. The efficacy of several amendments (e.g., red mud, biochar, phosphate rock) has been examined to emphasize the need for the simultaneous measurement of leaching and the phytoavailability of heavy metals. In addition, some amendments that are used in this technique are inexpensive and readily available in large quantities because they have been derived from bio-products or industrial by-products (e.g., biochar, red mud, and steel slag). Among different amendments, iron-rich compounds and biochars show high efficiency to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils. Thereupon, immobilization technique can be considered a preferable option as it is inexpensive and easily applicable to large quantities of contaminants derived from various sources.

  20. The use of in-situ dual vacuum extraction for remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Dual Extraction provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and groundwater impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Dual Extraction is the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole using entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an Underground Storage Tank (UST) was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 square feet. The release produced vadose zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 - 30 feet below ground surface with TPH concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. A layer of free floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 30 feet bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 feet to 3.0 feet. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and groundwater to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hours/day for 196 days with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days, over 17,000 pounds of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings were advanced in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations and indicated that TPH and BTEX concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations. Three confirmatory groundwater samples were obtained from monitoring wells initially exhibiting up to 3 feet of floating product. Confirmatory samples exhibited non-detectable (ND) concentrations of TPH and BTEX. Based upon the positive confirmatory results, site closure was obtained from the RWQCB in May of 1991. In only 28 weeks of operation, the groundwater contamination was reduced from free floating product to non-detectable concentrations of TPH using Dual Vacuum Extraction

  1. Electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil: laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, Sonja; Malinen, Essi; Kosonen, Jarmo; Silvennoinen, Hannu; Romantschuk, Martin

    2007-02-15

    Creosote is a toxic and carcinogenic substance used in wood impregnation. Approximately 1,200 sites in Finland are contaminated with creosote. This study examined the possibility of enhancing bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil with a combination of electric heating and infiltration and electrokinetic introduction of oxygenated, nutrient-rich liquid. Preliminary tests were performed in the laboratory, and a pilot test was conducted in situ at a creosote-contaminated former wood impregnation plant in Eastern Finland. Wood preservation practices at the plant were discontinued in 1989, but the soil and the groundwater in the area are still highly contaminated. The laboratory tests were mainly performed as a methodological test aiming for upscaling. The soils used in these tests were a highly polluted soil from a marsh next to the impregnation plant and a less polluted soil near the base of the impregnation building. The laboratory test showed that the relative degradation was significantly higher in high initial contaminant concentrations than with low initial concentrations. During the first 7 weeks, PAH-concentrations decreased by 68% in the marsh soil compared with a 51% reduction in the building soil. The field test was performed to a ca. 100 m3 soil section next to the former impregnation building. Nutrient and oxygen levels in the soils were elevated by hydraulic and electrokinetic pumping of urea and phosphate amended, aerated water into the soil. The DC current introduced into the soil raised the temperature from the ambient ca. 6 degrees C up to between 16 and 50 degrees C. Total PAH concentrations decreased by 50-80% during 3 months of treatment while mineral oil concentrations decreased approximately 30%. Electrokinetically enhanced in situ - bioremediation, which also significantly raised the soil temperature, proved to be a promising method to remediate creosote-contaminated soils.

  2. In situ groundwater and sediment bioremediation: barriers and perspectives at European contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, Mauro; Verdini, Roberta; Aulenta, Federico; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Agathos, Spiros; Puig, Sebastià; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    This paper contains a critical examination of the current application of environmental biotechnologies in the field of bioremediation of contaminated groundwater and sediments. Based on analysis of conventional technologies applied in several European Countries and in the US, scientific, technical and administrative barriers and constraints which still need to be overcome for an improved exploitation of bioremediation are discussed. From this general survey, it is evident that in situ bioremediation is a highly promising and cost-effective technology for remediation of contaminated soil, groundwater and sediments. The wide metabolic diversity of microorganisms makes it applicable to an ever-increasing number of contaminants and contamination scenarios. On the other hand, in situ bioremediation is highly knowledge-intensive and its application requires a thorough understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and ecology of contaminated soils, groundwater and sediments, under both natural and engineered conditions. Hence, its potential still remains partially unexploited, largely because of a lack of general consensus and public concerns regarding the lack of effectiveness and control, poor reliability, and possible occurrence of side effects, for example accumulation of toxic metabolites and pathogens. Basic, applied and pre-normative research are all needed to overcome these barriers and make in situ bioremediation more reliable, robust and acceptable to the public, as well as economically more competitive. Research efforts should not be restricted to a deeper understanding of relevant microbial reactions, but also include their interactions with the large array of other relevant phenomena, as a function of the truly variable site-specific conditions. There is a need for a further development and application of advanced biomolecular tools for site investigation, as well as of advanced metabolic and kinetic modelling tools. These would allow a

  3. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs

  4. Prevention and mitigation of groundwater contamination from radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This document gives basic information on potential pathways and mechanisms, by which radioactive materials from releases can reach man, and on modelling considerations to predict the behaviour of radioactive materials in the ground. The main objective is to present an overview of existing techniques for preventing the offsite releases of contaminants into the groundwater systems and techniques for mitigation of effects of such releases should they occur. The recommended techniques are fully applicable to any hazardous materials, such as organic liquids, and toxic materials or otherwise dangerous materials, the presence of which in the accessible biosphere can represent health risks as well as economic losses to the general public. 11 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Update on the National Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, A.

    1992-01-01

    The national Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP), supported jointly by government and the petroleum industry, targets research on innovative ways to clean up groundwater and soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, and conducts technology transfer sessions. Within its broad context as an initiative for research, development and demonstration of innovative cleanup technologies, GASReP now targets basic applied research and/or technology development only. Industry partners and other government programs will be encouraged to extend GASReP research findings to the final stage of technology demonstration. During 1991-92 GASReP shifted its attention from starting new projects to evaluating the program, setting a new direction, and establishing a better way to seek ideas for projects. Unlike previous years, only three projects began during this period. Two technology development projects are iron and manganese pre-treatment for pump and treat clean-up systems, and surface bioreactor to clean soil/waste contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The one technology assessment project dealt with a review of six technologies for in-situ bioremediation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) in groundwater. Current program direction, interests, and research needs are summarized, and candidate proposals for project selection in 1992-93 are listed

  6. Groundwater fluoride contamination, probable release, and containment mechanisms: a review on Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Singh, Umesh Kumar

    2018-03-23

    Fluoride contamination in the groundwater has got great attention in last few decades due to their toxicity, persistent capacity and accumulation in human bodies. There are several sources of fluoride in the environment and different pathways to enter in the drinking water resources, which is responsible for potential effect on human health. Presence of high concentration of fluoride ion in groundwater is a major issue and it makes the water unsuitable for drinking purpose. Availability of fluoride in groundwater indicates various geochemical processes and subsurface contamination of a particular area. Fluoride-bearing aquifers, geological factors, rate of weathering, ion-exchange reaction, residence time and leaching of subsurface contaminants are major responsible factors for availability of fluoride in groundwater. In India, several studies have reported that the groundwater of several states are contaminated with high fluoride. The undesirable level of fluoride in groundwater is one of the most natural groundwater quality problem, which affects large portion of arid and semiarid regions of India. Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and West Bengal are the relatively high-fluoride-contaminated states in India. Chronic ingestion of high doses of fluoride-rich water leads to fluorosis on human and animal. Over 66 million Indian populations are at risk due to excess fluoride-contaminated water. Therefore, groundwater contamination subject to undesirable level of fluoride needs urgent attention to understand the role of geochemistry, hydrogeology and climatic factors along with anthropogenic inputs in fluoride pollution.

  7. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  8. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan, E-mail: zhangfan@itpcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Luo Wensui [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Parker, Jack C. [Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Brooks, Scott C.; Watson, David B. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jardine, Philip M. [Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Gu Baohua [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  9. Headcut erosive regimes influenced by groundwater on disturbed agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, D L

    2011-02-01

    A series of simulated rainfall experiments, testing several soils and slope gradients in a 10 m x 0.8m laboratory flume, displayed close correlations between initial development of a water table at a 10 cm depth and highly erosive headcut formation. On some soils and gradients, highly erosive headcuts formed consistently and predictably within minutes or seconds of initial water table rise. However, headcuts alone were not good indicators of increased erosion. In most experiments some headcuts formed early, often when surface hydraulic parameter values reached established rill initiation thresholds, but resulted in little or no erosion increase. Later, at initial water table rise, other headcuts formed coincident with major erosion increase, often with surface hydraulic values then less than rill initiation thresholds. On the four soils tested, highly erosive headcuts never formed without groundwater development, except on steep 9 ° slopes. Common visual indicators such as headcut morphology and headcut advance rates were not effective means of determining either erosion or the existence of groundwater. Only local monitoring of subsurface moisture conditions with micro-standpipes and TDR aided in determining headcut processes and erosive regimes. Groundwater-influenced headcut formation was likely caused by increased soil pore-water pressures and decreased soil shear strengths in surface rainflow, not by sapping or seepage from the soil matrix. Highly erosive headcuts can thus form under common agricultural conditions where reductions in permeability, such as plow pans, exist near the surface--without the need for saturated soils. Headcut erosive regimes were also significantly influenced by soil type and slope gradient, with the greatest effects of groundwater on moderate slopes and fairly permeable soils. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Hossain, Md. Amir; Samanta, Gautam; Roy, M. M.; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy; Mukherjee, Adreesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-06-01

    During a 28-year field survey in India (1988-2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the Ganga River flood plain, and the states of Assam and Manipur in the flood plain of Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers. Groundwater of Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state, which is not in a flood plain, is also arsenic contaminated. More than 170,000 tubewell water samples from the affected states were analyzed and half of the samples had arsenic >10 μg/L (maximum concentration 3,700 μg/L). Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water causes various health problems, like dermal, neurological, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, and cancers, typically involving the skin, lungs, liver, bladder, etc. About 4.5% of the 8,000 children from arsenic-affected villages of affected states were registered with mild to moderate arsenical skin lesions. In the preliminary survey, more than 10,000 patients were registered with different types of arsenic-related signs and symptoms, out of more than 100,000 people screened from affected states. Elevated levels of arsenic were also found in biological samples (urine, hair, nails) of the people living in affected states. The study reveals that the population who had severe arsenical skin lesions may suffer from multiple Bowens/cancers in the long term. Some unusual symptoms, such as burning sensation, skin itching and watering of eyes in the presence of sun light, were also noticed in arsenicosis patients.

  11. Risk Management of Groundwater Contamination in a Multiobjective Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunas, John R.; Haimes, Yacov Y.

    1985-11-01

    This paper addresses the issue of uncertainty in groundwater contamination by applying risk analysis concepts to the problem of industrial chemical spills. A hypothetical aquifer system is considered that includes a factory and two water supply wells. Accidental spills of solvent at the factory enter the aquifer, causing well solute concentrations to exceed a mandated limit. Regulation forces the company owning the factory to reduce the frequency and magnitude of the spills. Its managers need to determine the optimal levels of investment in spill control technologies that will achieve three objectives: minimize the cost of contamination prevention, minimize the proportion (ratio) of time in which a maximum contaminant limit (MCL) is exceeded, and minimize the sensitivity of the MCL exceedance ratio to uncertainties in aquifer dispersivity. Simulation with a stochastic time series of spills gives sample values of the MCL exceedance ratio for values of the investment decision variables and dispersivity; the investment decisions determine the statistics of the time series. Use of regression enables calculation of a continuous function relating the contamination time ratio objective to investments and dispersivity. The third objective is an approximation to the standard deviation of the MCL exceedance ratio and is computed through the risk dispersion index method (RDIM). The RDIM incorporates the surrogate worth trade-off method for optimizing the resulting multiple objectives. The simulations assume that the aquifer is in a steady state and behaves linearly. The concentration impulse response at the wells for a single spill is computed via a mass transport model. The well solute concentration over time, which is determined from the convolution of a series of spills, provides the basis for calculating the exceedance ratio. This ratio is defined as the portion of time that the pollution concentration limit is exceeded in some chosen time span. To obtain credible values

  12. A chronic plant test for the assessment of contaminated soils. Part 2. Testing of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junker, T.; Roembke, J. [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim (Germany); Kalsch, W.

    2006-06-15

    Background and scope. A new chronic plant test system which is based on experiences with various acute plant tests (e.g. published by OECD or ISO) and existing north American plant-life-cycle bioassays was standardised in a project sponsored by the German government. Characteristic properties of the test system, which can be performed either with Brassica rapa (turnip rape) or Avena sativa (oat), are described in part 1 of this mini-series. Methods. This new test was used to assess the effects of natural soil samples contaminated with TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) or PAHs (poly-aromatic hydrocarbons). The soils were tested after taken from the field as well as after being remediated. Different control and reference soils were used to evaluate the test results. In addition, they were compared with the results of tests in which either TNT or Pyrene were spiked to field and standard soils (see part 1 of this mini-series). Results. All contaminated soils showed clear effects in the chronic plant test (usually B. rapa was more sensitive than A. sativa). LUFA 2.2 standard soil and OECD artificial soil are well-suited as control and mixture substrates, while reference soils collected at uncontaminated sites were several times as phytotoxic. In most of the latter cases, soil properties could be identified as the main cause of these effects (e.g. the pH value). While the sensitivity of the reproduction and biomass endpoints did not differ much in general, it is recommended to measure different endpoints (i.e. biomass and reproduction) due to the different mode-of-action of contaminants. In the case of TNT, a good agreement between the results of single chemical tests and tests with TNT-contaminated soils was found (due to the minimal effects of Pyrene, the same statement is not possible for PAHs). (orig.)

  13. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  14. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  15. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  16. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.; Conway, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments.

  17. Evaluation of surface water and groundwater contamination in a MSW landfill area using hydrochemical analysis and electrical resistivity tomography: a case study in Sichuan province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chengpeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    As a primary disposal mean of municipal solid waste in China, the landfill has been recognized as one of the major threats to the surrounding surface water and groundwater environment due to the emission of leachate. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of leachate on the surface water and groundwater environment of the region of the Chang'an landfill, which is located in Sichuan province, China. The surface water and groundwater were sampled for hydrochemical analysis. Three electrical resistivity tomography profiles were conducted to evaluate the impact of leachate on the groundwater environment, and several laboratory tests were carried out to build the relationship between the soil bulk resistivity and the void fluid resistivity. The results showed that a seasonal creek named Longfeng creek, which crosses the landfill site, was contaminated by the leachate. The concentrations of COD, BOD5, and chlorides (Cl) of surface water samples increased by 12.3-105.7 times. The groundwater quality in the surface loose sediments along the valley deteriorated obviously from the landfill to 500 m downstream area. The laboratory tests of soil samples indicated that the resistivity value of 13 Ωm is a critical value whether the groundwater in the loose sediments is polluted. The groundwater at the site adjacent to the spillway in the landfill was partially contaminated by the emission of leachate. The groundwater contamination zones at 580 m downstream of the landfill were recognized at the shallow zones from 60 m left bank to 30 m right bank of Longfeng creek. The improved understanding of groundwater contamination around the landfill is beneficial for the landfill operation and groundwater environment remediation.

  18. Soil and groundwater remediation through the program of energy research and development at Environment Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research and development in groundwater and soil remediation within the federal Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) are conducted in the context of activities related to the oil and gas industry. Contamination of groundwater and soil by the oil and gas sector affects the health of ecosystems and the economic viability of impacted lands. This paper presented an outline of remediation research and development activities associated with PERD, as well as an overview of PERD's development of improved generic remediation technologies and approaches for use by industries. In addition, issues concerning the development of key guidelines, methods and protocols for use by regulators were discussed. Science and technology efforts within PERD contribute to the development of national standards and guidelines concerning public safety and environmental needs

  19. Vulnerability of recently recharged groundwater in principal aquifers of the United States to nitrate contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Qi, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently recharged water (defined here as resource to nonpoint-source nitrate contamination. Understanding at the appropriate scale the interactions of natural and anthropogenic controlling factors that influence nitrate occurrence in recently recharged groundwater is critical to support best management and policy decisions that are often made at the aquifer to subaquifer scale. New logistic regression models were developed using data from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program and National Water Information System for 17 principal aquifers of the U.S. to identify important source, transport, and attenuation factors that control nonpoint source nitrate concentrations greater than relative background levels in recently recharged groundwater and were used to predict the probability of detecting elevated nitrate in areas beyond the sampling network. Results indicate that dissolved oxygen, crops and irrigated cropland, fertilizer application, seasonally high water table, and soil properties that affect infiltration and denitrification are among the most important factors in predicting elevated nitrate concentrations. Important differences in controlling factors and spatial predictions were identified in the principal aquifer and national-scale models and support the conclusion that similar spatial scales are needed between informed groundwater management and model development.

  20. Sorption of BTX mixtures to contaminated and uncontaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchrin, C.G.; Koshy, K.; Wojtenko, I.

    1995-01-01

    Both adsorption and desorption studies are being performed examining benzene, toluene, and meta-xylene (BTX) as single components, binary mixtures, and trinary mixture onto both existing contaminated soils as well as some uncontaminated reference soils. The contaminated soils were obtained from an oil refinery site and another industrial site in New Jersey. The oil refinery site soil did not exhibit significant amounts of either benzene, toluene or xylene but was contaminated with other compounds while the other industrial site soil was contaminated with toluene among other compounds. The organic carbon content of the soils ranged from 0.14 to 2.91 percent. Preliminary adsorption studies showed BTX to strongly sorb to these soils. The adsorption studies onto the reference soils also demonstrated the effect of organic matter on adsorption. Sequential batch desorption studies show the BTX to desorb quickly, reaching equilibrium within 48 hours. Long-term uptake and release were not noted with these soil/contaminant systems

  1. A sitewide approach to the characterization and use of soil and groundwater background at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, J.D.; Ruck, F.A.; LeGore, T.; Thompson, K.M.

    1993-10-01

    A Sitewide approach to the characterization and use of soil and groundwater background has been developed for use in environmental restoration activities on the Hanford Site. Sitewide background more accurately represents the range of background compositions that exist in soil and groundwater at the over 140 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 operable units, and provides a more consistent, credible, integrated, and efficient basis for identifying and evaluating contamination in these media than using unit-specific backgrounds

  2. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described

  3. Transformation of natural ferrihydrite aged in situ in As, Cr and Cu contaminated soil studied by reduction kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2014-01-01

    Several soil remediation techniques for As, Cu and Cr contaminated soil utilize adsorption of contaminants to ferrihydrite as the removal mechanism, even though ferrihydrite will transform to secondary iron oxides and part of the sorption capacity will be lost. Transformation of ferrihydrite...... following 4 yr of in situ burial at a contaminated site was examined in samples of impure (Si-bearing) ferrihydrite in soil heavily polluted with As, Cr and Cu. The samples are so-called iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) precipitated from anoxic groundwater during aeration. The extent of transformation...

  4. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  5. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E.; Wilcox, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha -1 for Cd, 660 g ha -1 for Pb, 180 g ha -1 for Cu, 350 g ha -1 for Mn, and 205 g ha -1 for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 μm) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 μm) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil

  6. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  7. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Craker, Lyle E; Xing, Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E; Wilcox, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha(-1) for Cd, 660 g ha(-1) for Pb, 180 g ha(-1) for Cu, 350 g ha(-1) for Mn, and 205 g ha(-1) for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  8. Soil contamination adjacent to waste tank 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odum, J.V.

    1976-11-01

    In March and April 1961, miscalibrated liquid level instrumentation resulted in an overfilling of tank 8 to about 5 in. above the fill-line entrance. The resultant liquid head caused waste to seep through an asbestos-packed sleeve to the fill-line encasement and from there into the main encasement. Most of this waste returned to primary containment (i.e., the catch tank) through a separately encased drain line. However, approximately 1500 gal of high heat waste leaked from the fill-line encasement into the ground, probably through the joint at the juncture of the fill-line encasement and the concrete encasement of the waste tank. The contamination is contained in a 1000- to 1500-ft 3 zone of soil 12 to 26 ft below grade, 18 ft above the maximum elevation of the water table, and distributed roughly symmetrically around the fill-line encasement. Estimates from a continuing monitoring program indicate that less than 5000 Ci of 137 Cs, less than 0.005 Ci of 238 239 Pu, and less than 0.5 Ci of 89 90 Sr are in the soil. Analysis indicates that the contamination presents no current or future hazard to the environment; consequently, there is no technical reason for excavation of this soil. The high cost of excavation and exposure of personnel make excavation undesirable. The contaminated soil will remain under surveillance and undisturbed at tank 8 until the tank is removed from service, at which time its disposition will be re-evaluated

  9. Prediction of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination using Geographic Information System and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moqbul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water arsenic contamination is a well known health and environmental problem in Bangladesh. Sources of this heavy metal are known to be geogenic, however, the processes of its release into groundwater are poorly understood phenomena. In quest of mitigation of the problem it is necessary to predict probable contamination before it causes any damage to human health. Hence our research has been carried out to find the factor relations of arsenic contamination and develop an arsenic contamination prediction model. Researchers have generally agreed that the elevated concentration of arsenic is affected by several factors such as soil reaction (pH, organic matter content, geology, iron content, etc. However, the variability of concentration within short lateral and vertical intervals, and the inter-relationships of variables among themselves, make the statistical analyses highly non-linear and difficult to converge with a meaningful relationship. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN comes in handy for such a black box type problem. This research uses Back propagation Neural Networks (BPNN to train and validate the data derived from Geographic Information System (GIS spatial distribution grids. The neural network architecture with (6-20-1 pattern was able to predict the arsenic concentration with reasonable accuracy.

  10. Dutch Risk Assessment System for New Chemicals: Soil Groundwater Module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; van der Linden AMA; van den Berg R

    1993-01-01

    A new Soil-Groundwater Module has been developed for incorporation in the Dutch Risk Assessment System for New Chemicals. In this module, the exposure of humans and the environment to xenobiotic substances due to sewage sludge application have been determined. Exposure criteria were: 1.

  11. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site | Adoki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain, banana, ...

  12. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site AKURO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTACT: The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of. Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain,.

  13. The impact of groundwater level on soil seed bank survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Oomes, MJM; Bakker, JP

    Seed longevity of plant species is an important topic in restoration management, and little is known about the effects of environmental conditions on seed survival and longevity under natural conditions. Therefore, the effect of groundwater level on the survival of seeds in the soil seed bank of a

  14. Feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clause, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose...

  15. Feasibility of phyto remediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    his report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose was applied...

  16. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Janilson Silva

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  17. Mercury species in formerly contaminated soils and released soil gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Drtinová, B.; Červenka, R.; Zvěřina, O.; Komárek, J.; Kameník, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 584, APR (2017), s. 1032-1039 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : mercury contaminated soils * total mercury * elemental mercury * methylmercury * phynelmercury * gaseous elemental mercury Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  18. A model of accumulation of radionuclides in biosphere originating from groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Jansson, Per-Erik; Karlberg, Louise [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. Land and Water Resources

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study is to introduce a module in CoupModel describing the transport and accumulation in the biosphere of a radionuclide originating from a ground water contamination. Two model approaches describing the plant uptake of a radionuclide were included, namely passive and active uptake. Passive uptake means in this study that the root uptake rate of a radionuclide is governed by water uptake. Normal mechanism for the passive water uptake is the convective flux of water from the soil to the plant. An example of element taken up passively is Ca. Active plant uptake is in this model defined as the root uptake rate of a radionuclide that is governed by carbon assimilation i.e. photosynthesis and plant growth. The actively taken up element can for example be an element essential to plant, but not available in high enough concentration by passive uptake alone, like the major nutrients N and P or an element that very well resembles a plant nutrient, like Cs resembles K. Active uptake of trace element may occur alone or in addition to passive uptake. Normal mechanism for the active uptake is molecular diffusion from the soil solution to the roots or via any other organism living in symbiosis with the roots like the mycorrhiza. Also a model approach describing adsorption was introduced. CoupModel dynamically couples and simulates the flows of water, heat, carbon and nitrogen in the soil/plant/atmosphere system. Any number of plants may be defined and are divided into roots, leaves, stem and grain. The soil is considered in one vertical profile that may be represented into a maximum of 100 layers. The model is the windows-successor and integrated version of the DOS-models SOIL and SOILN, which have been widely used on different ecosystems and climate regions during 25 years time period. To this soil/plant/atmosphere model were introduced a module describing accumulation of a radionuclide in the biosphere originating from groundwater contamination. The

  19. A model of accumulation of radionuclides in biosphere originating from groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Jansson, Per-Erik; Karlberg, Louise

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study is to introduce a module in CoupModel describing the transport and accumulation in the biosphere of a radionuclide originating from a ground water contamination. Two model approaches describing the plant uptake of a radionuclide were included, namely passive and active uptake. Passive uptake means in this study that the root uptake rate of a radionuclide is governed by water uptake. Normal mechanism for the passive water uptake is the convective flux of water from the soil to the plant. An example of element taken up passively is Ca. Active plant uptake is in this model defined as the root uptake rate of a radionuclide that is governed by carbon assimilation i.e. photosynthesis and plant growth. The actively taken up element can for example be an element essential to plant, but not available in high enough concentration by passive uptake alone, like the major nutrients N and P or an element that very well resembles a plant nutrient, like Cs resembles K. Active uptake of trace element may occur alone or in addition to passive uptake. Normal mechanism for the active uptake is molecular diffusion from the soil solution to the roots or via any other organism living in symbiosis with the roots like the mycorrhiza. Also a model approach describing adsorption was introduced. CoupModel dynamically couples and simulates the flows of water, heat, carbon and nitrogen in the soil/plant/atmosphere system. Any number of plants may be defined and are divided into roots, leaves, stem and grain. The soil is considered in one vertical profile that may be represented into a maximum of 100 layers. The model is the windows-successor and integrated version of the DOS-models SOIL and SOILN, which have been widely used on different ecosystems and climate regions during 25 years time period. To this soil/plant/atmosphere model were introduced a module describing accumulation of a radionuclide in the biosphere originating from groundwater contamination. The

  20. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  1. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites - 13426

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE)'s environmental remediation programs is to restore groundwater to beneficial use, similar to many other Federal and state environmental cleanup programs. Based on past experience, groundwater remediation to pre-contamination conditions (i.e., drinking water standards or non-detectable concentrations) can be successfully achieved at many sites. At a subset of the most complex sites, however, complete restoration is not likely achievable within the next 50 to 100 years using today's technology. This presentation describes several approaches used at complex sites in the face of these technical challenges. Many complex sites adopted a long-term management approach, whereby contamination was contained within a specified area using active or passive remediation techniques. Consistent with the requirements of their respective environmental cleanup programs, several complex sites selected land use restrictions and used risk management approaches to accordingly adopt alternative cleanup goals (alternative endpoints). Several sites used long-term management designations and approaches in conjunction with the alternative endpoints. Examples include various state designations for groundwater management zones, technical impracticability (TI) waivers or greater risk waivers at Superfund sites, and the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or other passive long-term management approaches over long time frames. This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and approaches for groundwater remediation at complex sites under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed to evaluate

  2. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using plain water with surfactants as an enhancer was used to study the remediation of soil contaminated with (i an organic contaminant (engine lubricant oil and (ii an inorganic contaminant (heavy metal. The lubricant engine oil was used at different percentages (by dry weight of the soil to artificially contaminate the soil. It was found that geotechnical properties of the soil underwent large modifications on account of mixing with the lubricant oil. The sorption experiments were conducted with cadmium metal in aqueous medium at different initial concentration of the metal and at varying pH values of the sorbing medium. For the remediation of contaminated soil matrices, a nonionic surfactant was used for the restoration of geotechnical properties of lubricant oil contaminated soil samples, whereas an anionic surfactant was employed to desorb cadmium from the contaminated soil matrix. The surfactant in case of soil contaminated with the lubricant oil was able to restore properties to an extent of 98% vis-à-vis the virgin soil, while up to 54% cadmium was desorbed from the contaminated soil matrix in surfactant aided desorption experiments.

  3. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean

  4. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  5. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain

  6. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  7. An interdisciplinary approach for groundwater management in area contaminated by fluoride in East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pelo, Stefania; Melis, M. Teresa; Dessì, Francesco; Pistis, Marco; Funedda, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Carletti, Alberto; Soler Gil, Albert; Barbieri, Manuela; Pittalis, Daniele; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the main source of fresh water supply for most of the rural communities in Africa (approximately 75% of Africans has confidence in groundwater as their major source of drinking water). Many African countries has affected by high fluoride concentration in groundwater (up to 90 mg/L), generating the contamination of waters, soils and food, in particular in the eastern part of the continent. It seems that fluoride concentration is linked to geology of the Rift Valley: geogenic occurrence of fluoride is often connected to supergenic enrichment due to the weathering of alkaline volcanic rocks, fumaric gases and presence of thermal waters. The H2020 project FLOWERED (de-FLuoridation technologies for imprOving quality of WatEr and agRo-animal products along the East African Rift Valley in the context of aDaptation to climate change) wish to address environmental and health (human and animal) issues associated to the fluoride contamination in the African Rift Valley, in particular in three case study area located in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. FLOWERED aims to develop an integrated, sustainable and participative water and agriculture management at a cross-boundary catchment scale through a strong interdisciplinary research approach. It implies knowledge of geology, hydrogeology, mineralogy, geochemistry, agronomy, crop and animal sciences, engineering, technological sciences, data management and software design, economics and communication. The proposed approach is based on a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological setting, with the identification and mapping of the specific geological conditions of water contamination and its relation with the different land uses. The East African Rift System (EARS) groundwater circulation and storage, today already poorly understood, is characterized by a complex arrangement of aquifers. It depends on the type of porosity and permeability created during and after the rock formation, and is strongly conditioned by the

  8. Production of non-constructive concrete blocks using contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2009-01-01

    In this research, a heavily contaminated humus-rich peat soil and a lightly contaminated humus-poor sand soil, extracted from a field location in the Netherlands, are immobilized. These two types of soil are very common in the Netherlands. The purpose is to develop financial feasible, good quality

  9. Evaluation of deep vadose zone contaminant flux into groundwater: Approach and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostrom, M.; Truex, M. J.; Last, G. V.; Strickland, C. E.; Tartakovsky, G. D.

    2016-06-01

    For sites with a contaminant source located in the vadose zone, the nature and extent of groundwater contaminant plumes are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to groundwater. Especially for thick vadose zones, transport may be relatively slow making it difficult to directly measure contaminant flux. An integrated assessment approach, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, is presented to explain current vadose zone contaminant distributions and to estimate future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions. The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site (WA, USA) SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of a large existing contaminant inventory in its deep vadose zone, the presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount of available data for the site. A predictive quantitative analysis was applied to refine a baseline conceptual model through the completion of a series of targeted simulations. The analysis revealed that site recharge is the most important flux-controlling process for future contaminant flux. Tank leak characteristics and subsurface heterogeneities appear to have a limited effect on long-term contaminant flux into groundwater. The occurrence of the current technetium-99 groundwater plume was explained by taking into account a considerable historical water-line leak adjacent to one of the tanks. The analysis further indicates that the vast majority of technetium-99 is expected to migrate into the groundwater during the next century. The approach provides a template for use in evaluating contaminant flux to groundwater using existing site data and has elements that are relevant to other disposal sites with a thick vadose zone.

  10. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of 210 Pb and 210 Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas

  11. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Fabelo Falcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soils, by different substances and / or products is becoming more extensive throughout the world, its determination, minimization and treatment to reach the recovery of them is a necessity, even though it is not granted the level of importance required by the countries concerned. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the recovery of soils with a high degree of efficiency and effectiveness in the selection of procedures, regardless of the types of pollutants and land use once recovered. The methodological proposal involves the stages of diagnosis, characterization, selection of the technology and its technical and economic validation at the laboratory and pilot plant level. Subsequently, the technology of the treatment is designed, along with the elaboration of an objective study of each particular case and an essential economic and technical feasibility analysis for the different scales of the development of the technological process.

  12. Soil moisture effects during bioventing in fuel-contaminated arid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, T.C.; Leeson, A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Hoeppel, R.E.; Bowling, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soil moisture addition on microbial activity during bioventing of dry, sandy soils at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), Twentynine Palms, California. Soils at the site have been contaminated to a depth of approximately 80 ft (24 m) with gasoline, JP-5 jet fuel, and diesel fuel. Based on the low soil moisture measured at the site (2 to 3% by weight), it was determined that soil moisture may be limiting biodegradation. To evaluate the effect that moisture addition had on microbial activity under field conditions, a subsurface drip irrigation system was installed above the fuel hydrocarbon plume. Irrigation water was obtained from two monitoring wells on the site, where groundwater was approximately 192 ft (59 m) below ground surface. Advancement of the wetting front was monitored. In situ respiration rates increased significantly after moisture addition. The results of this study provide evidence for the potential applicability of moisture addition in conjunction with bioventing for site remediation in arid environments. Further work is planned to investigate optimization of moisture addition

  13. Regional analysis of groundwater phosphate concentrations under acidic sandy soils: Edaphic factors and water table strongly mediate the soil P-groundwater P relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilde, Lisa; De Neve, Stefaan; Sleutel, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Historic long-term P application to sandy soils in NW-Europe has resulted in abundant sorption, saturation and eventually leaching of P from soil to the groundwater. Although many studies recognize the control of site-specific factors like soil texture and phosphate saturation degree (PSD), the regional-scaled relevance of effects exerted by single factors controlling P leaching is unclear. Very large observational datasets of soil and groundwater P content are furthermore required to reveal indirect controls of soil traits through mediating soil variables. We explored co-variation of phreatic groundwater orthophosphate (o-P) concentration and soil factors in sandy soils in Flanders, Belgium. Correlation analyses were complemented with an exploratory model derived using 'path analysis'. Data of oxalate-extractable Al, Fe, P and pH KCl , phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and PSD in three depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm), topsoil SOC, % clay and groundwater depth (fluctuation) were interpolated to predict soil properties on exact locations of a very extensive net of groundwater monitoring wells. The mean PSD was only poorly correlated to groundwater o-P concentration, indicating the overriding control of other factors in the transport of P to the groundwater. A significant (P groundwater o-P concentrations and pH KCl for all depth layers. Likewise, lower SOC% (P groundwater level (MHL or MLL) corresponded (P Groundwater o-P unexpectedly correlated positively to clay% and path analysis indicated this to be an indirect effect of the groundwater level. Path analysis furthermore indicated an important indirect control of pH on groundwater o-P concentrations and a considerable direct effect of P ox, 0-90 , Al ox, 0-90 and MHL. The fact that groundwater o-P concentration was stronger controlled by soil pH and groundwater table depth than by PSD indicates the likely oversimplification of the latter index to measure the long-term potential risk of P leaching

  14. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination in alluvial fan of Eastern Kofu basin, JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture has significant effects on the rate and composition of groundwater recharge. The chemical loading into groundwater have been dominated by the constituents derived directly or indirectly from agricultural practices and additives. The contamination of groundwater with nitrate is a major public health and environmental concern around the world. The inorganic constituents like, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl- and variety of other minor elements of groundwater are often used as agricultural additives; and the natural occurrence of these elements are dominated by the agricultural sources. A recent study has reported that Kofu basin groundwater aquifer is contaminated by nitrate from agricultural areas because of the fertilizer application for the orchard (Kazama and Yoneyama, 2002; Sakamoto et al., 1997, Nakamura et al., 2007). The water-oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope (δ18O and δD) and nitrate-nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) of groundwater, river water and precipitation samples were investigated to identify the source of groundwater and nitrate nitrogen contamination in groundwater in the Fuefukigawa and Hikawa_Kanegawa alluvial fans in Kofu basin. The plot of δD versus δ18O values of groundwater, river water and precipitation samples suggest that the groundwater is a mixture of precipitation and river water. And nitrate-nitrogen isotope values have suggested the nitrate contamination of groundwater is from agricultural area. The study revealed positive correlation between groundwater δ18O values and NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ concentration, which shows the agricultural contamination is carried by the recharge of groundwater from precipitation in alluvial fan. Whereas, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ are diluted by the river water recharges. This study showed the quality of groundwater is resulted from the mixing of water from the different source during the groundwater recharge in the study area. References Kazama F, Yoneyama M (2002) Nitrogen generation

  15. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    -HCO3 or Na-HCO3 types. TDS (107-14,500 /L), EC (225-25,500 μS/cm), salinity (100-15,500 /kg), Na+ (13.39-2,866 /L) and Cl- (15.3-7,066 /L) concentrations are also higher than those of general groundwater. This fact indicates that groundwater in study area was polluted by saline water and/or anthropogenic sources. TCE, PCE, 1.1.1-trichloroethane (TCA) were analyzed by Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health &Environment. PCE and TCA are not detected most of sites, while TCE is detected most of the sites and exceeds drinking water standard of Korea 0.03 /L. It is considered that TCE was derived from variety contamination sources such as car-washing centers, transportation companies, iron molding factories and waste treating companies. Risk assessment to human health and environmental resources by groundwater contamination was conducted. The RBCA Tool Kit for Chemical Releases can be used for the risk assessment at Tier 1 and Tier 2. The risk assessment determines risk-based concentration of constituents of concerns (COCs) that moves through groundwater, soil and air. It also evaluates carcinogenic risk and toxic effect when receptor exposures to the COCs. Tier 1 analysis determines risk-based screening levels (RBSLs) for one-site exposure. Tier 2 analysis evaluates RBSL and/or site-specific target levels (SSTLs) for both on-site and off-site receptor. RBSLs were calculated as 2.2E-2 /L for TCE and as 4.7E-3 /L for PCE at Tier 1 risk assessment. Average concentrations of TCE and PCE from measuring the groundwater samples were 0.15 mg/L and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. The actual measured values are higher than the RBSLs. Carcinogenic risk of TCE to animals was identified as B2 (inadequate or no human evidence but sufficient animal evidence). From this result, we will conduct the further detail risk assessment at Tier 2 level before conducting groundwater remediation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Korea Science &Engineering

  16. Can soil gas VOCs be related to groundwater plumes based on their isotope signature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannottat, S; Hunkeler, D

    2013-01-01

    The isotope evolution of tetrachloroethene (PCE) during its transport from groundwater toward the soil surface was investigated using laboratory studies and numerical modeling. During air-water partitioning, carbon and chlorine isotope ratios evolved in opposite directions, with a normal isotope effect for chlorine (ε = -0.20‰) and an inverse effect for carbon (ε = +0.46‰). During the migration of PCE from groundwater to the unsaturated zone in a 2D laboratory system, small shifts of carbon and chlorine isotope ratios (+0.8‰) were observed across the capillary fringe. Numerical modeling showed that these shifts are due to isotope fractionation associated with air-water partitioning and gas-phase diffusion. Carbon and chlorine isotope profiles were constant throughout the unsaturated zone once a steady state was reached. However, depending on the thickness of the unsaturated zone and its lithology, depletion in heavy isotopes may occur with distance during the transient migration of contaminants. Additionally, variations of up to +1.5‰ were observed in the unsaturated zone for chlorine isotopes during water table fluctuations. However, at steady state, it is possible to link a groundwater plume to gas-phase contamination and/or to differentiate sources of contamination based on isotope ratios.

  17. Tidal effects on groundwater contamination at Pekan, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Dalila Desa; Dominic, J.A.; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Faizun Khalid; Mod Omar Hassan; Kamaruzaman Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    The meeting of coastal ground water and the sea is a unique and dynamic hydro geologic boundary phenomenon that has fascinated groundwater engineers and scientists for the past century. The variation of seawater level resulting from tidal fluctuations is usually neglected in regional groundwater flow studies. In this study the effects of seawater tidal on groundwater are investigated using geophysical together with conventional method. Comparative result between these two methods shown how tidal fluctuations effects groundwater in study area. (author)

  18. Steam remediation of contaminated soil : a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Schoen, William R.

    1994-01-01

    Several million underground and aboveground storage sites in the United States contain petroleum, solvents, and other hazardous chemicals. Of these storage sites, an estimated 30% are leaking their contents into the soil. While various technologies exist for the remediation of the contaminated soil, they are relatively incapable of fully cleaning the soil when the contaminant has a low water solubility or a low vapor pressure. Under these conditions, steam stripping the contaminant from the s...

  19. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43- level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43- concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (P<0.01) positive non-linear relationship was found between groundwater PO43-concentration and pHKCl in all three studied depth layers, again increasingly with depth. Within the pH range of the 30-60 cm layer (pHKCl 4.0-5.7) PO4- solubility should increase with pH. Elevated soil OC levels surprisingly co-occurred with low groundwater PO43- concentrations (r = -0.18, P<0.01, n = 191). Groundwater PO43- was furthermore significantly and positively correlated to clay % in both the 0-15 cm (r = 0.15, τ = 0.25, P<0.01, n = 1032) and 60-90 cm (r = 0.13, τ = 0.20, P<0.01, n = 1032) depth increments. These positive correlations were unexpected and could be

  20. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or p...

  1. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  2. Calculation of dose distribution above contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Junya; Tenzou, Hideki; Manabe, Seiya; Iwakura, Yukiko

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altitude and the distribution of the ambient dose rate in the air over soil decontamination area by using PHITS simulation code. The geometry configuration was 1000 m ×1000 m area and 1m in soil depth and 100m in altitude from the ground to simulate the area of residences or a school grounds. The contaminated region is supposed to be uniformly contaminated by Cs-137 γ radiation sources. The air dose distribution and space resolution was evaluated for flux of the gamma rays at each altitude, 1, 5, 10, and 20m. The effect of decontamination was calculated by defining sharpness S. S was the ratio of an average flux and a flux at the center of denomination area in each altitude. The suitable flight altitude of the drone is found to be less than 15m above a residence and 31m above a school grounds to confirm the decontamination effect. The calculation results can be a help to determine a flight planning of a drone to minimize the clash risk.

  3. The effect of contaminated groundwater on tree growth: A tree-ring analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, D.C.; Loehle, C.

    1990-10-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of contaminated groundwater seepage on tree growth downslope from F- and H-Area seepage basins of the Savannah River Site. Trees in wetlands along Four Mile Creek began to show localized stress and mortality in the late 1970s. Extreme winter temperatures and high rainfall were ruled out as potential causal factors of tree stress. Drought was shown to affect trees in both contaminated and uncontaminated zones, but trees in uncontaminated areas exhibit better recovery after drought than trees in contaminated areas. Pollution-mediated alteration of soil acidity and aluminum, sodium, and heavy metal concentrations likely acted to predispose trees to decline, with severe drought acting as the trigger for decline initiation and tree death. Thus, a moderate pollution loading, not sufficient to cause visible damage of itself, may create conditions in which sudden, severe decline could result from natural stresses. This mechanism of forest decline is common, and should be considered in evaluations of the impact of pollution on wetland forest systems. 28 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  4. A Combined Hydrological, Geochemical and Geophysical Reconnaissance of Groundwater Contamination In Oilfield Environment (republic of Tatarstan, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitski, A.; Titov, K.; Buès, M.; Ilyin, Yu.; Konosavski, P.; Kharkhordin, I.; Uchaev, V.; Sapozhnikov, B.; Kharkovski, K.

    Numerous brine leakages from production and injection wells and pipelines were ob- served at the site of study situated in Romashkinskoye oilfield. The groundwater flow, which follows the relief, is manifested by five springs. The salinity of these springs significantly increased during 20 years of oil exploitation at the site. The subsurface consists of sandstone, clayey sandstone, siltstone and limestone. Sampling of spring water and soils, as well as geophysical investigations, were carried out to develop the groundwater and contamination flow model of the site. In addition to the traditional bulk soil sampling, the mobile forms of chemical elements were investigated using the diffusion sampling technique (Levitski et al., 1995). The dipole-dipole resistivity and Spontaneous Polarization (SP) maps of the site were obtained. One prospecting bore- hole of 40 m was sunk. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Time Domain Spec- tral Induced Polarization Sounding (SIP), conducted at several points, were inverted to obtain rock and soil resistivity. The SIP measurements were performed to help geo- logical interpretation of the obtained resistivity cross-sections. The groundwater flow model was developed on the basis of borehole data, debits of the observed springs, and surface geophysical data. The model was calibrated using numerical modelling of SP. The 2D program GWFGEM based on the SillSs approach (1983) was applied. First, the preliminary groundwater flow model was obtained. Based on the coupling flow theory, sources of SP were calculated from water heads. Then, SP was calculated on the basis of SP sources and subsurface resistivity derived from the VES inversion. The above procedure was repeated several times to minimise the discrepancy between the observed and calculated SP. The flow balance for the whole site was obtained. The best indicators of the oil-related contamination at the site were found to be: (1) in groundwater U K, Na and Sr; (2) in bulk soil U Ca

  5. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persi...

  6. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    primary and tertiary impacts. In order to obtain robust decisions for the management of contaminated sites , the combination of LCA with other tools is necessary, including multi-criteria decision analysis tools, site-specific fate and exposure models and consideration of stakeholders’ views....

  7. Mitigation of Ricin Contamination in Soils: Sorption and Degradation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zartman, R; Green, C; San Francisco, M; Zak, J; James, W; Boroda, E

    2003-01-01

    .... Soils contain a variety of inorganic minerals, organic matter and microorganisms. Soil inorganic minerals and organic matter are known to effectively sorb a wide variety of compounds, such as pesticides and other potential contaminants...

  8. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  9. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  10. Modeling approaches to management of nitrate contamination of groundwater in a heavily cultivated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E.; Park, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    A three-dimensional variably-saturated groundwater flow and reactive transport modeling framework was implemented to simulate nitrate contamination in a heavily cultivated area in Jeju volcanic Island. In the study area, two localized aquifer systems (perched and regional groundwater) exist due to distributions of impermeable clay layers beneath the perched groundwater. The approximate application rate of chemical fertilizers was surveyed to be 627.9 kg-N/ha per year, which is much higher than the average annual chemical fertilizer usage in Jeju Island, 172 kg-N/ha per year. Severe nitrate contamination has been observed in the perched groundwater system and such perched groundwater has influenced regional groundwater quality, through poorly cemented wall of the distributed throughout the region wells. For a part of managing plan of nitrate contamination in the island, a numerical modeling framework was developed for various scenarios associated with the factors affecting nitrate contamination in the study area (i.e., usage amount of chemical fertilizers, cultivated methods, grouting condition of wells). This work provides useful information to suggest effective ways to manage nitrate contamination of groundwater in the agricultural field. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0001120) and by BK21 project of Korean Government.

  11. Risk assessment of groundwater contamination: a multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation approach based on DRASTIC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuwen; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yan; Zhong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a serious threat to water supply. Risk assessment of groundwater contamination is an effective way to protect the safety of groundwater resource. Groundwater is a complex and fuzzy system with many uncertainties, which is impacted by different geological and hydrological factors. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the risk assessment of groundwater contamination, we propose an approach with analysis hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation integrated together. Firstly, the risk factors of groundwater contamination are identified by the sources-pathway-receptor-consequence method, and a corresponding index system of risk assessment based on DRASTIC model is established. Due to the complexity in the process of transitions between the possible pollution risks and the uncertainties of factors, the method of analysis hierarchy process is applied to determine the weights of each factor, and the fuzzy sets theory is adopted to calculate the membership degrees of each factor. Finally, a case study is presented to illustrate and test this methodology. It is concluded that the proposed approach integrates the advantages of both analysis hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, which provides a more flexible and reliable way to deal with the linguistic uncertainty and mechanism uncertainty in groundwater contamination without losing important information.

  12. Bioremediation of Uranium-Contaminated Groundwater using Engineered Injection and Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. A.; Neupauer, R.; Ye, M.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Mays, D. C.; Curtis, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    During in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, a treatment chemical is injected into the contaminated groundwater to react with and degrade the contaminant, with reactions occurring where the treatment chemical contacts the contaminant. Traditional in-situ groundwater remediation relies on background groundwater flow for spreading of treatment chemicals into contaminant plumes. Engineered Injection and Extraction (EIE), in which time-varying induced flow fields are used to actively spread the treatment chemical into the contaminant plume, has been developed to increase contact between the contaminant and treatment chemical, thereby enhancing contaminant degradation. EIE has been investigated for contaminants that degrade through irreversible bimolecular reaction with a treatment chemical, but has not been investigated for a contaminant governed by reversible reactions. Uranium primarily occurs in its aqueous, mobile form, U(VI), in the environment but can be bioreduced to its sparingly soluble, immobile form, U(IV), by iron reducing bacteria stimulated by an acetate amendment. In this study, we investigate the ability of EIE to facilitate and sustain favorable conditions to immobilize uranium during remediation, and to prevent re-mobilization of uranium into the aqueous phase after active remediation has ended. Simulations in this investigation are conducted using a semi-synthetic model based on physical and chemical conditions at the Naturita Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in southwestern Colorado and the Old Rifle UMTRA site in western Colorado. The EIE design is optimized for the synthetic model using the Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm.

  13. GWSCREEN: A semi-analytical model for assessment of the groundwater pathway from surface or buried contamination: Theory and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.

    1992-03-01

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources. The code was designed for implementation in the Track 1 and Track 2 assessment of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites identified as low probability hazard at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (DOE, 1991). The code calculates the limiting soil concentration such that regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: Contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation for transient mass flux input

  14. Engineering Geological Properties of Oil-Contaminated Granitic and Meta sedimentary Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfahmi Ali Rahman; Umar Hamzah; Noorulakma Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbon is a light-non aqueous phase liquid or known as LNAPL. It poses environmental hazard if accidentally spilled out into the soil and water systems as a result of its insoluble nature in water. LNAPL component infiltrates into soil through pore spaces and afloat at the top of groundwater level. Some of this hydrocarbon would trap and clog within the voids, difficult to remove and costly to clean. The occurrence of hydrocarbon in the soil definitely degraded the behaviour of soils in terms of engineering properties. This study aimed to investigate the engineering properties of oil-contaminated soil for two different residual soils originally developed from in-situ weathering of granitic and meta sedimentary rocks. The physical characterisations of the soil were determined including particle size distribution, specific gravity test and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The engineering parameters for the contaminated and uncontaminated soils were Atterberg limits, compaction and soil shear strength (UU tests). The amounts of hydrocarbon added to soil were varied at 0 %, 4 %, 8 %, 12 % and 16 % of dried weight of soil samples. The results from the particle size distribution analysis showed that residual soil from granitic rock comprises of 38 % sand, 33 % silt and 4 % clay while meta sedimentary soil consists of 4 % sand, 43 % silt dan 29 % clay. The mean values of specific gravity for the granitic and meta sedimentary soils were 2.56 and 2.61, respectively. The types of minerals present in granitic soil sample were quartz, kaolinite and gibbsite while meta sedimentary soil consists of quartz and kaolinite. The Atterberg limits value decreased as a result of increasing amount of added hydrocarbon into the soil. A similar behavior was observed with the values of maximum dry density and optimum water content with increasing hydrocarbon content. The overall unconsolidated undrained shear strength, C u showed a decreasing trend with the increase in hydrocarbon content

  15. China's soil and groundwater management challenges: Lessons from the UK's experience and opportunities for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Frédéric; Jones, Kevin; Li, Hong; Hu, Qing; Gao, Jingyang; Li, Fasheng; Chen, Mengfang; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Liu, Rongxia; Liu, Ming; Canning, Kate; Harries, Nicola; Bardos, Paul; Nathanail, Paul; Sweeney, Rob; Middleton, David; Charnley, Maggie; Randall, Jeremy; Richell, Martin; Howard, Trevor; Martin, Ian; Spooner, Simon; Weeks, Jason; Cave, Mark; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Fang; Jiang, Ying; Longhurst, Phil; Prpich, George; Bewley, Richard; Abra, Jonathan; Pollard, Simon

    2016-05-01

    There are a number of specific opportunities for UK and China to work together on contaminated land management issues as China lacks comprehensive and systematic planning for sustainable risk based land management, encompassing both contaminated soil and groundwater and recycling and reuse of soil. It also lacks comprehensive risk assessment systems, structures to support risk management decision making, processes for verification of remediation outcome, systems for record keeping and preservation and integration of contamination issues into land use planning, along with procedures for ensuring effective health and safety considerations during remediation projects, and effective evaluation of costs versus benefits and overall sustainability. A consequence of the absence of these overarching frameworks has been that remediation takes place on an ad hoc basis. At a specific site management level, China lacks capabilities in site investigation and consequent risk assessment systems, in particular related to conceptual modelling and risk evaluation. There is also a lack of shared experience of practical deployment of remediation technologies in China, analogous to the situation before the establishment of the independent, non-profit organisation CL:AIRE (Contaminated Land: Applications In Real Environments) in 1999 in the UK. Many local technology developments are at lab-scale or pilot-scale stage without being widely put into use. Therefore, a shared endeavour is needed to promote the development of technically and scientifically sound land management as well as soil and human health protection to improve the sustainability of the rapid urbanisation in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Collaborative, Nondestructive Analysis of Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eppich, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parsons-Davis, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sharp, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Turin, H. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaMont, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zidi, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Belamri, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bounatiro, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Benbouzid, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fellouh, A. S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Idir, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Larbah, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moulay, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Noureddine, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rahal, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-12-14

    This report summarizes a joint nondestructive analysis exercise that LLNL, LANL, and COMENA discussed through a collaborative meeting in July 2017. This work was performed as one part of a collaboration with Algeria under Action Sheet 7: “Technical Cooperation and Assistance in Nuclear Forensics”. The primary intent of this exercise was for US and Algerian participants to jointly share results of nondestructive analyses (NDA) of a contaminated soil sample provided by the Algerians and to discuss key observations and analytical approaches. While the two samples were analyzed blind at LLNL and LANL, the soil samples were revealed after the exercise to have a common origin, and to have originated as an IAEA soil sample (IAEA-326, Bojanowski et al., 2001) provided to COMENA as part of a previous exercise. Comparative analysis revealed common findings between the laboratories, and also emphasized the need for standardized operating procedures to improve inter-comparability and confidence in conclusions. Recommended handling practices in the presence of sample heterogeneities were also discussed. This exercise provided an opportunity to demonstrate nuclear forensics analytical capabilities at COMENA, LANL, and LLNL, and identified areas that could benefit from future technical exchanges. Plans were made for a follow-on joint exercise in 2018, involving destructive analyses of the CUP-2 uranium ore concentrate standard.

  17. GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SANDY SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI O. KARKUSH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted for studying the geotechnical and chemical properties of intact and contaminated sandy soil samples. The soil samples were obtained from Al-Kufa city that is located in the south-west of Iraq. The contaminant is a by-product industrial wastewater disposed from the refinery that supplies fuel for the thermal electricity power plant. The intact sandy soil samples were contaminated in the laboratory with four percentages of 10, 20, 40 and 100% of the weight of distilled water used in the soaking process and the soaking process continued for thirty days. The results of tests showed a slight increase in both liquid limit and particle size and a significant increase in the optimum moisture content with increasing the percentages of the contaminant. However, with increasing the percentages of the contaminant, there was a slight decrease in the specific gravity and maximum dry unit weight. In addition, there was a considerable decrease in the angle of internal friction and the coefficient of permeability. The angle of internal friction of contaminated soil samples decreased by 18 to 26% with increasing the contaminant percentage from 10 to 100%. The cohesion of soil samples decreased by 7 to 33% with increasing the contaminant percentage, this conclusion is limited to the soil samples contaminated with 10, 20 and 40%, but the cohesion of soil sample contaminated with 100 % of industrial wastewater increased by 7%.

  18. Modelling uranium leaching from agricultural soils to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, D.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate (P) fertilizers are typically applied annually to agricultural fields, partly in inorganic form.(e.g. Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ). Mineral P-fertilizers contain some natural alpha-activity due to the presence of 238 U (among other alpha emitters). Uranium concentrations in P-bearing fertilizers have been reported to be in the range of 300 to 9200 Bq kg -1 of fertilizer (for both 238 U and 234 U). The migration of U and other elements in soils depends on a large number of processes, including their interactions with other aqueous components and the solid phase (e.g., cation exchange, surface complexation) as well as time-variable water fluxes and water contents between the soil surface and the groundwater table. Predicting U transport hence requires an advanced reactive transport model integrating water flow, multiple solute transport and biogeochemical reactions. At SCK-CEN, a new reactive transport code for transient flow conditions, HP1, was recently developed. The HP1 code results from the coupling of the HYDRUS-1D water flow and solute transport model with the PHREEQC geochemical speciation model. The capabilities of the HP1 code are illustrated considering natural uranium leaching from agricultural soils to groundwater. The objectives of the study are (1) to provide insight into the complex system of interacting biogeochemical processes that govern uranium mobility in soils using a new state-of-the-art coupled transport model (HP1), with special emphasis on effects of the imposed water flow boundary condition (steady-state infiltration versus atmospheric) on the migration of U in an acid sandy soil profile, and (2) to use the calculated uranium fluxes from soils to groundwater as yardsticks or reference levels for alternative or complementary safety indicators such as radionuclide fluxes from surface repositories for low- and intermediate level short-lived waste

  19. Molecular approach to evaluate biostimulation of 1,2-dibromoethane in contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyunghwa; McKeever, Robert; Rieber, Kahlil; Sheppard, Diane; Park, Chul; Ergas, Sarina J; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of co-substrate amendments on EDB biodegradation under aerobic conditions. Microcosms were established using contaminated soil and groundwater samples and maintained under in situ conditions to determine EDB degradation rates, and the diversity and abundance of EDB degrading indigenous bacteria. After 100days of incubation, between 25% and 56% of the initial EDB was degraded in the microcosms, with added jet fuel providing highest degradation rates (2.97±0.49yr(-1)). In all microcosms, the quantity of dehalogenase genes did not change significantly, while the number of BTEX monooxygenase and phenol hydroxylase genes increased with jet fuel amendments. These results indicate that EDB was not degraded by prior dehalogenation, but rather by cometabolism with adapted indigenous microorganisms. This is also reflected in the history of the plume, which originated from an aviation gasoline pipeline leak. This study suggests that biostimulation of EDB is possible at aerobic groundwater sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A calcite permeable reactive barrier for the remediation of Fluoride from spent potliner (SPL) contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, B.D.; Binning, Philip John; Sloan, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of calcite (CaCO3) as a substrate for a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for removing fluoride from contaminated groundwater is proposed and is illustrated by application to groundwater contaminated by spent potliner leachate (SPL), a waste derived from the aluminium smelting process....... The paper focuses on two issues in the implementation of calcite permeable reactive barriers for remediating fluoride contaminated water: the impact of the groundwater chemical matrix and CO2 addition on fluoride removal. Column tests comparing pure NaF solutions, synthetic SPL solutions, and actual SPL...... leachate indicate that the complex chemical matrix of the SPL leachate can impact fluoride removal significantly. For SPL contaminant mixtures, fluoride removal is initially less than expected from idealized, pure, solutions. However, with time, the effect of other contaminants on fluoride removal...

  1. GWSCREEN: A semi-analytical model for assessment of the groundwater pathway from surface or buried contamination: Version 2.0 theory and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.

    1993-06-01

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources. The code was designed for implementation in the Track I and Track II assessment of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) sites identified as low probability hazard at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (DOE, 1992). The code calculates the limiting soil concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. In Version 2.0, GWSCREEN has incorporated an additional source model to calculate the impacts to groundwater resulting from the release to percolation ponds. In addition, transport of radioactive progeny has also been incorporated. GWSCREEN has shown comparable results when compared against other codes using similar algorithms and techniques. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool

  2. GWSCREEN: A semi-analytical model for assessment of the groundwater pathway from surface or buried contamination: Version 2.0 theory and user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.

    1993-06-01

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources. The code was designed for implementation in the Track I and Track II assessment of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) sites identified as low probability hazard at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (DOE, 1992). The code calculates the limiting soil concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. In Version 2.0, GWSCREEN has incorporated an additional source model to calculate the impacts to groundwater resulting from the release to percolation ponds. In addition, transport of radioactive progeny has also been incorporated. GWSCREEN has shown comparable results when compared against other codes using similar algorithms and techniques. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.

  3. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money

  4. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-02-27

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money.

  5. Arsenic biotransformation potential of microbial arsH responses in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin-Soo; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2018-01-01

    ArsH encodes an oxidoreductase, an NAD(P)H-dependent mononucleotide reductase, with an unknown function, frequently within an ars operon, and is widely distributed in bacteria. Novel arsenite-oxidizing bacteria have been isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater and surface soil in Vietnam. We found that ArsH gene activity, with arsenite oxidase in the periplasm; it revealed arsenic oxidation potential of the arsH system. Batch experiment results revealed Citrobacter freundii strain VTan4 (DQ481466) and Pseudomonas putida strain VTw33 (DQ481482) completely oxidized 1 mM of arsenite to arsenate within 30-50 h. High concentrations of arsenic were detected in groundwater and surrounding soil obtained from Vinh Tru village in Ha Nam province (groundwater: 11.0 μg/L to 37.0 μg/L; and soil: 2.5 mg/kg, 390.1 mg/kg), respectively. An arsH gene encoding an organoarsenical oxidase protein was observed in arsenite-oxidizing Citrobacter freundii strain VTan4 (DQ481466), whereas arsB, arsH, and arsH were detected in Pseudomonas putida strain VTw33 (DQ481482). arsH gene in bacteria was first reported from Vietnam for resistance and arsenite oxidase. We proposed that residues, Ser 43, Arg 45, Ser 48, and Tyr 49 are required for arsenic binding and activation of arsH. The ars-mediated biotransformation strongly influenced potential arsenite oxidase enzyme of the operon encoding a homogeneous arsH. Results suggest that the further study of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria may lead to a better understanding of arsenite oxidase responses, such as those of arsH, that may be applied to control biochemical properties; for example, speciation, detoxification, bioremediation, biotransformation, and mobilization of arsenic in contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement

  7. In Situ Monitoring of Groundwater Contamination Using the Kalman Filter For Sustainable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Wainwright, H. M.; Faybishenko, B.; Denham, M. E.; Eddy-Dilek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - based on less intensive passive remediation and natural attenuation - has become a desirable remediation alternative at contaminated sites. Although it has a number of benefits, such as reduced waste and water/energy usage, it carries a significant burden of proof to verify plume stability and to ensure insignificant increase of risk to public health. Modeling of contaminant transport is still challenging despite recent advances in numerical methods. Long-term monitoring has, therefore, become a critical component in sustainable remediation. However, the current approach, which relies on sparse groundwater sampling, is problematic, since it could miss sudden significant changes in plume behavior. A new method is needed to combine existing knowledge about contaminant behavior and latest advances in in situ groundwater sensors. This study presents an example of the effective use of the Kalman filter approach to estimate contaminant concentrations, based on in situ measured water quality parameters (e.g. electrical conductivity and pH) along with the results of sparse groundwater sampling. The Kalman filter can effectively couple physical models and data correlations between the contaminant concentrations and in situ measured variables. We aim (1) to develop a framework capable of integrating different data types to provide accurate contaminant concentration estimates, (2) to demonstrate that these results remain reliable, even when the groundwater sampling frequency is reduced, and (3) to evaluate the future efficacy of this strategy using reactive transport simulations. This framework can also serve as an early warning system for detecting unexpected plume migration. We demonstrate our approach using historical and current groundwater data from the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Seepage Basins to estimate uranium and tritium concentrations. The results show that the developed method can provide reliable estimates of contaminant

  8. Bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms and their biodegradative capacity to remove pollutants. The byproducts of effective bioremediation, such as water and carbon dioxide, are nontoxic and can be accommodated without harm to the environment and living organisms. This paper reports that using bioremediation to remove pollutants has many advantages. This method is cheap, whereas physical methods for decontaminating the environment are extraordinarily expensive. Neither government nor private industry can afford the cost to clean up physically the nation's known toxic waste sites. Therefore, a renewed interest in bioremediation has developed. Whereas current technologies call for moving large quantities of toxic waste and its associated contaminated soil to incinerators, bioremediation can be done on site and requires simple equipment that is readily available. Bioremediation, though, is not the solution for all environmental pollution problems. Like other technologies, bioremediation has limitations

  9. Demonstrating practical application of soil and groundwater clean-up and recovery technologies at natural gas processing facilities: Bioventing, air sparging and wetlands remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the project newsletter described the nature of bioventing, air sparging and wetland remediation. It reviewed their effectiveness in remediating hydrocarbon contaminated soil above the groundwater surface. Bioventing was described as an effective, low cost treatment in which air is pumped below ground to stimulate indigenous bacteria. The bacteria then use the oxygen to consume the hydrocarbons, converting them to CO 2 and water. Air sparging involves the injection of air below the groundwater surface. As the air rises, hydrocarbons are stripped from the contaminated soil and water. The advantage of air sparging is that it cleans contaminated soil and water from below the groundwater surface. Hydrocarbon contamination of wetlands was described as fairly common. Conventional remediation methods of excavation, trenching, and bellholes to remove contamination often cause extreme harm to the ecosystem. Recent experimental evidence suggests that wetlands may be capable of attenuating contaminated water through natural processes. Four hydrocarbon contaminated wetlands in Alberta are currently under study. Results to date show that peat's high organic content promotes sorption and biodegradation and that some crude oil spills can been resolved by natural processes. It was suggested that assuming peat is present, a good clean-up approach may be to contain the contaminant source, monitor the lateral and vertical extent of contamination, and wait for natural processes to resolve the problem. 3 figs

  10. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the plant biomass accumulation and heavy metal (HM) uptake by plant species grown in HM contaminated soils. The shoot dry weights of Eucalyptus camaldeulensis, Medicago sativum, and Brassica juncea grown in contaminated soils were reduced by 8, 5, and 3-fold, ...

  11. ( Paspalum vaginatum L ) in soil contaminated with crude petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth of seashore paspalum, ( Paspalum vaginatum L ) in soil contaminated with crude petroleum oil. ... Abstract. The effect of crude oil contaminated soil on the growth of seashore Paspalum ( Paspalum vaginatum .) ... The experiment demonstrated the potential of using Paspalum vaginatum for phytoremediation ...

  12. Vermiremediation of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, vermiremediation, a biological technique was utilized in order to clean-up soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil using an earthworm - Eisenia fetida. The contaminated soils were analyzed for the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) level every 24 hours over a period of 120 hours using ...

  13. Impact Assessment and Bioremediation of oil Contaminated Soil: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    This transboundary toxic waste brought to fore the consciousness of environmental monitoring and management in Nigeria as a nation. Figure (1) above shows the sampled area. The materials used in this research include the following; contaminated soil from site, soil from non contaminated site, spatula, 250ml conical.

  14. Evaluation of copper and lead immobilization in contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of natural clay, calcium phosphate, poultry manure and rice husks as cheap and ecologically non-invasive amendments for immobilizing Cu and Pb in contaminated soil was assessed. A moderately contaminated soil was sampled from a cultivated field in the vicinity of an active waste dump, characterized ...

  15. Impact Assessment and Bioremediation of oil Contaminated Soil: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact Assessment and Bioremediation of oil Contaminated Soil: A Case Study of Koko and Ajoki Communities, Niger Delta Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home ... The soils were first tested to ascertain the level of contamination before the experimental procedure began.

  16. Heavy Metal Contamination Of Soils Around Municipal Solid Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy Metal Contamination Of Soils Around Municipal Solid Wastes Dump In Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Environmental Sciences ... Soils around the waste dump were also contaminated as a result of continuous dispersion of heavy metals from the waste dump by run-off water, wind and scavengers.

  17. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes in the groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site: development of a monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borke, P.; Husers, N.; Werner, P.; Leibenath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tar oil is a complex mixture of mainly aromatic hydrocarbons. It is found in the subsurface of manufactured gas plants (MGP), coking plants or wood preserving facilities. The transportation into the soil and groundwater stands for a severe contamination. This is due to the physico-chemical properties of the DNAPL (dense non aqueous phase liquid) and its mobility in the soil and aquifer system. Additionally most of the contaminants show a low biological degradability and solubility under in situ conditions. Therefore it is known as a long term source of contamination. Nevertheless, natural attenuation (NA) processes are detectable at tar oil contaminated sites. In the thematic network two of the German funding priority KORA (http://www.natural-attenuation.de) these processes are matter of investigation. Four typical contaminated sites were chosen to evaluate under which circumstances monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is applicable. Furthermore enhanced natural attenuation questions are examined. The design of monitoring networks at tar oil contaminated sites plays a significant role in gaining field evidence for natural attenuation as well as documenting the efficiency of the attenuation processes and evaluating the matching of performance goals. Well designed monitoring networks include the placement of monitoring wells in 3D so that 3D flow path, mass balances and an estimation of mass flux can be monitored. As an example the history of the monitoring network of a wood preserving facility is shown. Starting from a risk assessment network to a network for MNA is presented. In this case for example especially the determination of the groundwater flow direction in time and space is connected to the number of observation wells and their location. Moreover in the beginning the observation wells were located according to the assumed centerline of the plume. Because of the variability of the groundwater flow direction and the need to determine mass flux a control plane

  18. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, M. K.; Srivastava, R. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using...

  19. The role of soil quality maps in the reuse of lightly contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lamé, F.P.J.; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Dutch government agreed on a new policy regarding the reuse of lightly contaminated soil. From now on, lightly contaminated soil may be reused under conditions of soil-quality management. The municipal authorities supervise the reuse under this new regime. Two basic criteria need to be met before reuse of lightly contaminated soil is allowed. Firstly, the quality of the soil has to be characterised on a soil quality map. Secondly, the soil that will be reused has to be of the same...

  20. Airborne soil particulates as vehicles for Salmonella contamination of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Govindaraj Dev; Williams, Robert C; Al Qublan, Hamzeh M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyer, Renee R; Eifert, Joseph D

    2017-02-21

    The presence of dust is ubiquitous in the produce growing environment and its deposition on edible crops could occur. The potential of wind-distributed soil particulate to serve as a vehicle for S. Newport transfer to tomato blossoms and consequently, to fruits, was explored. Blossoms were challenged with previously autoclaved soil containing S. Newport (9.39log CFU/g) by brushing and airborne transfer. One hundred percent of blossoms brushed with S. Newport-contaminated soil tested positive for presence of the pathogen one week after contact (PCompressed air was used to simulate wind currents and direct soil particulates towards blossoms. Airborne soil particulates resulted in contamination of 29% of the blossoms with S. Newport one week after contact. Biophotonic imaging of blossoms post-contact with bioluminescent S. Newport-contaminated airborne soil particulates revealed transfer of the pathogen on petal, stamen and pedicel structures. Both fruits and calyxes that developed from blossoms contaminated with airborne soil particulates were positive for presence of S. Newport in both fruit (66.6%) and calyx (77.7%). Presence of S. Newport in surface-sterilized fruit and calyx tissue tested indicated internalization of the pathogen. These results show that airborne soil particulates could serve as a vehicle for Salmonella. Hence, Salmonella contaminated dust and soil particulate dispersion could contribute to pathogen contamination of fruit, indicating an omnipresent yet relatively unexplored contamination route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Uptake of Organic Contaminants from Soil into Vegetables and Fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance of these path......Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance...... the highest potential for accumulation from soil, and concentrations in leaves may be several hundred times higher than in soil. However, for most contaminants the accumulation in vegetables or fruits is much lower. Lipophilic (log KOW > 3) contaminants are mainly transported to leaves by attached soil......, due to the immense variation in environmental and plant physiological conditions. Uptake of organic contaminants into vegetables and fruits may lead to human health risks, but it may also be used to delineate subsurface plumes and monitor Natural Attenuation. Most models mentioned in this chapter...

  2. Vulnerability of groundwater to contamination in the municipality of Humaitá, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqueias Lima Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater has been used intensively throughout Brazil. In southern Amazonas state, the water supplies of some municipalities are derived exclusively from wells. Yet this region generally has no wastewater treatment, leading to potential contamination of the underground water. We classified and mapped the vulnerability of groundwater supplies to contamination in the urban and peri-urban area of Humaitá in southern Amazonas State. We used the GOD method (Groundwater occurrence; Overall Lithology of the unsaturated zone; Depth of the water table to score vulnerability classes. The results revealed the existence of average and high vulnerability of aquifer contamination in the area, indicating the fragility of the aquifer system that supplies the municipality, and showing the need for public policies aimed at the protection of the region’s groundwater resources.

  3. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  4. Remediating Contaminant Plumes in Groundwater with Shallow Excavations Containing Coarse Reactive Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow and mass transport model tested the capability of shallow excavations filled with coarse, reactive media to remediate a hypothetical unconfined aquifer with a maximum saturated thickness of 5 m. Modeled as contaminant sinks, the rectangular excavations were 10 m downgradient of an initial contaminant plume originating from a source at the top of the aquifer. The initial plume was approximately 259 m long, 23 m wide, and 5 m thick, with a downgradient tip located approximately 100 m upgradient of the site boundary. The smallest trench capable of preventing offsite migration was 11 m long (measured perpendicular to groundwater flow), 4 m wide (measured parallel to groundwater flow), and 3 m deep. Results of this study suggest that shallow trenches filled with coarse filter media that partially penetrate unconfined aquifers may be a viable alternative for remediating contaminated groundwater at some sites.

  5. Remediating Contaminant Plumes in Groundwater with Shallow Excavations Containing Coarse Reactive Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F.

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow and mass transport model tested the capability of shallow excavations filled with coarse, reactive media to remediate a hypothetical unconfined aquifer with a maximum saturated thickness of 5 m. Modeled as contaminant sinks, the rectangular excavations were 10 m downgradient of an initial contaminant plume originating from a source at the top of the aquifer. The initial plume was approximately 259 m long, 23 m wide, and 5 m thick, with a downgradient tip located approximately 100 m upgradient of the site boundary. The smallest trench capable of preventing offsite migration was 11 m long (measured perpendicular to groundwater flow), 4 m wide (measured parallel to groundwater flow), and 3 m deep. Results of this study suggest that shallow trenches filled with coarse filter media that partially penetrate unconfined aquifers may be a viable alternative for remediating contaminated groundwater at some sites.

  6. Contamination of freezing soils: Australia's Antarctic opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.

    2002-01-01

    Last month, the Federal government announced that millions of dollars were to be spent cleaning up Antarctica, for which Australia has special responsibilities. Australia's largesse is especially interesting in a world context. Antarctica, by international agreement, is free of any industrial development - mining, storage of wastes, or any other profit-making activity that would disturb the environment (tourism is allowed under increasingly controlled conditions). The importance of the more or less pristine frigid environment lies in the wide range of scientific research that is carried out there. Sophisticated techniques to improve environmental quality are evidently in the early development stage. That cold-loving organisms can thrive in frozen ground in Antarctica and the Arctic was a discovery so unexpected that few people could grasp its importance. Only later was it found that these bugs can eat up contaminants - and the discovery assumed enormous practical significance. Little is known about how to clean up contamination in freezing soils even though there is a pressing need to solve the growing problem with military, industrial and nuclear waste in the Northern Hemisphere

  7. Sampling and analytical strategies for delineating petroleum contaminated soils and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, J.V. (Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)); Rae, W.E. (Chemex Labs Alberta Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    A critical evaluation of sampling and analytical strategies is demonstrated to be an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach to delineating petroleum contaminated soil and groundwater. To ensure that appropriate data quality objectives are established, this evaluation is best initiated at the project design stage. Studies for characterization of petroleum contaminated sites are described from the perspective of environmental analytical chemistry. The examples illustrate some commonly occurring problems and practical solutions pertaining to: contamination of ground water and soils by leaking underground storage tanks; discrepancies between analytical results for total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, and C[sub 5-30] hydrocarbon scans; and chemical characterization of petroleum waste containing industrial solvents. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Optimal design of active spreading systems to remediate sorbing groundwater contaminants in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Amy N; Neupauer, Roseanna M; Kasprzyk, Joseph R

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of in situ remediation to treat contaminated aquifers is limited by the degree of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant. In this study, candidate designs that actively spread the treatment chemical into the contaminant are generated using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Design parameters pertaining to the amount of treatment chemical and the duration and rate of its injection are optimized according to objectives established for the remediation - maximizing contaminant degradation while minimizing energy and material requirements. Because groundwater contaminants have different reaction and sorption properties that influence their ability to be degraded with in situ remediation, optimization was conducted for six different combinations of reaction rate coefficients and sorption rates constants to represent remediation of the common groundwater contaminants, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and toluene, using the treatment chemical, permanganate. Results indicate that active spreading for contaminants with low reaction rate coefficients should be conducted by using greater amounts of treatment chemical mass and longer injection durations relative to contaminants with high reaction rate coefficients. For contaminants with slow sorption or contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers, two different design strategies are acceptable - one that injects high concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a short duration or one that injects lower concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a long duration. Thus, decision-makers can select a strategy according to their preference for material or energy use. Finally, for scenarios with high ambient groundwater velocities, the injection rate used for active spreading should be high enough for the groundwater divide to encompass the entire contaminant plume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluoride contamination of groundwater and health implications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The arid climate of the region, the granitic rocks and the low freshwater exchange due to periodical drought conditions are responsible for the higher incidence of fluorides in the groundwater resource. The people dependent on groundwater resources in the area are prone to dental fluorosis and mild skeletal fluorosis.

  10. Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in leachate and groundwater samples obtained at different locations adjacent to a municipal solid waste landfill in order to assess the impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and Na+ ...

  11. Biodegradation and bioremediation of endosulfan contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Lakshmi, C Vidya; Khanna, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    Among the three mixed bacterial culture AE, BE, and CE, developed by enrichment technique with endosulfan as sole carbon source, consortium CE was found to be the most efficient with 72% and 87% degradation of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respectively, in 20 days. In soil microcosm, consortium AE, BE and CE degraded alpha-endosulfan by 57%, 88% and 91%, respectively, whereas beta-endosulfan was degraded by 4%, 60% and 67% after 30 days. Ochrobacterum sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Burkholderia sp., isolated and identified on the basis of 16s rDNA gene sequence, individually showed in situ biodegradation of alpha-endosulfan in contaminated soil microcosm by 61, 73, and 74, respectively, whereas degradation of beta-endosulfan was 63, 75, and 62, respectively, after 6 weeks of incubation over the control which showed 26% and 23 % degradation of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respectively. Population survival of Ochrobacterum sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Burkholderia sp., by plate count on Luria Broth with carbenicillin showed 75-88% survival of these isolates as compared to 36-48% of survival obtained from PCR fingerprinting. Arthrobacter sp. oxidized endosulfan to endosulfan sulfate which was further metabolized but no known metabolite of endosulfan sulfate was detected.

  12. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    Fate and transport of 72 chemicals in soil and groundwater were assessed by using a multiphase compositional model (CompFlow Bio) because some of the chemicals are non-aqueous phase liquids or solids in the original form. One metric ton of chemicals were assumed to leak in a stylized facility. Scenarios of both surface spills and subsurface leaks were considered. Simulation results showed that the fate and transport of chemicals above the water table affected the fate and transport of chemicals below the water table, and vice versa. Surface spill scenarios caused much less concentrations than subsurface leak scenarios because leaching amounts into the subsurface environment were small (at most 6% of the 1 t spill for methylamine). Then, simulation results were applied to assess point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater above and below the water table, respectively, by multiplying concentrations, impact areas, and durations. These three components correspond to the intensity of contamination, mobility, and persistency in the assessment of pollutant loading, respectively. Assessment results showed that the pollutant loadings in soil and groundwater were linearly related (r 2  = 0.64). The pollutant loadings were negatively related with zero-order and first-order decay rates in both soil (r = - 0.5 and - 0.6, respectively) and groundwater (- 1.0 and - 0.8, respectively). In addition, this study scientifically defended that the soil partitioning coefficient (K d ) significantly affected the pollutant loadings in soil (r = 0.6) and the maximum masses in groundwater (r = - 0.9). However, K d was not a representative factor for chemical transportability unlike the expectation in chemical ranking systems of soil and groundwater pollutants. The pollutant loadings estimated using a physics-based hydrogeological model provided a more rational ranking for exposure assessment, compared to the summation of persistency and transportability scores in

  13. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinlan Xu,; Pancras, T.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical

  14. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with spent and fresh cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination of soil with industrial cutting fluids containing heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons has detrimental effects on ecosystems. As such contaminants constitute risk to human health; they can enter the food chain through agricultural products or contaminated drinking water. This growing concern about ...

  15. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snow is a highly reflecting object found naturally on the Earth and its albedo is highly influenced by the amount and type of contamination. In the present study, two major types of contaminants (soil and coal) have been used to understand their effects on snow reflectance in the Himalayan region. These contaminants were ...

  16. Survey of 218 organic contaminants in groundwater derived from the world's largest untreated wastewater irrigation system: Mezquital Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Luis E; Mora, Abrahan; Moreau, Cristina; Mahlknecht, Jürgen; Hernández-Antonio, Arturo; Ramírez, Aldo I; Barrios-Piña, Héctor

    2018-05-01

    The Mezquital Valley system is the world's oldest and largest example with regard to use of untreated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. Because of the artificial high recharge associated with the Mezquital Valley aquifers, groundwater is extracted for human consumption, and there are plans to use this groundwater as a water resource for Mexico City. Thus, this study analyzed 218 organic micro-contaminants in wastewater, springs, and groundwater from Mezquital Valley. Five volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nine semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were detected in the wastewater used for irrigation. Only two SVOCs [bis-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate] were detected in all the wastewater canals and groundwater sources, whereas no VOCs were detected in groundwater and springs. Of the 118 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and 7 reproductive hormones measured, 65 PhACs and 3 hormones were detected in the wastewater. Of these, metformin, caffeine, and acetaminophen account for almost sixty percent of the total PhACs in wastewater. Nevertheless, 23 PhACs were detected in groundwater sources, where the majority of these compounds have low detection frequencies. The PhACs sulfamethoxazole, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, carbamazepine, and benzoylecgonine (primary cocaine metabolite) were frequently detected in groundwater, suggesting that although the soils act as a filter adsorbing and degrading the majority of the organic pollutant content in wastewater, these PhACs still reach the aquifer. Therefore, the presence of these PhACs, together with the high levels of the endocrine disruptor bis-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate, indicate that water sources derived from the recharge of the studied aquifers may pose a risk to consumer health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP

  18. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  19. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  20. Developing an integration tool for soil contamination assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, Maria; Zingg, Felix; Pérez-Álvarez, José Miguel; Madejón, Paula; Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades, huge soil areas have been negatively influenced or altered in multiples forms. Soils and, consequently, underground water, have been contaminated by accumulation of contaminants from agricultural activities (fertilizers and pesticides) industrial activities (harmful material dumping, sludge, flying ashes) and urban activities (hydrocarbon, metals from vehicle traffic, urban waste dumping). In the framework of the RECARE project, local partners across Europe are focusing on a wide range of soil threats, as soil contamination, and aiming to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures by designing and applying targeted land management strategies (van Lynden et al., 2013). In this context, the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Southern Spain) was used as a case study, aiming to obtain soil data and new information in order to assess soil contamination. The main threat in the Guadiamar valley is soil contamination after a mine spill occurred on April 1998. About four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud, rich in heavy metals, were released into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers affecting more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land. Main trace elements contaminating soil and water were As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Tl and Zn. The objective of the present research is to develop informatics tools that integrate soil database, models and interactive platforms for soil contamination assessment. Preliminary results were obtained related to the compilation of harmonized databases including geographical, hydro-meteorological, soil and socio-economic variables based on spatial analysis and stakeholder's consultation. Further research will be modellization and upscaling at the European level, in order to obtain a scientifically-technical predictive tool for the assessment of soil contamination.

  1. CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL OF SPECIFIC IONS IN SOIL TREATED WITH REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDLER MILTON PAIVA DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percolation columns constructed in the Laboratory can predict the degree of contamination in soil due to reject brine disposal and can be a tool for reducing environmental impacts. This study aim to evaluate the mobilization of ions in reject brine from desalination process by reverse osmosis. The mobilization of the contaminant ions in the saline waste was studied in glass percolation columns, which were filled with soil of contrasting textures (eutrophic CAMBISOL, typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, ENTISOL Quartzipsamment. Experiments ware repeated three times each, and the initial and final concentrations of the ion contaminants were analyzed. The pollution potential of this wastewater was determined by the retardation factor and dispersion-diffusion coefficient of K+, Cl- and Na+ for each studied soil. The differences in the displacement curves of the ions present in the saline waste among various soil types were analyzed. The Entisol Quartzipsamment showed a higher forward speed of the ions K+ and Cl- (greater retardation factor, i.e., greater power of the subsurface contamination for these ions. In typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, the ions move with greater ease and therefore produced greater groundwater contamination. In eutrophic CAMBISOL, the low coefficient of diffusion-dispersion in all ions was evaluated (i.e., reduced ion mobility is directly influenced by their exchangeable levels.

  2. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in the catchment of Goczałkowice reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2014-05-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2 , volume - 100 million m3 at a typical water level) is a very important source of drinking water for Upper Silesian agglomeration. At the catchment of the reservoir there are many potential sources of groundwater pollution (agriculture, bad practices in wastewater management, intensive fish farming). Thus local groundwater contamination, mainly by nitrogen compounds. The paper presents groundwater monitoring system and preliminary results of the research carried on at Goczałkowice reservoir and its catchment in 2010 - 2014 within the project "Integrated system supporting management and protection of dammed reservoir (ZiZoZap)'. The main objective for hydrogeologists in the project is to assess the role of groundwater in total water balance of the reservoir and the influence of groundwater on its water quality. During research temporal variability of groundwater - surface water exchange has been observed. Monitoring Network of groundwater quality consists of 22 observation wells (nested piezometers included) located around the reservoir - 13 piezometers is placed in two transects on northern and southern shore of reservoir. Sampling of groundwater from piezometers was conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were 255 mg/L, 0,16 mg/L and 3,48 mg/L, respectively. Surface water in reservoir (8 points) has also been sampled. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater are higher than in surface water. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations exceeding standards for drinking water were reported in 18% and 50% of monitored piezometers, respectively. High concentration of nitrate (exceeding more than 5 times maximal admissible concentration) have been a significant groundwater contamination problem in the catchment of the reservoir. Periodically decrease of surface water quality is possible. Results of hydrogeological research indicate substantial spatial

  3. Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J.; Myers, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m -2 h -1 ; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude

  4. Radionuclide contaminated micromycetes in the soil the thirty kilometer zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanova, N.N.; Vasilevskaya, A.I.; Redchits, T.I.; Gavrilov, V.I.; Lashko, T.N.; Luchkov, P.N.; Shcherbachenko, A.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1992-01-01

    From 1986 year the ecological monitoring of the soil microscopic fungi exist under conditions of the radioactive contamination in the thirty kilometer zone of the Chernobyl' NPP is conducted. As mycological isotope soil analysis the limiting factor in the ecological situation need consider the radionuclide contamination of the soils. It is shown, that the amount of fungus germs decreased by 200 times in 1986 year and increased sharp to 1989-90 years. During the first years after the accident, in the most contaminated soils dark-pigmented fungi predominated. It is due to a deep reorganization of the soil micromycete associations. Correlations is revealed in the interrelations among various species of fungi, isolated from the soils, differed in the radioactivity. Among 12 species of fungi (from 6 genuses of micromycetes) isotope accumulation is noted. There are Sr-90 and Cs-137, most widespread in the soil after the accident. 18 refs.; 8 figs

  5. Prospects for separating heavy metal from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, M.; Hoberg, H.; Hamacher, B.

    1994-01-01

    For decades, large quantities of organic and inorganic pollutants have been brought into the soil as a result of the industrial operations of smelting and coking plants. This paper reports on the prospects of separating heavy metals from soil contaminated by smelting and coking plants by means of a physical/chemical washing procedure. Besides the description of virgin soil characteristics, cleaning results and process parameters of calssification, density separation and flotation processes are presented. It is shown that heavy metal pollution of virgin soil can be reduced by the classical process stages of soil washing. The metal content of virgin soil are critically assessed whereby the limits of the physical-chimical washing process will also be entered into. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the determination of limiting values for inorganic contamination, especially for soil contaminated with both organic and inorganic pollution. (orig.) [de

  6. The role of soil quality maps in the reuse of lightly contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamé, F.P.J.; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Dutch government agreed on a new policy regarding the reuse of lightly contaminated soil. From now on, lightly contaminated soil may be reused under conditions of soil-quality management. The municipal authorities supervise the reuse under this new regime. Two basic criteria need to be

  7. Performance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a soil contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoremediation is an alternative low cost approach for in situ treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated growth and biochemical composition of Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by spent engine oil contaminated soil. The experiment was conducted in a pot during the 2005 cropping season. The soil received (0% ...

  8. Lead contamination in soil and vegetation of areas surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... 1Department of ecology, International Center for Science, High Technology & Environmental Sciences, Kerman, Iran. 2Department of ... In metal-contaminated soils, vegetation growing on such soils .... between waste pH and plant Pb concentration; H, relationship modeling between soil pH and waste pH; I, ...

  9. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by spent diesel oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-02

    Sep 2, 2013 ... A significant (p ≤0.05) reduction in concentration of the heavy metals Cu and Zn after two month of incubation with P. pulmonarius ... degradation is crucial to the rehabilitation of contaminated soil for plant growth. Soil remediation is defined by Allen (1988) as the return of soil to a condition of ecological ...

  10. Soil contamination rate, prevalence, intensity of infection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections remain an important public health problem in the tropics. This study aimed to evaluate the soil contamination rate and prevalence of infestations of geohelminth among residents in Bazou. Methods: Four hundred (400) soil samples and 182 stool specimens were ...

  11. Global aquifers dominated by fossil groundwaters but wells vulnerable to modern contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Perrone, Debra; Befus, Kevin M.; Bayani Cardenas, M.; Ferguson, Grant; Gleeson, Tom; Luijendijk, Elco; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Richard G.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-06-01

    The vulnerability of groundwater to contamination is closely related to its age. Groundwaters that infiltrated prior to the Holocene have been documented in many aquifers and are widely assumed to be unaffected by modern contamination. However, the global prevalence of these `fossil' groundwaters and their vulnerability to modern-era pollutants remain unclear. Here we analyse groundwater carbon isotope data (12C, 13C, 14C) from 6,455 wells around the globe. We show that fossil groundwaters comprise a large share (42-85%) of total aquifer storage in the upper 1 km of the crust, and the majority of waters pumped from wells deeper than 250 m. However, half of the wells in our study that are dominated by fossil groundwater also contain detectable levels of tritium, indicating the presence of much younger, decadal-age waters and suggesting that contemporary contaminants may be able to reach deep wells that tap fossil aquifers. We conclude that water quality risk should be considered along with sustainable use when managing fossil groundwater resources.

  12. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill

  13. Field demonstrations of passive detectors for screening of alpha contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.E.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous sites around the country, DOE and otherwise, that are faced with the daunting task of remediating radiologically contaminated soils and groundwaters. Some of these sites, such as the Nevada Test Site and the Rocky Flats Plant, have contaminants that have been dispersed over wide areas. The costs of the characterization phase alone for such remediation programs can be prohibitive. Therefore there are pressing needs for testing and evaluation of new technologies for screening for radiological contaminants that may offer significant advantages in capital costs, ease of use, sensitivity, ruggedness, and/or reliability. This work reports on laboratory and Field tests of two types of passive alpha detectors, electret ionization chambers (EIC's) and alpha track detectors (ATD's), that have been commercially developed for indoor radon measurements. Previous work documented calibration and measurement protocols developed for these detectors for indoor surface contamination measurements

  14. Biostrategic Removal of Sulphur Contamination in Groundwater With Sulphur-Reducing Bacteria: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Satapathy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in the use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture, excessive extraction of groundwater, and rise in the number of industries with inefficient waste disposal system have been some of the key factors in degradation of groundwater quality during the past years. Although groundwater is considered as a valuable natural resource, the quality control of this resource has systematically failed in India. Irrespective of rural or urban locations, the average sulphate contamination of groundwater in India has reached 90 to 150 mg/L. Such a borderline contamination concentration poses threat both to livelihood and to economy. In addition, the negative health effects of sulphate-contaminated drinking water can range from dermatitis to lung problems and skin cancer. The biostrategic manipulation of groundwater discussed in this article involves sulphate-reducing bacteria used in addition to a 3-step procedure involving constitutive aeration, filtration, and shock chlorination. With earlier use of a similar strategy in the United States and Europe proven to be beneficial, we propose a combinatorial and economical approach for processing of groundwater for removal of sulphur contamination, which still largely remains unnoticed and neglected.

  15. A regional flux-based risk assessment approach for multiple contaminated sites on groundwater bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, P; Dollé, F; Chisala, B; Orban, Ph; Popescu, I-C; Hérivaux, C; Dassargues, A; Brouyère, S

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the Water Framework Directive (EP and CEU, 2000), management plans have to be set up to monitor and to maintain water quality in groundwater bodies in the EU. In heavily industrialized and urbanized areas, the cumulative effect of multiple contaminant sources is likely and has to be evaluated. In order to propose adequate measures, the calculated risk should be based on criteria reflecting the risk of groundwater quality deterioration, in a cumulative manner and at the scale of the entire groundwater body. An integrated GIS- and flux-based risk assessment approach for groundwater bodies is described, with a regional scale indicator for evaluating the quality status of the groundwater body. It is based on the SEQ-ESO currently used in the Walloon Region of Belgium which defines, for different water uses and for a detailed list of groundwater contaminants, a set of threshold values reflecting the levels of water quality and degradation with respect to each contaminant. The methodology is illustrated with first results at a regional scale on a groundwater body-scale application to a contaminated alluvial aquifer which has been classified to be at risk of not reaching a good quality status by 2015. These first results show that contaminants resulting from old industrial activities in that area are likely to contribute significantly to the degradation of groundwater quality. However, further investigations are required on the evaluation of the actual polluting pressures before any definitive conclusion be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  17. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  18. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.......S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  19. Remediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2013-01-01

    This paper present the recent research conducted at the Arctic Technology Centre, where different solutions for remediation of excavated oil contaminated soil in Greenlandic towns were tested. In the first work, soil polluted by light oil was treated with two different nutrient sources (substrate...... the local waste incineration plant. The results showed the highest reduction of the oil-contamination for the set-up with a combination of heat and sphagnum.......This paper present the recent research conducted at the Arctic Technology Centre, where different solutions for remediation of excavated oil contaminated soil in Greenlandic towns were tested. In the first work, soil polluted by light oil was treated with two different nutrient sources (substrate...... during the 81 days of the experiment. Analysis by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector showed that the lighter fractions were removed, while the heavy oils remained. In the third experiment the oil contaminated soil is subjected to sequential treatment including adding of surplus heat from...

  20. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  1. Soil contamination of plant surfaces from grazing and rainfall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Stoll, J.M.; Tobler, L.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants often attach to soil particles, and their subsequent environmental transport is largely determined by processes that govern soil movement. We examined the influence of grazing intensity on soil contamination of pastures. Four different grazing densities of sheep were tested against an ungrazed control plot. Scandium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis and was used as a tracer of soil adhesion on vegetation. Soil loadings ( g soil kg -1 dry plant) increased 60% when grazing intensity was increased by a factor of four (p 0.003). Rain and wind removed soil from vegetation in the ungrazed control plots, but when grazing sheep were present, an increase in rain from 0.3 to 9.7 mm caused a 130% increase in soil contamination. Multiple regression was used to develop an equation that predicts soil loadings as a function of grazing density, rainfall and wind speed (p = 0.0001, r 2 = 0.78). The model predicts that if grazing management were to be used as a tool to reduce contaminant intake from inadvertent consumption of resuspended soil by grazing animals, grazing densities would have to be reduced 2.5 times to reduce soil loadings by 50%. (author)

  2. Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Uranium using a Biological Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Gye Nam; Shon, Dong Bin; Lee, Ki Won; Chung, Un Soo; Moon, Jai Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is a method to cleanup contaminants in soil or ground water with microorganisms. The biological method can reduce the volume of waste solution and the construction cost and operation cost of soil remediation equipment. Bioremediation can be divided into natural attenuation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation. Biostimulation is technology to improve natural purification by adding nutritional substances, supplying oxygen and controlling pH. In this study, penatron, that is a nutritional substances, was mixed with soil. Optimum conditions for mixing ratios of penatron and soil, and the pH of soil was determined through several bioremediation experiments with soil contaminated with uranium. Also, under optimum experiment conditions, the removal efficiencies of soil and concrete according to reaction time were measured for feasibility analysis of soil and concrete bioremediations

  3. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Lowe, Kenneth A.; Pierce, Eric M.; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    Historical use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0) l ) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, resulted in large deposits of Hg(0) l in the soils. The fate and distribution of the spilled Hg(0) are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the contaminated soils and then used the analytical techniques to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collected at the site. These include x-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption (HgT). XRF was not found to be suitable for evaluating Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing low concentration of Hg or Hg(0) because Hg concentrations determined using this method were lower than those determined by HgT analysis and the XRF detection limit is 20 mg/kg. Hg(0) g headspace analysis coupled with HgT measurements yielded good results for examining the presence of Hg(0) l in soils and the speciation of Hg. The two soil cores are highly heterogeneous in both the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. In the first core, Hg(0) l was distributed throughout the 3.2 m depth, whereas the second core, from a location 12 m away, contained Hg(0) l in a 0.3 m zone only. Sequential extractions showed organically associated Hg dominant at depths with low Hg concentration. Soil from the zone of groundwater saturation showed reducing conditions and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this depth, lateral Hg transport in the groundwater may be a source of Hg detected in the soil at the deeper soil depths. Overall, characterization of soils containing Hg(0) l is difficult because of the heterogeneous distribution of Hg within the soils. This is exacerbated in industrial facilities where fill materials make up much of the soils and historical and continued reworking of the

  4. Challenges encountered in hydrocarbon contaminated soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarettro, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the author's experience relating to the cleanup of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has been garnered from serving the city of Santa Fe Springs, California as a redevelopment consultant and project manager. In this paper, the author's comments will be centered on that community. To set the stage the author believes it might be helpful to relate some of the history and background of Santa Fe Springs (SFS). The community was first founded as an agricultural settlement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, with virtually all of the farms and ranches either planted in orchards or engaged in raising cattle and livestock. The Southern Pacific Railroad had a line running through the area primarily to serve the needs of the ranchers and farmers. The community at the time was known as Fulton Wells in honor of a large hotel complex which had been erected around a well-known mineral spring touted for its curative value. The local population had been aware for some time of the presence of brackish water in shallow wells and of the peculiar odor which permeated much of the surrounding area

  5. Estimation of the effect of soil texture on nitrate-nitrogen content in groundwater using optical remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witheetrirong, Yongyoot; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Tipdecho, Taravudh; Parkpian, Preeda

    2011-08-01

    The use of chemical fertilizers in Thailand increased exponentially by more than 100-fold from 1961 to 2004. Intensification of agricultural production causes several potential risks to water supplies, especially nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3) (-)-N) pollution. Nitrate is considered a potential pollutant because its excess application can move into streams by runoff and into groundwater by leaching. The nitrate concentration in groundwater increases more than 3-fold times after fertilization and it contaminates groundwater as a result of the application of excess fertilizers for a long time. Soil texture refers to the relative proportion of particles of various sizes in a given soil and it affects the water permeability or percolation rate of a soil. Coarser soils have less retention than finer soils, which in the case of NO(3) (-)-N allows it to leach into groundwater faster, so there is positive relationship between the percentage of sands and NO(3) (-)-N concentration in groundwater wells. This study aimed to estimate the effect of soil texture on NO(3) (-)-N content in groundwater. Optical reflectance data obtained by remote sensing was used in this study. Our hypothesis was that the quantity of nitrogen leached into groundwater through loam was higher than through clay. Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, was selected as a study area where the terrain is mostly represented by a flat topography. It was found that classified LANDSAT images delineated paddy fields as covering 29.4% of the study area, while sugarcane covered 10.4%, and 60.2% was represented by "others". The reason for this classified landuse was to determine additional factors, such as vegetation, which might directly affect the quantity of NO(3) (-)-N in soil. Ideally, bare soil would be used as a test site, but in fact, no such places were available in Thailand. This led to an indirect method to estimate NO(3) (-)-N on various soil textures. Through experimentation, it was found that NO(3) (-)-N measured

  6. Arsenic, manganese and aluminum contamination in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Caroline M C; Rodríguez, Juan M; Carpio, Edward A; García, Pilar A; Stengel, Caroline; Berg, Michael

    2017-12-31

    This paper presents a first integrated survey on the occurrence and distribution of geogenic contaminants in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia in Peru. An increasing number of groundwater wells have been constructed for drinking water purposes in the last decades; however, the chemical quality of the groundwater resources in the Amazon region is poorly studied. We collected groundwater from the regions of Iquitos and Pucallpa to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics, including trace elements. The source aquifer of each well was determined by interpretation of the available geological information, which identified four different aquifer types with distinct hydrochemical properties. The majority of the wells in two of the aquifer types tap groundwater enriched in aluminum, arsenic, or manganese at levels harmful to human health. Holocene alluvial aquifers along the main Amazon tributaries with anoxic, near pH-neutral groundwater contained high concentrations of arsenic (up to 700μg/L) and manganese (up to 4mg/L). Around Iquitos, the acidic groundwater (4.2≤pH≤5.5) from unconfined aquifers composed of pure sand had dissolved aluminum concentrations of up to 3.3mg/L. Groundwater from older or deeper aquifers generally was of good chemical quality. The high concentrations of toxic elements highlight the urgent need to assess the groundwater quality throughout Western Amazonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost and Performance Report: Bioaugmentation for Aerobic Bioremediation of RDX-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the biodegradation of hexahydro 1,3,5 trinitro 1,3,5 triazine (RDX) in contaminated groundwater under aerobic conditions. RDX is mobile and persistent...to injection solution ; inoculum staged prior to mixing. ................................................................................ 12 Figure...groundwater CB&I CB&I Federal Services CFU Colony forming unit DNX Hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5- nitro -1,3,5-triazine DoD U.S. Department of Defense

  8. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhardt, B.

    1994-09-01

    A study of the non-steady-state volatilisation of organic compounds from coal tar contaminated soil. The observed fluxes from the laboratory experiments were compared with the fluxes predicted by a diffusion model assuming that the behaviour of the compounds was ideal. The diffusive release from unsaturated soil was measured in the laboratory from soil samples originating from a former gasworks site, as well as from soils spiked in the laboratory with a single model compound. The volatilisation from the surface of coal-tar contaminated soil was measured from four samples of sandy soils originating from the same site. The flux was quantified for eleven selected aromatic hydrocarbons. Volatilisation was measured from similar coal tar contaminated soil samples located below a 5 cm layer of uncontaminated and biologically inhibited soil with a an organic carbon content of 1.1% or 0.11%.monocyclic aromatic compounds. The study showed that the flux of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons,the monocyclic and the 2-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soil can be estimated within one order of magnitude by a model concept which assumes that the diffusion of the compounds is independent of each other and the change in the composition of the coal tar during the experimental period can be ignored. ignored. It requires that the distribution coefficients between the coal tar contaminated soil and water are known. Where the contaminated soil resides below uncontaminated soil, degradation of the aromatic hydrocarbons can be expected if the cover layer is aerobic. The degradation will reduce the flux significantly after a period of adaption. (AB)

  9. Isotopic constraints on water source mixing, network leakage and contamination in an urban groundwater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmeisen, F; Lehmann, M F; Liesch, T; Goeppert, N; Klinger, J; Zopfi, J; Goldscheider, N

    2017-04-01

    Water supply in developing countries is prone to large water losses due to leaky distribution networks and defective sewers, which may affect groundwater quality and quantity in urban areas and result in complex subsurface mixing dynamics. In this study, a multi-stable isotope approach was used to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations of surface and sub-surface water source partitioning and mixing, and to assess nitrogen (N) contamination in the urban water cycle of As-Salt, Jordan. Water import from the King Abdullah Canal (KAC), mains waters from the network, and wastewater are characterized by distinct isotopic signatures, which allowed us to quantify city effluents into the groundwater. Temporal variations in isotopic signatures of polluted groundwater are explained by seasonally fluctuating inflow, and dilution by water that originates from Lake Tiberias and enters the urban water cycle via the KAC. Isotopic analysis (N and O) and comparison between groundwater nitrate and nitrate from mains water, water imports and wastewater confirmed that septic waste from leaky sewers is the main contributor of nitrate contamination. The nitrate of strongly contaminated groundwater was characterized by highest δ 15 N NO3 values (13.3±1.8‰), whereas lowest δ 15 N NO3 values were measured in unpolluted groundwater (6.9‰). Analogously, nitrate concentration and isotopic ratios were used for source partitioning and qualitatively confirmed δD H2O and δ 18 O H2O -based estimates. Dual water isotope endmember mixing calculations suggest that city effluents from leaky networks and sewers contribute 30-64% to the heavily polluted groundwater. Ternary mixing calculations including also chloride revealed that 5-18% of the polluted groundwater is wastewater. Up to two thirds of the groundwater originates from mains, indicating excessive water loss from the network, and calling for improved water supply management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Simulation on contamination forecast and control of groundwater in a certain hazardous waste landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Fei; An, Da; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Ding-Long; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of site investigation and data collection of a certain hazardous waste landfill, the groundwater flow and solute transport coupled models were established by applying Visual Modflow software, which was used to conduct a numerical simulation that forecast the transport process of Cr6+ in groundwater and the effects of three control measures (ground-harden, leakage-proof barriers and drainage ditches) of contaminants transport after leachate leakage happened in impermeable layer of the landfill. The results show that the contamination plume of Cr6+ transports with groundwater flow direction, the contamination rang would reach the pool's boundary in 10 years, and the distance of contamination transport is 1 450 m. But the diffusion range of contamination plume would not be obviously expanded between 10 and 20 years. While the ground is hardened, the contamination plume would not reach the pool's boundary in 20 years. When the leakage-proof barrier is set in the bottom of water table aquifer, the concentration of Cr6+ is higher than that the leakage-proof barrier is unset, but the result is just opposite when setting the leakage-proof barrier in the bottom of underlying aquifer. The range of contamination plume is effectively controlled by setting drainage ditches that water discharge is 2 642 m3 x d(-1), which makes the monitoring wells would not be contaminated in 20 years. Moreover, combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches can get the best effect in controlling contaminants diffusion, and meanwhile, the drainage ditches' daily discharge is reduced to 1 878 m3 x d(-1). Therefore, it is suggested that the control measure combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches should apply to prevent contamination diffusion in groundwater when leachate leakage have happened in impermeable layer of the landfill.

  11. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    of contamination. In particular, adaptive management tools designed to work with sparse data sets from preliminary site assessments are needed which can explicitly link contaminant point sources with groundwater, surface water and ecological impacts. Here, a novel integrated modelling approach was employed...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...... for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical...

  12. Monthly Summaries of Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture at Oil Contamination Sites in Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To determine the effects of oil spills on soil temperature and moisture, soil climate stations were built at existing contamination sites -- Scott Base, Marble...

  13. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on

  14. Evaluation of Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination Based on DRASTIC Model and GIS in Tianjin Plain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofei; Ma, Shuai; Yu, Ping; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to contamination is the basement approaches for preserving the quality of groundwater. Based on DRASTIC model containing seven hydrogeological parameters and GIS techniques, groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out in the plain area of Tianjin City, China. The results indicate that the studied area can be divided into five zones: low, slightly lower, middle, slightly higher, and high groundwater vulnerability zones, with coverage area of 1.8%, 24.8%, 53%, 19.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Low vulnerability zone locates in downtown, where the ground is covered by impervious surface. High and slightly higher vulnerability zones mainly locate in the groundwater recharge areas and the suburban areas surrounding downtown. Medium vulnerability zone covers most parts of the plain areas in the south of Baodi fraction. The result is consistent with the actual situation.

  15. Impacts of biochar and oyster shells waste on the immobilization of arsenic in highly contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongshan; Xu, Jinghua; Lv, Zhengyong; Xie, Ruijia; Huang, Liumei; Jiang, Jinping

    2018-07-01

    Soil contamination is a serious problem with deleterious impacts on global sustainability. Readily available, economic, and highly effective technologies are therefore urgently needed for the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. In this study, two readily available materials prepared from bio-wastes, namely biochar and oyster shell waste, were evaluated as soil amendments to immobilize arsenic in a highly As-contaminated soil (up to 15,000 mgAs/kg). Both biochar and oyster shell waste can effectively reduce arsenic leachability in acid soils. After application of the amendments (2-4% addition, w/w), the exchangeable arsenic fraction decreased from 105.8 to 54.0 mg/kg. The application of 2%biochar +2% oyster shell waste most effectively reduced As levels in the column leaching test by reducing the arsenic concentration in the porewater by 62.3% compared with the treatment without amendments. Biochar and oyster shell waste also reduced soluble As(III) from 374.9 ± 18.8 μg/L to 185.9 ± 16.8 μg/L and As(V) from 119.8 ± 13.0 μg/L to 56.4 ± 2.6 μg/L at a pH value of 4-5. The treatment using 4% (w/w) amendments did not result in sufficient As immobilization in highly contaminated soils; high soluble arsenic concentrations (upto193.0 μg/L)were found in the soil leachate, particularly in the form of As(III), indicating a significant potential to pollute shallow groundwater aquifers. This study provides valuable insights into the use of cost-effective and readily available materials for soil remediation and investigates the mechanisms underlying arsenic immobilization in acidic soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dioxin removal from contaminated soils by ethanol washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Sofia; Lind, Henrik; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential utility of ethanol washing for remediating soils contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as a cost-efficient alternative to conventional remediation methods of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. Initially, screening experiments were performed with a two-level full factorial design to examine the effects of temperature, extraction time and ethanol concentration on the removal efficiency. The screening experiments showed that the ethanol concentration was the most important parameter. In addition, repeated washing cycles considerably improved the results. Ethanol washing conditions were then selected (10 wash cycles with 75% ethanol at 60 degrees C), and applied to four soils with different soil characteristics and contamination levels to test the robustness of the selected method. Treatment efficiencies of 81% and 85% were obtained for a lightly contaminated sandy-silty soil and a highly contaminated clay soil rich in graphite particles, respectively. Even higher treatment efficiencies (> or = 97%) were obtained for two other highly contaminated soils, one of which contained high amounts of organic matter. PCDD/Fs were found to both dissolve in the solvent and migrate into it as species adsorbed to particles. The relative contributions of these mechanisms and the overall efficiency of the removal seem to depend on contaminant concentration, the types of carbon in the soil matrix and the particle size distribution. The study shows that ethanol washing has effective remediation potential for a variety of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Bioremediation of lead contaminated soil with Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Peng, Weihua; Jia, Yingying; Lu, Lin; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation with microorganisms is a promising technique for heavy metal contaminated soil. Rhodobacter sphaeroides was previously isolated from oil field injection water and used for bioremediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soil in the present study. Based on the investigation of the optimum culturing conditions and the tolerance to Pb, we employed the microorganism for the remediation of Pb contaminated soil simulated at different contamination levels. It was found that the optimum temperature, pH, and inoculum size for R. sphaeroides is 30-35 °C, 7, and 2 × 10(8) mL(-1), respectively. Rhodobacter sphaeroides did not remove the Pb from soil but did change its speciation. During the bioremediation process, more available fractions were transformed to less accessible and inert fractions; in particular, the exchangeable phase was dramatically decreased while the residual phase was substantially increased. A wheat seedling growing experiment showed that Pb phytoavailability was reduced in amended soils. Results inferred that the main mechanism by which R. sphaeroides treats Pb contaminated soil is the precipitation formation of inert compounds, including lead sulfate and lead sulfide. Although the Pb bioremediation efficiency on wheat was not very high (14.78% root and 24.01% in leaf), R. sphaeroides remains a promising alternative for Pb remediation in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  19. To study the effects of groundwater contamination in Kasur due to Nallah Rohi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghumman, A.R.; Shamim, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a worldwide known problem. Pakistan, being a developing country, is also facing the problem created by groundwater pollution. Disposal of domestic wastes and agricultural treatments has been reported to be a considerable factor for causing the pollution, especially the groundwater contamination. In the rural areas of Pakistan, latrines and septic tanks have become common because of the advancement in the living standards. All of the domestic wastes is disposed off into the ponds or nearby passing streams. In the similar fashion, drains in the big and well developed cities of Pakistan lead the domestic waste, along with the industrial waste, into the passing by streams, canals and rivers. All of such disposed off waste is untreated because of the lack of legislation and its improper implementation. The contaminated water affects the health of human beings and also destroys the crops when this water is used for irrigation. So this paper deals with the effects and condition of the disposal of the harmful chemicals, which ultimately through seepage reach the groundwater and make it hazardous. Also, the lateral distances of the contaminated groundwater were found out. For experimentation, major city of Kasur which is in the vicinity of Nullah Rohi, was selected. All the wastes including both the industrial as well as domestic, of the whole area, is disposed off into the Nullah. The percolation of the harmful chemicals and its mixing with groundwater has resulted in the hazardous effects on the inhabitants of the area on the irrigation land as well. So the water in the vicinity, at different locations was tested and the degree of contamination and the lateral distances of contaminated water were also worked out. (author)

  20. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION AROUND RECLAIMED MUNICIPAL LANDFILL – OTWOCK AREA, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Porowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted around reclaimed landfill, located on the suburb of Otwock, around 25 km south-west of Warsaw. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of groundwater and to determine the landfill impact on the chemical composition of groundwater downgrading from the landfill. Otwock landfill is located in very permeable area, where leachate quickly seeps into groundwater and plays a key role in controlling redox condition (and chemical composition of groundwater of the downgradient area. High concentrations of HCO3-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fetot. as well as DOC in groundwater downgradient from the landfill (in comparison to background water likely indicate that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Currently, the load of contamination is released from landfill periodically and slowly moves (70 m/y in the aquifer along the flow direction. The effect of distance of the piezometer from the pollution source was also investigated. As expected, water from the nearest piezometer to the landfill showed the highest values of contaminant (water temperature, specific electrical conductivity, sodium, iron, chlorides (except for summer and autumn analysis and calcium (except for winter analysis. Chemical status of groundwater downgradient from the landfill is poor.

  1. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater. PMID:25374935

  2. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  3. Quantifying Diffuse Contamination: Method and Application to Pb in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2017-06-20

    A new method for detecting and quantifying diffuse contamination at the continental to regional scale is based on the analysis of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). It uses cumulative probability (CP) plots for spatially representative data sets, preferably containing >1000 determinations. Simulations demonstrate how different types of contamination influence elemental CDFs of different sample media. It is found that diffuse contamination is characterized by a distinctive shift of the low-concentration end of the distribution of the studied element in its CP plot. Diffuse contamination can be detected and quantified via either (1) comparing the distribution of the contaminating element to that of an element with a geochemically comparable behavior but no contamination source (e.g., Pb vs Rb), or (2) comparing the top soil distribution of an element to the distribution of the same element in subsoil samples from the same area, taking soil forming processes into consideration. Both procedures are demonstrated for geochemical soil data sets from Europe, Australia, and the U.S.A. Several different data sets from Europe deliver comparable results at different scales. Diffuse Pb contamination in surface soil is estimated to be contamination sources and can be used to efficiently monitor diffuse contamination at the continental to regional scale.

  4. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

  5. Biological treatment of contaminated soils under saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muerhy, A.; Baugh, K.D.; Bumgardner, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory simulation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of land treatment as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil treatment associated with the closure of an oil field waste disposal site. The constituents of concern in soils at the site were oil and grease (2-4%), polynuclear aromatics (PAHs) and volatile organics. In addition to the contaminants, the soils were saline. This paper reports that the treatability study results demonstrated that biodegradation of the hydrocarbon contaminants in the saline soil was enhanced by the addition of a commercially available, hydrocarbon-degrading, microbial culture tolerant of high salt concentrations. Contaminant removal by land treatment, including the biodegradation of the PAHs, was enhanced utilizing microbial augmentation in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant addition. The simulation study demonstrated that land treatment achieved the necessary removal of oil and grease. PAHs and VOCs for site closure

  6. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.K.

    1995-03-01

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location

  7. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.

  8. Using ERS spaceborne microwave soil moisture observations to predict groundwater head in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; De Jong, S.M.; Van Geer, F.C.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is to investigate the possibility of using spaceborne remote sensing data for groundwater head prediction. Remotely-sensed soil moisture time series of SWI (Soil Water Index) derived from ERS (European Remote Sensing) scatterometers are used to predict groundwater

  9. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  10. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  11. Bio-mechanical removing of contaminated soils: a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Maubert, H.; Schulte, E.

    1992-01-01

    If, in spite of safety precautions, a major nuclear accident would occur, countermeasures should be taken to attenuate the impact of radioactive deposits. The European RESSAC program (REhabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an ACcident) aims at studying actions for normal life return in contaminated zones. One of them, called the Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) associates the biological action of turfing plants, producing a dense root-network capable to trap the top contaminated soil particles, and the mechanical efficiency of a turf harvester which can remove only 1 cm of soil. This performance, not associated with other techniques of soil removal such as scrapers or bulldozers, leads to minimize the waste production. The D.V.N is a vegetal cover spread over the contaminated soil, using the hydro-seeding technique. The growing plants are forming a pleasant lawn which may have a positive impact on the public opinion compared to techniques using bitumen mixtures to cover the soil. Field experiments involving labelling solutions of stable molybdenum salts simulating the contamination of the soil have shown that this technique can be applied as well on homogeneous cultivated soil surfaces as on roughly ploughed soils. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Degradation of tetraethyllead in leaded gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, L.; Jing, W.; Thomas, J.; Mulroy, P.

    1995-01-01

    For over 50 years, since its introduction in 1923 by General Motors, tetraethyllead (TEL) was the major antiknock agent used in leaded gasoline. Since the middle of 1970, use of leaded gasoline in automobiles was gradually phased out. The main objective of this study is to determine the degradation rates and metabolites of TEL in gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils. TEL in uncontaminated soils disappeared rapidly. Ionic triethyllead (TREL) was the major organolead metabolite in these soils, with ionic diethyllead (DEL) being the minor product. Nonsterile soils, but not autoclaved soils, had limited capacity to mineralize 14 C-TEL to 14 CO 2 , H 2 0, and Pb 2+ . Unlike TEL in uncontaminated soils, petroleum hydrocarbons protected TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils from being degraded. Both disappearance and mineralization rates of TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils decreased with the increase in gasoline concentration. It appears that TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils is relatively stable until the level of petroleum hydrocarbons falls below a critical value. TEL is then rapidly degraded. Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms may be involved, to some extent, in the degradation of TEL

  13. Bioavailability aspects of hydrophobic contaminant degradation in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Peltola, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on bioavailability of organic soil contaminants in the context of bioremediation of soil contaminated with volatile or non-volatile hydrophobic pollutants. Bioavailability and biodegradation was studied from four viewpoints: (i) Improvement of bioavailability and biodegradation of volatile hydrocarbons in contained bioremediation systems at laboratory - and pilot-scale. (ii) Improvement of bioavailability of non-volatile, hydrophobic compounds in such systems. (iii) B...

  14. Life cycle assessment of Polychlorinated Biphenyl contaminated soil remediation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Busset, Guillaume; Sangely, Matthieu; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Thannberger, Laurent; Sablayrolles, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Goal and scope. A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate the environmental impacts of the remediation of industrial soils contaminated by polychlorobiphenyl (PCB). Two new bioremediation treatment options were compared with the usual incineration process. In this attributional LCA, only secondary impacts were considered. The contaminated soil used for the experiments contained 200 mg of PCB per kg. Methods. Three off-site treatments scenarios were studied: 1) bioremediation...

  15. Advances in treatment methods for uranium contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Water and soil contaminated with actinides, such as uranium and plutonium, are an environmental concern at most U.S. Department of Energy sites, as well as other locations in the world. Remediation actions are on going at many sites, and plans for cleanup are underway at other locations. This paper will review work underway at Clemson University in the area of treatment and remediation of soil and water contaminated with actinide elements. (author)

  16. Phytoextraction of Cadmium from Contaminated Soil Using Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    OpenAIRE

    , Hatice Daghan; , Andreas Schaeffer; , Rainer Fischer; , Ulrich Commandeur

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic metals from contaminated soil or water, represents one of the most promising, effective and technically affordable solutions. Transgenic tobacco plants, constitutively expressing Metallothionein H (MTII) genes from Chinese hamster (Ch) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc), were designed for phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil. The recombinant proteins were targeted to the vacuole, as conŞrmed by immunogold labelling. In this stu...

  17. Groundwater flow model and its implications for contaminant behavior

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What sets hydrogeology apart from many of the other geosciences is an emphasis on treating problems mathematically. The mathematical approach involves representing a groundwater process by an equation and solving that equation. These equations are fundamental to the quantitative treatment of flow and provide the ...

  18. Urban groundwater contamination by residues of UV filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Vàzquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesus; Pujades, Estanislao; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2014-04-30

    The occurrence and fate of UV filters (UV F) in an urban aquifer in correlation with (1) the spatial distribution of UV F in Barcelona's groundwater, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the physicochemical properties of the target compounds, (4) the recharge sources, and (5) the redox conditions of the Barcelona aquifers, were studied for the first time. The highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected UV F were observed in an aquifer recharged by a polluted river (around 55 ng/L in SAP-4). In contrast, the urbanized areas had lower concentrations (around 20 ng/L in MPSP-1). Two pathways can be identified for UV F to enter the aquifers: (1) leakage of row sewage from the sewage network in urbanized areas and (2) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents discharged into the river. Measured concentrations of UV F were significantly much lower than those estimated from the waste water proportion in groundwater samples suggesting that UV F might undergo transformation processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial Community Dynamics in Dichloromethane-Contaminated Groundwater Undergoing Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wright

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled release of the industrial solvent methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane (DCM, has resulted in widespread groundwater contamination in the United States. Here we investigate the role of groundwater bacterial communities in the natural attenuation of DCM at an undisclosed manufacturing site in New Jersey. This study investigates the bacterial community structure of groundwater samples differentially contaminated with DCM to better understand the biodegradation potential of these autochthonous bacterial communities. Bacterial community analysis was completed using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of groundwater samples (n = 26 with DCM contamination ranging from 0.89 to 9,800,000 μg/L. Significant DCM concentration-driven shifts in overall bacterial community structure were identified between samples, including an increase in the abundance of Firmicutes within the most contaminated samples. Across all samples, a total of 6,134 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified, with 16 taxa having strong correlations with increased DCM concentration. Putative DCM degraders such as Pseudomonas, Dehalobacterium and Desulfovibrio were present within groundwater across all levels of DCM contamination. Interestingly, each of these taxa dominated specific DCM contamination ranges respectively. Potential DCM degrading lineages yet to be cited specifically as a DCM degrading organisms, such as the Desulfosporosinus, thrived within the most heavily contaminated groundwater samples. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial taxa with DCM-degrading potential were present at the study site. Our 16S rRNA gene survey serves as the first in situ bacterial community assessment of contaminated groundwater harboring DCM concentrations ranging over seven orders of magnitude. Diversity analyses revealed known as well as potentially novel DCM degrading taxa within defined DCM concentration

  20. Contamination of Groundwater Resources by Pit Latrines in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery and Innovation ... Organisations concerned with community water projects should either devise remedial measures to bacteria contamination or abandon the concept of community hand pump projects in favour of deeper sources that cannot be contaminated by near-surface sources, or get water from more distant ...

  1. Testing of multistep soil washing for radiocesium-contaminated soil containing plant matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funakawa, Masafumi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Okuda, Nobuyasu

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination work following radiocesium exposure requires a vast reduction in the amount of contaminated soil generated. The current study subjected 4 types of contaminated soil with different properties to multistep soil washing under the same conditions. This study also determined the effectiveness of radiocesium decontamination and the extent to which the amount of contaminated soil was reduced. In addition, the effectiveness of plant matter separation, adsorbent addition, and grinding as part of multistep soil washing was determined using the same contaminated soil. Results of testing indicated that the rate of radiocesium decontamination ranged from 73.6 to 89.2% and the recovery rate ranged from 51.5 to 84.2% for twice-treated soil, regardless of the soil properties or cesium level. Plant matter in soil had a high radiocesium level. However, there was little plant matter in our soil sample. Therefore, plant matter separation had little effect on the improvement in the percentage of radiocesium decontamination of twice-treated soil. Soil surface grinding improved the rate of radiocesium decontamination of twice-treated soil. However, radiocesium in soil tightly bound with minerals in the soil; thus, the addition of an adsorbent also failed to improve the rate of radiocesium decontamination. (author)

  2. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  3. [Spatial and temporal variability of nitrate contaminant in groundwater in Jinfo Mt. area, Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Peng; Shen, Li-Cheng; Xiao, Qiong

    2011-11-01

    The geochemical background of nitrate in groundwater in Jinfo Mt. area was determined, and spatial and temporal variability of nitrate contaminant was analyzed using geochemical, statistical and GIS methods. Twenty-three samples were collected from groundwater discharge points in the study area during 1976-1977, 2004-2006 and 2009, and mass concentration of nitrate in groundwater was tested. The results showed that the geochemical background of nitrate in groundwater in study area was in the range of 0.72-2. 00 mg x L(-1), and the threshold of anomaly was 3.20 mg x L(-1). During 2004-2006 and 2009, the average values of nitrate concentration in groundwater in Jinfo Mt. natural reserve were 2.08, 2.67, 2.59 and 3.92 mg x L(-1); and were 39.08, 25.46, 17.99 and 13.73 mg x L(-1) in the groundwater out of the reserve; the average over-limit rates (standard limit NO3(-) -N groundwater in study area were changing over time, but districts with low nitrate concentration in groundwater in study area were distributed along Jinfo Mt. natural reserve. The application of environmental policy measures and industrial restructuring implemented were reasonable and successful, which had a positive effect to environmental protection.

  4. Influence of groundwater and wastewater irrigation on lead accumulation in soil and vegetables: Implications for health risk assessment and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Sana; Shahid, Muhammad; Dumat, Camille; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Gul Bakhat, Hafiz Faiq Sidique; Abbas, Ghulam; Murtaza, Behzad; Javeed, Hafiz Muhammad Rashid

    2017-11-02

    The current study evaluated the effect of groundwater and wastewater irrigation on lead (Pb) accumulation in soil and vegetables, and its associated health implications. A pot experiment was conducted in which spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus), and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) were irrigated with groundwater and wastewaters containing varying concentrations of Pb. Lead contents were measured in wastewaters, soils and root and shoot of vegetables. We also measured health risk index (HRI) associated with the use of vegetables irrigated by wastewaters. Results revealed that Pb contents in groundwater and wastewater samples (range: 0.18-0.31 mg/L) were below the permissible limits (0.5 mg/L) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Application of Pb-containing groundwater and wastewater increased Pb concentration in soil and vegetables. Lead concentrations in all soils ranged from 10 to 31 mg/kg and were below the permissible limits of 300 mg/kg set by the European Union. Significant Pb enrichment was observed in the soils whereby all types of vegetables were grown and assessed for Pb risk. Our data showed that Pb contents, in all three vegetables (21-28 mg/kg DW), were higher than the permissible Pb limit of FAO (5 mg/kg Dry Weight (DW)). The HRI values were > 1.0 for radish and cauliflower. It is proposed that Vehari city wastewater/groundwater must be treated prior to its use for irrigation to avoid vegetable contamination by Pb, and as such for reducing Pb-induced human health risk.

  5. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  6. enhanced ex-situ bioremediation of soil contaminated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Ex situ bioremediation is an attractive and often cost-effective technology for the clean-up of organics-contaminated sites; however, it often requires extended treatment time under field conditions. Electrokinetic bioremediation is an emerging technology to remediate organic-contaminated soil. Thus, the objective of this study ...

  7. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by spent diesel oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with spent diesel oil at 5, 10 and 15% (v/w) level of contamination over a period of one and two months of incubation. Methodology and results: A pure culture of P. pulmonarius was obtained from the Plant physiology ...

  8. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snow is a highly reflecting object found naturally on the Earth and its albedo is highly influenced by the amount and type of contamination. In the present study, two major types of contaminants (soil and coal) have been used to understand their effects on snow reflectance in the Himalayan region. These con- taminants were ...

  9. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crystal gauge with magnifying glass was used for estimating grain size of snow. Thermometer was used for snow skin temperature and air temperature measurements. 4. Methodology. In the present study, two types of contaminantssoil and coal – were used in varying amount of contamination in two categories during the ...

  10. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelles, G.; Pochintesta, L.; Ehrlich, S.

    2008-01-01

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  11. Land-use change and costs to rural households: a case study in groundwater nitrate contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeler, Bonnie L; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Loss of grassland from conversion to agriculture threatens water quality and other valuable ecosystem services. Here we estimate how land-use change affects the probability of groundwater contamination by nitrate in private drinking water wells. We find that conversion of grassland to agriculture from 2007 to 2012 in Southeastern Minnesota is expected to increase the future number of wells exceeding 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen by 45% (from 888 to 1292 wells). We link outputs of the groundwater well contamination model to cost estimates for well remediation, well replacement, and avoidance behaviors to estimate the potential economic value lost due to nitrate contamination from observed land-use change. We estimate $0.7–12 million in costs (present values over a 20 year horizon) to address the increased risk of nitrate contamination of private wells. Our study demonstrates how biophysical models and economic valuation can be integrated to estimate the welfare consequences of land-use change. (letter)

  12. Uptake by Plants of Radiostrontium from Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. J.

    1965-01-01

    In a recent report from this department it was shown that the extractability of radiostrontium from contaminated soil samples was effectively reduced by heat treatment and by the addition of phosphate to the soil. It was pointed out that, under emergency conditions, heat-treatment of the contamin......In a recent report from this department it was shown that the extractability of radiostrontium from contaminated soil samples was effectively reduced by heat treatment and by the addition of phosphate to the soil. It was pointed out that, under emergency conditions, heat......-treatment of the contaminated soil surface and heavy phosphate application might thus reduce the uptake by plants of radiostrontium more efficiently than liming, which is only effective in soils of low calcium status. In the investigation reviewed here the influence of heat treatment and superphosphate application on the plant...... uptake of radiostrontium was examined in pot experiments. For comparison the effect of applying calcium carbonate to the contaminated soil surface was also determined....

  13. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Arable Soils In Central Bekaa Plain, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.; Jomaa, I.; Khawlie, M.; Mýýuller, H. W.; Moller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The study area is located in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon totaling about 12753 ha. It lies between the eastern foothills of Mount Lebanon chain and expands across the Litani River towards the foothills of the eastern Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Its characteristics, i.e. natural terrain, climate and socio-economy, make it vulnerable especially due to soil pollution. This paper tries to identify the nature and level of soil pollution by heavy metals. Valley slopes represent a complex landform and lithology that contributed to the formation of different soil. Agriculture in the plain is being practiced mainly with cash, field crops and vegetables. Throughout the central part of the plain, groundwater table is abundant and relatively high (<1.0 m. locally) that multiplies the vulnerability of the soil-groundwater system. There are different sources of pollution, such as industrial (tanneries, batteries, leather manufacturing), solid and liquid wastes, and agricultural due to uncontrolled application of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Meanwhile, no local criteria for land contamination with heavy metals are adapted yet. A total of 131 soil samples from 41 soil profiles were collected from sites representing different soil types and cropping systems. Additionally, five water samples were collected to get tentative idea about the extent of water contamination from surface and groundwater bodies. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties and wet digested in aqua regia for the determination of the heavy metal content on the atomic absorption. Results of the total heavy metal content in the soils of the Central Bekaa showed normal values for main metals except Cr and Ni, which showed a relatively high level reaching, according to Eckamn Kloke, 1993-2000 criteria the tolerance level II. This is hazardous in an area of intensive vegetable production designed for fresh consumption. Point sources of pollution are equally found for Pb and Cd. The level

  14. Development of a microbial contamination susceptibility model for private domestic groundwater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Paul D.; Misstear, Bruce D.; Gill, Laurence W.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater quality analyses were carried out on samples from 262 private sources in the Republic of Ireland during the period from April 2008 to November 2010, with microbial quality assessed by thermotolerant coliform (TTC) presence. Assessment of potential microbial contamination risk factors was undertaken at all sources, and local meteorological data were also acquired. Overall, 28.9% of wells tested positive for TTC, with risk analysis indicating that source type (i.e., borehole or hand-dug well), local bedrock type, local subsoil type, groundwater vulnerability, septic tank setback distance, and 48 h antecedent precipitation were all significantly associated with TTC presence (p source-specific design parameters were also significantly associated with bacterial presence. Hierarchical logistic regression with stepwise parameter entry was used to develop a private well susceptibility model, with the final model exhibiting a mean predictive accuracy of >80% (TTC present or absent) when compared to an independent validation data set. Model hierarchies of primary significance are source design (20%), septic tank location (11%), hydrogeological setting (10%), and antecedent 120 h precipitation (2%). Sensitivity analysis shows that the probability of contamination is highly sensitive to septic tank setback distance, with probability increasing linearly with decreases in setback distance. Likewise, contamination probability was shown to increase with increasing antecedent precipitation. Results show that while groundwater vulnerability category is a useful indicator of aquifer susceptibility to contamination, its suitability with regard to source contamination is less clear. The final model illustrates that both localized (well-specific) and generalized (aquifer-specific) contamination mechanisms are involved in contamination events, with localized bypass mechanisms dominant. The susceptibility model developed here could be employed in the appropriate location

  15. Enhanced biodegradation of TPH and PAHs in diesel contaminated soils through bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, D.A.; Baker, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    A bioventing system was designed and installed to enhance the natural biodegradation of diesel fuel residuals in soils at an underground storage tank (UST) facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This system was designed to operate in conjunction with a groundwater pump and treatment system which exposes the more heavily contaminated soils at the capillary fringe to ambient air supplied to the subsurface at a low flow rate from a single vertical injection point. Results of a pilot study conducted at the facility indicated that an initial average biodegradation rate of 2,100 milligrams of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) per kilogram of soil per year could be achieved, making enhanced in situ biodegradation a feasible and cost-effective remedial alternative for soil cleanup. Oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrocarbon vapor concentrations and pressure responses were measured in vapor monitoring points constructed at various depth intervals and varying distances from the central air injection point. Results indicate that the system is capable of providing sufficient oxygen to maintain microbial biodegradation of residual petroleum hydrocarbons within a radius of 70 feet of the injection point. Soil samples were collected during the installation of the vapor monitoring points and analyzed for TPH and PAH (Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon) concentrations to provide baseline analytical data from the areas of highest known contamination. A soil sampling program will be implemented to independently confirm the amount of TPH and PAH reduction that has occurred after the initial six-months of full-scale bioventing operation

  16. Bioventing feasibility study of low permeability soils for remediation of petroleum contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackney, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    A site characterization of leaking underground gasoline and diesel storage tanks at the University of Idaho, West Farm Operations Center, identified approximately 800 cubic yards of petroleum-contaminated soil exceedingly regulatory action limits of 100 ppm TPH. Bioventing, a combination of in situ soil vapor extraction and microbial degradation, was selected as a remedial alternative on the basis of the presumably unsaturated paleo-soil with a 45-foot depth to groundwater, and a microbial study which concluded that indigenous petroleum-degrading microorganisms existed throughout the contamination. Soil vapor extraction tests were conducted by applying a 60-inch water column vacuum to a soil vapor extraction well and monitoring pneumatic pressure drawdown in 12 adjacent pneumatic piezometers and vertically distributed piezometer clusters. Pressure drawdown vs time data plots indicated that air permeability is inadequate everywhere at the site except at 20 feet below ground surface. Low soil permeability creates conditions for a perched water table that was documented during the investigation, resulting in unsatisfactory conditions for in situ bioventing. 8 refs., 14 figs

  17. Estimating fate and transport of multiple contaminants in the vadose zone using a multi-layered soil column and three-phase equilibrium partitioning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, Gregory G.

    2007-01-01

    Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and pollute drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminants. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: decay processes, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use. (authors)

  18. Assessment of seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination on the groundwater quality in the Korba coastal plain of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghibi, Adel; Tarhouni, Jamila; Zouhri, Lahcen

    2013-11-01

    cations exchange. Second, a common contaminant identified in groundwater is dissolved nitrogen in the form of nitrate. The average nitrate concentration of the aquifer is about 30.44 mg/l, but contents as great as about 50 mg/l occur in the central region where seawater has been identified. Nitrate survey reveals that nitrate concentration above the drinking water standard (50 mg/l) covered an area of 122.64 km2, which accounts for 28% of the whole area. Irrigation with the nitrogen fertilizers, domestic sewage, industrial wastewater and movement of contaminants in areas of high hydraulic gradients within the drawdown cones probably are responsible for localized peaks of the nitrate concentration. It is suggested that risk assessment of nitrate pollution is useful for a better management of groundwater resources, preventing soil salinisation and minimizing nitrate pollution in groundwater.

  19. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soma Giri

    2017-06-07

    Jun 7, 2017 ... monitoring of the agricultural soils of the area and development of proper management strategies to reduce the metal pollution. Keywords. Agricultural soil; heavy metals; copper mining areas; multivariate analysis; geo-accumu- lation index; Nemerow index. 1. Introduction. The contamination of agricultural ...

  20. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  1. removal of zinc and cadmium ions from contaminated soils with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. E-A. Bendaha1*

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... The presence of low concentrations of heavy metals in the soils are known to have potential impact on ... in soil and as metals in the contaminated sites are not degraded, they must be either immobilized or ..... Figure 7 shows Zn remediation by flotation using rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas.

  2. Bacteriological analysis of spent engine oil contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriological analysis of soil contaminated with spent engine oil (SEO) planted with cowpea was investigated. The aim of this study was to detect the microbial degradation of SEO in soil and how it affects the microbial activity and the effects of SEO on the growth of cowpea. SEO collected from a mechanic workshop in ...

  3. Earthworm survival in used engine oil contaminated soil spiked with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil pollution is a worldwide prevalent threat to environmental sustainability and the remediation of oil contaminated soils, sediments, surface and underground water is a major challenge for environmental research.Earthworms are an important component of the soil biota and their response to oil pollution needs to be better ...

  4. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and recommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and. Zn using ...

  5. Remediation of soil contaminated with toxic organic compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms, especially genetically modified microorganisms have continued to attract attention as a safer and environmentally friendly alternative in the bioremediation of contaminated environments such as soil and water bodies. Soil pollution by organic compounds such as pesticides, industrial and agricultural ...

  6. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...

  7. Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Tel: +81-11-706-6949. Fax: +81-11-706-5105. drinking water and inhaling air or soil contaminated by .... washed in 3% HNO3 and rinsed at least twice with distilled water. One gram of each soil or sediment sample ... using a mercury analysis system MA-2000 (Nippon Instruments. Corp., Tokyo, Japan) after preparation of ...

  8. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  9. Biodegradation of PAHs by fungi in contaminated-soil containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the presence of cadmium and nickel in the soil affected the activity of the enzymes produced by the fungi, no significant decrease in PAH degradation was found in the contaminated soil containing 50 or 100 mg kg-1 of Cd and Ni. However, at 300 and 500 mg kg-1, degradation of the PAHs by the fungi was ...

  10. Remediation in Situ of Hydrocarbons by Combined Treatment in a Contaminated Alluvial Soil due to an Accidental Spill of LNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination represents an environmental issue which has become extremely important in the last decades due to the diffusion of industrial activities. Accidents during transport of dangerous materials and fuels may cause severe pollution. The present paper describes the criteria of the actions which were operated to remediate the potential risk and observed negative effects on groundwater and soil originating from an accidental spill of diesel fuel from a tank truck. With the aim to evaluate the quality of the involved environmental matrices in the “emergency” phase, in the following “safety” operation and during the remediation action, a specific survey on hydrocarbons, light and heavy, was carried out in the sand deposits soil. Elaboration of collected data allows us to observe the movement of pollutants in the unsaturated soil. The remediation action was finalized to improve the groundwater and soil quality. The former was treated by a so called “pump and treat” system coupled with air sparging. A train of three different technologies was applied to the unsaturated soil in a sequential process: soil vapour extraction, bioventing and enhanced bioremediation. Results showed that the application of sequential remediation treatments allowed us to obtain a state of quality in unsaturated soil and groundwater as required by Italian law.

  11. Ethanol-enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.; Ong, S.K.; Golchin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is highly challenging because of the low solubility and strong sorption properties of PAHs to soil organic matter. Two PAH-contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were pretreated with ethanol to enhance the bioavailability of PAH compounds. The biodegradation of various PAHs in the pretreated soils was assessed using soil slurry reactor studies. The time needed to degrade 90% of the total PAH in the pretreated soils was at least 5 days faster than soils that were not pretreated with ethanol. A distinctive advantage with the pretreatment of soils with ethanol was the enhanced removal of 4-ring compounds such as chrysene. Approximately 90% of chrysene in the ethanol-treated soils were removed within 15 days while soils without pretreatment needed more than 30 days to obtain similar removal levels. After 35 days of biotreatment in the slurry reactors, approximately 40% of benzo(a)pyrene were removed in the ethanol-treated soils while only 20% were removed in soils not pretreated with ethanol

  12. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  13. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contamination from unsaturated soil: Field application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ technique under development at Sandia National Laboratories for removal of ionic contaminants from soil. While to date most other studies of this technique have focused on saturated soils, usually clays, the work at Sandia has been to extend the process to unsaturated sandy soils typical of arid regions. The impetus for this study is a chromate plume located beneath an old Sandia chemical waste landfill. Working in unsaturated soils is complicated by moisture control requirements, both to prevent undesired hydraulic transport of contamination outside the treatment zone and to optimize soil properties for efficient electrokinetic remediation. Two field tests will be discussed. First, a field test in clean soil is in progress to demonstrate moisture control with the Sandia electrode system. The second field demonstration, planned to begin the Fall of 1995, involves chromate removal from a in a chemical waste landfill

  14. Effects of past copper contamination and soil structure on copper leaching from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo, M; Møldrup, Per; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    structure on the movement of water and Cu in a long-term polluted soil. Undisturbed soil cores collected along a Cu gradient (from about 20 to about 3800 mg Cu kg−1 soil) were scanned using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Leaching experiments were performed to analyze tracer transport, colloid leaching......Copper contamination affects biological, chemical, and physical soil properties and associated ecological functions. Changes in soil pore organization as a result of Cu contamination can dramatically affect flow and contaminant transport in polluted soils. This study assessed the influence of soil......, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Cu losses. The 5% arrival time (t0.05) and apparent dispersivity (λapp) for tracer breakthrough were calculated by fitting the experimental data to a nonparametric, double-lognormal probability density function. Soil bulk density, which did not follow the Cu gradient...

  15. Fingerprinting groundwater pollution in catchments with contrasting contaminant sources using microorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne E; Lapworth, Dan J; Thomas, Jenny; Edwards, Laura

    2014-01-15

    Evaluating the occurrence of microorganics helps to understand sources and processes which may be controlling the transport and fate of emerging contaminants (ECs). A study was carried out at the contrasting instrumented environmental observatory sites at Oxford, on the peri-urban floodplain gravel aquifer of the River Thames and Boxford, in the rural valley of the River Lambourn on the chalk aquifer, in Southern England to explore the use of ECs to fingerprint contaminant sources and flow pathways in groundwater. At Oxford compounds were typical of a local waste tip plume (not only plasticisers and solvents but also barbiturates and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)) and of the urban area (plasticisers and mood-enhancing drugs such as carbamazepine). At Boxford the results were different with widespread occurrence of agricultural pesticides, their metabolites and the solvent trichloroethene, as well as plasticisers, caffeine, butylated food additives, DEET, parabens and trace polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groups of compounds used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products of different provenance in the environment could be distinguished, i) historical household and medical waste, ii) long-term household usage persistent in groundwater and iii) current usage and contamination from surface water. Co-contaminant and degradation products can also indicate the likely source of contaminants. A cocktail of contaminants can be used as tracers to provide information on catchment pathways and groundwater/surface water interactions. A prominent feature in this study is the attenuation of many EC compounds in the hyporheic zone. © 2013.

  16. Soil contamination of heavy metals in the Katedan Industrial Development Area, Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, P K; Sorlie, J E; Murthy, N N; Sujatha, D; Reddy, G L N; Rudolph-Lund, Kim; Krishna, A K; Rama Mohan, K

    2008-05-01

    Studies on quantitative soil contamination due to heavy metals were carried out in Katedan Industrial Development Area (KIDA), south of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India under the Indo-Norwegian Institutional Cooperation Programme. The study area falls under a semi-arid type of climate and consists of granites and pegmatite of igneous origin belonging to the Archaean age. There are about 300 industries dealing with dyeing, edible oil production, battery manufacturing, metal plating, chemicals, etc. Most of the industries discharge their untreated effluents either on open land or into ditches. Solid waste from industries is randomly dumped along roads and open grounds. Soil samples were collected throughout the industrial area and from downstream residential areas and were analysed by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for fourteen trace metals and ten major oxides. The analytical data shows very high concentrations of lead, chromium, nickel, zinc, arsenic and cadmium through out the industrial area. The random dumping of hazardous waste in the industrial area could be the main cause of the soil contamination spreading by rainwater and wind. In the residential areas the local dumping is expected to be the main source as it is difficult to foresee that rain and wind can transport the contaminants from the industrial area. If emission to air by the smokestacks is significant, this may contribute to considerable spreading of contaminants like As, Cd and Pb throughout the area. A comparison of the results with the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (SQGL) show that most of the industrial area is heavily contaminated by As, Pb and Zn and local areas by Cr, Cu and Ni. The residential area is also contaminated by As and some small areas by Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The Cd contamination is detected over large area but it is not exceeding the SQGL value. Natural background values of As and Cr exceed the SQGL values and contribute significantly to the contamination in the residential area

  17. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  18. Correlation of BTEX levels and toxicity of condensate contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley, J.; Goudey, S.; Birkholz, D.; Hardisty, P.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of BTEX was determined for 60 groundwater samples collected from 6 gas plants in Western Canada, using conventional purge-and-trap GC/MS procedures. The gas plants were selected to cover different types of operations with different amine process chemicals employed for the sweetening of the raw sour-gas condensates. Aliquots of the ground water samples were subjected to toxicity screening tests, specifically, (a) bacterial luminescence (microtox); (b) daphnia mortality and (c) fathead minnow mortality. For the toxicity tests, sample handling procedures were developed to minimize the loss of volatile organics during the experiments. To account for possible losses, the levels of BTEX were monitored at the start and upon completion of these tests. The results indicated that the toxicity of the groundwater was in general, well correlated to the concentration of BTEX (primarily xylene). Approximately 5% of the samples, however, were observed to be toxic although the concentration of BTEX were below the method detection limit (1 microg/1). Thiophenic volatile organics were implicated for the latter. Based on the laboratory results, the remediation of BTEX is expected to correlate with the removal of the toxicity of the groundwater. These findings are of direct relevance to present technologies employed for remediation of ground water at the Sourgas plants

  19. Uranium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H seepage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1994-09-01

    For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. Soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of uranium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at thi