WorldWideScience

Sample records for contaminants primary treatment

  1. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F. [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F. [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  4. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  5. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  6. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  7. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  8. Remediation of contaminated soil by cement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript presents the most applicable remedial technologies for contaminated soil with focus on cement stabilisation/solidification treatment. These technologies are examined in the light of soil contamination with depleted uranium in the large area of south Serbia,after Nato bombing 1999. (author) [sr

  9. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil

  10. Uranium-contaminated soil pilot treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Michelotti, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A pilot treatment study is proving to be effective for the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil from a site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory by use of a two-step, zero-discharge, 100% recycle system. Candidate uranium-contaminated soils were characterized for uranium content, uranium speciation, organic content, size fractionization, and pH. Geochemical computer codes were used to forecast possible uranium leach scenarios. Uranium contamination was not homogenous throughout the soil. In the first step, following excavation, the soil was sorted by use of the ThemoNuclean Services segmented gate system. Following the sorting, uranium-contaminated soil was remediated in a containerized vat leach process by use of sodium-bicarbonate leach solution. Leach solution containing uranium-carbonate complexes is to be treated by use of ion-exchange media and then recycled. Following the treatment process the ion exchange media will be disposed of in an approved low-level radioactive landfill. It is anticipated that treated soils will meet Department of Energy site closure guidelines, and will be given open-quotes no further actionclose quotes status. Treated soils are to be returned to the excavation site. A volume reduction of contaminated soils will successfully be achieved by the treatment process. Cost of the treatment (per cubic meter) is comparable or less than other current popular methods of uranium-contamination remediation

  11. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  12. Treatment of HMX and RDX contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Card, R.E. Jr.; Autenrieth, R.

    1998-03-01

    HMX and RDX are often found in the soil, groundwater, and surface waters at facilities where they are manufactured as the result of negligent disposal methods. The toxicity of these compounds and their degradation products has led to concern about their fate in the environment and the potential for human exposure. HMX and RDX are recalcitrant in the environment with low rates of biodegradation and photolysis. Several methods of treating contaminated soils and waters have been developed and studied. Many of these technologies (i.e., carbon adsorption, oxidation, and chemical treatment) have been developed to treat munition plant wastewaters that are contaminated with explosives. These methods need to be adapted to remediate contaminated water. Other technologies such as bioremediation and composting are being developed as methods of remediating HMX and RDX contamination in a solid matrix. This report describes and evaluates each of these technologies. This report also describes the processes which affect HMX and RDX in the environment. The major transformation processes of RDX and HMX in the environment are biodegradation and photolysis. A major factor affecting the transport and treatment of RDX and HMX in soil-water environments is their sorption and desorption to soil particles. Finally, this report draws conclusions as to which treatment methods are currently most suitable for the remediation of contaminated soils and waters

  13. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  14. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2007-11-06

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  15. Primary encopresis: evaluation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Cathartic and behavioral treatment procedures for eliminating diurnal and nocturnal primary encopresis were investigated using a multiple-baseline design across four children. The dependent and independent variables measured were appropriate bowel movements, soiling accidents, independent toiletings, and cathartic use. Over 177 reliability observations (home visits) were conducted. For two of the children, treatment with cathartics and child-time remedied their soiling accidents and increased their independent toiletings in 8 to 11 weeks. While the cathartics and child-time increased the rate of appropriate bowel movements, they did not eliminate the soiling accidents with the other two children. Independent toiletings for these two children were achieved after 32 to 39 weeks of treatment when punishment procedures (positive practice, time-out, and hourly toilet sits) were incorporated and the suppositories were faded systematically. PMID:3733585

  16. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS' contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe +6 ) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern

  17. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  18. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  19. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Griffith (Linda); M. Cowan (Morton); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); R. Kohn (Robert); J. Puck (Jennifer); S.-Y. Pai (Sung-Yun); B. Ballard (Barbara); S.C. Bauer (Sarah); J. Bleesing (Jack); M. Boyle (Marcia); R.W. Brower (Ronald); R.H. Buckley (Rebecca); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); L.M. Burroughs (Lauri); F. Candotti (Fabio); A. Cant (Andrew); T. Chatila (Talal); C. Cunningham-Rundles (Charlotte); M.C. Dinauer (Mary); J. Dvorak (Jennie); A. Filipovich (Alexandra); L.A. Fleisher (Lee); H.B. Gaspar (Bobby); T. Gungor (Tayfun); E. Haddad (Elie); E. Hovermale (Emily); F. Huang (Faith); A. Hurley (Alan); M. Hurley (Mary); S.K. Iyengar (Sudha); E.M. Kang (Elizabeth); B.R. Logan (Brent); J.R. Long-Boyle (Janel); H. Malech (Harry); S.A. McGhee (Sean); S. Modell (Sieglinde); S. Modell (Sieglinde); H.D. Ochs (Hans); R.J. O'Reilly (Richard); R. Parkman (Robertson); D. Rawlings (D.); J.M. Routes (John); P. Shearer (P.); T.N. Small (Trudy); H. Smith (H.); K.E. Sullivan (Kathleen); P. Szabolcs (Paul); A.J. Thrasher (Adrian); D. Torgerson; P. Veys (Paul); K. Weinberg (Kenneth); J.C. Zuniga-Pflucker (Juan Carlos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency

  20. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint.

  1. Treatment of contaminated waste plastics material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.; Hitchcock, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive contaminated plastics material is treated by reducing it to uniform-sized debris and extruding it from a heated extruder into a sealed container in monolithic block form or as an in-fill matrix for other contaminated waste articles to create a substantially void-free sealed mass for disposal. Density adjusting fillers may be included. Extrusion may alternatively take place into a clean sealable plastics tube. (author)

  2. Primary treatment of diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Ranchod, Tushar; Fine,Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Tushar M Ranchod, Stuart L FineScheie Eye Institute, Department, of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a leading cause of vision loss in older Americans. Thermal laser treatment remains the mainstay of treatment for DME. Recently, alternative primary treatments for DME have been evaluated. These treatments include intravitreal injections of steroids as well as pharmaceuticals containing antibodies against vascular endothel...

  3. Treatment options for Primary CNS Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Altaf Ali; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Jabbar, Adnan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2018-03-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive brain tumour that is uniformly fatal. The rarity of the disease and the poor response to treatment makes it difficult to reach a consensus with regards to treatment options. In this review, the authors have discussed different treatment modalities used in the management of PCNSL including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, as well as the results of recent clinical trials on treatment options for PCNSL.

  4. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Faucette; J. Bognar; T. Broderick; T. Battaglia

    2000-01-01

    Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, a sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. Four new sorbents have been developed to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, with mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant is targeted at colloidal mercury that is not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicate good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and

  5. Transformation of primary contaminant in the environment of 30-km planned NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovich, E.L.; Zhigunova, L.N.; Makovskaya, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of work fulfillment ambient nitrogen-bearing level of primary contaminant and oncogenic N-nitrosodimethy-lamine as well as human biologic fluid were measured. It was registered, that there are primary contaminants which do not exceed maximum allowable concentration in external entities. However, concentration of secondary contaminant of N-nitrosodimethylamine in atmospheric air exceeds in up to 3 times agreed value of maximum allowable concentration. (authors).

  6. Electric discharge for treatment of trace contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, D. L.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A radio frequency glow discharge reactor is described for removing trace oxidizable contaminants from an oxygen bearing atmosphere. The reaction chamber is defined by an inner metal electrode facing a dielectric backed by an outer conductive electrode. In one embodiment, a conductive liquid forms the conductor of an outer electrode and cools the dielectric. A resonator coupled to a variable radio frequency source generates the high voltages for creating a glow discharge in the chamber at a predetermined pressure whereby the trace contaminants are oxidized into a few simple non-toxic products that may be easily recovered. The corresponding process for removal of trace contaminants from an oxygen-bearing atmosphere with high efficiency independent of the concentration level is also disclosed.

  7. Treatment of chromium contaminated soil using bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanti, Ipung Fitri; Putri, Tesya Paramita; Kurniawan, Setyo Budi

    2017-11-01

    Chromium contamination in soil occurs due to the disposal of chromium industrial wastewater or sludge that excess the quality standard. Chromium concentration in soil is ranged between 1 to 300 mg/kg while the maximum health standard is 2.5 mg/kg. Bioremediation is one of technology that could be used for remediating heavy metal contamination in soil. Bacteria have an ability to remove heavy metal from soil. One bacteria species that capable to remove chromium from soil is Bacillus subtilis. The aim of this research was to know the chromium removal percentage in contaminated soil by Bacillus subtilis. Artificial chromium contaminated soil was used by mixing 425gram sand and chromium trichloride solution. Concentration of chromium added into the spiked soil were 50, 75, and 100 mg/L. During 14 days, pH, soil temperature and soil moisture were tested. Initial and final number of bacterial colony and chromium concentration analysed. The result showed that the highest percentage of chromium removal was 11% at a chromium concentration of 75 mg/L

  8. Percutaneous drainage treatment of primary liver abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, H.; Pratschke, E.; Berr, F.; Fink, U.

    1989-02-01

    28 primary liver abscesses, including 9 amoebic abscesses, in 24 patients were drained percutaneously. Indication for drainage in amoebic abscesses was imminent rupture and clinical symptoms as pleural effusion, lung atelectasis and pain. 95% of the primary abscesses were cured by percutaneous drainage and systemic antibiotic treatment. There was one recurrence of abscess, which was managed surgically. Reasons for drainage failure were: tumour necrosis and tumour perforation with secondary liver abscess.

  9. Percutaneous drainage treatment of primary liver abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Pratschke, E.; Berr, F.; Fink, U.; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen

    1989-01-01

    28 primary liver abscesses, including 9 amoebic abscesses, in 24 patients were drained percutaneously. Indication for drainage in amoebic abscesses was imminent rupture and clinical symptoms as pleural effusion, lung atelectasis and pain. 95% of the primary abscesses were cured by percutaneous drainage and systemic antibiotic treatment. There was one recurrence of abscess, which was managed surgically. Reasons for drainage failure were: tumour necrosis and tumour perforation with secondary liver abscess. (orig.) [de

  10. A transportable system for radioactivity contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated water treatment system called SARRY for retrieval and recovery of water in operation at the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant since August 2011 has been modified by compacting the system size to develop a mobile system SARRY-Aqua that can process Cs-contaminated water (one ton/hour) to the level of 10 Bq/kg. Installing the system in a small container with dimensions conforming to the international standards facilitates transportation by truck and enables the contaminated water treatment occurring in a variety of locations. (S. Ohno)

  11. Electromigration of cadmium in contaminated soils driven by single and multiple primary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Songhu; Wu Chan; Wan Jinzhong; Lu Xiaohua

    2008-01-01

    This study tentatively used an iron (Fe) and carbon (C) primary cell, instead of dc electric power, to drive the electromigration of cadmium in contaminated soils. The addition of acid to C compartment increased the electric potential, while the addition of acid to Fe compartment had a slight influence on the potential. It was feasible using the primary cell to drive the electromigration of cadmium in kaolin. The electromigration efficiencies were highly related to the soil pH. Lower pH led to greater migration efficiency. The mechanisms involved the desorption of cadmium from soils to pore solution and the electromigration of cadmium in the pore solution. The desorption was critical to the electromigration process. The series of primary cells could expand the treatment area, but the electromigration efficiencies of cadmium in each cell were less than that achieved by single primary cell. Since the potential gradient produced by the primary cell was rather low, the electromigration rate of pollutants was very low and remediation duration was long. The application would be acceptable in some specific sites, such as acidic soils or artificially controlled acid conditions so that heavy metals have been desorbed from soils

  12. Benign meningiomas: primary treatment selection affects survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condra, Kellie S.; Buatti, John M.; Mendenhall, William M.; Friedman, William A.; Marcus, Robert B.; Rhoton, Albert L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of primary treatment selection on outcomes for benign intracranial meningiomas at the University of Florida. Methods and Materials: For 262 patients, the impact of age, Karnofsky performance status, pathologic features, tumor size, tumor location, and treatment modality on local control and cause-specific survival was analyzed (minimum potential follow-up, 2 years; median follow-up, 8.2 years). Extent of surgery was classified by Simpson grade. Treatment groups: surgery alone (n = 229), surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) (n = 21), RT alone (n = 7), radiosurgery alone (n = 5). Survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier method with univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: At 15 years, local control was 76% after total excision (TE) and 87% after subtotal excision plus RT (SE+RT), both significantly better (p = 0.0001) than after SE alone (30%). Cause-specific survival at 15 years was reduced after treatment with SE alone (51%), compared with TE (88%) or SE+RT (86%) (p = 0.0003). Recurrence after primary treatment portended decreased survival, independent of initial treatment group or salvage treatment selection (p = 0.001). Atypical pathologic features predicted reduced 15-year local control (54 vs. 71%) and cause-specific survival rates (57 vs. 86%). Multivariate analysis for cause-specific survival revealed treatment group (SE vs. others; p = 0.0001), pathologic features (atypical vs. typical; p = 0.0056), and Karnofsky performance status (≥80 vs. <80; p = 0.0153) as significant variables. Conclusion: Benign meningiomas are well managed by TE or SE+RT. SE alone is inadequate therapy and adversely affects cause-specific survival. Atypical pathologic features predict a poorer outcome, suggesting possible benefit from more aggressive treatment. Because local recurrence portends lower survival rates, primary treatment choice is important

  13. Radiolytic treatment of dioxin contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.A.; Hilarides, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that γ-radiolysis is a feasible method by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can be converted to products of negligible toxicity. In the presence of 25% water, 2.5% non-ionic surfactant and at a dose of 800 kGy greater than 98% destruction was achieved in a standard soil artificially contaminated with 100 ppb TCDD. By-product analysis has illustrated that the destruction occurs via step-wise reductive dechlorination producing a suite of lesser chlorinated dioxins. These results in combination with scavenger studies, target theory calculations and yields indicate that direct radiation effects account for the major route of destruction. Radiolysis has also been conducted on a real soil contaminated with TCDD and other chlorinated aromatic compounds verifying the results of model studies. Based on the data of these experiments some designs of batch gamma systems are considered and a discussion of estimated capital and operating costs associated with γ-radiolysis is presented. Given the high costs of the alternatives (i.e. incineration), radiolysis appears to be not only technically feasible, but it may also be economically competitive. (author)

  14. Safety of treatments for primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Jolien F.; Moerman, R. V.; Smitt, Nicole Sillevis; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is a disabling auto-immune disease, affecting exocrine glands and several organs.Areas covered: In this review we analyze the safety of therapies used in pSS. Symptomatic treatment is widely applied due to the good supportive effect and good safety

  15. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  16. Microwave/vacuum drying treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Zhang Yinsheng; Teng Hongdi; Zhu Chongde; Ge Lixin; Wang Jinliang

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a microwave/vacuum drying process for the treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of the process. The treatment process could completely remove the water from carcasses and effectively extend the preservation period. No radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  17. Advances in treatment methods for uranium contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Water and soil contaminated with actinides, such as uranium and plutonium, are an environmental concern at most U.S. Department of Energy sites, as well as other locations in the world. Remediation actions are on going at many sites, and plans for cleanup are underway at other locations. This paper will review work underway at Clemson University in the area of treatment and remediation of soil and water contaminated with actinide elements. (author)

  18. Treatment options for tank farms long-length contaminated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated a variety of treatment and disposal technologies for mixed waste (MW) meeting the following criteria: 1. Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank System (tank farms) equipment and other debris; 2. length greater than 12 feet; and contaminated with listed MW from the tank farms. This waste stream, commonly referred to as tank farms long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE), poses a unique and costly set of challenges during all phases of the waste management lifecycle

  19. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.; Hussen, Mustefa; Amy, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  20. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  1. Solidification treatment of thiophene and BTEX contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarlinski, S.J.; Kingham, N.W.; Blevins, J.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination at the McColl Superfund Site, located in Fullerton, California, is due to the disposal, in pits, of spent sulfuric acid sludge from the production of aviation fuel. A treatability study was performed to evaluate the electiveness of in situ solidification treatment of materials contaminated with high concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), as well as thiophene and other organic compounds. The contaminated materials were extremely acidic (pH<1) and had high organic and sulfur contents of greater than 70 percent and 10 percent, respectively. A total of 150 mixtures were screened to evaluate the effectiveness of 15 reagents. Based on the preliminary screening results, six mixtures were selected as being the most effective at treating the contaminated materials. Comprehensive evaluations of the candidate mixtures included (1) quantitative glovebag volatilization studies, (2) chemical characterization of the treated materials, (3) strength characterizations at multiple cure times of up to 60 days, (4) emissions monitoring of the treated materials at cure times of 7 and 14 days, and (5) the evaluation of oxidation reagents for treatment of the thiophene contamination. The treatability study demonstrated that solidification treatment is an effective alternative for remediation of the thiophene and BTEX contaminated materials

  2. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  3. Primary megaureter: outcome of surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.A.; Shaikh, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical outcome after surgical treatment of primary megaureter. Methodology: A retrospective analysis of 15 patients who had reimplantation of primary megaureters between January 2007 and April 2012 was performed. Patients who had additional urinary tract pathology were excluded from the study. Results: Out of 15 patients, 10 presented with abdominal pain and febrile urinary tract infections, while five presented with failure to thrive and post feed vomiting. Diameter of the megaureter prior to operation was 20 mm (range 15-30 mm). On ultrasound, hydronephrosis decreased in 12 and was unchanged in three after 1 month, postoperatively. After three months postoperatively, hydroureter was no longer detected in 10 and was reduced in five patients. Conclusion: Reimplantation of a primary mega ureter resulted in improved clinical status, reduced dilation of the ureter and renal pelvis, and free drainage of the upper urinary tract. (author)

  4. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for 90 Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of 90 Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially 85 Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as 90 Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl 2 solution. Most of the 85 Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of 85 Sr and 90 Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected 85 Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for 90 Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  6. Thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Bilello. C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal treatment is a cost-effective treatment method for removing chemicals from contaminated soils. However, detailed applicability studies are lacking. The goals of this paper are to (1) present the results of a thermal treatment study and (2) discuss the specific elements which must be evaluated prior to determining whether thermal treatment is a feasible option for a remediation project. Results of data collected during a pilot study involving thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils at a Marine Terminal are presented. The pilot study consisted of thermally treating the C8 through C40 + (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, bunker fuel, etc.) hydrocarbon contaminated soils at treatment temperatures ranging from 250 degrees Fahrenheit (degree F) up to 550 degrees F. The low-temperature thermal treatment unit consisted of a rotary kiln with a temperature capacity of approximately 600 degrees F, a baghouse, and a catalytic oxidizer. The soil was monitored for concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds before and after treatment. The results of the pilot study were used to determine if thermal treatment technology is a cost-efficient and effective option of remediating the estimated 300,000 tons of petroleum contaminated soil to acceptable cleanup levels. The low-temperature thermal treatment pilot study was effective in desorbing the short chain hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel) but was not effective in desorbing the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, such as motor oils and bunker fuels, from the soil. This was primarily due to the boiling points of motor oil and bunker fuels which were higher than the temperature capacity of the pilot study treatment equipment. Additional factors that influenced the effectiveness of the desorption process included configuration of the treatment equipment, soil moisture content, soil particle size, and type and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  7. Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

    2011-03-01

    Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO₂ in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  8. The medical treatment of the plutonium-contaminated wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanling

    1988-01-01

    Some experiences in medical treatment of plutonium-contaminated wound gained through the animal experiments and clinical practices were described. For the treatment of plutonium-contaminated wound, much attention should be devoted to the early emergency measure at accident site. In some case when the surgical interference is needed, radioactivity in local wound and in regional lympho-nodes of wound, firstly, must be determined and the contaminated area must be demonstrated before operation. Selecting a proper approach for anaesthesia is one of the critical factors for successfulness of operation. The operation should be performed under the coordination of monitoring workers. During operation, the rules for decontamination should be followed to avoid recontamination. In addition to conventional administration of chelating agents, the local application of such agents during and after operation is a better supplementary therapeutic procedure for some cases when the residual amount of plutonium in wound is less and any other surgical procedures will not be performed further

  9. Treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This rule is to be applied to the design, construction, and operation of facilities for treatment of water contaminated with radioactive material in stationary nuclear power plants with LWRs and HTRs. According to the requirements of the rule these facilities are to be designed, constructed, and operated in such a way that a) uncontrolled discharge of water contaminated with radioactive material is avoided, b) the activity discharged with water is as low as possible, c) water contaminated with radioactive material will not reach the ground, d) the radiation exposure as a consequence of direct radiation, contamination, and inhalation of the persons occupied in the facilities is as low as possible and as a maximum corresponds to the values laid down in the radiation protection regulation or to the values of the operating license. This rule is not to be applied to facilities for coolant and storage pit clean-up as well as facilities for the treatment of concentrates produced during the contamination of the water. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Treatment of groundwater contaminated with low levels of military munitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricka, R.M.; Sharp, W.

    1993-01-01

    colorless crystalline solid with about 1.3 times the explosive power of TNT. HMX is classified as a EPA Group D compound: Not Classified as to Human Carcinogenicity (McLellan et. al. 1988b). Objective of Investigation The objective of this investigation was to determine the feasibility of using granular activated carbon (GAC) and UV/Oxidation (UV/OX) to remove low levels of RDX from a drinking water source. The target treatment level in this investigation was to reduce RDX to less than 1 ppb in the treated water. Historical Treatment of HMX and RDX Until recently, the main concern for the treatment of HMX and RDX was associated with solid waste or wastewater from processing and manufacturing facilities. GAC is the primary treatment used for these wastes and has been known to be effective in removing HMX and RDX to limits which permit discharge. One recently conducted isotherm study by Hinshaw (Hinshaw et. al. 1987), investigated the treatment of synthetic and actual ''pink water'' (wastewater containing explosive) at HMX and RDX concentration levels around 5 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively

  11. Modeling tissue contamination to improve molecular identification of the primary tumor site of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Perell, Katharina; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2014-01-01

    with any predictor model. The usability of the model is illustrated on primary tumor site identification of liver biopsies, specifically, on a human dataset consisting of microRNA expression measurements of primary tumor samples, benign liver samples and liver metastases. For a predictor trained on primary...... tumor and benign liver samples, the contamination model decreased the test error on biopsies from liver metastases from 77 to 45%. A further reduction to 34% was obtained by including biopsies in the training data....

  12. The impact of steam generator replacement on PWR primary system contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacquait, F.; Marteau, H.; Guinard, L.; Ranchoux, G.; Taunier, S.; Wintergerst, M.; Bretelle, J.L.; Rocher, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) on PWR primary circuit contamination. It presents a comparison of the activities deposited inside the primary system and released during refuelling outages after SGR with three different SG tube alloys (600, 690 and 800) and different SG tube manufacturing processes. A SGR has a great impact on the primary system contamination. After SGR, whatever the SG tube material is, the typical variations are the following: The 58 Co contamination increases for 1 to 3 cycles, and then decreases to very low levels in some cases, mainly depending on the manufacturing process of the replacement SG tubes; The 60 Co Co contamination tends to decrease on the primary coolant pipes and increases by a lower rate on the new SG tubes. This analysis highlights the importance on contamination levels after SGR of both the corrosion product deposits on the primary surfaces before SGR and the surface finish of the SG tubes related to their manufacturing process. (author)

  13. Blood culture contamination with Enterococci and skin organisms: implications for surveillance definitions of primary bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joshua T; Chen, Luke Francis; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2011-06-01

    Enterococci are a common cause of bacteremia but are also common contaminants. In our institution, approximately 17% of positive blood cultures with enterococci are mixed with skin organisms. Such isolates are probable contaminants. The specificity of the current definition of primary bloodstream infection could be increased by excluding enterococci mixed with skin organisms. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediabetes Diagnosis and Treatment in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Baker, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes is a major health problem. The detection and treatment of prediabetes can delay the onset of diabetes and presents an important diabetes prevention strategy. Using data from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, we studied visits by adults aged ≥45 years without diagnosed diabetes who had an HbA1c test within 90 days of the visit (n = 518 unweighted visits; n = 11,167,004 weighted visits). HbA1c results were categorized into normal, prediabetes, and diabetes, and we examined patient characteristics (age, sex, race, payer type, body mass index) and treatment of prediabetes. Among visiting adults, 54.6% had a normal HbA1c value, 33.6% had prediabetes, and 11.9% had diabetes. Of those patient visits with HbA1c consistent with prediabetes, the number of patients diagnosed with prediabetes was too low for a reliable population estimate. Indication of treatment in the medical record (lifestyle modification counseling and/or metformin) was present in 23.0% of those with diagnosed or undiagnosed prediabetes. The most common treatment was lifestyle modification counseling. Our findings show that there are missed opportunities for diabetes prevention in primary care. Providers need to change their approach to prediabetes and play a more effective role in preventing diabetes. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  15. TREATMENT OF PRIMARY PLASMA CELL LEUKAEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Černelč

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The author describes long-term survival in 3 patients with primary plasma cell leukaemia (PL after different therapeutic regimen and maintenance treatment with interferon alpha (INF.Patients and treatment. In a 52-year-old male patient, a partial remission of PL was achieved after 6 months of treatment with melphalan and prednisone. The patient did not consent to stem cell transplantation (SCT. An 86-year-old female patient with PL achieved a complete remission after 6 months of treatment with vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone. A 31-year-old male patient experienced a complete remission of PL after 6 months of treatment with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methilprednisone, followed by autologous SCT. All three patients were placed on maintenance therapy with INF-2b (Intron A 3 × 106 IU given subcutaneously on two days per week. In the 52-year-old man, the remission lasted 9 months and in the woman 23 months, whereupon they developed a relapse with signs of disseminated plasmacytoma. In both patients the former chemotherapy was applied again, resulting in a slight improvement. The man died 37 months and the woman 43 months after the diagnosis of PL, while the youngest patient has been in complete remission for 82 months.Conclusions. Long remission achieved in our patients confirmed the favourable effect of INF in terms of prolongation of the remission duration in this patients. The effect of maintenance treatment with INF is usually directly dependent on the degree of remission induced by different therapeutic regimen.

  16. Treatment of Gravel Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohsah, M. A.; Kamal, S. M.; Mamoon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental protection primarily means controlling the releases of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes to the environment and involves treatment, storage, cleanup and disposal of these wastes. The present study concerns the cleanup of gravel that has been contaminated with 2 26 R a. Aqueous solutions of different compositions including water and various concentrations of calcium chloride and barium chloride were used to leach the contaminated gravel. The leaching experiments were carried out in glass column. In some leaching experiments, samples of sandy soil were placed below the gravel to test the sorption of the leached 2 26 R a by the soil. The relative efficiencies of the leachant and the extent of sorption of the leached radionuclide were determined both by the liquid scintillation counting and by the thermoluminescent chips. The TLD chips record the dose before and after decontamination of the gravel and before and after contamination of the soil samples when used. The results obtained indicated that acidified barium chloride was relatively the most effective leachant of 2 26 R a contamination. It reduced the dose from the contaminated gravel to almost half. The soil sample used adsorbs the leached radionuclides efficiently, increasing the soil naturally low dose to about six folds

  17. Treatment of uranium contaminated wastewater – a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, M.; Iordache, M.; Deneanu, N.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the treatment techniques used for uranium recovery from aqueous solutions, such as: precipitation, ion exchange processes, sorption processes, solvent extractions, separation by liquid membrane, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. The necessary elements for rigorous treatment experiments that can be used to define innovative procedure for uranium contaminated wastewater treatment are described in this review. The published data were summarized and the areas for further research were identified in order to be able to propose an environmental friendly technology in the field of uranium production and recovery cycle. (authors)

  18. Contaminant removal by wastewater treatment plants in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Wagner, Richard J.; Wolanek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human activities in most areas of the developed world typically release nutrients, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, and other contaminants into the environment, many of which reach freshwater ecosystems. In urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are critical facilities for collecting and reducing the amounts of wastewater contaminants (WWCs) that ultimately discharge to rivers, coastal areas, and groundwater. Most WWTPs use multiple methods to remove contaminants from wastewater. These include physical methods to remove solid materials (primary treatment), biological and chemical methods to remove most organic matter (secondary treatment), advanced methods to reduce the concentrations of various contaminants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and (or) synthetic organic compounds (tertiary treatment), and disinfection prior to discharge (Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1979). This study examined the extent to which 114 organic WWCs were removed by each of three WWTPs, prior to discharge to freshwater and marine ecosystems, in a rapidly developing area in northwestern Washington State. Removal percentages for each WWC were estimated by comparing the concentrations measured in the WWTP influents with those measured in the effluents. The investigation was carried out in the 700-mi2Stillaguamish River Basin, the fifth largest watershed that discharges to Puget Sound (fig. 1).

  19. Treatment of water contaminated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, K; Lakanowski, C; Somers, A; Whittaker, H; Hamid, H B [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Anantaraman, A [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A series of remediation technologies for contaminated soil and water at former nuclear missile sites in the countries of Eastern Europe have been developed. As part of this project the applicability of electrolytic reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in groundwater, using relatively cheap materials, was evaluated. It was found that reduction of NDMA in water could be achieved using inexpensive carbon electrodes and a simple two-electrode cell, making the process potentially applicable for the treatment of contaminated surface and groundwater in field conditions. Best results were achieved at pH 1 and a potential difference of 3 to 3.5 V. It is worth noting that the residual concentration of NDMA was still too high to discharge the water into the environment without additional treatment.

  20. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

    1996-07-01

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na{sub 2}O and NaH. The most important contaminant is {sup 137}Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide.

  1. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

    1996-07-01

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na 2 O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137 Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

  2. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  3. Leaching of RA-226 contaminated gravel using different aqueous treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamoon, A; Abulfaraj, W H; Sohsah, M A [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arbabia (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Investigation of the efficiencies of different aqueous leaching treatments was carried out on gravel artificially contaminated with Ra-226. The extent of leaching efficiency was determined in terms of Ra-226 and its daughter Rn-222. Liquid scintillation counting using high efficiency mineral oil based liquid scintillator was the technique adopted for measuring Ra-226 and Rn-222 leached off the contaminated gravel. Water, dilute solutions of barium chloride and HCl were used as leachants. Different masses of gravel were leached with 200 mL of leachant for various contact time periods. The leached Rn-222 activity measured was plotted vs the decay factor e; from which Rn-222 and Ra-226 originally present in the sample were determined. Several leaching parameters were tested; namely type of leachant, leachant volume/gravel mass ratio, leachant contact time, effect of varying Ba Cl{sub 2} concentration, and successive leaching. Optimization of the leaching parameters for desorption of Ra-226 off the contaminated gravel under laboratory conditions may help determine the ideal conditions for remediating soil contaminated with radium or chemically similar radionuclides. 7 figs.

  4. Land treatment testing of diesel contaminated soils using bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demque, D E

    1994-01-01

    A study was carried out of degradation rates of diesel contaminated soil (10,000 ppM by weight of diesel to dry soil) under different treatment conditions and tillage rates over a 14 week testing period. A total of 10 treatment-tillage conditions were duplicated to provide confidence in the test results. Each test cell was built to contain 80 kg of contaminated soil with a drainage system. The 20 boxes were sampled on a weekly basis for the first 4 weeks, semimonthly for the following 6 weeks and at the end of 14 weeks. Each test consisted of 3 random total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and 3 random BTEX samples per box. In addition, each box was monitored for leachate TPH, moisture content, microorganism concentration, and ground temperature. After the last samples were taken the underlying drainage layer was analyzed for TPH, and the boxes were checked for leaks. The tests revealed the effectiveness of the various treatment methods and tillage rates. Greatest degradation of diesel contaminated soil was obtained with the addition of nutrients and a frequent tillage rate. It was apparent that indigenous microorganisms adapted quickly to the diesel contaminant. Soil that was biostimulated with no drainage or bioaugmentation demonstrated that the addition of acclimated microorganisms had little effect on either the rate of degradation or the ultimate degradation achieved. Use of chlorine to inhibit biodegradation, allowing examination of other degradation mechanisms was effective for only ca 3 weeks, and had an adverse effect on TPH testing. 51 refs., 46 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Deep soil mixing for reagent delivery and contaminant treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Gardner, F.G.; Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.

    1997-01-01

    Deep soil mixing was evaluated for treating clay soils contaminated with TCE and its byproducts at the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant. The objective of the project was to evaluate the extent of limitations posed by the stiff, silty-clay soil. Three treatment approaches were tested. The first was vapor stripping. In contrast to previous work, however, laboratory treatability studies indicated that mixing saturated, clay soil was not efficient unless powdered lime was added. Thus, powder injection of lime was attempted in conjunction with the mixing/stripping operation. In separate treatment cells, potassium permanganate solution was mixed with the soil as a means of destroying contaminants in situ. Finally, microbial treatment was studied in a third treatment zone. The clay soil caused operational problems such as breakage of the shroud seal and frequent reagent blowouts. Nevertheless, treatment efficiencies of more than 70% were achieved in the saturated zone with chemical oxidation. Although expensive ($1128/yd 3 ), there are few alternatives for soils of this type

  6. Large-scale experience with biological treatment of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Berendt, V.; Poetzsch, E.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of biological methods for the cleanup of soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was demonstrated by a large-scale example in which 38,000 tons of TPH- and PAH-polluted soil was treated onsite with the TERRAFERM reg-sign degradation system to reach the target values of 300 mg/kg TPH and 5 mg/kg PAH. Detection of the ecotoxicological potential (Microtox reg-sign assay) showed a significant decrease during the remediation. Low concentrations of PAH in the ground were treated by an in situ technology. The in situ treatment was combined with mechanical measures (slurry wall) to prevent the contamination from dispersing from the site

  7. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  8. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes.

  9. Periodontal status and treatment needs of primary school teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodontal status and treatment needs of primary school teachers in the absence of ... on probing, periodontal pocketing and treatment needs with CPITN and tooth ... Is In the form of oral prophylaxis and non-surgical periodontal treatment.

  10. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deal with a practical radioactive contamination in Taiwan Research Reactor spent fuel pool water. ► Identify the properties of radioactive contaminants and performance test for water treatment materials. ► The radioactive solids were primary attributed by ruptured spent fuels, spent resins, and metal debris. ► The radioactive ions were major composed by uranium and fission products. ► Diatomite-based ceramic depth filter can simultaneously removal radioactive solids and ions. - Abstract: There were approximately 926 m 3 of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, U, and α-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of <0.9 μm filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb β-emitters, α-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously eliminate particles and adsorb ionic radionuclides from water.

  11. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  12. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, R S [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III).

  13. Microbial contamination of the air at the wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3, the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.

  14. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-12-20

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues.

  15. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues.

  16. Analysis of contamination conditions of the Joyo Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, S.; Ishijima, N.; Tanimoto, K.

    1999-08-01

    Decontamination methods have been studied for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility whose operation has been stopped in 1994. In this study, we analyzed samples of its system piping, whose dose rate was relatively low, to determine conditions of contamination. We also study appropriate decontamination methods for them. Results are as follows. 1. The inner surfaces of piping were covered with a very thin clad that was less than 1 micrometer in thickness and had many vacancies, looked like particle detachment, which were about 20 micrometers in depth. Something like corrosion product was observed near the surface and it was 440 micrometers in depth. 2. Radioactive contamination was considered to settle on a lower part of the piping and to be buried in the clad. A kind of dominant contamination nuclide was 60 Co. 3. Hot nitric acid process will be suitable for system decontamination to reduce dose rate before dismantling. But its feasibility tests are indispensable using samples of main system components that have high dose rate. Rubber lining tanks requires another methods because of its difficulty of decontamination. 4. Analyses and decontamination tests using main system are required to decide through decontamination methods according to the clearance level. (author)

  17. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  18. Treatment of NORM contaminated soil from the oilfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, W M; Al-Masri, M S

    2014-03-01

    Uncontrolled disposal of oilfield produced water in the surrounding environment could lead to soil contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Large volumes of soil become highly contaminated with radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). In the present work, laboratory experiments have been conducted to reduce the activity concentration of (226)Ra in soil. Two techniques were used, namely mechanical separation and chemical treatment. Screening of contaminated soil using vibratory sieve shaker was performed to evaluate the feasibility of particle size separation. The fractions obtained were ranged from less than 38 μm to higher than 300 μm. The results show that (226)Ra activity concentrations vary widely from fraction to fraction. On the other hand, leaching of (226)Ra from soil by aqueous solutions (distilled water, mineral acids, alkaline medias and selective solvents) has been performed. In most cases, relatively low concentrations of radium were transferred to solutions, which indicates that only small portions of radium are present on the surface of soil particles (around 4.6%), while most radium located within soil particles; only concentrated nitric acid was most effective where 50% of (226)Ra was removed to aqueous phase. However, mechanical method was found to be easy and effective, taking into account safety procedures to be followed during the implementation of the blending and homogenization. Chemical extraction methods were found to be less effective. The results obtained in this study can be utilized to approach the final option for disposal of NORM contaminated soil in the oilfields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TBT-contaminated sediments. Treatment in a pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stichnothe, H.; Calmano, W.; Arevalo, E.; Keller, A.; Thoeming, J. [Hamburg Univ. of Technology, Dept. Environmental Science and Technology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Background, aims and scope. Sediments in harbours and nearby shipyards demonstrate widespread contamination with tributyltin (TBT). Therefore, reuse and relocation of dredged material from these locations are prohibited. Even if the international marine organization (IMO) convention concerning TBT-based paints is ratified (champ 2003) the TBT problem in sediments will continue to remain for many years due to the persistence of TBT. Methods. An electrochemical process has been developed to treat polluted sediments. Dredged materials with high and low TBT-contents were studied on a technical and a pilot scale. The treatment process was assessed by chemical analysis and a biotest battery. Additionally, an economic analysis was performed to check the economic feasibility of the process to treat dredged material from two different locations at different operating conditions. Furthermore an up-scaling estimation was performed to evaluate treatment costs at a larger scale, i.e. for a plant having a capacity of 720,000 t/a. Results and discussion. Butyltin species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were decomposed due to electrochemically-induced oxidation, while the treatment did not alter heavy metal and PCB concentrations. The bacteria luminescence test indicated a reduced toxicity after the electrochemical treatment, while the algae growth inhibition test and bacteria contact test did not confirm these results. Based on a small consumer price of Euro 0.12/kWh, treating the high-contaminated sediment in the pilot plant would cost Euro 21/m{sup 3} and Euro 31/m{sup 3} for the low contaminated sediment, respectively. Assuming an industrial consumer price of Euro 0.06/kWh for electricity in an up-scaled process with a capacity of 720,000 t/a, the total treatment costs for the low contaminated sediment would be Euro 13/m{sup 3}. Conclusion. The results of treating dredged material from Bremerhaven and the fine-grained fraction from the METHA plant show that the

  20. Experience with wound VAC and delayed primary closure of contaminated soft tissue injuries in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Brian E; Rasmussen, Todd E; Smith, David L; Jenkins, Donald H; Coppola, Christopher

    2006-11-01

    Wartime missile injuries are frequently high-energy wounds that devitalize and contaminate tissue, with high risk for infection and wound complications. Debridement, irrigation, and closure by secondary intention are fundamental principles for the management of these injuries. However, closure by secondary intention was impractical in Iraqi patients. Therefore, wounds were closed definitively before discharge in all Iraqi patients treated for such injures at our hospital. A novel wound management protocol was developed to facilitate this practice, and patient outcomes were tracked. This article describes that protocol and discusses the outcomes in a series of 88 wounds managed with it. High-energy injuries were treated with rapid aggressive debridement and pulsatile lavage, then covered with negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure [VAC]) dressings. Patients underwent serial operative irrigation and debridement until wounds appeared clean to gross inspection, at which time they were closed primarily. Patient treatment and outcome data were recorded in a prospectively updated database. Treatment and outcomes data from September 2004 through May 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 88 high-energy soft tissue wounds identified in 77 patients. Surprisingly, for this cohort of patients the wound infection rate was 0% and the overall wound complication rate was 0%. This series of 88 cases is the first report of the use of a negative pressure dressing (wound VAC) as part of the definitive management of high-energy soft tissue wounds in a deployed wartime environment. Our experience with these patients suggests that conventional wound management doctrine may be improved with the wound VAC, resulting in earlier more reliable primary closure of wartime injuries.

  1. Mycoplasma hyorhinis-Contaminated Cell Lines Activate Primary Innate Immune Cells via a Protease-Sensitive Factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Heidegger

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma are a frequent and occult contaminant of cell cultures, whereby these prokaryotic organisms can modify many aspects of cell physiology, rendering experiments that are conducted with such contaminated cells problematic. Chronic Mycoplasma contamination in human monocytic cells lines has been associated with suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR function. In contrast, we show here that components derived from a Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell line can activate innate immunity in non-infected primary immune cells. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 by dendritic cells in response to Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell components was critically dependent on the adapter protein MyD88 but only partially on TLR2. Unlike canonical TLR2 signaling that is triggered in response to the detection of Mycoplasma infection, innate immune activation by components of Mycoplasma-infected cells was inhibited by chloroquine treatment and sensitive to protease treatment. We further show that in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, soluble factors from Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cells induce the production of large amounts of IFN-α. We conclude that Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell lines release protein factors that can potently activate co-cultured innate immune cells via a previously unrecognized mechanism, thus limiting the validity of such co-culture experiments.

  2. A survey on evaluation function for contaminations and doses in the primary and the secondary radiation emergency hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Akashi, Makoto; Shiraishi, Kunio; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Endo, Akira; Sanada, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Kazushige; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Takada, Chie; Momose, Takumaro; Hoshi, Masaharu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2009-01-01

    The questionnaire on evaluation function for contaminations and doses was sent to the primary and the secondary radiation emergency hospitals in Japan by the network council for physical dosimetry in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) designated as the tertiary hospital. The recovery percentage from the 88 hospitals was 70%. It turned out that six primary hospitals in 37 hospitals did not have even the basic instruments on radiation measurement such as GM counter and personal dosimeter. 64% of the secondary hospitals have the whole body counter, but its operation frequency including exercise was considerably low. It is thought that the main cause originates in a chronic manpower shortage and the budget shortfall seen by all the primary and the secondary hospitals. And also peculiar difficulty of correspondence to the radiation emergency medical treatment and the few experience might promote the problem. Thus the anxiety of the site staff had been appeared to the result of the questionnaire survey in shape like the opinion and the demand, etc. It will be necessary to advance the enhancement of training and to make the manual for the contaminations and the doses evaluation in the hospitals. (author)

  3. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Breschet, C.; Vigreaux, B.

    1990-01-01

    In the recent years, efforts have been made in order to reduce the amount of alpha emitters essentially plutonium isotopes present in the solid wastes produced either during research experiments on fuel reprocessing, done in the Radiochemistry building in the centre d'etudes nuclearires de FONTENAY-AUX-ROSES (CEA, FRANCE), or in the MARCOULE reprocessing plant (COGEMA, FRANCE). The goals defined for the treatments of these different wastes were: to reduce their α and β, γ, contamination levels. and to recover the plutonium, an highly valuable material, and to minimize its quantity to be discharged with the wastes. To achieve these goals leaching processes using electrogenerated Ag (II (a very aggressive agent for PuO 2 )) in nitric acid solutions, were developed and several facilities were designed and built to operate the processes: ELISE and PROLIXE facilities: PILOT ASHES FACILITY for delete, the treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes (COGEMA, MARCOULE). A brief description of the process and of the different facilities will be presented in this paper; the main results obtained in ELISE and PROLIXE are also summarized

  4. Contamination of a PWR primary circuit by fuel pins with failed cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janvier, J.C.; Chagrot, M.

    1979-01-01

    The safety authorities in the principal nuclear countries appear to be attaching increasing importance to keeping reactor primary circuits as contamination-free as possible. Therefore, the consequences of cladding failures and especially of those resulting from fabrication defects have to be evaluated, for when these failures become systematic in nature they constitute an important source of contamination in pressurized-water reactors. The Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre is implementing a programme on the study of such failures with a view to analysing the behaviour of failed fuel elements. A distinction is made between two types of cladding failure, depending on whether the primary water enters the fuel pin as soon as the circuits are pressurized (fabrication defect) or whether the failure is caused during operation. The emission of gaseous fission products and halogens has been analysed in different operating modes (steady-state or transient), and in spite of the complexity of the phenomena involved, some results have been obtained which already enable one to evaluate fission product contamination of the primary circuit. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Electrochemical Treatment of Chloride Contaminated Mortar Containing GGBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of cementitious binder on electrochemical treatment of steel embedded in salt contaminated mortar. As binder, ordinary Portland cement (OPC and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS were used and the current density of 250–750 mA/m2 was applied for 4 weeks to complete electrochemical chloride extraction. To evaluate the effect of electrochemical treatment the chloride profile and corrosion behaviour covering chloride concentration, galvanic current density, linear polarization resistance, open circuit potential, and mass loss were measured. An increase in the applied direct current density resulted in a decrease in the chloride concentration at the vicinity of steel, accompanying the mitigated corrosion damage. The performance of electrochemical treatment was more remarkable in mortar containing GGBS presumably due to binding mechanism. However, corrosion damage was more detrimental in GGBS rather than OPC at a given potential, while GGBS had superior corrosion resistance to a corrosive environment and treatment conditions. Therefore, the electrochemical treatment should be conducted prudently to evaluate the corrosion state of embedded steel depending on binder type.

  6. Treatment of Arsenazo III contaminated heavy water stored at Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A.; Williams, D.

    2010-01-01

    Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) has accumulated over 48 drums of chemistry laboratory waste arising from analysis of heavy water (D 2 O). Several organic, including Arsenazo III, and inorganic contaminants present in these drums results in high total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity. These drums have not been processed due to uncertainties related to clean-up of Arsenazo III contaminated heavy water. This paper provides details of chemical characterization as well as bench scale studies performed to demonstrate the feasibility of treating the downgraded D 2 O to the stringent target specifications of <1 ppm TOC and <0.1mS/m conductivity, required for feed to the Station Upgrading Plant (SUP). Both ionic organic species such as glycolate, acetate and formate as well as neutral organics such as acetone, methanol and ethylene glycol were detected in all the samples. Morpholine and propylene glycol were detected in one sample. Arsenazo III was determined to be not a major contaminant (maximum 8.4 ppm) in these waste drums, compared to the other organic contaminants present. Various unit processes such as pH adjustment, granular activated carbon (GAC), ion exchange resin (IX), UV-peroxide oxidation (UV-H 2 O 2 ) treatments, nanofiltration (NF) as well as reverse osmosis (RO) were tested on a bench scale both singly as well as in various combinations to evaluate their ability to achieve the stringent target conductivity and TOC specifications. Among the various bench scale tests evaluated, the successive processing train used at DNGS and consisting of GAC+IX+UV/H 2 O 2 +IX (polishing) unit operations was found to meet target specifications for both conductivity and TOC. Unit processes comprising (GAC+IX) and (RO-double pass + GAC+IX) met conductivity targets but failed to meet TOC specifications. The results of GAC+IX tests clearly emphasize the importance of using low flow rates for successful reduction in both conductivity as well as TOC. Detailed

  7. [Treatment of primary hypothyroidism in adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Pasi; Metso, Saara; Moilanen, Leena; Niskanen, Leo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on the findings of an increased serum TSH (above the reference range) and decreased serum free T4 (below the reference range) concentration. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is indicated if serum THS is above 10 mU/l. For less severe forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, the treatment should be individually tailored. The treatment of choice is synthetic human levothyroxine. The goals for treatment are amelioration of symptoms and normalization of TSH and free T4 concentrations.

  8. EVALUATION OF BIOAEROSOL COMPONENTS, GENERATION FACTORS, AND AIRBORNE TRANSPORT ASSOCIATED WITH LIME TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime treatment has been used in contaminated sediment management activities for many purposes such as dewatering, improvement of physical properties, and reducing contaminant mobility. Exothermic volatilization of volatile organic compounds from lime-treated sediment is well kno...

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  10. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP), treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. A study of the treatment of oral multiple primary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takayuki; Kamata, Shin-etsu; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The subjects were 30 multiple primary cancers (out of 2,169 oral squamous cell carcinoma including lip cancers), which were treated at the Division of Head and Neck, Cancer Institute Hospital. Seven synchronous carcinomas and 23 metachronous cases were seen. The most common site of the primary cancer was the tongue. Surgical treatment was performed for the first treatment in 5 cases of the 7 synchronous cancers. On the other hand, radical treatment was performed in 11 cases of the 23 metachronous cancers. Fourteen of the 18 cases were treated by surgical treatment and controlled. It is suggested that surgical treatment is the most effective for oral multiple primary cancers. (author)

  12. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  13. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO 3 and is contaminated by low levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable

  14. DIADEME: A computer code to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, J.B. [DEN/DEC/S3C, CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Harrer, A. [EdF/SEPTEN, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Musante, Y. [FRAMATOME-ANP, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    DIADEME is a computer code developed within the framework of R and D cooperation between the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EdF) and FRAMATOME-ANP. Its aim is to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination for actinides and long half-life fission products involved in health physics problems as well as in waste and decommissioning studies. DIADEME has been developed and qualified for the EDF nuclear power plants. For many years, both theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out at the CEA on the release of fission products and actinides out of defective fuel rods in operation, their migration and deposition in PWR primary circuits. These studies have allowed defect characteristic diagnosis methods to be developed, based on radiochemical measurements of the primary coolant. These methods are generally used along with gamma spectrometry measurements on primary water sampling. In order to be completely efficient, these methods can also be used in connection with an on-line primary water gamma spectrometry device. This permits to obtain the most comprehensive data on fission product activity evolutions at steady state and during operation transients, and allows the on-line characterization of the defective fuel assemblies. For long half-life fission products and for actinides, DIADEME is also able to assess the activities of soluble and insoluble forms in the primary water and in the chemical and voluminal control system (CVCS) filters and resins, as well as those activities deposited on primary circuit surfaces. (author)

  15. DIADEME: A computer code to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, J.B.; Harrer, A.; Musante, Y.

    2002-01-01

    DIADEME is a computer code developed within the framework of R and D cooperation between the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EdF) and FRAMATOME-ANP. Its aim is to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination for actinides and long half-life fission products involved in health physics problems as well as in waste and decommissioning studies. DIADEME has been developed and qualified for the EDF nuclear power plants. For many years, both theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out at the CEA on the release of fission products and actinides out of defective fuel rods in operation, their migration and deposition in PWR primary circuits. These studies have allowed defect characteristic diagnosis methods to be developed, based on radiochemical measurements of the primary coolant. These methods are generally used along with gamma spectrometry measurements on primary water sampling. In order to be completely efficient, these methods can also be used in connection with an on-line primary water gamma spectrometry device. This permits to obtain the most comprehensive data on fission product activity evolutions at steady state and during operation transients, and allows the on-line characterization of the defective fuel assemblies. For long half-life fission products and for actinides, DIADEME is also able to assess the activities of soluble and insoluble forms in the primary water and in the chemical and voluminal control system (CVCS) filters and resins, as well as those activities deposited on primary circuit surfaces. (author)

  16. Primary aldosteronism: diagnosis, localization, and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, M.H.; Grim, C.E.; Hollifield, J.W.; Kem, D.C.; Ganguly, A.; Kramer, N.J.; Yune, H.Y.; Wellman, H.; Donohue, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    New diagnostic techniques have enhanced the detection of primary aldosteronism. However, the response of blood pressure after operation in unilateral and bilateral adrenal disease is different. We have compared four localizing techniques - adrenal venography, adrenal isotopic scanning, a modified adrenal venous sampling for steroid measurements, and the anomalous postural decrease in plasma aldosterone concentration - in 51 patients with primary aldosteronism, all of whom had undergone operative confirmation. Adrenalectomy resulted in normal blood pressure in 59%, improvement in 25%, and no change in 16%. Correct localization of the lesion was obtained in 47% by the adrenal isotopic scan, in 66% by adrenal venography, and in 91% by the modified adrenal venous hormone technique despite four false-positives. Of the 26 patients with an anomalous postural decrease in plasma aldosterone, 88% had a unilateral lesion

  17. Treatment of contaminated greywater using pelletised mine water sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Suhail N; Almuktar, Suhad A; Scholz, Miklas

    2017-07-15

    Precipitated sludge (ochre) obtained from a mine water treatment plant was considered as an adsorbent substance for pollutants, since ochre is relatively free from problematic levels of toxic elements, which could impair on the quality of water to be treated. Artificially created ochre pellets from mixing Portland cement with raw ochre sludge were utilised to remediate either high (HC) or low (LC) contaminated synthetic greywater (SGW) in mesocosm-scale stabilisation ponds at 2-day and 7-day contact times under real weather conditions in Salford. After a specific retention time, treated SGW was agitated before sampling to evaluate pollutant removal mechanisms (other than sedimentation) such as adsorption by ochre pellets, before replacing the treated water with new inflow SGW. The results showed that cement-ochre pellets have a high ability to adsorb ortho-phosphate-phosphorous (PO 4 -P) significantly (p treatment for HC-SGW at 2- and 7-day contact times, respectively. Cadmium was still adsorbed significantly (p treatment of LC-SGW. However, the calcium (Ca) content decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within ochre pellets treating both types of greywaters due to mobilisation. The corresponding increases of Ca in greywater were significant (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil. 268.49 Section 268.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.49 Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated...

  19. Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Primary Aldosteronism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... process? Treatment of high blood pressure is more effective when combined with a healthy lifestyle even if the cause is PA. In fact, diet and exercise are critical to long- term cardiovascular health. In patients with PA, it is especially important ...

  20. Primary Treatment and Sludge Digestion Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to upgrade the knowledge of experienced wastewater treatment plant operators. Each of the sixteen lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: sewage characteristics;…

  1. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: 3 Months after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. Aims: To investigate change in select language and cognitive…

  2. Depression Treatment Preferences in Older Primary Care Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Amber M.; Arean, Patricia A.; Hunkeler, Enid; Tang, Lingqi; Katon, Wayne; Hitchcock, Polly; Steffens, David C.; Dickens, Jeanne; Unutzer, Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: For depressed older primary care patients, this study aimed to examine (a) characteristics associated with depression treatment preferences; (b) predictors of receiving preferred treatment; and (c) whether receiving preferred treatment predicted satisfaction and depression outcomes. Design and Methods: Data are from 1,602 depressed older…

  3. Primary circuit contamination in nuclear power plants: contribution to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provens, H.

    2002-01-01

    In every country since the 80's, a clear downward trend is observed concerning the occupational doses at nuclear power plants, as shows the regularly decreasing annual collective dose per operating reactor. Even if technology and work management are improving, the reduction and the control of radiation sources remain one critical point. This paper summarizes the results of an extended study on the primary circuit contamination in nuclear power plants and its contribution to workers' exposure. The paper reviews the origin and mechanisms of radiation production and the different ways of radiation control or reduction based on physical and chemical parameters and not organisational or human factors. It underlines that chemistry control of the primary circuit is one essential component of radiation protection optimisation in nuclear power plants. Results reported come from scientific data in open literature and cannot be generalized to all the power plants

  4. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  5. General acteoside of rehmanniae leaves in the treatment of primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 400 patients diagnosed with primary chronic glomerulonephritis were recruited from outpatient clinics and were randomly assigned to the treatment group (general acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves, two 200mg tablets, bid) or the control group (piperazine ferulate, four 50-mg tablets, bid ). The primary outcome

  6. Early versus delayed dressing removal after primary closure of clean and clean-contaminated surgical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Clare D; Lusuku, Charnelle; Ramamoorthy, Rajarajan; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-09-03

    Most surgical procedures involve a cut in the skin that allows the surgeon to gain access to the deeper tissues or organs. Most surgical wounds are closed fully at the end of the procedure (primary closure). The surgeon covers the closed surgical wound with either a dressing or adhesive tape. The dressing can act as a physical barrier to protect the wound until the continuity of the skin is restored (within about 48 hours) and to absorb exudate from the wound, keeping it dry and clean, and preventing bacterial contamination from the external environment. Some studies have found that the moist environment created by some dressings accelerates wound healing, although others believe that the moist environment can be a disadvantage, as excessive exudate can cause maceration (softening and deterioration) of the wound and the surrounding healthy tissue. The utility of dressing surgical wounds beyond 48 hours of surgery is, therefore, controversial. To evaluate the benefits and risks of removing a dressing covering a closed surgical incision site within 48 hours permanently (early dressing removal) or beyond 48 hours of surgery permanently with interim dressing changes allowed (delayed dressing removal), on surgical site infection. In March 2015 we searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched the references of included trials to identify further potentially-relevant trials. Two review authors independently identified studies for inclusion. We included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) conducted with people of any age and sex, undergoing a surgical procedure, who had their wound closed and a dressing applied. We included only trials that compared

  7. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittle, J.K.; Pamukcu, S.

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium

  8. Phenol Contaminated Water Treatment on Several Modified Dimensionally Stable Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilaka, Pavithra Bhakthi; Hapuhinna, Kushani Umanga Kumari; Bandara, Athula; Nanayakkara, Nadeeshani; Subasinghe, Nalaka Deepal

    2017-08-01

      Phenolic compounds are some of the most common hazardous organics in wastewater. Removal of these pollutants is important. Physiochemical method such as electrochemical oxidation on dimensionally stable anodes is more convenient in removing such organic pollutants. Therefore, this study focuses on development of three different anodes for phenol contaminated water treatment. The performances of steel/IrO2, steel/IrO2-Sb2O3, and Ti/IrO2-Sb2O3 anodes were tested and compared. Nearly 50, 76, and 84% of chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies were observed for steel/IrO2, steel/IrO2-Sb2O3, and Ti/IrO2-Sb2O3 anodes, respectively. The formation of intermediates was monitored for three anodes and the Ti/IrO2-Sb2O3 anode showed the most promising results. Findings suggest that the developed anode materials can enhance phenol oxidation efficiency and that mixed metal oxide layer has major influence on the anode. Among the selected metal oxide mixtures IrO2-Sb2O3 was the most suitable under given experimental conditions.

  9. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States); Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium.

  10. Recent developments for in situ treatment of metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Metals contamination is a common problem at hazardous waste sites. This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification/stabilization. Electrokinetic remediation separates contaminants from soil through selective migration upon application of an electric current. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to isolate or stabilize contaminants. Soil flushing techniques promote mobility and migration of metals by solubilizing contaminants so that they can be recovered. Two types of in situ solidification/stabilization (S/S) techniques are discussed, one based on addition of reagents and the other based on the use of energy. The report discusses different techniques currently in practice or under development, identifies vendors and summarizes performance data, and discusses technology attributes that should be considered during early screening of potential remedies. 8 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs., 2 apps.

  11. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  12. Microbial contamination and effects of combination treatments and gamma irradiation on reducing microbial contamination of dried cuttle fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Dried cuttle fish is one of the most valuable sea products but it rapidly becomes mouldy and spoiled. To solve this problem, the studies on microbial contamination and effects of combination treatments and gamma irradiation for dried cuttle fish have been caried out base on IAEA Research Contracts No 4397/AG and 4397/R1/AG

  13. Petroleum Contaminated Soil Treatment Using Surfactant and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilza Lobo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of washing soil with surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulphate (LESS and sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS was combined with chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, with a view to in situ remediation of clay soil contaminated with hydrocarbons oil. The evaluation of the efficiency of the procedure was the removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the comparison of physical and chemical characteristics of contaminated soil and uncontaminated from the same region. The combination of these two techniques, soil washing and application of an oxidizing agent, presented as a process of effective remediation for soils contaminated with petroleum products in subtropical regions.

  14. Assessment and treatment of external and internal radionuclide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The most serious problems arise from accidents involving radionuclide contamination. This was demonstrated by experience from the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, where large groups of people were externally and internally contaminated and which demanded significant management efforts from the health and other authorities. It is important that radionuclide contamination be minimized, not only by preventive measures, but also by good medical management when an exposure has occurred. This is an updated Technical Document based upon the IAEA Safety Series No. 88 ''Medical Handling of Accidentally Exposed Individuals'' and IAEA-TECDOC-366 ''What the General Practitioner (MD) Should Know about Medical Handling of Overexposed Individuals''. 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Treatment Solutions for Rainwater Contaminated with Various Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tokar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents aspects on the environmental pollution with contaminants difficult to manage from sources such as car parking, roads and roofs in crowded areas that have deficient wastewater harvesting urban networks. The contaminants washed by the rainwater that are not collected and treated can reach directly into the natural environment. Thus, rainwater which falls on rough surfaces, especially in car parking and roads without drainage channels carries out various pollutants directly into the soil and water. In order to control environmental pollution there are presented solutions for contaminated rainwater depollution.

  16. Radioactive 55Fe contamination in the primary circuit of WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, T.; Ruskov, R.; Dobrevski, I.; Konnova, S.; Zaharieva, N.; Menut, P.

    2001-01-01

    The isotope 55 Fe generation in the steel construction materials of the reactor and the mechanism of internal irradiation and blood affection by the 55 Fe are briefly discussed in this paper. The paper also presents the results from calculation of direct generation of 55 Fe due to neutron irradiation of different iron-contained parts of the reactor system such as the steel shell of the reactor core, the core basket, the steel shaft of the reactor vessels. Calculations are performed with specially developed program code DIRGEN. Another type of contamination, considered in the paper is due to the corrosion of materials and erosion-dissolution processes in the primary circuit of WWER with their subsequent deposition-precipitation on the inner surface of the primary circuit. The real time calculations of the 55 Fe activity are performed, by using of the updated computer code MIGA-RT. The obtained results show that the 55 Fe activity deposition on the inner surfaces of the primary circuits reaches the values of 103 kBq/cm 2 for the reactor core surfaces and 102 kBq/cm 2 for the out-of-core surfaces. The activity values are in one order of magnitude higher than the corresponding activity values due to 60 Co buildup

  17. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 1: evaluation of in vitro clotting efficacy in the presence of certain contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of penetrating, haemorrhaging injuries sustained within a hazardous environment may be complicated by contamination with toxic chemicals. There are currently no specific medical countermeasures for such injuries. Haemostats with an absorbent mechanism of action have the potential to simultaneously stop bleeding and decontaminate wounds. However, a primary requirement of a 'haemostatic decontaminant' is the retention of clotting function in the presence of chemical contaminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy of seven commercially available haemostats in the presence of toxic chemicals (soman, VX, sulphur mustard, petrol, aviation fuel and motor oil). Clot viscosity was assessed ex vivo using thrombelastography following treatment of pig blood with: (i) toxic chemical; (ii) haemostat; or (iii) haemostat in combination with toxic chemical. Several contaminants (VX, petrol and GD) were found to be pro-haemostatic and none had an adverse effect on the rate with which the test products attained haemostasis. However, the total clot strength for blood treated with certain haemostats in the presence of sulphur mustard, soman and petrol was significantly decreased. Three test products failed to demonstrate haemostatic function in this ex vivo (thrombelastography) model; this was tentatively ascribed to the products achieving haemostasis through a tamponade mechanism of action, which can only be replicated using in vivo models. Overall, this study has identified a number of commercial products that may have potential as haemostatic decontaminants and warrant further investigation to establish their decontaminant efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuck, D.L.; Wade, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics' perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM'93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams

  19. Soil washing and post-wash biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Alok

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory scale study was conducted to investigate the treatability of petroleum contaminated soils by soil washing and subsequent biological treatment of the different soil fractions. In addition to soils obtained from contaminated sites, studies were also performed on soils contaminated in the laboratory. Soil washing was performed using a bench-scale soil washing system. Washing was carried out with simultaneous fractionation of the bulk soil into sand, silt and clay fractions. Cl...

  20. [Diagnostics and treatment of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarivchatskiĭ, M F; Denisov, S A; Blinov, S A; Kolevatov, A P; Teplykh, N S

    2013-01-01

    The experience of treatment of 41 patients (aged 32-67 years) was presented in the article. The duration of disease was 2-5 years. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed in 16 patients and secondary--in 25. Diagnostics of the disease included clinical methods of treatment; studying levels of general and ionized calcium, phosphorus, parathormone; an ultrasound of thyroid and parathyroid glands, the substratum scintigraphy. All patients were undergone the operation. Adenomas of parathyroid glands were removed in the case of primary hyperparathyroidism including mini-access. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands (31/2) were disposed in the case of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Good immediate and long-term results were obtained.

  1. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakera, Ali J; Pearce, Simon HS; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-01-01

    Primary hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism is often considered simple, there are large numbers of people with this condition who are suboptimally treated. Even in those people with hypothyroidism who are biochemically euthyroid on levothyroxine replacement there is a significant proportion who report poorer quality of life. This review explores the historical and current treatment options for hypothyroidism, reasons for and potential solutions to suboptimal treatment, and future possibilities in the treatment of hypothyroidism. PMID:22291465

  2. Study of the contamination level in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomit, J.-M.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to work out a model which allows to predict the contamination level in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor (PWR). We assume that the passage of fission products from fuel (UO 2 ) to water takes place in two stages: a) the fission products created in the fuel diffuse and go out into the gap; b) owing to failure of clad, fission products stored in the gap diffuse into the water. A migration constant will correspond to each of these stages (ν(C) for fuel and ν(J) for gap). We have designed two models: - an empiric model in which constants ν(C) and ν(J) are adjusted from experiments CYRANO and BOUFFON carried out by the CEA; - a theoretical model to describe the physical mechanisms of migration inside the fuel. This leads us to introduce trapping and resolution probabilities. This models lead to a theoretical definition of ν(C). We have undertaken a second qualification of the empiric model using code PROFIP 3. Application to the Tihange reactor enabled us to get a good estimation of activity in the primary circuit and the number of failed rods during the first cycle [fr

  3. Process, engineering and design aspects of contaminated soil bioremediation. Pt. 1 In situ treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Fraja Frangipane, E.; Andreottola, G.; Tatano, F.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper is an up-to-date overview of contaminated soil bioremediation techniques, which are analyzed in detail with regard to main process, engineering and design aspects. General biochemical/kinetic aspects of bioremediation of contaminated soil, and in situ treatments, are discussed in this part one

  4. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Chilton, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  5. Post-treatment pain in teeth with primary infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Djalma Pécora; Cynthia Rodrigues de Araújo Estrela; Orlando Aguirre Guedes; Aldo Brugnera Junior; Carlos Estrela

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this assay was to evaluate longitudinal studies about the pain after endodontic treatment, with primary infection, using a systematic review. Methods: A MEDLINE search strategy was developed to identify articles using the following uniterms: endodontic(s) and pulpal pain, endodontic(s) and periapical pain, endodontic(s) and symptom, endodontic(s) and flare-ups, endodontic(s) pain and post-treatment, endodontic(s) and inter-appointment/interappointment. The search inc...

  6. Rituximab treatment in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Ross, Laura; Oon, Shereen; Nikpour, Mandana

    2018-06-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis affecting the brain and spinal cord. Treatment with biological agents has revolutionised the treatment of many rheumatic conditions but there is scant literature regarding the use of biological agents in PACNS. We present three cases of PACNS treated with rituximab, including two cases of relapsed disease, and a literature review suggesting a role for rituximab in this condition. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Real world data on primary treatment for mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Anna; Albertsson-Lindblad, Alexandra; Brown, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    to prognostic factors and first-line treatment in patients with MCL in a population-based data set. Data were collected from the Swedish and Danish Lymphoma Registries from the period of 2000 to 2011. A total of 1389 patients were diagnosed with MCL. During this period, age-standardized incidence MCL increased...... analysis. Hence, by a population-based approach, we were able to provide novel data on prognostic factors and primary treatment of MCL, applicable to routine clinical practice....

  8. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S.H.; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contaminated sediment can be recycled as fill material for site formation. • Thermal pretreatment of sediment permits non-load-bearing block application. • CO 2 curing enhances strength and reduces carbon footprint. • Inclusion of granular wastes reinforces the solidified sediment matrix. • Sediment blocks are useful resources for construction use. - Abstract: Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO 2 curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO 2 (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources

  9. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S.H.; Tsang, Daniel C.W., E-mail: dan.tsang@polyu.edu.hk; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contaminated sediment can be recycled as fill material for site formation. • Thermal pretreatment of sediment permits non-load-bearing block application. • CO{sub 2} curing enhances strength and reduces carbon footprint. • Inclusion of granular wastes reinforces the solidified sediment matrix. • Sediment blocks are useful resources for construction use. - Abstract: Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO{sub 2} curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO{sub 2} (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources.

  10. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  11. Evaluation and treatment of male hypogonadism in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kim Anne

    2016-08-18

    Male hypogonadism is increasing in prevalence, particularly in the older male population. Signs and symptoms associated with hypogonadism are often nonspecific and may be difficult to categorize. This article discusses parameters for screening patients at risk, reviews how to establish the diagnosis of primary or secondary male hypogonadism, and offers important considerations for treatment of patients with hypogonadism.

  12. Focal irreversible electroporation as primary treatment for localized prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Willemien; Scheltema, Matthijs J.; Siriwardana, Amila R.; Kalsbeek, Anton M. F.; Thompson, James E.; Ting, Francis; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Shnier, Ron; Delprado, Warick; Stricker, Phillip D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the safety, quality of life (QoL) and short-term oncological outcomes of primary focal IRE for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. To identify potential risk factors for oncological failure. Patients that met both the consensus guidelines on patient criteria and selection

  13. Urethral carcinoma in women: results of treatment with primary radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.F.; Wards, P.R.; Gospodarowicz, M.K.; McLean, M.; Catton, P.A.; Catton, C.N.; Banerjee, D.

    2000-01-01

    Urethral carcinoma in women is uncommon. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of these tumors. The hospital records of 34 women with primary urethral carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. There were 15 squamous cell carcinomas, 13 transitional cell carcinomas, and six adenocarcinomas. The primary tumor was >4 cm in size in eight patients, involved the proximal urethra in 19 and extended to adjacent organs in 22. Inguinal or iliac lymphadenopathy was present in nine patients. There were eight TNM stage I/II tumors, 11 stage III tumors and 15 stage IV tumors. Radiotherapy was administered only to the primary tumor in 15 patients, and to the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes in the remaining 19 patients. Brachytherapy with or without external radiation was used to treat the primary tumor in 20 patients. Tumor recurred in 21 patients. The 7-year actuarial overall and cause-specific survivals were 41 and 45%, respectively. Large primary tumor bulk and treatment with external beam radiation alone (no brachytherapy) were independent adverse prognostic factors for local tumor recurrence. Brachytherapy reduced the risk of local recurrence by a factor of 4.2. The beneficial effect of brachytherapy was most prominently seen in patients with bulky primary disease. Large tumor size was the only independent adverse predictor of overall disease recurrence and death from cancer. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for carcinoma of the female urethra and preserves normal anatomy and function. Brachytherapy improves local tumor control, possibly as a result of the higher radiation dose that can safely be delivered. (author)

  14. SOLID-PHASE TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL- CONTAMINATED SOIL USING LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abilities of three lignin-degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, and Trametes hirsuta, to deplete pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil contaminated with PCP and creosote were evaluated. A total of seven fungal and three control treatments ...

  15. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  16. Demonstration of New Technologies Required for the Treatment of Mixed Waste Contaminated with {ge}260 ppm Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2002-02-06

    -regulated organic contaminants (other than incinerator residues), incineration or retorting (IMERC or RMERC) is the treatment standard. For wastes with mercury contaminant concentrations {ge}260 ppm that are inorganic, including incinerator and retort residues, RMERC is the treatment standard. Mercury hazardous waste contaminated with {ge}260 ppm mercury is the primary focus of this report.

  17. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chun-Ping, E-mail: chunping@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deal with a practical radioactive contamination in Taiwan Research Reactor spent fuel pool water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify the properties of radioactive contaminants and performance test for water treatment materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radioactive solids were primary attributed by ruptured spent fuels, spent resins, and metal debris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radioactive ions were major composed by uranium and fission products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diatomite-based ceramic depth filter can simultaneously removal radioactive solids and ions. - Abstract: There were approximately 926 m{sup 3} of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, U, and {alpha}-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of <0.9 {mu}m filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb {beta}-emitters, {alpha}-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously

  18. Treatment system for contaminated water in Fukushima of Areva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan earthquake and following tsunami that occurred on March 11, 2011 resulted in a very difficult situation on the site of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi NPP, TEPCO was facing a very difficult challenge to cool down the reactors. Following the implementation of an open circuit reactor cooling using seawater mixed seawater and freshwater began to accumulate in the basements of the reactors and turbine building on site. This eater was highly contaminated at different levels, due to contact with damaged fuel elements and contaminated elements. Despite efforts to increase water storage capacity, it was estimated that in end of June 2011, water would ever flow as storage capacity would be reached. The site was urgently in needed of a water decontamination system that would greatly reduce the activity of the water. This would allow a recirculation to cool the reactors, reduce the water storage needs and facilitate access for other site remediation operations by decreasing the activity on site. Quality of water to be processed was estimated at about 100,000 tons with contamination level reaching 1Ci/L. (Author)

  19. [PRIMARY HEADACHE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS--DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Amal Khourieh; Kerem, Nogah C; Srugo, Isaac; Genizi, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Primary headaches are one of the most common disorders of childhood, with migraine and tension type headaches (TTHs) being the most frequent ones. In spite of their prevalence, there is paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause headaches and regarding the unique aspects of headaches in children and adolescents. To review the literature and summarize the knowledge regarding clinical features, diagnosis and management of primary headache in children and adolescents, mainly migraine and TTH. Most of our current knowledge regarding primary headaches in children and adolescents is driven from extrapolations from studies that were conducted with adult patients. Therefore, it needs to be validated for the different age groups. Migraines may be diagnosed effectively based on the 2nd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II), however, TTH is diagnosed mainly by the absence of features found in other headache types. Treatment strategies for primary headaches vary according to patient's age, family structure, culture and beliefs, headache diagnosis, and based on the disability the headache imposes on the patient's daily living. It was shown that a multidisciplinary approach, that includes continuing counseling, education, and reassurance, in combination with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, is an effective strategy for children and adolescents suffering from primary headaches. Further studies are needed to enrich our knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause headaches in children and adolescents and to develop efficient strategies to alleviate their burden.

  20. Treatment of oil-contaminated drill cuttings using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odusanya, O.O.; Guigard, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    New treatment technologies are currently being investigated for the treatment of oil-contaminated drill cuttings generated during drilling for oil and gas. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is a promising technology that could effectively treat these contaminated drill cuttings. The objectives of this work were therefore to investigate the application of SFE to oil-contaminated drill cuttings treatment and to determine the optimal extraction conditions to remove the oil from these cuttings. Preliminary extractions indicate that SFE with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) can effectively remove oil from oil-contaminated drill cuttings. Extraction efficiencies calculated based on Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content were greater than 76% for the cuttings and extraction conditions tested in this work. The preliminary results indicate a trend of increasing extraction efficiencies with increasing temperature and pressure although more data is required to confirm this trend. Additional work will focus on performing additional extractions to determine the optimum extraction conditions. (author)

  1. Phenix Power Plant Decommissioning Project. Treatment of the Primary Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluge, M.

    2008-01-01

    Phenix is a sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor located at the CEA's Rhone Valley Center where it was commissioned in 1974. It has an electric power rating of 250 MW and is operated jointly by the CEA and EDF. Its primary role today is to investigate the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste into shorter-lived wasteform. Its final shutdown is scheduled for the beginning of 2009. In this context the Phenix Power Plant Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2003. It covers the definitive cessation of plant operation and the dismantling (D and D) operations together with the final shutdown preparatory phase. The final shutdown phase includes the operations authorized within the standard operating methodological framework. The dismantling phase also comprises treatment of sodium-bearing waste and dismantling of the nuclear facilities (reactor block, shielded cells, etc.). Treatment of the Phenix primary cold trap is scheduled to begin in 2016. The analysis program includes the following steps: - Accurately determine the contamination in the trap by carrying out gamma spectrometry measurement campaigns from 2007 to 2013 (the remaining difficulty will be to accurately determine the distribution of the contamination). - Validate the safety studies for the ELA facility. This work is currently in progress; ELA will be commissioned following inactive qualification testing. - Proceed with cutting tests on the knit mesh filter, which are scheduled to begin in 2008

  2. Calcineurin Inhibitors in the Treatment of Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Laurin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Glucocorticoids have been evaluated in the treatment of primary FSGS in numerous retrospective studies. Evidence suggesting a role for including calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs in early therapy remains limited. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature examining the efficacy of CNIs in the treatment of primary FSGS both as first-line therapy and as an adjunctive agent in steroid-resistant patients, with respect to remission in proteinuria and renal survival. Sources of information: PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to August 2014 for prospective controlled trials, and case-control and cohort studies. Findings: After systematically applying our inclusion criteria, a total of 152 titles and abstracts were identified. Six randomized controlled trials and 2 cohort studies were reviewed. Three randomized controlled trials compared CNIs with placebo or supportive therapy. The pooled relative “risk” of proteinuria remission associated with cyclosporine was 7.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-16.8 compared with placebo/supportive therapy. There was very low heterogeneity among these studies with an I -squared of 0%. Three studies compared CNIs with another immunosuppressive agent. All prospective trials were conducted in patients with primary FSGS deemed steroid-resistant. Limitations: The relatively small number of included studies and their heterogeneity with respect to treatment protocols, and possible publication bias, limit conclusions drawn from this systematic review. Implications: The efficacy of CNIs has been evaluated in steroid-resistant primary FSGS patients. There is no evidence supporting their role as first-line therapy. Further studies are needed to determine this role.

  3. Factors associated with post-treatment E. coli contamination in households practising water treatment: a study of rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwic, Aaron; Kim, Erin; Khema, Cinn; Phanna, Chet; Sophary, Phan; Cantwell, Raymond E

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination in rural households in Cambodia that have adopted household water treatment. The following factors were significantly associated (α E. coli contamination: cleaning the drinking vessel with untreated water, not drying the cup (with a cloth), accessing treated water by the use of a scoop (ref: using a tap), having more than one untreated water storage container, having an untreated water storage container that appeared dirty on the outside, and cows living within 10 m of the household. This study provides further evidence confirming previous studies reporting an association between inadequate cleanliness of water storage containers and household drinking water contamination, and identifies practical recommendations statistically associated with reduced post-treatment E. coli contamination in the household setting in rural Cambodia.

  4. [Professor ZHAO Jiping's meridian diagnosis and treatment for primary dysmenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Zhang, Chang; Zhang, Jiajia; Wang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    For the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, professor ZHAO Jiping focuses on meridian diagnosis and inspection, and uses pressing methods to locate the response points along the meridian, including acupoints and aishi points. During the stage of attack, it is essential to press along the spleen meridian, mainly Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Diji (SP 8) and Yinlingquan (SP 9); during the stage of remission, it is essential to press along the bladder meridian and stomach meridian, mainly Ganshu (BL 18), Pishu (BL 20), Weishu (BL 21), Shenshu (BL 23) and Zusanli (ST 36). The differences between deficiency syndrome and excess syndrome lead to the different feelings of doctors and patients. Combined with the results of meridian diagnosis and inspection, the aim of treatment can be achieved by different acupuncture methods. Professor ZHAO pays attention to the treatment of accompanied symptoms and timing of treatment, since the relief of accompanied syndromes and selection of timing are keys to relieving patient's pain.

  5. Primary myelofibrosis: own experience and news from diagnostic and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdulkadyrov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The newest advances in primary myelofibrosis (PMF pathogenesis study, diagnostic and treatment approaches are presented in this article. The JAK-STAT signal pathway activation now recognized as main pathogenesis mechanism of PMF, it caused by JAK2, CALR, MPL genes mutations. Authors demonstrate their own data about epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnostic and treatment results of 315 PMF patients. The most frequent clinical symptoms are: anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms. Diagnostic criteria, prognostic scales (including cytogenetic and molecular features issues are reviewed. Intermediate-1 risk grade is in the most proportion of patients. Therecommended PMF treatment algorithm is listed. The treatment methods, target drugs (Janus kinases inhibitors trials results are discussed.

  6. Primary myelofibrosis: own experience and news from diagnostic and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdulkadyrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest advances in primary myelofibrosis (PMF pathogenesis study, diagnostic and treatment approaches are presented in this article. The JAK-STAT signal pathway activation now recognized as main pathogenesis mechanism of PMF, it caused by JAK2, CALR, MPL genes mutations. Authors demonstrate their own data about epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnostic and treatment results of 315 PMF patients. The most frequent clinical symptoms are: anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms. Diagnostic criteria, prognostic scales (including cytogenetic and molecular features issues are reviewed. Intermediate-1 risk grade is in the most proportion of patients. Therecommended PMF treatment algorithm is listed. The treatment methods, target drugs (Janus kinases inhibitors trials results are discussed.

  7. Second malignancy in relation to treatment modality of primary malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harpreet; Kaur, Parveen; Vashistha, Rajesh; Singh, Jaskaran; Passi, Kamlesh; Jain, Satish

    2001-01-01

    Second malignant tumors among long-term survivors are a sensitive indicator of successful oncologic treatment, particularly in this area of multimodal therapy. 11 patients of abdominopelvic primary malignancy were detected to have a second malignancy of different pathology, and at a different site. These patients were assessed regarding treatment modality of initial cancer and time gap between the first and second malignancy. Lack of proper cancer registries, illiteracy, and lack of resources lead to poor patient follow-up; therefore population based studies is not possible

  8. Primary Orgasmic Dysfunction: Diagnostic Considerations and Review of Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    As a diagnostic category, primary orgasmic dysfunction includes all women who have never experienced orgasm under any circumstances except sleep or fantasy. However, the research samples of nonorgasmic women in clinical reports and empirical investigations are heterogeneous with regard to disruption of earlier phases of the sexual response cycle and emotional concomitants of the dysfunction. The major treatment models—systematic desensitization, sensate focus, directed masturbation, and hypnosis—are presented, and empirical support is reviewed. Separate discussion is included for investigations comparing treatment modalities. Finally, a strategy for future programmatic sex therapy research is suggested within the broader context of psychotherapy outcome research. PMID:6828600

  9. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Chakera, Ali J; Pearce, Simon HS; Vaidya, Bijay

    2011-01-01

    Ali J Chakera1, Simon HS Pearce2, Bijay Vaidya11Department of Endocrinology, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital and Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, 2Endocrine Unit, Royal Victoria Infirmary and Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: Primary hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism is often considered simple, there are large numbers of people with this condition who are suboptimally treated. Even in those people ...

  10. Head and neck: treatment of primary and relapsed nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is not a common malignancy of the head and neck in the United States and presents a great challenge to the radiation oncologists in this country. Its management is radiotherapeutic and technically demanding and calls for careful treatment techniques to include the primary and the lymphatic drainage areas to high doses while sparing the neighboring organs such as the spinal cord, eyes, temporal lobes and midrain. This refresher course will review the clinical course, pattern of spread with manifestations of various neurologic syndromes of the disease. The radiotherapeutic management of primary lesion will be discussed in detail including the treatment techniques, placement of the irradiation portals, dose levels, etc. Treatment results as reported in the literature as well as those achieved at the MGH will be presented. Special emphasis will be placed on the routine use of intracavitary implant to boost the primary site and its technical aspects. Relapsed NPC after previous radiation therapy presents a difficult problem in management, but can be re-irradiated with occasional success by observing careful technique and fractionated intracavitary brachytherapy and the local control rates will be briefly covered. Recurrent disease in the neck will be managed by neck dissection. Xerostomia is undesirable and common sequelae following radical radiation therapy for NPC. Efforts are being made to decrease its magnitude by using higher energies of photons, i.e. 10 MV to spare a portion of the parotid glands with some promising results. Because of the unique location of the primary lesion, currently a modified BID program (MBID) is used and its techniques and treatment concept are discussed

  11. Brentuximab Vedotin Treatment for Primary Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Bo Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to 40% of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL become refractory or relapsed after current standard chemotherapy, among which primary refractory HL confers a particularly poor outcome. With intensive salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, the long-term remission rate for these patients was only 30%, but more selective treatments with higher therapeutic index are needed. We report the experience of using a new anti-CD30 immunotoxin, brentuximab vedotin, in salvage treatment of a 30-year-old woman with primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient presented with SVC syndrome due to the bulky mediastinal tumor and was confirmed to have classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type, stage IIIA. The tumor responded to induction chemotherapy transiently, but local progression was noted during subsequent cycles of treatment. Salvage radiotherapy to the mediastinal tumor, obtained no remission but was followed by rapid in-field progression and then lung metastasis. She declined stem cell transplantation and received salvage brentuximab vedotin (BV therapy, which induced dramatic shrinkage of tumor without significant side effects. Serial followup of PET/CT imaging confirmed a rapid and continuous complete remission for 12 months. Although durability of the remission needs further observation, this case illustrates the excellent efficacy of brentuximab vedotin in primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

  12. Infected primary knee arthroplasty: Risk factors for surgical treatment failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Gabriel Duarte Paes Pradella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present epidemiological data and risk factors associated with surgical out-comes favorable or unfavorable for the treatment of infection in infected total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 48 patients who underwent treatment of primary total knee arthroplasty for infection between January 1994 and December 2008, in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. The variables associated with favorable outcome of surgical treatment (debridement and retention or exchange arthroplasty in two days or unfavorable (arthrodesis or death infection. RESULTS: A total of 39 cases of infection after primary total knee arthroplasty, 22 progressed to 17 for a favorable outcome and unfavorable outcome. Early infections (OR: 14.0, 95% CI 1.5-133.2, p = 0.016 and diabetes (OR: 11.3, 95% CI 1.4-89.3, p = 0.032 were associated with arthrodesis joint and death respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with early infection had a higher risk of developing surgical procedure with unfavorable outcome (arthrodesis and diabetics had higher odds of death after infection of primary knee arthroplasties.

  13. The Treatment of Mental Contamination: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughtrey, Anna E.; Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Rachman, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The recommended treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) incorporating exposure and response prevention (ERP), which is effective for approximately 50% of patients. However, there has been little advance in treatment outcomes since the introduction of ERP in 1979. It has been suggested that some…

  14. Visualization of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus contamination of coconut (Cocos nucifera) nutmeat (Copra) using ammonia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    For many crops government regulations define mycotoxin contamination levels that reflect the primary determinants of quality, value and possible uses of crops. Quality can be raised by lowering the mycotoxin level through a remediation process. In the case of copra, the dried nutmeat of the coconu...

  15. Detection of aflatoxigenic aspergillus flavus contamination of coconut (cocos nucifera) nutmeat (copra) using ammonia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    For many crops government regulations define mycotoxin contamination levels that represent the primary determinants of quality, value and possible uses of crops. Quality can be raised in some crops by lowering the mycotoxin level through removal of infected products. In the case of copra, the drie...

  16. Bilingual children with primary language impairment: 3 months after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. To investigate change in select language and cognitive skills in Spanish-English bilingual children with PLI 3 months after children have completed one of three experimental treatment conditions. There are two main study aims. First, to determine if skills in Spanish, English and cognitive processing decline, improve or are maintained after treatment has been completed. Second, to determine if differential rates of change are a function of the type of treatment children received. Participants were 48 children, aged 5:6-11:3, who spoke Spanish and English and were diagnosed with moderate to severe PLI. Participants received 6 weeks of treatment focused on English only (EO), bilingual skills in Spanish and English (BI) or nonlinguistic cognitive processing (NCP). Treatment effects reported in a previous study were determined by comparing pre- and post-treatment performance on a variety of language and cognitive measures. Here we re-administered each measure 3 months after completion of the experimental treatments. Hierarchical linear models were calculated for each measure using pre-, post- and follow-up testing scores to estimate change trajectories and compare outcomes between treatment conditions. Participants in all three treatment conditions either maintained skills or showed improvement even after treatment was discontinued for 3 months. Main findings included (1) comparable, positive rates of change on all English language outcomes for EO and BI conditions; (2) maintenance of Spanish language skills, and (3) modest improvements in NCP following the discontinuation of treatment. This study is the first to examine longer-term treatment effects for bilingual school-age children with PLI

  17. Bilingual children with primary language impairment: 3 months after treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. Aims To investigate change in select language and cognitive skills in Spanish–English bilingual children with PLI 3 months after children have completed one of three experimental treatment conditions. There are two main study aims. First, to determine if skills in Spanish, English and cognitive processing decline, improve or are maintained after treatment has been completed. Second, to determine if differential rates of change are a function of the type of treatment children received. Methods & Procedures Participants were 48 children, aged 5:6–11:3, who spoke Spanish and English and were diagnosed with moderate to severe PLI. Participants received 6 weeks of treatment focused on English only (EO), bilingual skills in Spanish and English (BI) or nonlinguistic cognitive processing (NCP). Treatment effects reported in a previous study were determined by comparing pre- and post-treatment performance on a variety of language and cognitive measures. Here we re-administered each measure 3 months after completion of the experimental treatments. Hierarchical linear models were calculated for each measure using pre-, post- and follow-up testing scores to estimate change trajectories and compare outcomes between treatment conditions. Outcomes & Results Participants in all three treatment conditions either maintained skills or showed improvement even after treatment was discontinued for 3 months. Main findings included (1) comparable, positive rates of change on all English language outcomes for EO and BI conditions; (2) maintenance of Spanish language skills, and (3) modest improvements in NCP following the discontinuation of treatment. Conclusions & Implications This study is the first

  18. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song [Fort Collins, CO; Fallgren, Paul H [Laramie, WY; Morris, Jeffrey M [Laramie, WY

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  20. Facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The standard applies to processes applied in facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants with LWR- and HTR-type reactors. It does not apply to the treatment of concentrates obtained in the decontamination of water. (orig.) [de

  1. LAND TREATMENT AND THE TOXICITY RESPONSE OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils contaminated with wood preserving wastes, including pentachlo-rophenol (PCP) and creosote, are treated at field-scale in an engineered prepared-bed system consisting of two one-acre land treatment units (LTUs). The concentration of selected indicator compounds of treatment ...

  2. Surgery for acquired cardiovascular disease: antiseptic treatment of contaminated vein grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F P; Peivandi, A A; Kohnen, W; Jansen, B

    2014-04-01

    Saphenous vein grafts harvested for use as bypass conduits can be contaminated intraoperatively, e.g. by being inadvertently dropped to the floor of the operating room (OR). This study was performed to investigate microorganisms most likely contaminating vein grafts and to assess the possible efficacy of measures to treat potentially contaminated vein grafts antiseptically for further use. In a first step we determined the microbiological flora of the OR using surface cultures and cultures from intentionally dropped vein grafts. Several antiseptic agents (PVP-iodine 10%, octenidinhydrochloride 0.1%, polyhexanide 1%) were evaluated for their in vitro efficacy to disinfect artificially contaminated vein segments. The most promising antiseptic regimen was tested on veins contaminated in a real OR setting. Finally, we tested for possible alterations in mechanical properties of the veins caused by antiseptic treatment. Coagulase-negative staphylococci where the predominant bacteria recovered from the OR with 59.9%. Antiseptic treatment with a combination of octenidine and PVP-iodine resulted in a higher rate of negative cultures than any single agent. Treatment of 50 saphenous vein grafts contaminated in the OR with the combination regimen resulted in only 3 positive cultural results within 7 days. Mechanical tear-stress testing comparing antiseptically treated vein grafts with controls showed no difference in their resistance to tear stress. Antiseptic treatment of contaminated vein grafts was shown to be effective in a high percentage of cases without altering mechanical properties of grafts and may be an option for the surgeon in case of a contamination.

  3. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study wa...

  4. Earthworms as colonisers: Primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms

  5. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  6. Bioremediation treatment of MTBE and ETBE in contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Three Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE degradative consortia were isolated from gasoline-contaminated soil namely: mKMS, mKGS1 and mKGS2. These consortia were tested for the ability to degrade Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE at the concentration of 100 mg/L and to degrade a mixture of MTBE and ETBE in the Nutrient Broth (NB media at the concentration of 50 mg/L each. The results showed that mKGS1 was the best degraders in which 74% of MTBE, 25% of ETBE and 16% of MTBE and 23% of ETBE in the mixture were degraded, within 30 days. mKGS1 was then further used in the bioaugmentation and biostimulation experiments. Degradation of MTBE increased from 34% to 61% after 70 days when mKGS1 was amended in soil mixed with the combination of MTBE and ETBE (at 50 mg/L each. However, mKGS1 did not significantly help the ETBE degradation when it was amended in soil (biostimulation technique. One percent glucose significantly stimulated the degradation of MTBE by the indigenous microorganisms. The presence of mKGS1 and an addition of 1% glucose as extra carbon source improved the degradation of MTBE, from 42 to 51%, suggesting mKGS1 played an important role in the degradation of MTBE.

  7. UV irradiation and autoclave treatment for elimination of contaminating DNA from laboratory consumables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrides, Lisa A; Powell, Mark C; Donley, Michael A; Kahn, Roger

    2010-02-01

    Laboratories employ various approaches to ensure that their consumables are free of DNA contamination. They may purchase pre-treated consumables, perform quality control checks prior to casework, and use in-house profile databases for contamination detection. It is better to prevent contamination prior to DNA typing than identify it after samples are processed. To this end, laboratories may UV irradiate or autoclave consumables prior to use but treatment procedures are typically based on killing microorganisms and not on the elimination of DNA. We report a systematic study of UV and autoclave treatments on the persistence of DNA from saliva. This study was undertaken to determine the best decontamination strategy for the removal of DNA from laboratory consumables. We have identified autoclave and UV irradiation procedures that can eliminate nanogram quantities of contaminating DNA contained within cellular material. Autoclaving is more effective than UV irradiation because it can eliminate short fragments of contaminating DNA more effectively. Lengthy autoclave or UV irradiation treatments are required. Depending on bulb power, a UV crosslinker may take a minimum of 2h to achieve an effective dose for elimination of nanogram quantities of contaminating DNA (>7250mJ/cm(2)). Similarly autoclaving may also take 2h to eliminate similar quantities of contaminating DNA. For this study, we used dried saliva stains to determine the effective dose. Dried saliva stains were chosen because purified DNA as well as fresh saliva are less difficult to eradicate than dried stains and also because consumable contamination is more likely to be in the form of a collection of dry cells.

  8. In Situ Treatment of Chlorinated Ethene-Contaminated Groundwater Using horizontal Flow Treatment Wells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferland, Derek

    2000-01-01

    The limitations of conventional containment technologies for groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents have motivated development of innovative technologies to achieve national groundwater...

  9. Medical treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Thomsen, Susanna vid Strym

    2011-04-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a condition with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). The increase may be due to a) primary hyperparathyroidism which is caused by adenoma of one or more parathyroid glands or hyperplasia of all four glands, b) secondary hyperparathyroidism, which may be caused by deficiency in vitamin D or uremia, and 3) tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which most often is the result of a long-standing, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, which has turned autonomous once the cause of the secondary hyperparathyroidism has been removed. Many new treatment options have been introduced in recent years. Cinacalcet is calcium sensing receptor agonist, which by stimulating the receptor decreases PTH and calcium levels. It may be used in primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by uremia, which may not be controlled with calcium and activated vitamin D. It may also be used in tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Newer analogues of vitamin D such as paricalcitol have also been introduced, which may have an advantage over traditional compounds such as alphacalcidol and calcitriol.

  10. [Observation of topography and analysis of surface contamination of titanium implant after roughness treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongdan; Yang, Xiaodong; Wu, Dayi; Zhang, Xingdong

    2007-04-01

    The roughness treatment of dental implant surface could improve the bone bonding and increase the success rate of implant, but the difference of diverse treatments is still unknown. In this study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectrometer (EDS) and the test of contact angle, we studied the microstructure, surface contamination and surface energy, and hence conducted a comparative analysis of the following surface roughness treatments: Polished Treatment (PT), Sandblasting with Alumina(SA), Sandblasting with Aluminia and Acid-etched (SAA), Sandblasting with Titanium Acid-etched (STA), Electro-erosion Treatment(ET). The result of SEM showed that the surface displayed irregularities after roughness treatments and that the surface properties of different roughness treatments had some distinctions. SAA and SA had some sharp edges and protrutions; the STA showed a regular pattern like honeycomb, but the ET sample treated by electric erosion exhibited the deeper pores of different sizes and the pores with a perforated secondary structure. The EDS indicated that the surface was contaminated after the treatment with foreign materials; the SA surface had some embedded contaminations even after acid etching. The measurement of water contact angle indicated that the morphology correlated with the surface treatments. These findings suggest that the distinction of surface structure and composition caused by different treatments may result in the disparity in biological behavior of dental implant.

  11. Systemic treatment of cancer of unknown primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) comprises a heterogenous group of cancers with distinct biology and prognosis. There is, however, a specific group of patients with curable diseases, or incurable diseases with good prognosis. The main aim of treatment in the group of patients with CUP is timely initiation of therapy in the cases of curable disease. There is no known standard of care in the cases of CUP with poor prognosis, but most frequently, platinum-based regimens are used. In the cases of specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) or molecular gene expression profile, there are used the treatment regimens similar to those used in the patients with known primary tumor and similar IHC or molecular profile. Currently, most of data in patients with CUP are from phase II clinical trials. Thus proficiently designed phase III randomized clinical trials with translation research is priority, with aim to improve our knowledge and personalize treatment of such heterogenous group of patients as is a group of patients with CUP. (author)

  12. Modelling the cost effectiveness of antidepressant treatment in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Brown, R E; Palmer, W; Bakish, D; Rosser, W W; Anton, S F; Feeny, D

    1995-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of nefazodone compared with imipramine or fluoxetine in treating women with major depressive disorder. Clinical decision analysis and a Markov state-transition model were used to estimate the lifetime health outcomes and medical costs of 3 antidepressant treatments. The model, which represents ideal primary care practice, compares treatment with nefazodone to treatment with either imipramine or fluoxetine. The economic analysis was based on the healthcare system of the Canadian province of Ontario, and considered only direct medical costs. Health outcomes were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs were in 1993 Canadian dollars ($Can; $Can1 = $US0.75, September 1995). Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated comparing the relative lifetime discounted medical costs and QALYs associated with nefazodone with those of imipramine or fluoxetine. Data for constructing the model and estimating necessary parameters were derived from the medical literature, clinical trial data, and physician judgement. Data included information on: Ontario primary care physicians' clinical management of major depression; medical resource use and costs; probabilities of recurrence of depression; suicide rates; compliance rates; and health utilities. Estimates of utilities for depression-related hypothetical health states were obtained from patients with major depression (n = 70). Medical costs and QALYs were discounted to present value using a 5% rate. Sensitivity analyses tested the assumptions of the model by varying the discount rate, depression recurrence rates, compliance rates, and the duration of the model. The base case analysis found that nefazodone treatment costs $Can1447 less per patient than imipramine treatment (discounted lifetime medical costs were $Can50,664 vs $Can52,111) and increases the number of QALYs by 0.72 (13.90 vs 13.18). Nefazodone treatment costs $Can14 less than fluoxetine

  13. Transcriptomic analyses of primary astrocytes under TNFα treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Birck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell population in the central nervous system, have important functional roles in the brain as blood brain barrier maintenance, synaptic transmission or intercellular communications [1,2]. Numerous studies suggested that astrocytes exhibit a functional and morphological high degree of plasticity. For example, following any brain injury, astrocytes become reactive and hypertrophic. This phenomenon, also called reactive gliosis, is characterized by a set of progressive gene expression and cellular changes [3]. Interestingly, in this context, astrocytes can re-acquire neurogenic properties. It has been shown that astrocytes can undergo dedifferentiation upon injury and inflammation, and may re-acquire the potentiality of neural progenitors [4,5,6,7].To assess the effect of inflammation on astrocytes, primary mouse astrocytes were treated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, one of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines. The strength of this study is that pure primary astrocytes were used. As microglia are highly reactive immune cells, we used a magnetic cell sorting separation (MACS method to further obtain highly pure astrocyte cultures devoid of microglia.Here, we provide details of the microarray data, which have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under the series accession number GSE73022. The analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Gabel et al. (2015. Analysis of gene expression indicated that the NFκB pathway-associated genes were induced after a TNFα treatment. We have shown that primary astrocytes devoid of microglia can respond to a TNFα treatment with the re-expression of genes implicated in the glial cell development. Keywords: Primary astrocytes, Inflammation, Microarrays, Gene expression

  14. In situ treatment of soil contaminated with PAHs and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.; Dev, H.; Chang, J.; Houthoofd, J.

    1992-01-01

    The wood preserving industry uses more pesticides than any other industry worldwide. The major chemicals used are creosote, pentachlorophenol, and CCA (copper, chrome and arsenate). It is reported that between 415 to 550 creosoting operations within the United States consume approximately 454,000 metric tons of creosote annually. When properly used and disposed off, creosote does not appear to significantly threaten human health. However, due to improper disposal and spillage at old facilities, creosote and other wood preserving chemicals have found their way into surface soils. Active wood preserving sites generate an estimated 840 to 1530 dry metric tons of hazardous contaminated sludge annually, which is classified as KOOL. Creosote, obtained from coal tar, contains a large number of chemical components. The three main families of compounds represented in creosote are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenolic, and heterocyclic compounds. Creosote is composed of approximately 85% PAHs, 10% phenolic compounds and 5% heterocyclic compounds. There are approximately a total of 17 PAHs present in creosote. The four most prominent compounds belonging to the PAH family are naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These four compounds represent approximately 52% of the total PAHs present in creosote. There are approximately 12 different phenolic compounds present in creosote among which phenol is the most abundant, representing 20% of the total phenolics. In addition, the various isomers of cresol represent about 20% and pentachlorophenol (PCP) represents 10% of the total phenolics. There are approximately 13 different heterocyclic compounds are the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the total heterocyclics. All of these compounds possess toxic properties and some of them, for example, PCP, when subjected to high temperature environments are suspected precursors in the formation of dioxins

  15. Treatment conditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The pollutant load in road runoff is related to traffic densities and road maintenance activities. Inurbanised areas treatment of road runoff is common and often considered necessary. The pollutantsare partitioned between the particulate and dissolved matter. However, the contaminantstend to have an affinity to the particulate material. Sedimentation, the predominant treatmentmethod for road runoff uses various types of ponds. Design tools used for stormwater treatmentsystems are based on ext...

  16. A study on the assessment of treatment technologies for efficient remediation of radioactively-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Shin, Seung Su; KIm, Sun Il [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Soil can be contaminated by radioactive materials due to nuclide leakage following unexpected situations during the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Soil decontamination is necessary if contaminated land is to be reused for housing or industry. The present study classifies various soil remediation technologies into biological, physics/chemical and thermal treatment and analyzes their principles and treatment materials. Among these methods, this study selects technologies and categorizes the economics, applicability and technical characteristics of each technology into three levels of high, medium and low by weighting the various factors. Based on this analysis, the most applicable soil decontamination technology was identified.

  17. Differential approach to treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko O.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to develop an algorithm of differentiated therapy in children with PNE. 234 children aged 5-15 years were studied. Results of treatment of children with primary nocturnal enuresis using the traditional therapeutic scheme and the algorithm of differential therapy based on identification of individual pathology were analyzed. The best clinical effect (recovery— in 73,1%, improvement— in 19,4% of cases was obtained in children undergone the complex of recommended measures: psychological consultation, rational and family psychotherapy, medication correction, physical and physiotherapy, alarm-monitoring; the complex was used differentially, i.e. depending on the identified pathology. In conclusion the article stated that individual treatment program with the obligatory inclusion of alarm-control for child with PNE should be selected after performing the recommended set of diagnostic measures

  18. Primary cardiac lymphoma: diagnostic tools and treatment challenges.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, R

    2011-03-01

    Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare malignancy and the optimal treatment strategy remains uncertain. It appears to respond much better to systemic chemotherapy than to surgery and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cardiac tumours before definitive management is undertaken. We report a case of this rare disorder treated successfully with a combination of rituximab and cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisolone. The patient developed recurrent unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT) post-chemotherapy secondary to extensive scarring at the tumour site. The tumour as well as the post-treatment scarring is well illustrated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging highlighting its usefulness in this setting. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) was placed. This is only the second case in the literature of PCL to have an ICD placed for recurrent VT. A brief literature review is included.

  19. Treatment of contaminated wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; Arnold, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an energy research and radioisotope production facility, operates two centralized liquid waste treatment systems, one for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system and the other for process waste (PW). New regulatory and waste minimization requirements have led ORNL to consider zeolite ion exchangers for removing cesium and strontium from LLLW and PW streams for their economic advantages, selective molecular sieve properties, and ease of disposal. Natural and synthetic zeolites have been compared with inorganic and organic ion exchangers for these applications

  20. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry- and solid-phase techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel H.; Irvine, Robert L.

    1995-10-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurrying is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bio-slurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the rate an extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies. Results showed that slurrying for 1.5 hours at a water content less than saturation markedly increased the rate and extent of contaminant biodegradation in the solid phase bioreactors compared with soil having no slurry pretreatment. Slurrying the soil at or above its saturation moisture content resulted in lengthy dewatering times which prohibited aeration, thereby delaying the onset of biological treatment in the solid phase bioreactors. Results also showed that properly operated periodic aeration can provide less volatile contaminant removal and a grater fraction of biological contaminant removal than continuous aeration.

  1. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  2. In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Review of candidate processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Ally, M.

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the screening and preliminary evaluation of candidate treatment for use in treating mixed contaminants volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides in groundwater. Treating mixed contaminants presents unusual difficulties. Typically, VOCs are the most abundant contaminants, but the presence of radionuclides results in additional health concerns that must be addressed, usually by a treatment approach different from that used for VOCs. Furthermore, the presence of radionuclides may yield mixed solid wastes if the VOCs are treated by conventional means. These issues were specifically addressed in the evaluation of candidate treatment processes for testing in this program. Moreover, because no research or early development of a particular process would be performed, the technology review also focused on technologies that could be readily adapted and integrated for use with mixed contaminants. The objective is to couple emerging or available processes into treatment modules for use in situ. The three year project, to be completed in September 1996, includes a full-scale field demonstration. The findings reported in this document encompass all activities through the treatment process evaluations

  3. In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Review of candidate processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Siegrist, R.L. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ally, M. [and others

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the screening and preliminary evaluation of candidate treatment for use in treating mixed contaminants volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides in groundwater. Treating mixed contaminants presents unusual difficulties. Typically, VOCs are the most abundant contaminants, but the presence of radionuclides results in additional health concerns that must be addressed, usually by a treatment approach different from that used for VOCs. Furthermore, the presence of radionuclides may yield mixed solid wastes if the VOCs are treated by conventional means. These issues were specifically addressed in the evaluation of candidate treatment processes for testing in this program. Moreover, because no research or early development of a particular process would be performed, the technology review also focused on technologies that could be readily adapted and integrated for use with mixed contaminants. The objective is to couple emerging or available processes into treatment modules for use in situ. The three year project, to be completed in September 1996, includes a full-scale field demonstration. The findings reported in this document encompass all activities through the treatment process evaluations.

  4. Large scale treatment of total petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater using bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Gregory; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Mok, Puah Chum; Ball, Andrew S

    2018-05-15

    Bioaugmentation or the addition of microbes to contaminated sites has been widely used to treat contaminated soil or water; however this approach is often limited to laboratory based studies. In the present study, large scale bioaugmentation has been applied to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum facility. Initial TPH concentrations of 1564 mg L -1 in the field were reduced to 89 mg L -1 over 32 days. This reduction was accompanied by improved ecotoxicity, as shown by Brassica rapa germination numbers that increased from 52 at day 0 to 82% by the end of the treatment. Metagenomic analysis indicated that there was a shift in the microbial community when compared to the beginning of the treatment. The microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes from day 0 to day 32, although differences at the genus level were observed. The predominant genera at the beginning of the treatment (day 0 just after inoculation) were Cloacibacterium, Sediminibacterium and Brevundimonas while at the end of the treatment members of Flavobacterium dominated, reaching almost half the population (41%), followed by Pseudomonas (6%) and Limnobacter (5.8%). To the author's knowledge, this is among the first studies to report the successful large scale biodegradation of TPH-contaminated groundwater (18,000 L per treatment session) at an offshore petrochemical facility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of treatment outcomes for primary tonsillar lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seok Goo; Jung, Seung Eun; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Park, Gyeong Sin; Yang, Suk Woo; Lee, In Seok; Rhee, Chin; Kook; Choi, Byung Ock [Catholic University Lymphoma Group (CULG), Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Although each Waldeyer’s ring sub-site is considered an independent prognostic factor, few studies have assessed the prognosis and treatment of tonsillar lymphoma. Treatment outcomes were analyzed in patients with primary tonsillar lymphoma who were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). Nineteen patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were evaluated, with a median follow-up of 53 months. Age, sex, and histology, amongst other factors, were reviewed. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were analyzed. Most patients had Ann Arbor stage I-II (94.7%), IPI score of 0 (89.5%), and complete remission after chemotherapy (89.5%). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 74.6% and 80%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen resulted in a better PFS than the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) regimen (88.9% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.053). RT dose was related to the survival outcome (p = 0.010 for PFS, p = 0.044 for OS). Patients were classified into the CHOP + RT (>40 Gy) group and R-CHOP + RT (≤40 Gy) group. The 5-year PFS rates were 50% in the CHOP + RT group, and 100 % in the R-CHOP + RT group (p = 0.018). The 5-year OS rates were 66.7% and 100%, respectively (p = 0.087). Primary tonsillar lymphoma patients typically have favorable outcomes. Chemotherapy (R-CHOP) combined with relatively lower dose consolidative RT may be safe and effective for primary tonsillar lymphoma.

  6. Treatment of brain metastases from primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Gail F.; Ball, David L.; Smith, Jennifer G.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study of patients treated at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute for brain metastases from primary carcinoma of the lung is presented. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients with the diagnosis of primary carcinoma of the lung who presented with, or subsequently developed, brain metastases during the period January 1984 to December 1987 were reviewed. Information on a number of factors of potential prognostic significance (sex, age, histology, performance status and interval between diagnosis of the primary and brain metastases) was collected. Details of surgery, radiation and steroid usage were recorded, and any steroid side effects documented. Survival was calculated from the date of diagnosis of brain metastases. Stepwise regression based on Cox's proportional hazards model was used to determine significant prognostic factors affecting survival. Patients with and without steroid side effects were compared using Yate's corrected chi-square test. Results: The overall estimated median survival was only 3.3 months (95% confidence interval 2.9-3.7 months). Only two factors were found to be associated with a significantly improved survival--surgical intervention and good performance status. After taking these two factors into account, the dose of radiation used (< 30 Gy or ≥ 30 Gy) did not influence survival. There was a 3% incidence of gastric bleeding or perforation in patients taking steroids, with a 40% fatality rate. Predisposing factors to gastric side effects were a prior history of peptic ulcer and/or aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumption. Conclusion: Radiation of brain metastases from primary lung cancer results in modest survival benefit. Radiation dose (< 30 Gy or ≥ 30 Gy) is not a significant determinant of survival. Other treatment modifications, such as concurrent radiation and chemotherapy, should be explored. Steroids should be used with caution as fatal side effects can occur

  7. Neuroblastoma: treatment outcome after incomplete resection of primary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suk-Bae; Park, Kwi-Won; Jung, Sung-Eun; Youn, Woong-Jae

    2009-09-01

    For International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stages III or IV neuroblastoma (intermediate or high risk), complete excision of the primary tumor is not always feasible. Most current studies on the treatment outcome of these patients have reported on the complete excision status. The aim of this study is to review the treatment outcome after the incomplete resection. The medical records of 37 patients that underwent incomplete resection between January 1986 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Incomplete resection was assessed by review of the operative notes and postoperative computerized tomography. Age, gender, tumor location, INSS stage, N-myc gene copy number, pre- and postoperative therapy, and treatment outcome were reviewed. The treatment outcome was evaluated according to the postoperative treatment protocol in the high-risk group. Intermediate-risk patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy, isotretinoin (ITT) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). High-risk patients were treated with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), ITT, and IL-2 (N = 11). Before the introduction of PBSCT, the high-risk patients were also treated with the conventional chemotherapy (N = 19). Intermediate-risk patients (N = 5) currently have no evidence of disease (NED). For the high-risk patients (N = 32), 19 patients were treated with chemotherapy alone; 15 patients died of their disease while four patients currently have an NED status. Eight of 11 patients that underwent PBSCT are currently alive. For intermediate risk, conventional chemotherapy appears to be acceptable treatment. However, for high-risk patients, every effort should be made to control residual disease including the use of myeloablative chemotherapy, differentiating agents and immune-modulating agents.

  8. Treatment of Regional Metastatic Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke J. A. H. van Beek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP, in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2 Methods: Medical data of all MUP patients registered between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients were categorized in either lymph node (axilla, groin, head-and neck or subcutaneous MUP. Axillary node MUPs were generally treated with dissections of levels I-III, inguinal node MUPs with combined superficial and deep groin dissections, and head-and-neck node MUPs with neck dissections to various extents, based on lymph drainage patterns. Subcutaneous lesions were excised with 1–2 cm margins. The primary outcome was treatment outcomes in terms of (locoregional recurrence and survival rates; (3 Results: Lymph node MUP recurred regionally in 11% of patients, with an overall recurrence rate of 45%. In contrast, subcutaneous MUP recurred locally in 65% of patients with an overall recurrence rate of 78%. This latter group had a significantly shorter disease-free interval than patients with lymph node MUP (p = 0.000. In the entire study population, 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47% respectively, with no differences observed between the various subgroups; (4 Conclusion: The relatively low regional recurrence rate after regional lymph node dissection (11% supports its current status as standard surgical treatment for lymph node MUP. Subcutaneous MUP, on the contrary, appears to recur both locally (65% and overall (78% at a significantly higher rate, suggesting a different biological behavior. However, wide local excision remains the best available option for this specific group.

  9. Contaminated Materials Treatment Program annual report for FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Powell, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The Western New York Nuclear Services Center reprocessed nuclear fuel for five years until operations were terminated in 1972. Underground tanks at the site contain high-level waste (HLW) generated during the reprocessing operations. Based on original agreements, the state of New York has assumed responsibility for the wastes and the site. The Department of Energy (DOE) is assisting New York State, through the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), in processing and solidifying the HLW. The site contractor for the WVDP is West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), through the West Valley Support Project, has been supporting WVNS and DOE in establishing vitrification and waste processing technology and capability at the West Valley Site. The specific objective of the West Valley Support Project during FY 1989 were to complete designs of remote equipment, assist in characterizing the WVNS feed, sampling, ceramic melter and off-gas systems, provide chemical analysis of the radioactive wastes and testing of future processes with actual radioactive wastes, provide testing and modeling studies of the reference WV waste product, and conduct special studies, such as evaluating corrosion of the waste tanks and supporting operation of the supernatant treatment system. 13 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Imitation Biological Treatment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang; Chen, Jun; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Zhongkai; Cheng, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the treatment methods of heavy metal pollution in soils were analyzed, the existence and transformation of heavy metals in soil were explored, and the mechanism of heavy metal absorption by plants was studied. It was concluded that the main form of plants absorb heavy metals in the soil is exchangeable. The main mechanism was that the plant cell wall can form complex with heavy metals, so that heavy metals fixed on the cell wall, and through the selective absorption of plasma membrane into the plant body. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of the adsorbed material was analyzed. According to the results of some researchers, it was found that the mechanism of adsorption of heavy metals was similar to that of plants. According to this, using adsorbent material as the main material, Imitate the principle of plant absorption of heavy metals in the soil to removing heavy metals in the soil at one-time and can be separated from the soil after adsorption to achieve permanent removal of heavy metals in the soil was feasibility.

  11. Higher contamination rate than usual. Treatment and disinfection of water in hot whirlpool systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschman, W

    1985-10-01

    Hot whirlpools must meet the hygienic standards set in the Federal Law Concerning Prevention of Epidemics of 18 Dec 1979. The low water volume of whirlpool systems and the extraordinary contamination rate in uninterrupted operation require a specific water treatment and disinfestation technology to make up for the poor buffer capacity of the low water volume. (orig./BWI).

  12. Studies on electrochemical treatment of wastewater contaminated with organotin compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo, Eduardo [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Strasse 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Calmano, Wolfgang [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Strasse 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: calmano@tuhh.de

    2007-07-31

    Different anode materials were tested to evaluate their suitability to eliminate organotin compounds electrochemically from shipyard process waters. The capacity of two types of anode materials was investigated: niobium coated with boron-doped diamond (BDD) and titanium coated with iridium dioxide (Ti/IrO{sub 2}). The aim of this work was to characterize the performance of the process using both anode materials at different current densities, and also to evaluate the generation of by-products. A further objective of this work was to evaluate if operating at low potentials with BDD anodes (to avoid the generation of elemental oxygen) the consumption of energy for degradation of pollutants could be minimized. The processes were tested on synthetic and real shipyard water containing approximately 25,000 ng L{sup -1} of tributyltin (TBT) (as Sn) and 5000 ng L{sup -1} dibutyltin. The range of current densities was between 6 and 70 mA cm{sup -2}. The results showed that electrochemical treatment is suitable to eliminate organotins down to very low concentrations following a stepwise debutylation mechanism. Both anode materials exhibited a similar performance with energy consumption in the range of 7-10 kWh m{sup -3} in order to decrease organotins down to 100 ng L{sup -1} (as Sn). For the water composition tested, BDD did not outperform Ti/IrO{sub 2} as initially expected, most probably because organotins were not only oxidized by {center_dot}OH, but also by active chlorine compounds generated by the oxidation of chloride present in the wastewater (1.6 g L{sup -1}, Cl{sup -}) with both anode materials. It was also found that the residual oxidants remaining in the treated effluent had to be eliminated if the water is to be discharged safely in the aquatic environment.

  13. Studies on electrochemical treatment of wastewater contaminated with organotin compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo, Eduardo; Calmano, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Different anode materials were tested to evaluate their suitability to eliminate organotin compounds electrochemically from shipyard process waters. The capacity of two types of anode materials was investigated: niobium coated with boron-doped diamond (BDD) and titanium coated with iridium dioxide (Ti/IrO 2 ). The aim of this work was to characterize the performance of the process using both anode materials at different current densities, and also to evaluate the generation of by-products. A further objective of this work was to evaluate if operating at low potentials with BDD anodes (to avoid the generation of elemental oxygen) the consumption of energy for degradation of pollutants could be minimized. The processes were tested on synthetic and real shipyard water containing approximately 25,000 ng L -1 of tributyltin (TBT) (as Sn) and 5000 ng L -1 dibutyltin. The range of current densities was between 6 and 70 mA cm -2 . The results showed that electrochemical treatment is suitable to eliminate organotins down to very low concentrations following a stepwise debutylation mechanism. Both anode materials exhibited a similar performance with energy consumption in the range of 7-10 kWh m -3 in order to decrease organotins down to 100 ng L -1 (as Sn). For the water composition tested, BDD did not outperform Ti/IrO 2 as initially expected, most probably because organotins were not only oxidized by ·OH, but also by active chlorine compounds generated by the oxidation of chloride present in the wastewater (1.6 g L -1 , Cl - ) with both anode materials. It was also found that the residual oxidants remaining in the treated effluent had to be eliminated if the water is to be discharged safely in the aquatic environment

  14. Assessment of airborne virus contamination in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frédéric G; Hotz, Philipp; Gashi, Drita; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Oppliger, Anne

    2014-08-01

    Occupational exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and its consequence on workers' health are well documented. Most studies were devoted to enumerating and identifying cultivable bacteria and fungi, as well as measuring concentrations of airborne endotoxins, as these are the main health-related factors found in WWTP. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the presence and concentrations of airborne virus in WWTP. However, many enteric viruses are present in wastewater and, due to their small size, they should become aerosolized. Two in particular, the norovirus and the adenovirus, are extremely widespread and are the major causes of infectious gastrointestinal diseases reported around the world. The third one, hepatitis E virus, has an emerging status. This study׳s objectives were to detect and quantify the presence and concentrations of 3 different viruses (adenovirus, norovirus and the hepatitis E virus) in air samples from 31 WWTPs by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) during two different seasons and two consecutive years. Adenovirus was present in 100% of summer WWTP samples and 97% of winter samples. The highest airborne concentration measured was 2.27 × 10(6) genome equivalent/m(3) and, on average, these were higher in summer than in winter. Norovirus was detected in only 3 of the 123 air samples, and the hepatitis E virus was not detected. Concentrations of potentially pathogenic viral particles in WWTP air are non-negligible and could partly explain the work-related gastrointestinal symptoms often reported in employees in this sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-power ultrasonic treatment of contaminated soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, A.F.; Gwan, P.B.; Sosa Pintos, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The propagation of high-power ultrasound through a liquid can initiate the phenomenon of cavitation. This occurs with the collapse of gas bubbles formed during the rarefaction phase of the ultrasonic wave either from the dissolution of air or vaporisation of the liquid. Bubble collapse can generate localised temperatures up to 5,000 K and pressures up to 1,000 atmospheres. Solid particles in slurry have been shown to act as foci for the nucleation and collapse of bubbles. Theory and experiment have confirmed that the rupture of a bubble on a solid surface generates a high speed jet directed towards the surface. In this case, the extreme conditions generated by the non-linear shock wave produced by bubble collapse are localised on the solid surface. Since Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are hydrophobic and are also readily absorbed on the surface of soil particles, the energy released by cavitation in a soil or sediment slurry is selectively directed towards them. The temperatures are sufficient to decompose these molecules. However, the extreme conditions are highly localised and the bulk solution temperature is essentially unaffected. Any decomposition products are immediately quenched and recombination reactions are avoided. Recent advances in ultrasound technology have produced commercial equipment capable of high power which has enabled us to remediate soils and sediments containing Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). With reductions greater than 80% within minutes, this technique shows great promise with advantages of on-site treatment and reduced operating and capital costs compared with conventional methods

  16. Lysine clonixinate in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, G; Zmijanovich, R; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Terragno, A

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerance of Lysine Clonixinate (LC), a NSAID with prostaglandin synthesis inhibiting mechanism was studied in 24 patients with primary dysmenorrhea according to a double-blind randomized crossover Placebo (P) controlled design with patients serving as their own controls. Treatment consisted in administering 1 tablet of LC or P q6h as from onset of menstrual pain during 5 days and 6 menstrual cycles. Patients were controlled monthly as from the 5th day of the cycle, rating changes in pain intensity according to a 4-point scale, presence of pain during pre-, post- and menstrual periods; possible intracycle changes, amount of bleeding, tolerance and related total and general signs and symptoms. Intensity of baseline menstrual pain amounted to 2.9. Menstrual, intramenstrual and postmenstrual pains were observed in 19 out of 24, 24/24 and only 2 out of the 24 patients, respectively. Concomitant symptoms consisted in headache (12), mastalgia (14) and discomfort (12). Results were obtained by averaging the data from the treatment periods with each drug. Menstrual pain was reduced from 2.9 +/- 0.7 to 1.9 +/- 0.7 with P administration and to 0.66 +/- 0.4 with the administration of LC, a highly significant difference between treatments (p < 0.0001). Premenstrual pain was reduced nonsignificantly from 0.79% to 0.58% with P administration and significantly to 0.29% with administration of LC (p < 0.001). Intramenstrual pain affecting all patients at baseline was reduced significantly by 9% with P and also significantly by 50% with LC (p < 0.001). No differences were encountered in concomitant symptoms during P treatment periods while the incidence was significantly reduced with LC (p < 0.0001). No changes in cycle duration or amount of bleeding were observed between treatments. No adverse events were reported.

  17. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  18. Occurrence of pharmaceutical contaminants and screening of treatment alternatives for southeastern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, G R; Grimm, D A

    2001-12-01

    Recent studies conducted in Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Brazil, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere indicate that low-level concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) and their metabolites may be widespread contaminants in our aquatic environment. The persistence of pharmaceutical contaminants has been attributed to (1) human consumption of drugs and subsequent discharges from sewage treatment plants, and (2) veterinary use of drugs and nonpoint discharges from agricultural runoff. Contamination of water resources by these compounds, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), is emerging as an international environmental concern. The long-term effects of continuous, low-level exposure to PPCPs is not well understood. Preliminary data for raw water samples collected from the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, are summarized. Three PPCP compounds (clofibric acid, naproxen, and estrone) were analyzed using solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and GC/MS. Batch experiments also were conducted to determine equilibrium capacity of activated carbon for clofibric acid. Preliminary results indicate the occurrence of the selected PPCP contaminants in raw water samples at or near method-detection limits. For batch equilibrium experiments, preliminary results indicate that activated carbon potentially can be used to remove clofibric acid from water. More research is needed to develop rapid and reliable methods for PPCP analysis and to determine the effectiveness of treatment processes for removal of PPCP contaminants in water.

  19. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary (unknown primary) treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Materials used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth: a mixed treatment comparisons meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Silveira dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to systematically review the literature to address the question regarding the influence of different materials in the clinical and radiographic success of indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth. A literature search was carried out for articles published prior to January 2017 in PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Scopus, TRIP and ClinicalTrials databases; relevant articles included randomized clinical trials that compared materials used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and extracted the data. The effects of each material on the outcome (clinical and radiographic failures were analyzed using a mixed treatment comparisons meta-analysis. The ranking of treatments according to their probability of being the best choice was also calculated. From 1,088 potentially eligible studies, 11 were selected for full-text analysis, and 4 were included in the meta-analysis. In all papers, calcium hydroxide liner was used as the control group versus an adhesive system, resin-modified glass ionomer cement or placebo. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 48 months, with dropout rates of 0-25.7%. The material type did not significantly affect the risk of failure of the indirect pulp treatment. However, calcium hydroxide presented a higher probability of failure. In conclusion, there is no scientific evidence showing the superiority of any material used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth.

  1. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira da Mota, Izabel; de Castro, José Adilson; de Góes Casqueira, Rui; de Oliveira Junior, Angelo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Electroflotation method (EFM) for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it...

  2. Solvent extraction treatment of PCB contaminated soil at Sparrevohn Long Range Radar Station, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    On-site soil treatment at a long range radar station in Alaska, which was contaminated with between 50 and 350 mg/kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is described. The stock-piled soil was treated by the Terra Kleen Response Group, using a solvent extraction process. After the treatment, PCB concentrations in the treated soil were found to have been reduced to less than the target treatment level of 15 mg/kg. Not only was the process successful, it also saved the government about $ 1 million over what hauling and off-site treatment and disposal would have cost. 1 tab

  3. Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Treatment of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ranieri, Deirdre; Fenny, Nana Sarkoah

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as antibody replacement therapy in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) for more than 50 years. Its role as a therapeutic agent has expanded over the past couple of decades as its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory mechanisms of action have been elucidated. It is now used "off-label" to treat other autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the role of IVIG in the treatment of PIDDs characterized by absent or deficient antibody production. Replacement doses are given on a monthly basis in these conditions as a prophylactic measure to prevent acute and serious bacterial infections. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(1):e8-e12.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Clinical outcome after treatment of infected primary total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six consecutive cases of infected primary total knee arthroplasties were treated at our institution from 1989 through 2000. Eleven patients had debridement and irrigation performed within 2 months of index arthroplasty or hematogenous spread; only one infection was eradicated. Twenty......-five patients had their prostheses removed; 17 had two-stage revision arthroplasty, following which infection was eradicated in 15; one had a permanent spacer, 7 had arthrodesis (following failed revision arthroplasty in one) and 2 had a femur amputation (following failed revision arthroplasty in one) at follow......-up of mean 24 months. Infections were cured equally well with revision arthroplasty and arthrodesis. Among the 15 patients who ended up with revision arthroplasty, 11 had a better range of motion compared to the index arthroplasty, but 8 had daily pain. We present our treatment protocol, which eradicated 15...

  5. Comparison and critical review of onsite treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of information developed in the Onsite Treatment of Contaminated Soil Manual (Manual) prepared for the Western States Petroleum Associated (WSPA). The manual provides an easy to use reference for evaluating technologies which may be applicable to onsite remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, by providing materials in the following three formats: The main text, which provides summaries for each available technology and a screening procedure to identify potentially viable options for specific site conditions; several appendices, which contain detailed descriptions for each technology, and permit requirement summaries for nine western states; and a separate appendix which lists published references and vendor's literature used n preparing the Manual

  6. Contamination level of four priority phthalates in North Indian wastewater treatment plants and their fate in sequencing batch reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Rajpal, Ankur; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The contamination level of four phthalates in untreated and treated wastewater of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their fate in a full scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based WWTP was evaluated in this study. The four phthalates were diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). All compounds were present in untreated wastewater with DEHP being present in the highest mean concentration of 28.4 ± 5.3 μg L(-1). The concentration was in the range of 7.3 μg L(-1) (BBP) to 28.4 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in untreated wastewater and 1.3 μg L(-1) (DBP) to 2.6 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in treated wastewater. The nutrient removal process and advance tertiary treatment based WWTPs showed the highest phthalate removal efficiencies of 87% and 93%, respectively. The correlation between phthalate removal and conventional performance of WWTPs was positive. Fate analysis of these phthalates in a SBR based WWTP showed that total removal of the sum of phthalates in a primary settling tank and SBR was 84% out of which 55% is removed by biodegradation and 29% was removed by sorption to primary and secondary sludge. The percentage removal of four phthalates in primary settling tanks was 18%. Comparison of the diluted effluent DEHP concentration with its environmental quality standards showed that the dilution in an effluent receiving water body can reduce the DEHP emissions to acceptable values.

  7. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Reactive barrier technologies for treatment of contaminated groundwater at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marozas, D.C.; Bujewski, G.E.; Castaneda, N.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is supporting the investigation of reactive barrier technologies to mitigate the risks associated with mixed organic/radioactive waste at several DOE sites. Groundwater from a small contaminated plume at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is being used to evaluate passive reactive material treatment. Permeable reactive barriers which intercept contaminants and destroy the VOC component while containing radionuclides are attractive for a number of reasons relating to public and regulatory acceptance. In situ treatment keeps contaminants away from the earth's surface, there is no above-ground treatment equipment that could expose workers and the public and operational costs are expected to be lower than currently used technologies. This paper will present results from preliminary site characterization and in-field small-scale column testing of reactive materials at RFETS. Successful demonstration is expected to lead to full-scale implementation of the technology at several DOE sites, including Rocky Flats

  9. Plasma jet array treatment to improve the hydrophobicity of contaminated HTV silicone rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Han, Qianting; Xia, Yan; Li, Shuang

    2017-10-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet array specially designed for HTV silicone rubber treatment is reported in this paper. Stable plasma containing highly energetic active particles was uniformly generated in the plasma jet array. The discharge pattern was affected by the applied voltage. The divergence phenomenon was observed at low gas flow rate and abated when the flow rate increased. Temperature of the plasma plume is close to room temperature which makes it feasible for temperature-sensitive material treatment. Hydrophobicity of contaminated HTV silicone rubber was significantly improved after quick exposure of the plasma jet array, and the effective treatment area reached 120 mm × 50 mm (length × width). Reactive particles in the plasma accelerate accumulation of the hydrophobic molecules, namely low molecular weight silicone chains, on the contaminated surface, which result in a hydrophobicity improvement of the HTV silicone rubber.

  10. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  11. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fujun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Changsheng [The Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Hou, Deyi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gu, Qingbao, E-mail: guqb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  12. Proposal of a sequential treatment methodology for the safe reuse of oil sludge-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mater, L; Sperb, R M; Madureira, L A S; Rosin, A P; Correa, A X R; Radetski, C M

    2006-08-25

    In this study sequential steps were used to treat and immobilize oil constituents of an oil sludge-contaminated soil. Initially, the contaminated soil was oxidized by a Fenton type reaction (13 wt% for H(2)O(2); 10mM for Fe(2+)). The oxidative treatment period of 80 h was carried out under three different pH conditions: 20 h at pH 6.5, 20 h at pH 4.5, and 40 h at pH 3.0. The oxidized contaminated sample (3 kg) was stabilized and solidified for 2h with clay (1 kg) and lime (2 kg). Finally, this mixture was solidified by sand (2 kg) and Portland cement (4 kg). In order to evaluate the efficiency of different processes to treat and immobilize oil contaminants of the oil sludge-contaminated soil, leachability and solubility tests were performed and extracts were analyzed according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed that the Fenton oxidative process was partially efficient in degrading the oil contaminants in the soil, since residual concentrations were found for the PAH and BTEX compounds. Leachability tests showed that clay-lime stabilization/solidification followed by Portland cement stabilization/solidification was efficient in immobilizing the recalcitrant and hazardous constituents of the contaminated soil. These two steps stabilization/solidification processes are necessary to enhance environmental protection (minimal leachability) and to render final product economically profitable. The treated waste is safe enough to be used on environmental applications, like roadbeds blocks.

  13. Primary nocturnal enuresis in children. Background and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate background factors and treatment in children with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. The study material comprised enuretics, former enuretics and controls from the municipal community of Falkenberg on the west coast of Sweden. Whenever possible all investigations were made with the children staying in their own home environment. Different background factors have been suspected as being causative: sleep disturbances, behavioural or psychological disturbances, small bladder capacity, increased night diuresis and an insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone during sleep. These factors have been investigated in these studies. The treatment of enuresis has been dominated by the alarm and antidiuretic treatment with DDAVP. Primary nocturnal monosymptomatic enuresis is a common problem in childhood. In this study the prevalence among 392 seven year old children was 7.3%. A prior history of enuresis was found in 65% of families of the enuretics compared to 25% in controls. The enuretic children showed no statistically significant differences in behavioural or psychological problems compared to non-enuretic children. Enuretic children were described as heavy sleepers by their parents and a wake-up test performed at home showed that they were statistically significantly harder to arouse than the controls. Children with nocturnal enuresis, former enuretics and controls did not differ in social or behavioural traits in an interview study. No signs of symptom substitution was found when enuresis was resolved. Enuretic children had a normal bladder capacity and no statistically significant difference was found compared to controls and former enuretics. The enuretic children showed a normal calcium-creatinine quota in the urine. Former enuretic children showed a significantly enhanced calcium/creatinine quota compared to enuretics and controls. Enuretic children had a statistically significant lower morning

  14. Identification and treatment of lithium as the primary toxicant in a groundwater treatment facility effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Crow, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    6 Li is used in manufacturing nuclear weapons, shielding, and reactor control rods. Li compounds have been used at DOE facilities and Li-contaminated waste has historically been land disposed. Seep water from burial grounds near Y-12 contain small amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons, traces of PCBs, and 10-19 mg/L Li. Seep treatment consists of oil-water separation, filtration, air stripping, and carbon adsorption. Routine biomonitoring tests using fathead minnows and Ceriodaphniadubia are conducted. Evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that toxicity was most likely due to Li. Laboratory tests showed that 1 mg Li/L reduced the survival of both species; 0.5 mg Li/L reduced Ceriodaphnia reproduction and minnow growth. However, the toxicity was greatly reduced in presence of sodium (up to 4 mg Li/L, Na can fully negate the toxic effect of Li). Because of the low Na level discharged from the treatment facility, Li removal from the ground water was desired. SuperLig reg-sign columns were used (Li-selective organic macrocycle bonded to silica gel). Bench-scale tests showed that the material was very effective for removing Li from the effluent, reducing the toxicity

  15. Treatment and disposal of petroleum contaminated soil (June 1996) : revised May 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Leaking petroleum storage tanks and petroleum contaminated sites can pose significant environmental and public safety hazards. Proper mitigation is required to remove this threat. These guidelines are intended to assist environmental consultants, petroleum service contractors, waste disposal ground operators and petroleum storage tank owners in the management of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS). The procedures that should be used for disposal and treatment of PCS at licensed soil treatment facilities, municipal waste disposal grounds, and at single-use soil treatment sites approved by Manitoba Environment are described. The treatment should control excessive emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. Losses of petroleum compounds by leaching should also be controlled. The main treatment method at government-approved sites is land farming. Other remedial options include enhanced bioremediation, asphalt incorporation, soil washing, and thermal treatment. Permitting and licensing procedures, guidelines for the design and operations at PCS treatment and disposal sites, procedures for the removal and re-use of treated soil and procedures for the decommissioning of PCS treatment sites are also outlined. A list of other associated regulations and guidelines is included. 2 tabs

  16. Treatment, as radio-active waste, of large pieces of ∝-contaminated apparatus (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Capitaine, A.; Giachetto, I.

    1962-01-01

    Two solutions have been adopted: - removal of the material from its original container, treatment in a special container; - treatment of the material directly inside its original protective packing. The treatment of a fluorination oven illustrates the second process. After a thorough cleaning of the enclosure, the oven is fixed in and the contamination held in place by a varnish. The assembly is placed in a special container and covered with shaken-down concrete. The container is shut by means of a welded cover. The operations are carried out under reduced pressure. At the end of this process it is impossible to detect any residual radioactivity. (authors) [fr

  17. Effect of salivary contamination and decontamination on bond strength of two one-step self-etching adhesives to dentin of primary and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, Katharina; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of human saliva contamination and two decontamination procedures at different stages of the bonding procedure on the bond strength of two one-step self-etching adhesives to primary and permanent dentin. Extracted human primary and permanent molars (210 of each) were ground to mid-coronal dentin. The dentin specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups (n = 15/group/molar type) for each adhesive (Xeno V+ and Scotchbond Universal): no saliva contamination (control); saliva contamination before or after light curing of the adhesives followed by air drying, rinsing with water spray/air drying, or by rinsing with water spray/air drying/reapplication of the adhesives. Resin composite (Filtek Z250) was applied on the treated dentin surfaces. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 h. After storage, shear bond strength (SBS) was measured and data analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA followed by exact Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Xeno V+ generated significantly higher SBS than Scotchbond Universal when no saliva contamination occurred. Saliva contamination reduced SBS of Xeno V+, with the reduction being more pronounced when contamination occurred before light curing than after. In both situations, decontamination involving reapplication of the adhesive restored SBS. Saliva contamination had no significant effect on Scotchbond Universal. There were no differences in SBS between primary and permanent teeth. Rinsing with water and air drying followed by reapplication of the adhesive restored bond strength to saliva-contaminated dentin.

  18. In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Application of zero-valence iron and palladized iron for treatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene and technetium-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Muck, M.T.; Zutman, J.L.; Schlosser, R.M.; Liang, L.; Gu, B.; Houk, T.C.; Fernando, Q.

    1997-04-01

    The overall goal of this portion of the project was to package one or more unit processes, as modular components in vertical and/or horizontal recirculation wells, for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [e.g., trichloroethene (TCE)] and radionuclides [e.g., technetium (Tc) 99 ] in groundwater. The project was conceived, in part, because the coexistence of chlorinated hydrocarbons and radionuclides has been identified as the predominant combination of groundwater contamination in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Thus, a major component of the project was the development of modules that provide simultaneous treatment of hydrocarbons and radionuclides. The project objectives included: (1) evaluation of horizontal wells for inducing groundwater recirculation, (2) development of below-ground treatment modules for simultaneous removal of VOCs and radionuclides, and (3) demonstration of a coupled system (treatment module with recirculation well) at a DOE field site where both VOCs and radionuclides are present in the groundwater. This report is limited to the innovative treatment aspects of the program. A report on pilot testing of the horizontal recirculation system was the first report of the series (Muck et al. 1996). A comprehensive report that focuses on the engineering, cost and hydrodynamic aspects of the project has also been prepared (Korte et al. 1997a)

  19. In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Application of zero-valence iron and palladized iron for treatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene and technetium-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muck, M.T.; Zutman, J.L.; Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Liang, L.; Gu, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Houk, T.C. [Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, OH (United States); Fernando, Q. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The overall goal of this portion of the project was to package one or more unit processes, as modular components in vertical and/or horizontal recirculation wells, for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [e.g., trichloroethene (TCE)] and radionuclides [e.g., technetium (Tc){sup 99}] in groundwater. The project was conceived, in part, because the coexistence of chlorinated hydrocarbons and radionuclides has been identified as the predominant combination of groundwater contamination in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Thus, a major component of the project was the development of modules that provide simultaneous treatment of hydrocarbons and radionuclides. The project objectives included: (1) evaluation of horizontal wells for inducing groundwater recirculation, (2) development of below-ground treatment modules for simultaneous removal of VOCs and radionuclides, and (3) demonstration of a coupled system (treatment module with recirculation well) at a DOE field site where both VOCs and radionuclides are present in the groundwater. This report is limited to the innovative treatment aspects of the program. A report on pilot testing of the horizontal recirculation system was the first report of the series (Muck et al. 1996). A comprehensive report that focuses on the engineering, cost and hydrodynamic aspects of the project has also been prepared (Korte et al. 1997a).

  20. Treatment techniques for the removal of radioactive contaminants from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    Maximum contaminant levels have been set for radioactive contaminants, as required by the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL 93-523). Treatment techniques are available for removing radium and beta-gamma emitters. Presently-used methods of removing radium-226 are precipitative lime softening (80-90% removal) ion exchange softening (95% removal) and reverse osmosis (95% removal). The 5 p Ci/l limit for radium can be met with conventional technology for raw waters in the 5-100 p Ci/l concentration range. Treatment for removal of beta or gamma emitters must be based upon chemical rather than radioactive characteristics of the contaminant. Reverse osmosis can remove a broad spectrum of ions and molecules from water, so it is the process most likely to be used. The maximum contaminant level for beta and gamma radioactivity is an annual dose equivalent to the total body or any organ not to exceed 4 m rem/year. The fate of radionuclides after removal from drinking water should be considered. Presently radium is disposed with other process wastes at softening plants removing radium. Confinement and disposal as a radioactive waste would be very expensive. (author)

  1. Ex situ treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Ana Belén; Paradelo, Remigio; Rubinos, David; Devesa-Rey, Rosa; Cruz, José Manuel; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-09-14

    The utilization of biosurfactants for the bioremediation of contaminated soil is not yet well established, because of the high production cost of biosurfactants. Consequently, it is interesting to look for new biosurfactants that can be produced at a large scale, and it can be employed for the bioremediation of contaminated sites. In this work, biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus growing in hemicellulosic sugars solutions, with a similar composition of sugars found in trimming vine shoot hydrolysates, were employed in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with octane. It was observed that the presence of biosurfactant from L. pentosus accelerated the biodegradation of octane in soil. After 15 days of treatment, biosurfactants from L. pentosus reduced the concentration of octane in the soil to 58.6 and 62.8%, for soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of hydrocarbon, respectively, whereas after 30 days of treatment, 76% of octane in soil was biodegraded in both cases. In the absence of biosurfactant and after 15 days of incubation, only 1.2 and 24% of octane was biodegraded in soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of octane, respectively. Thus, the use of biosurfactants from L. pentosus, as part of a well-designed bioremediation process, can provide mechanisms to mobilize the target contaminants from the soil surface to make them more available to the microbial population.

  2. Risk-Based Approach for Thermal Treatment of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocârţă D. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the actual context of limited soil resources and the significant degree of environmental pollution, public administrations and authorities are interested in restoring contaminated sites paying attention to the impact of these soils on human health. This paper aims to present the efficiency of the the incineration as a method for treatment of the contaminated soils t based on human health risk assessment. Through various experimentations, the following metals have been studied: Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Co, Cd, Hg, As and Be. The most important and interesting results concerning both thermal treatment removal efficiency and associated human health risk assessments were achieved concerning Cd, Pb and Ni contaminants. The behavior of Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni concentrations from heavy metals incineration soil has been analyzed for three incineration temperatures (600°C, 800°C and 1000°C and two resident times of soil within the incineration reactor (30 min. and 60 min.. In this case, the level of contaminants in the treated soil can be reduced but not enough to ensure an acceptable risk for human health.

  3. Optimal primary surgical treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, Ahmed; Bryant, Andrew; Winter-Roach, Brett A; Hatem, Mohamed; Naik, Raj

    2011-08-10

    -based chemotherapy. We only included studies that defined optimal cytoreduction as surgery leading to residual tumours with a maximum diameter of any threshold up to 2 cm. Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible, the data were synthesised in a meta-analysis. There were no RCTs or prospective non-RCTs identified that were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of surgery when performed as a primary procedure in advanced stage ovarian cancer.We found 11 retrospective studies that included a multivariate analysis that met our inclusion criteria. Analyses showed the prognostic importance of complete cytoreduction, where the residual disease was microscopic that is no visible disease, as overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were significantly prolonged in these groups of women. PFS was not reported in all of the studies but was sufficiently documented to allow firm conclusions to be drawn.When we compared suboptimal (> 1 cm) versus optimal ( 2 cm and factors, selection bias was still likely to be of particular concern.Adverse events, quality of life (QoL) and cost-effectiveness were not reported by treatment arm or to a satisfactory level in any of the studies. During primary surgery for advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer all attempts should be made to achieve complete cytoreduction. When this is not achievable, the surgical goal should be optimal (related and disease-related factors that are associated with the improved survival in these groups of women. The findings of this review that women with residual disease 1 cm should prompt the surgical community to retain this category and consider re-defining it as 'near optimal' cytoreduction, reserving the term 'suboptimal' cytoreduction to cases where the residual disease is > 1 cm (optimal/near optimal/suboptimal instead of complete/optimal/suboptimal).

  4. Remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by ex situ microwave treatment: technical, energy and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciglia, P P; Vagliasindi, F G A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the remediation of diesel-polluted soils was investigated by simulating an ex situ microwave (MW) heating treatment under different conditions, including soil moisture, operating power and heating duration. Based on experimental data, a technical, energy and economic assessment for the optimization of full-scale remediation activities was carried out. Main results show that the operating power applied significantly influences the contaminant removal kinetics and the moisture content in soil has a major effect on the final temperature reachable during MW heating. The first-order kinetic model showed an excellent correlation (r2 > 0.976) with the experimental data for residual concentration at all operating powers and for all soil moistures tested. Excellent contaminant removal values up to 94.8% were observed for wet soils at power higher than 600 W for heating duration longer than 30 min. The use of MW heating with respect to a conventional ex situ thermal desorption treatment could significantly decrease the energy consumption needed for the removal of hydrocarbon contaminants from soils. Therefore, the MW treatment could represent a suitable cost-effective alternative to the conventional thermal treatment for the remediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

  5. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry and solid phase techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, D.P.; Irvine, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurry is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay load contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the ate and extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies

  6. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) treatment depends on the best determination of the primary site, if possible. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic treatment. Get detailed information about diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this summary for clinicians.

  7. Nonbreast Second Malignancies After Treatment of Primary Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Budhi S.; Sharma, Suresh C.; Patel, Firuza D.; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Rajinder

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence and risk factors for nonbreast second malignancies (NBSMs) in women after treatment for primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1985 and December 1995, a total of 1,084 breast cancer patients were analyzed for NBSMs. Detailed analysis was carried out for age, family history, disease stage, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, other clinical/pathologic characteristics, and site of NBSMs. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the relative risk of NBSMs. Results: Median follow-up was 12 years. In total, 33 cases of NBSMs were noted in 29 patients. The overall incidence of NBSM was 3%, and the median time for NBSMs was 7 years. The most common NBSMs were gynecologic (22 patients), gastrointestinal (4 patients), head and neck (3 patients), hematologic (2 patients), lung (1 patient), and thyroid (1 patient). The NBSMs rate at 12 years was 2.4% for both mastectomy and radiation therapy groups. In the subset of patients less than 45 years of age at the time of treatment, the NBSMs rate was 0.7% as compared with 4.6% in patients more than 45 years of age (p = 0.001). Statistically significant higher incidences of endometrial and ovarian cancer were seen in patients with hormonal therapy (5.2%) as compared with patients without hormonal therapy (1.8%, p = 0.002). Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher incidence (6%) of endometrial and ovarian malignancy compared with women without such a history (2.1%, p = 0.003). Chemotherapy did not affect the risk of second malignancy. Conclusion: The most common NBSMs in this study were gynecologic. Family history of breast cancer was a high risk factor for NBSMs. No risk of NBSMs with radiotherapy was observed.

  8. Treatment of plutonium contamined solid wastes by electrogenerated Ag(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulze, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the treatment of plutonium contaminated solid wastes is designed. Two types of wastes have been studied; incineration ashes (COGEMA UP1) and sludges produced in the cryotreatment facility in Cadarache Center (France). The principle of the process is based on the rapid dissolution of PuO 2 (contained in the wastes) under the action of aggressive Ag(II) species, regenerated electrochemically. In the case of the treatment of incinerator ashes an electrochemical pretreatment is necessary if the chloride ion content of the ashes is high. The feasibility of the decontamination process has been proved for the two types of plutonium contaminated solid wastes at a pilot level; for example 1 Kg of ashes (or 0.75 Kg of sludges) has been treated in one experiment, and 97% (or 95%) of the total plutonium was dissolved at the end of the experiment. Industrial applications of this new process are underway [fr

  9. Prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Debora C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this guidance is to support the dental team to; manage patients with periodontal diseases in primary care appropriately; improve the quality of decision making for referral to secondary care; improve the overall oral health of the population. It focuses on the prevention and non-surgical treatment of periodontal diseases and implant diseases in primary care. The surgical treatment of periodontal and implant diseases and the management of patients by periodontal specialists or in a secondary care setting are outwith the scope of this guidance and are not discussed in detail. The guidance is based on existing guidelines, including those from the British Society of Periodontology, relevant systematic reviews, research evidence and the opinion of experts and experienced practitioners. The methodological approach is based on the international standards set out by the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Collaboration (www.agreetrust.org). The guiding principle for developing guidance within SDCEP is to first source existing guidelines, policy documents, legislation or other recommendations. Similarly, relevant systematic reviews are also initially identified. These documents are appraised for their quality of development, evidence base and applicability to the remit of the guidance under development. In the absence of these documents or when supplementary information is required, other published literature and unpublished work may be sought.Review and updating. The guidance will be reviewed in three years and updated accordingly. Recommendations are provided for assessment and diagnosis; changing patient behaviour; treatment of gingival conditions; periodontal conditions; long term maintenance; management of patients with dental implants; referral and record keeping. The key recommendations highlighted are: Assess and explain risk factors for periodontal diseases to patients. Screen all patients for periodontal diseases at every routine

  10. Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.

    1995-09-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives

  11. Treatment of Navy Landfill Leachate Contaminated with Low Levels of Priority Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    nitrogen, and in another study lignins and tannins . Sulfate to chloride ratio, oxidation reduction pctential (ORP), and pH reflect the degree of...from the treatment system. The contaminants are identified in the groundwater through laboratory analysis . The design goal is to use the properties of...materials management 1 H Structural analysis and design (including numerical and 4C Waterwaste management and sanitary engineering computer techniques

  12. Review of Removal, Containment and Treatment Technologies for Remediation of Contaminated Sediment in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    selected as a remedy for the St. Paul Waterway Remedial Action and Habitat Restoration Project because it created few adverse impacts and provided great...J. K., Weitkamp, D. E., and Weiner, K. S. 1989. "St. Paul Waterway Remedial Action and Habitat Restoration Project," Contaminated Marine Sedi- ments...Electrocoagulation Anaerobic biodegradation Granular media filtration Flocculation/coagulation BioTrol aqueous treatment Membrane microfiLtration system Freeze

  13. Metals and metalloids treatment in contaminated neutral effluents using modified materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugaru, Iuliana Laura; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Genty, Thomas; Zagury, Gérald J

    2018-04-15

    Circumneutral surface water and groundwater can contain hazardous concentrations of metals and metalloids that can threaten organisms in surrounding ecosystems. Extensive research has been conducted over the past two decades to prevent, limit, and treat water pollution. Among the currently available treatment options is the use of natural and residual materials, which is generally regarded as effective and inexpensive. The modification of such materials enhances the removal capacity of metals and metalloids, as well as the physical and chemical stability of the materials and resulting sludge (after treatment). This paper reviews several modified materials that have produced and evaluated in the past twenty years to treat various contaminants in water under specific conditions. Important factors on performance improvement following the modifications are emphasized. Sorption capacity and kinetics, and element removal mechanisms are also discussed. Element recovery, material regeneration, water reuse, evaluation of treatment efficiency for real effluents are also considered, as well as the applicability of these materials in both active and passive treatment systems. Modified natural and residual materials are a promising option for the treatment of metals and metalloids in circumneutral contaminated waters. However, further research is necessary to evaluate their field-scale performance and to properly assess treatment costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medical and surgical treatment of primary divergent strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, H; Castiella Acha, J C; Anguiano Jimenez, M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of different therapies applied in the past 30 years, both medical and surgical, and results, with the ultimate aim of determining which are the most appropriate criteria to indicate when and how to perform medical and surgical treatment in these patients. A retrospective randomized study was conducted on 198 patients with primary divergent strabismus first seen in our clinic (IOC) in the last 36 years (1976-2012), with a mean follow-up of 8.38 years. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the various treatments performed, and motor and sensory outcome were collected. They were finally divided into 3 groups of 70, 71 and 56 patients, respectively, according to their first visit, in order to compare the therapies applied. Half (50%) of our patients debuted before 2 years of age (P50=24 months), and 26.3% had optimal binocular vision at the beginning of the study. Medical treatment was used as exclusive therapy in 29.3% of cases (occlusion therapy, applying negative lenses, botulinum toxin), and 70.7% required surgery (61.2% by double retro-insertion of lateral rectus, and 38.8% monolateral retro-resection). There was a recurrence in 26.7% of patients, and 40 re-interventions were performed (70% due to recurrence of divergent strabismus, 12.5% due to surgical over-correction, and 17.5% for other reasons). In the end, 61.1% of patients had perfect binocular vision (TNO=60"), and the proportion was higher in patients who showed proper control of their strabismus at the beginning (P=.003). However, no differences were found in the other variables studied. When the patients were divided into 3 groups (which are demographically comparable), an increased number of patients in Group 3 were found to be treated using negative lenses and botulinum toxin (P<.001 and P=.003). This group was found to have had a higher proportion of bilateral surgery (P=.032), seeking greater immediate postoperative over-correction, thus

  15. Facilities for the treatment of radioactively contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The regulation is to be applied to design, construction and operation of facilities for the treatment of contaminated water in stationary nuclear power plants with LWR and HTR. The facilities are to be designed, constructed and operated in such manner that (a) imcontrolled discharge of contaminated water is avoided (Paragraph 46 section 1, no. 1 Radiation Protection Regulation) (b) the activity discharged with water is as low as possible ( paragraph 46, section 2, no. 2 Radiation Protection Regulation) (c)contaminated water will not get into the ground, unless this is permitted by a license (paragraph 46 section 6 Radiation Protection Regulation) (d) the radiation exposure resulting from direct radiation, contamination and inhalation of the personnel working with the facility is as low as possible and, at the most, corresponds to the values fixed in the regulation (paragraph 28 section 1 Radiation Protection Regulation) or the values given in the discharge permit. The regulation is not to be applied to installations for reactor coolant or fuel pit clean-up. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Removal and treatment of radioactive, organochlorine, and heavy metal contaminants from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieco, S.A.; Neubauer, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is defining decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its sites. Current D ampersand D activities are generally labor intensive, use chemical reagents that are difficult to treat, and may expose workers to radioactive and hazardous chemicals. Therefore, new technologies are desired that minimize waste, allow much of the decommissioned materials to be reused rather than disposed of as waste, and produce wastes that will meet disposal criteria. The O'Brien ampersand Gere companies tested a scouring decontamination system on concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous wastes under the sponsorship of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) at DOE's K-25 former gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The scouring system removes fixed radioactive and hazardous contamination yet leaves the surface intact. Blasting residuals are treated using physical/chemical processes. Bench- and pilot-scale testing of the system was conducted on surfaces contaminated with uranium, technetium, heavy metals, and PCBs. Areas of concrete and metal surfaces were blasted. Residuals were dissolved in tap water and treated for radioactive, hazardous, and organochlorine constituents. The treatment system comprised pH adjustment, aeration, solids settling, filtration, carbon adsorption, and ion exchange. This system produced treated water and residual solid waste. Testing demonstrated that the system is capable of removing greater than 95% of radioactive and PCB surface contamination to below DOE's unrestricted use release limits; aqueous radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs were below DOE and USEPA treatment objectives after treatment. Waste residuals volume was decreased by 71 %. Preliminary analyses suggest that this system provides significant waste volume reduction and is more economical than alternative surface decontamination techniques that are commercially available or under development

  17. Experience with surgical treatment for primary malignant adrenal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adrenal tumors occur in 3–10 % of the population and are mostly benign adrenal cortical tumors. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a very rare tumor and has an annual incidence of 1–2 cases per million people. The U.S. National Cancer Data Base registered 4275 patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in 1985 to 2007. It is extremely difficult to assess Russia’s epidemiological data, as reports on adrenocortical carcinoma are not presented separately.Materials and methods. A total of 133 patients (49 men and 84 women (1:1.7 with adrenal tumors were operated on at the clinics of the Siberian State Medical University in the period December 1998 to March 2015. The patients’ mean age was 51.3 (16–80 years (median age 51.0 years. The right and left adrenal glands were affected in 49 (36.9 % and 77 (57.9 % patients, respectively; both adrenal glands were involved in 7 (5.3 %. A group of 21 (15.8 % people with primary malignant adrenal tumors was identified among all the patients. The clinical manifestations of the disease were evaluated from the presence of hormonal activity, gastrointestinal symptoms, pain syndrome, and hypertension. All the patients were operated on under endotracheal anesthesia. The data were statistically processed using the program package Statistica 6.0. Survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method. The Gehan–Wilcoxon test was used to compare the groups.Results. The investigation analyzed treatment results in 21 (15.8 % patients with primary malignant adrenal lesions (Group 1. The most common morphological form was adrenocortical carcinoma in 15 (11.3 % patients (5 men and 10 women (1:2; their mean age was 48.1 years. The right, left, and both adrenal glands were affected in 4, 9, and 2 cases, respectively. In Group 2, other malignant adrenal involvements were identified from 1 case of rare malignant adrenal tumors: malignant pheochromocytoma, sarcoma, melanoma, squamous cell

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Spengler, U.; Kruis, W.; AYDEMIR, U.; WIEBECKE, B.; HELDWEIN, W.; WEINZIERL, M.; Pape, G. R.; Sauerbruch, T.; Paumgartner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis were evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fourteen patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis documented by cholestatic serum enzyme pattern, liver

  19. Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of liver cancer in adults depends on the stage. Treatment options include hepatectomy, liver transplant, ablation, electroporation therapy (EPT), embolization therapy, targeted therapy, and/or radiation therapy. Learn more about treatment for the different stages of liver cancer.

  20. Treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents by solar photocatalysis using low TiO2 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto-Rodriguez, L.; Miralles-Cuevas, S.; Oller, I.; Agüera, A.; Puma, G. Li; Malato, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Low TiO 2 concentration suitable for removal of contaminants in WWTP effluents. ► The low concentration of TiO 2 limits the reaction rate due to the loss of photons. ► Contaminant degradation >85% is possible after a certain reaction time. ► New developments in CPC photoreactors with as large an O.D. are necessary. - Abstract: The optimal photocatalyst concentration for industrial wastewater treatment in current photoreactor designs is several hundreds of milligrams per liter. However, the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs), which are present at extremely low concentrations in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents might be accomplished at much lower catalyst (TiO 2 ) concentrations. One of the main drawbacks of reducing catalyst loading below the optimum is the loss of useful photons which instead are transmitted through the TiO 2 suspension without being absorbed by the catalyst. Accordingly, in this work, laboratory and solar pilot-scale experiments were performed with real WWTP effluents to evaluate the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of 52 emerging contaminants under realistic (ppb) concentrations. The analysis of the samples was accomplished by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). In view of the results, low concentrations of TiO 2 of the order of tens of milligrams per liter were found to be insufficient for the degradation of the ECs in photoreactors with a short light-path length (29 cm). However, it was established that solar reactors of diameters of several hundreds of millimetres could be used for the efficient removal of ECs from WWTP effluents. The results presented show a general methodology for selecting the most efficient reactor diameter on the basis of the desired catalyst concentration.

  1. Primary care professional's perspectives on treatment decision making for depression with African Americans and Latinos in primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sapana R; Schnall, Rebecca; Little, Virna; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2014-12-01

    Increasing interest has been shown in shared decision making (SDM) to improve mental health care communication between underserved immigrant minorities and their providers. Nonetheless, very little is known about this process. The following is a qualitative study of fifteen primary care providers at two Federally Qualified Health Centers in New York and their experience during depression treatment decision making. Respondents described a process characterized in between shared and paternalistic models of treatment decision making. Barriers to SDM included discordant models of illness, stigma, varying role expectations and decision readiness. Respondents reported strategies used to overcome barriers including understanding illness perceptions and the role of the community in the treatment process, dispelling stigma using cultural terms, orienting patients to treatment and remaining available regarding the treatment decision. Findings from this study have implications for planning SDM interventions to guide primary care providers through treatment engagement for depression.

  2. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Janilson Silva

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  3. Estimation of second primary cancers risk based on the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Chufeng; Sun Guangyao; Liu Hui; Zheng Huaqing; Cheng Mengyun; Li Gui; Wu Yican; FDS Team

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of second primary cancers risk after radiotherapy has become increasingly important for comparative treatment planning. A new method based on the treatment planning system to estimate the risk of second primary cancers was introduced in this paper. Using the Advanced/Accurate Radiotherapy Treatment System(ARTS), a treatment planning system developed by the FDS team,the risk of second primary cancer was estimated over two treatment plans for a patient with pancreatic cancer. Based on the second primary cancer risk, the two plans were compared. It was found that,kidney and gall-bladder had higher risk to develop second primary cancer. A better plan was chosen by the analysis of second primary cancer risk. The results showed that this risk estimation method we developed could be used to evaluate treatment plans. (authors)

  4. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit

  5. Contaminant monitoring of biota downstream of a radioactive liquid waste treatment facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.D.; Biggs, J.R.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Small mammals, plants, and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfall number-sign 051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation/ingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. The pelt was separated from the carcass of each animal and both were analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for americium ( 241 Am), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), and total uranium (U). With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring

  6. In-situ treatment of PCP contaminated soil by electrokinetics-Fenton-biodegradation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G.C.C.; Chen Jenteh [Inst. of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    2001-07-01

    This laboratory investigation was conducted to evaluate the treatment efficiency of a process combining electrokinetic remediation (EK), Fenton process, and biodegradation for treating a pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soil. For EK-Fenton experiments, the results have indicated that an increase of treatment time (e.g., from 10 to 15 days) would substantially increase the overall treatment (i.e., removal and destruction) efficiency of PCP. Only a limited increase of the treatment efficiency would be found if the concentration of FeSO{sub 4} was increased from 0.0196M to 0.098M. When scrap iron power was employed as the catalyst, the residual PCP concentration for soil near the anode end was found to be lower than that of 0.0196M FeSO{sub 4}. But its overall treatment efficiency was only 56.58%, which is lower than 68.34% obtained by using 0.0196M FeSO{sub 4} and 0.35% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. When H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was further increased to 3.5%, an overall treatment efficiency of 79.77% would be obtained when 0.0196M FeSO{sub 4} was used. When treated by EK-biodegradation process with phenol enrichment bacteria, the overall treatment efficiency of PCP was as low as 25.67%. If PCP contaminated soil was pre-treated by EK-Fenton process and followed by EK-biodegradation, an overall treatment efficiency of 100% was found to be achievable. (orig.)

  7. The application of illite supported nanoscale zero valent iron for the treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, C; Landsberger, S; Li, Y L

    2017-09-01

    In this study, nanoscale zero valent iron I-NZVI was investigated as a remediation strategy for uranium contaminated groundwater from the former Cimarron Fuel Fabrication Site in Oklahoma, USA. The 1 L batch-treatment system was applied in the study. The result shows that 99.9% of uranium in groundwater was removed by I-NZVI within 2 h. Uranium concentration in the groundwater stayed around 27 μg/L, and there was no sign of uranium release into groundwater after seven days of reaction time. Meanwhile the release of iron was significantly decreased compared to NZVI which can reduce the treatment impact on the water environment. To study the influence of background pH of the treatment system on removal efficiency of uranium, the groundwater was adjusted from pH 2-10 before the addition of I-NZVI. The pH of the groundwater was from 2.1 to 10.7 after treatment. The removal efficiency of uranium achieved a maximum in neutral pH of groundwater. The desorption of uranium on the residual solid phase after treatment was investigated in order to discuss the stability of uranium on residual solids. After 2 h of leaching, 0.07% of the total uranium on residual solid phase was leached out in a HNO 3 leaching solution with a pH of 4.03. The concentration of uranium in the acid leachate was under 3.2 μg/L which is below the EPA's maximum contaminant level of 30 μg/L. Otherwise, the concentration of uranium was negligible in distilled water leaching solution (pH = 6.44) and NaOH leaching solution (pH = 8.52). A desorption study shows that an acceptable amount of uranium on the residuals can be released into water system under strong acid conditions in short terms. For long term disposal management of the residual solids, the leachate needs to be monitored and treated before discharge into a hazardous landfill or the water system. For the first time, I-NZVI was applied for the treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. These results provide proof that I-NZVI has

  8. The Management of Humidifying Treatment for Low Contamination Risks During Indoor Cultivation of Grey Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Tariqul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated in indoor controlled environment to seeking out the possible risks of contamination and ways of treatment to avoid the contamination. For this, mushroom was cultivated in providing artificial humidifying and ventilation system to ensure optimum humidity (80-90% and fresh air recirculation in different ways of treatment. The ways of treatment were included as in position of humidifier, frequency of humidifying, plastic cork of bags opening part and cleaning of humidifier water container. Maximum percentages of bag contamination (2.5-25.30%, cap contamination (5.6-30.75%, stalk contamination (4.75-23.25% and root contamination (2.6-18.45% were found in front to front humidifier position, long humidifying with long interval frequency, without plastic cork, without cleaning and bi-monthly cleaning of humidifier water container treatment but no diseases and pest infection was found. Whereas, very low percentages of contamination (0.1-0.5% were found in surrounding humidifying position, short humidifying duration with short interval frequency, with plastic cork and weekly cleaning of humidifier water container treatment.

  9. Primary retroperitoneal seminoma - embryology, histopathology and treatment particularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gîngu, Constantin Virgil; Mihai, Mihaela; Baston, Cătălin; Crăsneanu, Mugurel Alexandru; Dick, Alexandru Vladimir; Olaru, Vlad; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology. The clinical examination revealed through deep abdominal palpation a mass in the left flank, and normal testes. Thoraco-abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to the great vessels in the left lumbo-iliac region. The blood work revealed just a low hemoglobin and hematocrit. With the established diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, radical surgical removal was decided. During the surgery, we were required to dissect a large solid encapsulated tumor mass from the aorta and the common iliac artery, starting at the renal pedicle all the way to the left iliac bifurcation. The surgical access was obtained through a transperitoneal left subcostal incision prolonged pararectally. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies revealed a seminoma of the usual type. After the histological findings, the patient's tumor markers were investigated (LDH - lactate dehydrogenase, βHCG - beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, αFP - alpha-fetoprotein), all values being within normal ranges. In addition, the left testicle was thoroughly reexamined, clinically, through ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and no abnormalities were observed. After the surgery, the patient followed three courses of chemotherapy (BEP - Bleomycin, Etoposide and Cisplatin). The CT scan done 24 months after surgery found no signs of local or distant tumor recurrence. The patient entered a follow-up schedule

  10. Electrochemical Processes for In-Situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 01/31/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chin-Pao

    2001-05-31

    This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected form selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic permeability. The soil samples are then subject to desorption experiments under various physical-chemical conditions such as pH and the presence of surfactants. Batch electro-osmosis experiments will be conducted to study the transport of contaminants in the soil-water systems. Organic contaminants that are released from the soil substrate will be treated by an advanced oxidation process, i.e., electron-Fantan. Finally, laboratory reactor integrating the elector-osmosis and elector-Fantan processes will be used to study the treatment of contaminated soil in situ.

  11. Thermochemical method for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Rosana C.G.M. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    In January 2000 there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated 2400 tons of sand. This work, based on NGS (Nitrogen Generating System) technology, was adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. NGS is a thermochemical method first developed for removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. The method is based on a strongly exothermic redox chemical reaction between two salts catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction products are harmless to the environment and consist of nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. By combining simultaneous effects of the treatment such as heating, turbulence and floatation, one can remove, within 98% of efficiency, spilling oil from contaminated sand. After treatment, removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. The method has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in place right after a contamination event. (author)

  12. Cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land including areas near nuclear facilities. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Faust, R.A.; Brewster, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 337 references summarizes the literature published on the cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land. Specifically, this bibliography focuses on literature concerned with the methods of cleanup and treatment being applied - chemical, physical, or vegetative stabilization; the types of equipment being used; and the influence of climatic conditions on the method selected for use. The emphasis in such literature is placed on hazardous site cleanup efforts that have been completed as well as those that are in progress and are being planned. Appendix A includes 135 additional references to literature identified but not included in the bibliography because of time and funding constraints. Appendix B consists of a table that identifies the cleanup and treatment research conducted at specific sites. All of the information included in this bibliography is stored in a computerized form that is readily available upon request

  13. Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult primary liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma. Treatments include surveillance, surgery, liver transplant, ablation therapy, embolization therapy, targeted therapy, and radiation therapy. Get comprehensive information about liver cancer and treatment in this clinician summary.

  14. Biological indicators capable of assessing thermal treatment efficiency of hydrocarbon mixture-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhou, Lixiang; Lin, Yusuo

    2010-08-01

    In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910 mg kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860 mg kg(-1). In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Remediation of copper-contaminated topsoils from a wood treatment facility using in situ stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bes, C.; Mench, M.

    2008-01-01

    Five organic matters, three phosphate compounds, zerovalent iron grit (ZVIG, 2% by soil weight), two alkaline compounds, and two commercial formulations were incorporated, singly and some combined with ZVIG, into a highly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P7, 2600 mg Cu kg -1 ) from a wood treatment facility. Formulations and two composts were also singly incorporated into a slightly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P10, 118 mg Cu kg -1 ) from the facility surrounding. This aimed to reduce the labile pool of Cu and its accumulation in beans cultivated on potted soils in a climatic chamber. Lowest Cu concentration in soil solution occurred in P7 soils amended with activated carbon (5%) and ZVIG, singly and combined. Basic slag (3.9%) and compost of sewage sludge (5%) combined with ZVIG promoted shoot production and limited foliar Cu accumulation. For amended P10 soils, no changes occurred in soil solution and foliar Cu concentrations, but one compost increased shoot production. - Three soil amendments, iron grit with compost, calcium oxide, and basic slags, decreased the phytotoxicity of a Cu-contaminated soil

  16. Selective Grafting of Primary Amines onto Carbon Nanotubes via Free-Radical Treatment in Microwave Plasma Post-Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dubois

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy to graft functional groups at the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs is discussed. Aiming at grafting nitrogen containing groups, and more specifically primary amine covalent functionalization, CNTs were exposed under atomic nitrogen flow arising from an Ar + N2 microwave plasma. The primary amine functions were identified and quantified through chemical derivatization with 4-(trifluoromethylbenzaldehyde and characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The increase of the selectivity in the primary amines grafting onto CNTs, up to 66.7% for treatment of CNT powder, was performed via the reduction of post-treatment oxygen contamination and the addition of hydrogen in the experimental set-up, more particularly in the plasma post-discharge chamber. The analyses of nitrogenated and primary amine functions grafting on the CNT surface suggest that atomic nitrogen (N• and reduced nitrogen species (NH• and NH2• react preferentially with defect sites of CNTs and, then, only atomic nitrogen continues to react on the CNT surface, creating defects.

  17. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  18. Molecular-level removal of proteinaceous contamination from model surfaces and biomedical device materials by air plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, K K; Kumar, S; Bremmell, K E; Griesser, H J

    2010-11-01

    Established methods for cleaning and sterilising biomedical devices may achieve removal of bioburden only at the macroscopic level while leaving behind molecular levels of contamination (mainly proteinaceous). This is of particular concern if the residue might contain prions. We investigated at the molecular level the removal of model and real-life proteinaceous contamination from model and practical surfaces by air plasma (ionised air) treatment. The surface-sensitive technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to assess the removal of proteinaceous contamination, with the nitrogen (N1s) photoelectron signal as its marker. Model proteinaceous contamination (bovine serum albumin) adsorbed on to a model surface (silicon wafer) and the residual proteinaceous contamination resulting from incubating surgical stainless steel (a practical biomaterial) in whole human blood exhibited strong N1s signals [16.8 and 18.5 atomic percent (at.%), respectively] after thorough washing. After 5min air plasma treatment, XPS detected no nitrogen on the sample surfaces, indicating complete removal of proteinaceous contamination, down to the estimated XPS detection limit 10ng/cm(2). Applying the same plasma treatment, the 7.7at.% nitrogen observed on a clinically cleaned dental bur was reduced to a level reflective of new, as-received burs. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy also indicated complete molecular-level removal of the proteinaceous contamination upon air plasma treatment. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of air plasma treatment for removing proteinaceous contamination from both model and practical surfaces and offers a method for ensuring that no molecular residual contamination such as prions is transferred upon re-use of surgical and dental instruments. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil treatment and groundwater control for No. 6 fuel oil and PCB contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girioni, M.J.; St. Hilaire, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of a Short-Term Measure ordered by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), soil contaminated by No. 6 fuel oil and low-level polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated, treated and recycled on-site as an asphalt base course for a parking lot at an industrial complex in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Approximately 300 cubic yards of contaminated soil were treated with an asphalt emulsion and utilized as a aggregate component for asphalt processed at ambient temperatures during the month of December 1990. In order to determine if the contaminated soils to be recycled would be classified as a hazardous waste (as defined by the Massachusetts Hazardous Waste Regulations, 310 CMR 30.000), or if the soil to be recycled would pose a significant risk to health, safety or the environment, analytical testing of the contaminated soil was conducted prior, during and after treatment. Analytical testing included Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses of the untreated and treated soil. An alternative solution to the standard groundwater pump-and-treat method was designed and constructed to control and recover the highly viscous floating petroleum product. A series of precast leaching galleys (oil collection chambers) and a precast leach pit (groundwater discharge structure) were constructed to alter the local groundwater table to induce groundwater flow by gravity into the leaching chambers. Passive (i.e., nonpumping) groundwater flow to the leaching chambers was induced by placing of the groundwater discharge structure hydraulically downgradient of the leaching chambers. Collected oil, separated by gravity, will be periodically vacuumed, as necessary, for proper off-site disposal. Excess water discharges to the downgradient leach pit

  20. Contaminant risks from biosolids land application Contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.A.; Healey, N.

    2003-01-01

    The risks of organic contaminants in sewage sludges are evaluated. - This study examines the potential for environmental risks due to organic contaminants at sewage sludge application sites, and documents metals and various potential organic contaminants (volatile organics, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins/furans, extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, phenols, and others) in current production biosolids from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). There has been greater focus in Europe, North America and elsewhere on metals accumulation in biosolids-amended soil than on organic substances, with the exception of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Another objective, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which management of biosolids re-use based on metal/metalloid levels coincidentally minimizes environmental risks from organic contaminants. Historical-use contaminants such as chlorophenols, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were not detected at environmentally relevant concentrations in any of the 36 fresh biosolids samples, and appear to have virtually eliminated from sanitary collection system inputs. The few organic contaminants found in freshly produced biosolids samples that exhibited high concentrations relative to British Columbia and Canadian soil quality benchmarks included p-cresol, phenol, phenanthrene, pyrene, naphthalene, and heavy extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (HEPHs-nCl9-C34 effective carbon chain length). It was concluded that, with the exception of these petroleum hydrocarbon constituents or their microbial metabolites, the mixing of biosolids with uncontaminated soils during land application and based on the known metal concentrations in biosolids from the Greater Vancouver WWTPs investigated provides adequate protection against the environmental risks associated with organic substances such as dioxins and furans, phthalate esters, or volatile

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of primary care patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... developing countries, it is important for primary care physicians to provide services to patients with ... involves one-on-one session between a trained psy- ... ensure the patient a better quality of life. ... Program (mhGAP) launched by the WHO, is to train ..... depression symptoms as well as quality of life in the.

  2. Urethral advancement procedure in the treatment of primary distal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advancement in the repair of primary distal penile hypospadias with regard to feasibility, complication rates .... stones and growth, and any associated congenital anomaly. Meticulous local examination was performed ... with a tourniquet placed on the root of the penis. A submeatal crescent-like incision was performed a few.

  3. Radiotherapy for the treatment of primary vaginal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Rajiv; Tam, Tiffany; Dahrouge, Simon; E, Choan

    2005-01-01

    Disease control rates and toxicity were evaluated among 28 primary vaginal cancer patients treated with curative intent using radiotherapy. At 5 years, the majority (60%) of patients were disease-free and local control was 73% when a combination of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy were used. Serious late toxicity was seen in 11% of patients

  4. Medical treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; við Streym, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    years. Cinacalcet is calcium sensing receptor agonist, which by stimulating the receptor decreases PTH and calcium levels. It may be used in primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by uremia, which may not be controlled with calcium and activated vitamin D. It may also be used...

  5. Ciprofibrate versus gemfibrozil in the treatment of primary hyperlipidaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipscheer, H. C.; de Valois, J. C.; van den Ende, B.; ten Cate, J. Wouter; Kastelein, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy and short-term safety of ciprofibrate and gemfibrozil were compared in a 12-week, double-blind, randomised study. One-hundred-and-ten primary, type II hyperlipidaemic patients were randomised to receive either ciprofibrate, 100 mg/day once daily, or gemfibrozil, 1200 mg/day twice daily.

  6. Clinical presentation and treatment of primary and secondary paranasal mucoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This retrospective study was conducted to describe and compare the clinical characteristics of primary mucoceles occurring in patients without a previous history of sinus surgery, the cause of mucoceles and secondary mucoceles resulting as a complication following endoscopic sinus surgery, and the Caldwell-Luc operation. Materials and Methods: This study reviewed 18 cases of primary mucoceles and 21 cases of secondary mucoceles, who were diagnosed and had received surgical intervention between 1995 and 2012. Results: The most common presenting symptoms in primary mucoceles were: Visual disturbance (18.6%, nasal obstruction (12.5%, and headache (12.5%. In secondary mucoceles, the most common symptoms were: Nasal obstruction (27.5%, rhinorrhea (15%, and postnasal drip (12.5%. The most common sites of origin for primary mucoceles were the ethmoid sinus (31.5% and sphenoid sinus (31.5%. In secondary mucoceles, the maxillary sinus was the most common site of origin (40.7%, followed by the ethmoid sinus (29.6%. All patients with secondary mucoceles had a history of sinus surgery. Conclusions: Mucoceles are benign lesions of the paranasal sinus. Cases of secondary mucoceles that occur following sinus endoscopic surgery develop more frequently in the ethmoid sinus compared to those following the Caldwell-Luc procedure. Endoscopic intranasal surgery of mucoceles is a reliable therapeutic measure with a favorable long-term outcome.

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of primary care patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental disorders affect a great number of people worldwide. Four out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the world are mental disorders. Because of the scarcity of specialists around the world and especially in developing countries, it is important for primary care physicians to provide services to patients with mental ...

  8. Primary vaginal cancer: role of MRI in diagnosis, staging and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, J; Klopp, A H; Devine, C E; Sagebiel, T; Viswanathan, C; Bhosale, P R

    2015-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the vagina is rare, accounting for 1–3% of all gynaecological malignancies. MRI has an increasing role in diagnosis, staging, treatment and assessment of complications in gynaecologic malignancy. In this review, we illustrate the utility of MRI in patients with primary vaginal cancer and highlight key aspects of staging, treatment, recurrence and complications. PMID:25966291

  9. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  10. Combination of novel coalescing oil water separator and electrocoagulation technique for treatment of petroleum compound contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladzad, Sepideh; Fallah, Narges; Nasernejad, Bahram

    2017-07-01

    In the present study a combination of a novel coalescing oil water separator (COWS) and electrocoagulation (EC) technique was used for treatment of petroleum product contaminated groundwater. In the first phase, COWS was used as the primary treatment. Two different types of coalescing media and two levels of flow rates were examined in order to find the optimum conditions. The effluent of COWS was collected in optimum conditions and was treated using an EC process in the second phase of the research. In this phase, preliminary experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of EC reaction time and sedimentation time on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Best conditions for EC reaction time and sedimentation time were obtained to be 5 min and 30 min, respectively. Response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the effect of initial pH, current density and aeration rate on settling velocity (V s ) and effluent COD. The optimum conditions, for achieving maximum values of V s as well as the values of effluent COD, in the range of results were obtained at conditions of 7, 34 mA·cm -2 and 1.5 L·min -1 for initial pH, current density and aeration rate, respectively.

  11. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil from service stations. Evaluation of biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puustinen, J.; Jorgensen, K.S.; Strandberg, T.; Suortti, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of contaminated soil has received much attention during the last decade. Microbes are known to be able to degrade many oil hydrocarbons. However, research is needed to ensure that new technologies are implemented in a safe and reliable way under Finnish climatic conditions. The main points of interest are the rate of the degradation as well as the survival and efficiency of microbial inoculants possibly introduced during the treatment. During 1993 the biotreatability of oil-contaminated soil from service stations was investigated in cooperation with the Finnish Petroleum Federation. The goal of this field-scale study was to test how fast lubrication oil can be composted during one Finnish summer season and to find out whether microbial inoculants would enhance the degradation rate. The soil was excavated from three different service stations in the Helsinki metropolitan area and was transported to a controlled composting area. The soil was sieved and compost piles, also called biopiles, were constructed on the site. Bark chips were used as the bulking agent and nutrients and lime were added to enhance the biological activity. Two different commercial bacterial inoculants were added to two of the piles. The piles were turned by a tractor-drawn screw-type mixer at two to four weeks interval. Between the mixings, the piles were covered with tarpaulins to prevent evaporation and potential excessive wetting. Several microbiological parameters were determined during the test period as well as the temperature and mineral oil content

  12. Hydraulic performance of permeable barriers for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.J.A.; Shikaze, S.G.; Cherry, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The passive interception and in situ treatment of dissolved contaminants in groundwater by permeable reactive barriers has recently gained favor at an increasing number of sites as an alternative to conventional approaches to groundwater remediation such as the pump-and-treat method. Permeable reactive barriers have two essential functions. The first is that the barriers must be installed in a position such that all of the plume passes through the reactive system. The second function is to achieve acceptable treatment of the contamination by physical, chemical or biological means within or downgradient of the barrier. In this paper, issues associated with the hydraulic performance of permeable reaction barriers are evaluated using a three-dimensional groundwater flow model. The efficiency of plume capture by permeable wall and funnel-and-gate systems is examined for some generic and for site-specific hydrogeologic systems. The results have important implications to decisions pertaining to the selection, design and installation of permeable reactive barrier systems

  13. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation on reusing water treatment residuals to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals in Baiyin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Changhui; Zhao, Yuanyuan [The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Pei, Yuansheng, E-mail: yspei@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe/Al water treatment residuals (FARs) can stabilize As, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FARs cannot stabilize Ba and Cd. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of FARs and soil affect the FARs' ability of stabilizing metals. - Abstract: In this work, the remediation of soils contaminated with multiple metals using ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) in Baiyin, China, was investigated. The results of metals fractionation indicated that after the soil was treated with FARs, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) could be transformed into more stable forms, i.e., As bound in crystalline Fe/Al oxides and other metals in the oxidable and residual forms. However, the forms of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were unaffected. Interestingly, due to the effect of FARs, barium (Ba) was predominantly transformed into more mobile forms. The bioaccessibility extraction test demonstrated that the FARs reduced the bioaccessibility of As by 25%, followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccessibility of Cd and Ba were increased; in particular, there was an increase of 41% for Ba at the end of the test. In conclusion, the FARs can be used to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals, but comprehensive studies are needed before practical applications of this work.

  15. Investigation on reusing water treatment residuals to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals in Baiyin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changhui; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe/Al water treatment residuals (FARs) can stabilize As, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu. ► FARs cannot stabilize Ba and Cd. ► The properties of FARs and soil affect the FARs’ ability of stabilizing metals. - Abstract: In this work, the remediation of soils contaminated with multiple metals using ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) in Baiyin, China, was investigated. The results of metals fractionation indicated that after the soil was treated with FARs, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) could be transformed into more stable forms, i.e., As bound in crystalline Fe/Al oxides and other metals in the oxidable and residual forms. However, the forms of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were unaffected. Interestingly, due to the effect of FARs, barium (Ba) was predominantly transformed into more mobile forms. The bioaccessibility extraction test demonstrated that the FARs reduced the bioaccessibility of As by 25%, followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccessibility of Cd and Ba were increased; in particular, there was an increase of 41% for Ba at the end of the test. In conclusion, the FARs can be used to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals, but comprehensive studies are needed before practical applications of this work.

  16. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  17. Treatment of Uranium-Contaminated Concrete for Reducing Secondary Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S; Park, U. K; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A volume reduction of the concrete waste by appropriate treatment technologies will decrease the amount of waste to be disposed of and result in a reduction of the disposal cost and an enhancement of the efficiency of the disposal site. Our group has developed a decontamination process for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) concrete, and some experiments were performed to reduce the second radioactive waste. A decontamination process was developed to remove uranium from concrete waste. The yellow or brown colored surface of the wall brick with high concentration of uranium was removed by a chisel until the radioactivity of remaining block reached less than 1 Bq/g. The concrete waste coated with epoxy was directly burned by an oil flame, and the burned surface was then removed using the same method as the treatment of the brick. The selective mechanical removal of the concrete block reduced the amount of secondary radioactive waste. The concrete blocks without an epoxy were crushed to below 30 mm and sifted to 1 mm. When the concrete pieces larger than 1 mm were sequentially washed with a clear recycle solution and 1.0 M of nitric acid, their radioactivity reached below the limit value of uranium for self-disposal. For the concrete pieces smaller than 1 mm, a rotary washing machine and electrokinetic equipment were also used.

  18. Treatment of Uranium-Contaminated Concrete for Reducing Secondary Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S; Park, U. K; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    A volume reduction of the concrete waste by appropriate treatment technologies will decrease the amount of waste to be disposed of and result in a reduction of the disposal cost and an enhancement of the efficiency of the disposal site. Our group has developed a decontamination process for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) concrete, and some experiments were performed to reduce the second radioactive waste. A decontamination process was developed to remove uranium from concrete waste. The yellow or brown colored surface of the wall brick with high concentration of uranium was removed by a chisel until the radioactivity of remaining block reached less than 1 Bq/g. The concrete waste coated with epoxy was directly burned by an oil flame, and the burned surface was then removed using the same method as the treatment of the brick. The selective mechanical removal of the concrete block reduced the amount of secondary radioactive waste. The concrete blocks without an epoxy were crushed to below 30 mm and sifted to 1 mm. When the concrete pieces larger than 1 mm were sequentially washed with a clear recycle solution and 1.0 M of nitric acid, their radioactivity reached below the limit value of uranium for self-disposal. For the concrete pieces smaller than 1 mm, a rotary washing machine and electrokinetic equipment were also used

  19. Pyrolytic Treatment and Fertility Enhancement of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidonish, Julia E; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Masiello, Caroline A; Gao, Xiaodong; Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-03-01

    Pyrolysis of contaminated soils at 420 °C converted recalcitrant heavy hydrocarbons into "char" (a carbonaceous material similar to petroleum coke) and enhanced soil fertility. Pyrolytic treatment reduced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to below regulatory standards (typically hydrocarbons (PAHs) was not observed, with post-pyrolysis levels well below applicable standards. Plant growth studies showed a higher biomass production of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa (Simpson black-seeded lettuce) (80-900% heavier) in pyrolyzed soils than in contaminated or incinerated soils. Elemental analysis showed that pyrolyzed soils contained more carbon than incinerated soils (1.4-3.2% versus 0.3-0.4%). The stark color differences between pyrolyzed and incinerated soils suggest that the carbonaceous material produced via pyrolysis was dispersed in the form of a layer coating the soil particles. Overall, these results suggest that soil pyrolysis could be a viable thermal treatment to quickly remediate soils impacted by weathered oil while improving soil fertility, potentially enhancing revegetation.

  20. Permeable sorptive walls for treatment of hydrophobic organic contaminant plumes in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grathwohl, P.; Peschik, G.

    1997-01-01

    Highly hydrophobic contaminants are easily adsorbed from aqueous solutions. Since for many of these compounds sorption increases with increasing organic carbon content natural materials such as bituminous shales and coals may be used in permeable sorptive walls. This, however, only applies if sorption is at equilibrium, which may not always be the case in groundwater treatment using a funnel-and-gate system. In contrast to the natural solids, granular activated carbons (GACs) have very high sorption capacities and reasonably fast sorption kinetics. The laboratory results show that application of GACs (e.g. F100) is economically feasible for in situ removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site (MGP). For less sorbing compounds (such as benzene, toluene, xylenes) a combination of adsorption and biodegradation is necessary (i.e. sorptive + reactive treatment)

  1. Bench-scale studies of reactor-based treatment of fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, D.D.; Britto, R.; Sherrard, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of hazardous wastes from accidental spills or underground storage tank leaks has generated interest in bioremediation as a natural, economical mechanism for site decontamination. Because of drawbacks of batch systems, and the successful use of continuous flow treatment of wastewater for several decades, it was felt that continuous treatment of such soils would be a feasible alternative treatment technique. Therefore, bench-scale bioreactor treatability studies were conducted and used contaminated soil made in the laboratory using No. 2 diesel fuel and sand. Contamination levels studied were from 1,335--6,675 mg (TPH) as derived from No. 2 fuel oil per kg sand. Variation in mean cell age was obtained between reactors, with sufficient nutrients and oxygen made available to ensure the fuel oil organics were the only limit to microbial growth. A theoretical biokinetic model was formulated based on Monod's theory of limiting substrate and continuous cultures. Biokinetic constants and removal efficiencies were evaluated. The off-gases, CO 2 , and volatile hydrocarbons were monitored for mass balance analysis of the process. The solids retention times for evaluating final TPH concentration of 100 mg/kg were also calculated. Removal efficiencies of up to 91% were attained at a loading of 1,335 mg TPH/kg wet sand, operated at a biological solid retention time (BSRT) of 60 days. Experiments also showed that TPH desorption and volatilization were not rate-limiting in the overall removal process. Sand-to-moisture ratios in excess of 3:1 were also shown to retard TPH removal rates very little. However, biokinetic constants were found to vary over a range of values. This was particularly true at varying diesel loading levels. Nevertheless, significant removal efficiency (up to 86%) was noted at the highest loading level tested, 6,675 mg TPH/kg wet sand

  2. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cang Long; Zhou Dongmei; Wang Quanying; Wu Danya

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm -1 of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P < 0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  3. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei, E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang Quanying; Wu Danya [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-12-30

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm{sup -1} of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P < 0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  4. Potential Use of Polyacrylamide Encapsulation for Treatment of Petroleum Drilling Cuttings and Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy H. Adams

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral soil of alluvial origin, contaminated with diesel+lubricating oil (1:2, was treated with a commercial polyacrylamide product at 100 % of the distributer recommended dosage, producing a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (EPA 9074 of 76 % that remained stable during the study period (38 days and even after thermal treatment (60 ºC, 18 hrs.. Increasing the dosage to 150 % did not improve the treatment results, but repeating the treatment (at 100 % resulted in a slight additional reduction (4 %. Similar results were obtained with oil-based drilling cuttings (~60 % reduction at both 100 % and 150 %. Pre-drying of the drilling cuttings prior to treatment did not improve the hydrocarbon reduction, but it did produce smaller, potentially more stable aggregates (0.5 – 1-0 mm in diameter. The treatment of organic soil resulted in a similar reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (65 % and a reduction of acute toxicity (Microtox to below background levels, however this effect was not stable. An additional application (including mixing of the polyacrylamide product resulted in partial disintegration of the organic fibres and release of the stabilized hydrocarbons, measuring an overall increase in hydrocarbon concentration of 19 %.

  5. In situ treatment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by air sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsting, Joseph H; McBean, Edward A

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a major problem in some areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh where it is caused by reducing conditions in the aquifer. In situ treatment, if it can be proven as operationally feasible, has the potential to capture some advantages over other treatment methods by being fairly simple, not using chemicals, and not necessitating disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. In this study, the potential for in situ treatment by injection of compressed air directly into the aquifer (i.e. air sparging) is assessed. An experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate conditions of arsenic-rich groundwater under anaerobic conditions, and in situ treatment by air sparging was employed. Arsenic (up to 200 μg/L) was removed to a maximum of 79% (at a local point in the apparatus) using a solution with dissolved iron and arsenic only. A static "jar" test revealed arsenic removal by co-precipitation with iron at a molar ratio of approximately 2 (iron/arsenic). This is encouraging since groundwater with relatively high amounts of dissolved iron (as compared to arsenic) therefore has a large theoretical treatment capacity for arsenic. Iron oxidation was significantly retarded at pH values below neutral. In terms of operation, analysis of experimental results shows that periodic air sparging may be feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a pharmaceutical form containing calixarene molecules for the treatment of intact or injured skin contaminated by uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnul, A.

    2009-11-01

    The first objective of this research thesis was to develop a formulation containing a tricarboxylic calixarene for cutaneous application for the local treatment of skin contamination by uranium. A second objective is to assess the efficiency of a calixarene nano-emulsion for such a treatment. In a first part, the author proposes an overview of risks associated with skin contamination by uranium, and of current treatments and treatments under development. In the second part, the author presents the oil-in-water-type nano-emulsion, reports an in vitro assessment of the decontamination efficiency of the calixarene nano-emulsion, reports an in vivo assessment of this efficiency (on pig ear skin explants contaminated by uranium), and presents the main publications and a patent request related to this research work

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the potential for in situ treatment of chromate-contaminated groundwater by chemical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Beck, M.A.; Jurgensmeier, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a series of small-scale batch tests performed to assess the effectiveness of chemical precipitation in the remediation of chromate-contaminated groundwater. These tests involved treatment of chromate solutions with ferrous and sulfide ions. In addition, tests were conducted that involved treatment of mixtures of chromate-contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated soil with the ferrous ion. A combination of ferrous sulfate and sodium sulfide was also tested in the groundwater treatment tests, since this approach has been shown to be an efficient method for treating electroplating wastewaters

  8. Extraction tools for identification of chemical contaminants in estuarine and coastal waters to determine toxic pressure on primary producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Petra; Sjollema, Sascha B; Leonards, Pim E G; de Voogt, Pim; Stroomberg, Gerard J; Vethaak, A Dick; Lamoree, Marja H

    2013-09-01

    The extent to which chemical stressors affect primary producers in estuarine and coastal waters is largely unknown. However, given the large number of legacy pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern present in the environment, this is an important and relevant issue that requires further study. The purpose of our study was to extract and identify compounds which are inhibitors of photosystem II activity in microalgae from estuarine and coastal waters. Field sampling was conducted in the Western Scheldt estuary (Hansweert, The Netherlands). We compared four different commonly used extraction methods: passive sampling with silicone rubber sheets, polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) and spot water sampling using two different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Toxic effects of extracts prepared from spot water samples and passive samplers were determined in the Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry bioassay. With target chemical analysis using LC-MS and GC-MS, a set of PAHs, PCBs and pesticides was determined in field samples. These compound classes are listed as priority substances for the marine environment by the OSPAR convention. In addition, recovery experiments with both SPE cartridges were performed to evaluate the extraction suitability of these methods. Passive sampling using silicone rubber sheets and POCIS can be applied to determine compounds with different structures and polarities for further identification and determination of toxic pressure on primary producers. The added value of SPE lies in its suitability for quantitative analysis; calibration of passive samplers still needs further investigation for quantification of field concentrations of contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [A hepatitis A outbreak caused by contaminated well water in a primary school of Jiangxi province, China, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cheng, Hui-jian; Zhang, Li-jie; Zong, Jun; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-10-01

    A hepatitis A outbreak in a primary school was reported by Gan County Center for Disease Control and Province (CDC) and an investigation was conducted to identify the possible source of infection and risk factors for transmission. A probable case was defined as having onset of jaundice (yellow urine, sclera or skin) or a 2-fold increase in Alanine aminotransferase with 2 or more, of the followings symptoms: anorexia, disgust of oil, abdominal pain, nausea, fatigue, vomiting, in students and staff of the primary school between 1 November 2008 and 14 February 2009. A confirmed case was IgM positive for hepatitis A, added on a probable case. We searched for cases through reviewing medical records in the township hospital and village clinics and conducting symptom screening among students or teachers. We also conducted a case-control study to compare the exposure histories of 19 cases and 53 anti-HAV-IgM negative controls randomly selected from those asymptomatic students in the same grade. 21 cases from all the students was identified, with the attack rate as 3.5%. The epidemic curve showed the two peaks of the outbreak were 28 days apart, both indicating that they were related to the exposure of the source of origin. 74% of the case-students drank the unboiled Well B water, compared to 42% of control-students (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.1 - 15). The total bacterial count was 600 cfu/ml and the total coliform was 23 MPN/100 ml in one sample collected from the well water. This hepatitis A outbreak was caused by drinking contaminated water in Well B. We recommended that all the schools should use chlorinated municipal pipe water. Public health authorities should strengthen the supervision of quality of water in schools.

  10. Risk factors for treatment failure in surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Rørbæk; Rasmussen, Lars; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) has a high cure-rate and few complications. Preoperative localization procedures have permitted a dramatic shift from routine bilateral exploration to focused, minimally invasive procedures. At Odense University Hospital, Denmark, the introduction...... University hospital, Denmark, was analyzed. A shift in strategy was made in 2006 and at the same time new surgeons started training in parathyroid surgery. Biochemical-, clinical- and follow-up data were analyzed. Overall cure-rate was 90.7 %. Complication rates were 1.1 % for hemorrhage, 1.1 % for wound...

  11. FAILED PRIMARY TREATMENT OF CALCANEAL FRACTURE. WHAT TO DO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Andoljšek

    2008-02-01

    When conservative treatment fails, operative treatment is indicated in most patients withbone and joint problems. The goals of surgical treatment are pain relief and restoration oftalocalcaneal alignment. In lateral impingement, when subtalar joint and general alignmentof the tuber are preserved, removal of the bulged lateral wall could suffice. In suchcases a corrective osteotomy of the tuber is rarely indicated. In painfull subtalar arthrosisfusion is the only option. Limited fusion is preferable. »In situ« subtalar fusion is advisablein cases without malalignment or deformity. When we have arthrosis and varus/valgusdeformity with preserved height, arthrodesis with corrective osteotomy is indicated. In mostcases, where complex deformity is present, corrective subtalar distraction bone-blockarthrodesis should be done

  12. Vapor Extraction/Bioventing Sequential Treatment of Soil Contaminated with Volatile and SemiVolatile Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malina, G.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    A cost-effective removal strategy was studied in bench-scale columns that involved vapor extraction and bioventing sequential treatment of toluene- and decane-contaminated soil. The effect of operating mode on treatment performance was examined at a continuous air flow and consecutively at two

  13. Simulation of the occupational radiation dose caused by contamination of primary circuit media in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Andreas; Bruhn, Gerd; Schneider, Sebastian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Strub, Erik [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearchemie

    2016-11-15

    The occupational radiation exposure of workers in NPPs during overall maintenance and refueling inspections and decommissioning is determined by numerous parameters. Radiation exposure caused by contamination of components may be minimised by the chemical operation mode and by applying systematic decontamination techniques. Data on occupational exposure in German NPPs as well as information about the radionuclide concentration in the coolant are available. The generic 3D model of the primary circuit presented is based on the analysis of technical documentation of German PWRs. Tasks are modeled as a combination of retention times at related local positions in the surroundings of work areas. The generic model allows the calculation of the resulting occupational doses generated by definable jobs and tasks. The KWU/Siemens- PWR generations are characterised by nuclide vectors, the thickness of shielding, and the material composition of components. It was possible to show that for a pre-Konvoi plant, the calculated occupational dose caused by a specific working task is close to measurements.

  14. Simulation of the occupational radiation dose caused by contamination of primary circuit media in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artmann, Andreas; Bruhn, Gerd; Schneider, Sebastian; Strub, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The occupational radiation exposure of workers in NPPs during overall maintenance and refueling inspections and decommissioning is determined by numerous parameters. Radiation exposure caused by contamination of components may be minimised by the chemical operation mode and by applying systematic decontamination techniques. Data on occupational exposure in German NPPs as well as information about the radionuclide concentration in the coolant are available. The generic 3D model of the primary circuit presented is based on the analysis of technical documentation of German PWRs. Tasks are modeled as a combination of retention times at related local positions in the surroundings of work areas. The generic model allows the calculation of the resulting occupational doses generated by definable jobs and tasks. The KWU/Siemens- PWR generations are characterised by nuclide vectors, the thickness of shielding, and the material composition of components. It was possible to show that for a pre-Konvoi plant, the calculated occupational dose caused by a specific working task is close to measurements.

  15. Mood disorders in adolescents: diagnosis, treatment, and suicide assessment in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Marilia G; Leanza, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The primary care setting is considered the entry point of adolescents with mental illness in the health care system. This article informs primary care providers about the diagnostic features and differential of mood disorders in adolescents, screening and assessment, as well as evidence-based psychosocial and psychopharmacologic therapies. The article also provides a framework for decision making regarding initiating treatment in the primary care setting and referral to mental health services. Furthermore, the article highlights the importance of the collaboration between primary care and mental health providers to facilitate engagement of adolescents with mood disorders and adherence to treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of photo-fenton as a tertiary treatment of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, N; Malato, S; Maldonado, M I; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-03-01

    This work focuses on the treatment of real effluents from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (RE) with solar photo-Fenton (5 mg and 20 mg L(-1) Fe, pH approximately 3 and 50 mg L(-1) initial H(2)O(2) concentration) at pilot plant scale. In some experiments RE was spiked with 15 different (acetaminophen, antipyrine, atrazine, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, flumequine, hydroxybiphenyl, ibuprofen, isoproturon, ketorolac, ofloxacin, progesterone, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) emerging contaminants (ECs) at 100 and 5 microg L(-1) each which were added directly into RE prior to treatment. All experiments showed successful degradation of ECs in real effluents from different municipal wastewater treatment plants at low iron concentration (5 mg L(-1)). Although the most degradation took place during the Fenton process, photo-Fenton was necessary to degrade all ECs below their limit of detection (LOD). In the case of the RE containing 52 ECs (determined by HPLC-QTRAP-MS), four of them could not be degraded to their LOD and were still present, although at extremely low concentrations (nicotine 47 ng L(-1), cotinine 11 ng L(-1), chlorfenvinphos 99 ng L(-1), and caffeine 8 ng L(-1)). ECs were easily degraded by (*)OH without substantial competition with the organic content of the RE.

  17. Utilization of standard treatment guidelines (STG) at primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Standard Treatment Guideline (STG) is an essential structural resource component for quality of care in health facilities. In Tanzania less information is available on STG availability, prescriber's awareness and adherence to its use in line with WHO recommendations. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study ...

  18. Primary Treatment and Sludge Digestion Workshop. Second Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to upgrade the knowledge of experienced wastewater treatment plant operators. Each of the sixteen lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. The body of the text provides content information, procedure outlines,…

  19. Treatment adherence in South African primary health care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system. In the context of meagre financial resources, inadequate public funds di- rected at ... issues that are highlighted as affecting adherence include health locus of control, self-efficacy, ... mined to have little or no effect, a medical .... health as controlled by internal factors .... about information technology in the treatment.

  20. Treatment Options for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis by Parents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    common treatment option was waking up child at intervals during the night to void by 103 (45.2 ... patient/family education, simple behavioral ... nocturnal enuresis were employing in managing ..... Dental and Medical Sciences 2014;13:41 – 4.

  1. Primary care and addiction treatment: lessons learned from building bridges across traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A H

    1999-01-01

    A primary care unit combined with residential addiction treatment allows patients with addictive disease and chronic medical or psychiatric problems to successfully complete the treatment. These are patients who would otherwise fail treatment or fail to be considered candidates for treatment. Health care providers should have a background in primary care and have the potential to respond professionally to clinical problems in behavioral medicine. Ongoing professional training and statistical quality management principles can maintain morale and productivity. Health education is an integral part of primary care. The costs of such concurrent care when viewed in the context of the high societal and economic costs of untreated addictive disease and untreated chronic medical problems are low. The principles used to develop this primary care unit can be used to develop health care units for other underserved populations. These principles include identification of specific health care priorities and continuity of rapport with the target population and with addiction treatment staff.

  2. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil

  3. Evolution of radiocaesium contamination in mushrooms and influence of treatment after collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, O.; Boilley, D.; Josset, M.; Hettwig, B.; Fischer, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    In literature quite a lot of data is available on uptake of radioactive caesium in mushrooms. There is less available on the evolution of concentration in fruitbodies after several years and on 'outbound' transfer of radiocaesium from fruitbodies to their direct environment, i.e. dilution according to cooking techniques. The recent event at Fukushima has put the question of radionuclides in food, and the following exposure of consumers, high on the agenda. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) in order to investigate the variation in time of caesium uptake by fungi, analyses of the same species having grown on the same spot at different intervals during the last 25 years have been performed and (2) in terms of radiation protection the most important thing is the activity taken in by the consumer and not the contamination of raw products. Preparation can have a great impact on activity concentration. Various species of mushrooms frequently eaten have been sampled in Europe and contaminated areas in Japan. Different preparation techniques that can break the walls of the hyphae (drying, deepfreezing etc.) have been applied as well as different treatments: boiling or macerating in water with salt, in acid and basic media. The pH of different media was adjusted and measured. The samples and the medium were analysed separately in gamma spectrometry. (author)

  4. Biological treatment of PAH-contaminated sediments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavola, Agostina; Baciocchi, Renato; Gavasci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of a sequential batch process for the biological treatment of sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated through an experimental study. A bench-scale Sediment Slurry Sequencing Batch Reactor (SS-SBR) was fed with river sediments contaminated by a PAH mixture made by fluorene, anthracene, pyrene and crysene. The process performance was evaluated under different operating conditions, obtained by modifying the influent organic load, the feed composition and the hydraulic residence time. Measurements of the Oxygen Uptake Rates (OURs) provided useful insights on the biological kinetics occurring in the SS-SBR, suggesting the minimum applied cycle time-length of 7 days could be eventually halved, as also confirmed by the trend observed in the volatile solid and total organic carbon data. The removal efficiencies gradually improved during the SS-SBR operation, achieving at the end of the study rather constant removal rates above 80% for both 3-rings PAHs (fluorene and anthracene) and 4-ring PAHs (pyrene and crysene) for an inlet total PAH concentration of 70 mg/kg as dry weight (dw).

  5. [Stabilization Treatment of Pb and Zn in Contaminated Soils and Mechanism Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-qiang; Li, Xiao-mingi; Chen, Can; Chen, Xun-feng; Zhong, Yu; Zhong, Zhen-yu; Wan, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the combined application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, quick lime and potassium chloride was used to immobilize the Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. The efficiency of the process was evaluated through leaching tests and Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The mechanism of stabilization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reveal the mechanism of stabilization. The results showed that the stabilizing efficiency of Pb contaminated soils was above 80% and the leaching concentrations of Pb, Zn were far below the threshold when the ratio of exogenous P and soil (mol · mol⁻¹) was 2:1-4: 1, the dosing ratio of CaO was 0.1%-0.5% ( mass fraction) and the dosage of potassium chloride was 0.02-0. 04 mol. Meanwhile, Pb and Zn in soil were transformed from the exchangeable fraction into residual fraction, which implied that the migration of Pb, Zn in soil could be confined by the stabilization treatment. XRD and SEM analysis revealed that Ca-P-Pb precipitation, lead orthophosphate [PbHP0₄, Pb₃ (PO₄)₂], pyromorphite (Pb-PO₄-Cl/OH) and mixed heavy metal deposits (Fe-PO₄- Ca-Pb-Zn-OH) could be formed after solidification/stabilization in which Pb and Zn could be wrapped up to form a solidified composition and to prevent leaching.

  6. Medullary breast carcinoma: The role of radiotherapy as primary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourquet, A.; Vilcoq, J.R.; Zafrani, B.; Schlienger, P.; Campana, F.; Jullien, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results are reported of a selected series of 41 patients with medullary carcinoma of the breast, treated with primary radiotherapy with (24 patients) or without (17 patients) adjuvant chemotherapy. Complete responses to radiotherapy occurred with moderate doses (67% of the patients had a complete response after a dose of 55-60 Gy) and were increased by the addition of an irradiation boost. The 6-year actuarial free of local recurrence survival, metastase-free survival and survival rates were 86, 83, and 83%, respectively. The 6-year actuarial probability of living with breast preserved was 72%. Recurrences and survivals were not influenced by the tumor size or clinical axillary node status. Adjuvant chemotherapy had no effect on the rate of recurrence or survival. 14 refs.; 3 tabs

  7. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, T.K.; Blomqvist, C.P.; Kajanti, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is one of the leading causes of male cancer deaths. However, the routine diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have not yet been established. Although the outcome of surgical and radiotherapeutical approaches has frequently been reported to be comparable, the profile of side effects is different. This could offer the basis for selecting the treatment of choice in individual cases. During the last decade the radiotherapeutical technique has markedly improved, in part due to the achievements in the field of computer assisted tomography planning and conformal technique; the outcome of side-effects has decreased with concurrent increase in the rate of local control. The prescribing, recording and reporting of irradiation have also recently developed, as well as the staging of the disease. Therefore we consider it timely to review progress in this subject and to emphasize the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer. (orig.)

  8. Rapid treatment of water contaminated with Atrazine and Parathion with sero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rima, Jamil; Amine, Charbel; Ghauch, Antoine; Martin-Bouyer, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Experiments were conducted in order to assess the utility of fine-grained iron metal in the remediation of water contaminated with pesticides. The two pesticides that were chosen for this study were Atrazine and Parathion. batch procedures under water treatment conditions (ambient temperature and circumneutral pH) indicated that these pesticides degrade rapidly in the presence of iron powder (40-60 mes, 40 g/L). The decline in the concentration of pesticide was monitored by HPLC analysis supplemented with programmable multiwavelength UV/VIS detector. Experiments were run in buffered solutions. Tests were also performed on an industrial effluent solution containing a variety of pesticides. Our HPLC results indicating the disappearance of all the parent pollutants

  9. Measurement of contamination by radioisotopes for medical examination and treatment in medical organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Masahiko

    1975-01-01

    For safety control of radioactive contamination by medical examination and treatment in medical organizations, establishment of a Health and Physics Department is desired. It is necessary to dispose of radiopharmaceuticals according to the classification of safety and to separate the use of non-sealed nuclides from the radiotherapy room. In relation to radioactive air pollution, attention should be paid to the sampling test of hood, management of 133 Xe using room, and air pollution in the disposal storage room and patient urine storage room. Concerning the disposal of liquid waste, it is most important to devise entirely different method of disposal according to the level differences in the amount of diagnostic use and the therapeutic dose. The method of use is most important also for the decision of the size of storage tank. For sampling and monitoring it is advisable to use up to the 10th rank nuclide for safety counting in consideration of physicochemical conditions. (Chiba, N.)

  10. Treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes by electrogenerated Ag(II): a new, simple and efficient process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Saulze, J.L.; Bourges, J.; Lecomte, M.; Koehly, G.

    1990-01-01

    Incineration is a very attractive technique for managing plutonium contaminated solid wastes, allowing for large volume and mass reduction factors. After waste incineration, the plutonium is concentrated in the ashes and an efficient method must be designed for its recovery. To achieve this goal, a process based on the dissolution of plutonium in nitric solution under the agressive action of electrogenerated Ag(II) was developed. This process is very simple, requiring very few steps. Plutonium recovery yields up to 98% can be obtained and, in addition, the plutonium bearing solutions generated by the treatment can be processed by the PUREX technique for plutonium recovery. This process constitutes the basis for the development of industrial facilities: 1) a pilot facility is being built in MARCOULE (COGEMA, UP1 plant), to treat active ash in 1990; 2) an industrial facility will be built in the MELOX plant under construction at MARCOULE (COGEMA plant)

  11. Bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil: comparison of different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaohui; Lu, Mang

    2010-11-15

    Biostimulation with inorganic fertilizer and bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon utilizing indigenous bacteria were employed as remedial options for 12 weeks in a crude oil-contaminated soil. To promote oil removal, biocarrier for immobilization of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was developed using peanut hull powder. Biodegradation was enhanced with free-living bacterial culture and biocarrier with a total petroleum hydrocarbon removal ranging from 26% to 61% after a 12-week treatment. Oil removal was also enhanced when peanut hull powder was only used as a bulking agent, which accelerated the mass transfer rate of water, oxygen, nutrients and hydrocarbons, and provided nutrition for the microflora. Dehydrogenase activity in soil was remarkably enhanced by the application of carrier material. Metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were identified by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of contamination sources of human enteroviruses in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system by PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochang C; Xu, Limei; Zhang, Chongmiao; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was employed to estimate the contamination sources of human enteroviruses and understand how their dominant strains vary in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system consisting of sewage collection, wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactor and open lakes for reclaimed water storage and reuse. After PCR-DGGE using a selected primer set targeting enteroviruses, phylogenetic analysis of acquired enterovirus gene sequences was performed. Enteroviruses identified from the septic tank were much more diverse than those from grey water and kitchen wastewater. Several unique types of enterovirus different from those in wastewater samples were dominant in a biological wastewater treatment unit. Membrane filtration followed by chlorination was proved effective for physically eliminating enteroviruses; however, secondary contamination likely occurred as the reclaimed water was stored in artificial lakes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral pathogen, was detected mainly from the artificial lakes, implying that wastewater effluent was not the contamination source of EV71 and that there were unidentified non-point sources of the contamination with the HFMD viral pathogen in the reclaimed water stored in the artificial lakes. The PCR-DGGE targeting enteroviruses provided robust evidence about viral contamination sources in the wastewater treatment and reclamation system.

  13. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Lyle D

    2004-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea should be suspected in patients who are overweight snore loudly, and have chronic daytime sleepiness. The diagnosis of sleep apnea may be confirmed by sleep laboratory studies. Patients' symptoms and the frequency of respiratory events on laboratory testing are important factors in determining the severity of disease. In patients with mild sleep apnea, conservative treatment measures include getting sufficient sleep, abstaining from the use of alcohol and sedatives, losing weight, and avoiding the supine position during sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most consistently effective treatment for clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea. In general, heavier patients with thicker necks require higher pressure settings. As patients age or gain weight, additional pressure may be necessary. Bilevel pressure machines or machines that slowly ramp up the pressure may increase patient acceptance of CPAP therapy. Complications of CPAP use include nasal dryness and congestion, claustrophobia, facial skin abrasions, air leaks, and conjunctivitis. Strategies to improve patient compliance include allowing patients to try a number of masks to find the most comfortable fit, adding humidification, treating nasal disease and, most importantly, providing close follow-up and encouragement. Oral appliances are inconsistently effective in the management of obstructive sleep apnea but may be an option in patients with mild disease who cannot tolerate CPAP. Palatal surgery often decreases snoring but may not reduce the occurrence of sleep apnea. Patients with severe disease and intolerance of CPAP may be candidates for more invasive surgical procedures. Supplemental oxygen and drug therapy may have limited, adjunctive roles in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

  14. Diacerein: a treatment option in painful primary knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, N.; Khan, A.A.; Ayaz, S.B.; Afzal, A.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the efficacy and side effects of Diacerein in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Outpatient Department of Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi from June 2012 to June 2013. Material and Methods: Ninety cases fulfilling American College of Rheumatology criteria for diagnosis of Knee Osteoarthritis and falling in Grades III of Kellgren-Lawrence Radiological Classification for Knee Osteoarthritis were included. Pre-treatment associated symptoms, complete blood count, renal and liver function tests were documented. After a baseline pain assessment on a 10-Point Visual Analogue Scale, 50 mg of Diacerein was given orally for 4 months followed by pain assessment and inquiry about adverse effects at 6th week, 3rd and 6th months. Post-treatment labs were repeated. Reduction in pain was analyzed by paired-sample t-test using SPSS version 17. Chi-Square test was used to assess the frequency of adverse effects. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Mean age was 61.5 ± 7.8 years. Majority 77 (85.6%) were females. Mean Visual Analogue Scale at start was 6.1 ± 0.87. Significant pain reduction measured on Visual Analogue Scale was observed at six weeks (4.6 ± 1.2) (p < 0.001), three months (2.37 ± 0.91) (p < 0.001) and six months (2.2 ± 0.85) (p < 0.001). Very few patients developed diarrhea 3.3% and nausea 4.4%. Conclusion: Diacerein is effective drug with minimal side effects for treatment of mild to moderate painful Knee Osteoarthritis. (author)

  15. Zoledronic Acid Treatment in Primary Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Robles, Bryan Josué; Sanz-Sanz, Jesus; Sanabria-Sanchinel, Adel Abel; Huntley-Pascual, Dixie; Andréu Sánchez, José Luis; Campos Esteban, José; Blanco, Ricardo; Merino-Argumanez, Carolina; Espinosa-Malpartida, Maria; Ramos-Giráldez, Maria Consuleo; Godoy-Tundidor, Hildegarde; Jiménez-Palop, Maria Mercedes; Barbadillo Mateos, Carmen; Villa-Alcázar, Luis Fernando; Isasi, Carlos Maria; Mulero, Juan Bartolome

    2017-03-01

    Primary bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) is characterized by the combination of joint pain and distinctive magnetic resonance imaging changes. It has been suggested that the use of bisphosphonate drugs reduce symptom severity. Our objective was to review cases of patients diagnosed with BMES in the last 7 years who had been treated with zoledronic acid. Access to a pharmaceutical database was gained in order to obtain a list of zoledronic acid prescriptions. Based on clinical and MRI criteria for BMES, patients were selected. Baseline pain intensity was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 3 and was also assessed after 3 and 12 months. Functional recovery was evaluated by noting if a patient had returned to carrying out his or her normal daily activities. Out of 633 patients, 17 cases of BMES were identified (8 men), with a median age of 54 ± 14.1 years. The most frequently affected joint was the ankle (9), followed by the hip. Sixteen patients presented with moderate to severe pain initially. Of those patients, 13 had no pain after 12 months. Zoledronic acid is a option in the management of BMES, since 75% of patients treated with it presented with a complete response.

  16. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel de Oliveira da Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroflotation method (EFM for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it is possible to remove these heavy metals by electrocoagulation/electroflotation (ECF attaining 97% of removal using stainless steel mesh electrodes with a power consumption of 14 kWh m−3. The optimal conditions of treatment were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in a molar ratio 3:1, current density around 350 A m−2, ionic strength 3.2 × 10−3 M, pH = 10.0 and 20 min of ECF. This study newly indicated that the proposed method is adequate to simultaneously treat the common heavy metals found in the drilling fluids oil wells.

  17. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  18. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.L.

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described

  19. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T. (Children' s Hospital of San Francisco, CA); Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  20. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N 0 patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease

  1. Improving insomnia in primary care patients: A randomized controlled trial of nurse-led group treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Christina; Hetta, Jerker; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Westman, Jeanette

    2017-07-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem, and most people who seek help for insomnia consult primary care. In primary care, insomnia treatment typically consists of hypnotic drugs, although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is the recommended treatment. However, such treatment is currently available to few primary care patients. To evaluate the effects of a group treatment program for insomnia led by nurses in primary care. were the Insomnia Severity Index, a 2-week sleep diary, and a questionnaire on frequency of hypnotic drug use. A randomized controlled trial with pre- and post-treatment assessment and a 1-year post-treatment follow-up of the intervention group. Routine primary health care; 7 primary care centers in Stockholm, Sweden. Patients consulting primary care for insomnia were assessed for eligibility. To be included, patients had to have insomnia disorder and be 18 years or older. Patients were excluded if they if they worked night shifts or had severe untreated somatic and/or mental illness, bipolar disorder, or untreated sleep disorder other than insomnia. One-hundred and sixty-five patients 20 to 90 years were included. Most were women, and many had co-existing somatic and/or mental health problems. The post-treatment dropout rate was 20%. The intervention was a nurse-led group treatment for insomnia based on the techniques of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. The nurses had 2days of training in how to deliver the program. Ninety patients were randomized to the intervention and 75 to the control group (treatment as usual). Data from 82 in the intervention and 71 in the control group were analyzed in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. Fifty-four of the 72 in the intervention group who participated in the group treatment program were followed up after 1year. Mean Insomnia Severity Index score decreased significantly from 18.4 to 10.7 after group treatment but remained unchanged after treatment as usual (17.0 to 16.6). The effect

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of the gas treatment approach for insitu remediation of chromate-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Jackson, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    Laboratory scale soil treatment tests have been conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of chromate-contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. These tests involved three different soil samples that were contaminated with Cr(VI) at the 200 ppM level. Treatment of the contaminated soils was performed by passing 100 ppM and 2000 ppM concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in nitrogen through soil columns until a S:Cr mole ratio of 10:1 was achieved. The treated soils were then leached with groundwater or deionized water and analyzed to assess the extent of chromium immobilization. Test results indicate >90% immobilization of chromium and demonstrate that the treatment process is irreversible. Ongoing developmental efforts are being directed towards the demonstration and evaluation of the gas treatment approach in a field test at a chromate-contaminated site. Major planned activities associated with this demonstration include laboratory testing of waste site soil samples, design of the treatment system and injection/extraction well network, geotechnical and geochemical characterization of the test site, and identification and resolution of regulatory and safety requirements

  3. Resolving Bacterial Contamination of Fuel Ethanol Fermentations with Beneficial Bacteria – an Alternative to Antibiotic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel ethanol fermentations are not performed under aseptic conditions and microbial contamination reduces yields and can lead to costly “stuck fermentations.” Antibiotics are commonly used to combat contaminants, but these may persist in the distillers grains co-product. Among contaminants, it is kn...

  4. Soil Aquifer Treatment : Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under

  5. Medium term results of total knee arthroplasty as a primary treatment for knee fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebied Ayman

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Knee arthroplasty achieves highly successful outcome when performed as a primary treatment for comminuted intra and periarticular knee fractures in elderly patients. Survival of implants and functional range of movement at midterm are excellent.

  6. Soil Aquifer Treatment: Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under

  7. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of both. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed or recurrent metastatic squamous neck cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  8. Two pragmatic trials of treatment for shoulder disorders in primary care: generalisability, course, and prognostic indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E.; Windt-Mens, van der D.A.W.M.; Hay, E.M.; Smidt, N.; Dziedzic, K.; Bouter, L.M.; Croft, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictors of long term prognosis in patients treated for shoulder pain in primary care. METHODS: Data were taken from two pragmatic randomised clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of conservative treatments for shoulder pain presenting to primary care. Shoulder

  9. Hydroxychloroquine treatment for primary Sjögren's syndrome: a two year double blind crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, A. A.; Hené, R. J.; Kallenberg, C. G.; van Bijsterveld, O. P.; van der Heide, A.; Kater, L.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 and 1988 a positive effect of treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome with hydroxychloroquine was reported in two small open studies. To investigate further the clinical and laboratory effects of hydroxychloroquine in primary Sjögren's syndrome a two year study was performed. The design of

  10. Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

  11. Plastic deformation to enhance plasma-assisted nitriding: On surface contamination induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samih, Youssef; Novelli, Marc; Bolle, Bernard; Allain, Nathalie; Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques; Marcos, Grégory; Czerwiec, Thierry; Grosdidier, Thierry; Thiriet, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent technique leading to the formation of nanostructured layers by the repeated action of impacting balls. While several communications have revealed possible contamination of the SMATed surfaces, the nature of this surface contamination was analyzed in the present contribution for the treatment of an AISI 316L stainless steel. It is shown, by a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Glow Discharge – Optical Emission Spectrometry, that the surface was alloyed with Ti, Al and V coming from the sonotrode that is used to move the balls as well as Zr coming from the zirshot® balls themselves

  12. Plastic deformation to enhance plasma-assisted nitriding: On surface contamination induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samih, Youssef; Novelli, Marc; Thiriet, Tony; Bolle, Bernard; Allain, Nathalie; Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques; Marcos, Grégory; Czerwiec, Thierry; Grosdidier, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent technique leading to the formation of nanostructured layers by the repeated action of impacting balls. While several communications have revealed possible contamination of the SMATed surfaces, the nature of this surface contamination was analyzed in the present contribution for the treatment of an AISI 316L stainless steel. It is shown, by a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Glow Discharge - Optical Emission Spectrometry, that the surface was alloyed with Ti, Al and V coming from the sonotrode that is used to move the balls as well as Zr coming from the zirshot® balls themselves.

  13. Early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bronwen R; Howells, Sarah; Jenkins, Meryl

    2003-11-01

    Postnatal depression has a relatively high incidence and gives rise to considerable morbidity. There is sound evidence supporting the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for possible postnatal depression. This paper reports on a project developed by two health visitors and a community mental health nurse working in the United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to improve the early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in the population of the general practice to which they were attached. The health visitors screened for postnatal depression in the course of routine visits on four occasions during the first postpartum year. Women identified as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression were offered 'listening visits' as a first-line intervention, with referral on to the general practitioner and/or community mental health nurse if indicated. Data collected over 3 years showed that the project succeeded in its aim of enhancing early detection and treatment of postnatal depression. These findings replicate those of other studies. The data also showed that a substantial number of women were identified for the first time as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression at 12 months postpartum. Women screened for the first time at 12 months were at greater risk than those who had been screened earlier than this. Health visitors should screen for postnatal depression throughout the period of their contact with mothers, not solely in the immediate postnatal period. It is particularly important to screen women who, for whatever reason, were not screened when their child was younger. The knowledge and skills needed to use the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provide first-line intervention and onward referral can be developed at practitioner level through close collaborative working.

  14. Estimating demand for primary care-based treatment for substance and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Epstein, Andrew J; Fiellin, David A; Fraenkel, Liana; Busch, Susan H

    2016-08-01

    While there is broad recognition of the high societal costs of substance use disorders (SUD), treatment rates are low. We examined whether, in the United States, participants with substance or alcohol use disorder would report a greater willingness to enter SUD treatment located in a primary care setting (primary care) or more commonly found specialty care setting in the United States (usual care). Randomized survey-embedded experiment. US web-based research panel in which participants were randomized to read one-paragraph vignettes describing treatment in usual care (specialty drug or alcohol treatment center), primary care or collaborative care within a primary care setting. A total of 42 451 panelists aged 18+ were screened for substance or alcohol use disorder using validated diagnostic criteria. Participants included 344 with a substance use disorder and 634 with an alcohol use disorder not in treatment with no prior treatment history. Willingness to enter treatment across vignettes by condition. Among participants with a substance use disorder, 24.6% of those randomized to usual care reported being willing to enter drug treatment compared with 37.2% for primary care [12.6 percentage point difference; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8, 24.4) and 34.0% for collaborative care (9.4 percentage point difference; 95% CI = -2.0, 20.8). Among participants with an alcohol use disorder, 17.6% of those randomized to usual care reported being willing to enter alcohol treatment compared with 20.3% for primary care (2.6 percentage point difference; 95% CI = -4.9, 10.1) and 20.8% for collaborative care (3.1 percentage point difference; 95% CI = -4.3, 10.6). The most common reason for not being willing to enter drug (63%) and alcohol (78%) treatment was the belief that treatment was not needed. In the United States, people diagnosed with substance or alcohol use disorders appear to be more willing to enter treatment in a primary care setting than in a specialty drug

  15. Treatment of Primary Pulmonary Aspergillosis: An Assessment of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan R. Stewart

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus spp. are a group of filamentous molds that were first described due to a perceived similarity to an aspergillum, or liturgical device used to sprinkle holy water, when viewed under a microscope. Although commonly inhaled due to their ubiquitous nature within the environment, an invasive fungal infection (IFI is a rare outcome that is often reserved for those patients who are immunocompromised. Given the potential for significant morbidity and mortality within this patient population from IFI due to Aspergillus spp., along with the rise in the use of therapies that confer immunosuppression, there is an increasing need for appropriate initial clinical suspicion leading to accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. Voriconazole remains the first line agent for therapy; however, the use of polyenes, novel triazole agents, or voriconazole in combination with an echinocandin may also be utilized. Consideration as to which particular agent and for what duration should be made in the individual context for each patient based upon underlying immunosuppression, comorbidities, and overall tolerance of therapy.

  16. Primary gonadal damage following treatment of brain tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.R.; Shalet, S.M.; Campbell, R.H.; Deakin, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Gonadal function was studied in two groups of children previously treated for medulloblastoma with surgery followed by postoperative craniospinal irradiation. In group 1 but not in group 2, the children also received adjuvant chemotherapy for one to two years. All children in group 1 received a nitrosourea (BCNU or CCNU), plus vincristine in four and procarbazine in three patients. The nine children in group 1 showed clinical and biochemical evidence of gonadal damage with elevated serum FSH concentrations and, in the boys, small testes for their stage of pubertal development. In group 2 (n . 8), each child had completed pubertal development normally, the boys had adult sized testes and the girls regular menses. Gonadotropin values were normal in all eight children. We conclude that nitrosoureas were responsible for the gonadal damage in the children in group 1, with procarbazine also contributing to the damage in the three children who received this drug. In view of the limited proved value of adjuvant chemotherapy with nitrosoureas in the treatment of medulloblastoma, recognition of this serious complication of cytotoxic drug therapy may necessitate reassessing in which subgroups of children with medulloblastoma the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy outweigh the complications

  17. Investigative studies on water contamination in Bangladesh. Primary treatment of water samples at the sampling site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Takatsuji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentration in 13 well waters, 9 pond waters, 10 agricultural waters and a coconut juice taken in Comilla district, Bangladesh, where the problem of arsenic pollution is the most severe, was investigated. High-level arsenic is detected even in the well water which has been kept drinking by the people. Relatively high arsenic concentration was detected for some pond and farm waters even though the sampling was performed just after the rainy season and the waters were expected to be highly diluted. Clear relationship was observed in elemental compositions between the pond water and the coconut juice collected at the edge of the water. These results are expected to become the basic information for evaluating the risk of individual food such as cultured fishes, shrimps and farm products, and for controlling total intakes of arsenic. In order to solve the problem of transportation of water samples internationally, a simple method of target preparation performed at the sampling site was established and its validity was confirmed. All targets were prepared at the sampling sites in this study on the basis of this method. (author)

  18. Heating treatment schemes for enhancing chelant-assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yahua; Wang, Chunchun; Wang, Guiping; Luo, Chunling; Mao, Ying; Shen, Zhenguo; Li, Xiangdong

    2008-04-01

    Recent research has shown that chelant-assisted phytoextraction approaches often require a high dosage of chelant applied to soil. The present study focused on optimization of phytoremediation processes to increase the phytoextraction efficiency of metals at reduced chelant applications. Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature on shoot uptake of heavy metals by corn (Zea mays L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiat L. Wilczek) from heavy metal-contaminated soils. After the application of S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid or ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid, soils were exposed to high temperatures (50 or 80 degrees C) for 3 h, which significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in shoots. The heating treatment 2 d after the chelant addition resulted in higher concentrations of metals compared with those treatments 2 d before or simultaneously with the chelant application. Irrigation with 100 degrees C water 2 d after the chelant addition, or irrigation with 100 degrees C chelant solutions directly, also resulted in significantly higher phytoextraction of metals in the two crops compared with 25 degrees C chelant solutions. In addition, a novel application method to increase soil temperature using underground polyvinyl chloride tubes would increase the chelant-assisted extraction efficiency of Cu approximately 10- to 14-fold in corn and fivefold in mung bean compared with those nonheating treatments. In a field experiment, increasing soil temperature 2 d after chelant addition also increased the shoot Cu uptake approximately fivefold compared with those nonheating treatments. This new technique may represent a potential, engineering-oriented approach for phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils.

  19. Surgical treatment of primary gynecomastia in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Hirsch, Tobias; Hirche, Christoph; Kiefer, Jurij; Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Germann, Günter; Reichenberger, Matthias A

    2014-06-01

    Idiopathic gynecomastia is a common diagnosis in children and adolescents. Though medical treatments reveal potentially harmful side effects, surgical interventions are performable in numerous techniques. In children and adolescents, only minimal evidence exists. This retrospective study presents our experiences with two common surgical techniques, namely subcutaneous mastectomy and combination with liposuction. This retrospective study included all patients gynecomastia. Height, weight and grade of gynecomastia according to Simon's classification before surgery were reviewed in all patients' files. Additionally, duration of surgery, inpatient stay and postoperative complications were documented. Follow-up examinations were performed with assessment of scar formation, numbness and retraction of the nipple region. Furthermore, patients were asked to report on general satisfaction with surgery (satisfactory/not satisfactory) and esthetic outcome on a numeric scale (1 = good, 6 = bad). 37 patients underwent surgery for verified idiopathic gynecomastia. Grade of gynecomastia was I° in 13.5% (n = 5), II° in 40.5% (n = 15) and III° in 46% (n = 17) of cases. Subcutaneous mastectomy was applied in 11 patients (group I, 30%) and both subcutaneous mastectomy and liposuction in 26 patients (group II, 70.3%). Postoperative complications occurred in two patients. Long-term follow-up was performed in 32 patients after a median of 34 months (range 6-96 months). Hypertrophic scar formation was seen in one patient (3%) and nipple retraction in two patients (5%). Recurrence of gynecomastia occurred in two patients (5%). Patient rating was satisfactory in 9% of cases and esthetic outcome was received with a median of 2.0 (1-5). In comparing both surgical techniques, combination of mastectomy and liposuction revealed better results in every measure except for surgical duration (median 73 vs. 90 min). Surgical correction of gynecomastia remains a purely elective intervention. In

  20. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthaamarai Rogawansamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®, 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid, and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia oil tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to

  1. An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-06-02

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth

  2. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Microbial Contamination of Honeys and on Their Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Moliné María de la

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, microwave heating has become a common method for pasteurization and sterilization of food. Honey is a sweet substance produced by worker honeybees from nectar of flowers. The major microbial contaminants include moulds and yeasts, as well as the spore-forming bacteria, being their counts indicative of honeys’ commercial quality and safety. Paenibacillus larvae is also of interest since it causes American foulbrood (AFB in honeybee larvae. The main quality factors that are used in the honey international trade are moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, and enzymatic indices. Moreover, honey exhibits several thermal events, the most important being the glass transition temperature (Tg. The aim of this work was to evaluate microwave effect (800 watts during 45 and 90 seconds on microbial content in particular over P. larvae spores retained in honey, and on physicochemical and thermal properties. Microwave promoted a decrease of microbial count with time of exposure, including P. larvae. Moisture content diminished after treatment, while Tg increased linearly, and acidity decremented in the majority of cases. Honeys darkened and HMF exceeded the permissible value. Diastase and glucose-oxidase enzymes were totally inactivated by microwave treatment.

  3. Thermoluminescence of contaminating minerals for the detection of radiation treatment of dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.M.; Bhatti, Ijaz A.; Delincee, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Several types of dry fruits (pistachio nut, dried apricot, almond and raisins) have been investigated for detection of their radiation treatment by gamma rays or electron beam using thermoluminescence (TL) measurements. These samples were irradiated to 1.0-3.0 kGy (gamma rays) or 0.75-3.9 kGy (10 MeV electron beam). Thermoluminescence glow curves for the contaminating minerals separated from the dry fruits were recorded between the temperature range of 50 deg. C and 500 deg. C. In all the cases, the intensity of TL signal for the irradiated dry fruits was 1-3 orders of magnitudes higher than the TL intensity of the corresponding unirradiated control samples allowing clear distinction between the irradiated and unirradiated samples. These results were normalized by re-irradiating the mineral grains with a gamma-ray dose of 1.0 kGy, and a second glow curve was recorded. The ratio of intensity of the first glow curve (TL 1 ) to that after the normalization dose (TL 2 ), i.e. (TL 1 /TL 2 ) was determined and compared with the recommended threshold values. These parameters, together with comparison of the shape of the first glow curve, gave unequivocal results about the radiation treatment of the dry fruit samples

  4. Treatment of helicobacter pylori contamination in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with gastroduodenal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Fedorchenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of Helicobacter pylori (HP infection in patients with diabetes mellitus with chronic gastroduodenal disorders is a substantial problem because of its high incidence. Aims: To compare between the effectiveness of triple and optimised consecutive regimens in anti-HP treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with gastroduodenal disorders. Materials and methods: The study included 54 patients with diabetes mellitus and 64 healthy individuals (the control group aged 30–60 years. Gastroduodenal pathology was confirmed by gastroduodenoscopy; HР contamination was confirming using Marshall’s urease method or by finding bacterial antigen in excrements. We studied the dynamics of clinical manifestations using the GSRS scale and showed remission via endoscopy and the effectiveness of HР eradication. We also analysed the effects of anti-HР therapy regimens on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBOS in patients with diabetes mellitus. SIBOS was diagnosed via the respiratory hydrogen method. Results: The use of an optimised consecutive regimen resulted in HР eradication in 85.7% of patients with diabetes mellitus compared with a 65.3% eradication in patients on the triple therapy. Moreover, clinical improvement and endoscopy-confirmed remission were more frequently observed in patients on the optimised consecutive regimen. A statistically significant decrease in the number of patients with SIBOS was found only in patients who underwent the optimised consecutive therapy regimen. Conclusions: This study showed that the optimised consecutive therapy regimen was more effective than the triple therapy in HP eradication.

  5. Evaluation of emerging contaminants in a drinking water treatment plant using electrodialysis reversal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Gernjak, W; Valero, F; Barceló, A; Petrovic, M; Rodríguez-Roda, I

    2016-05-15

    Emerging contaminants (EC) have gained much attention with globally increasing consumption and detection in aquatic ecosystems during the last two decades from ng/L to lower ug/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and related compounds in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) treating raw water from the Mediterranean Llobregat River. The DWTP combined conventional treatment steps with the world's largest electrodialysis reversal (EDR) facility. 49 different PhACs, EDCs and related compounds were found above their limit of quantification in the influent of the DWTP, summing up to a total concentration of ECs between 1600-4200 ng/L. As expected, oxidation using chlorine dioxide and granular activated carbon filters were the most efficient technologies for EC removal. However, despite the low concentration detected in the influent of the EDR process, it was also possible to demonstrate that this process partially removed ionized compounds, thereby constituting an additional barrier against EC pollution in the product. In the product of the EDR system, only 18 out of 49 compounds were quantifiable in at least one of the four experimental campaigns, showing in all cases removals higher than 65% and often beyond 90% for the overall DWTP process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermoluminescence of contaminating minerals for the detection of radiation treatment of dried fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, H M; Bhatti, Ijaz A; Delincee, Henry

    2002-03-01

    Several types of dry fruits (pistachio nut, dried apricot, almond and raisins) have been investigated for detection of their radiation treatment by gamma rays or electron beam using thermoluminescence (TL) measurements. These samples were irradiated to 1.0-3.0 kGy (gamma rays) or 0.75-3.9 kGy (10 MeV electron beam). Thermoluminescence glow curves for the contaminating minerals separated from the dry fruits were recorded between the temperature range of 50 deg. C and 500 deg. C. In all the cases, the intensity of TL signal for the irradiated dry fruits was 1-3 orders of magnitudes higher than the TL intensity of the corresponding unirradiated control samples allowing clear distinction between the irradiated and unirradiated samples. These results were normalized by re-irradiating the mineral grains with a gamma-ray dose of 1.0 kGy, and a second glow curve was recorded. The ratio of intensity of the first glow curve (TL{sub 1}) to that after the normalization dose (TL{sub 2}), i.e. (TL{sub 1}/TL{sub 2}) was determined and compared with the recommended threshold values. These parameters, together with comparison of the shape of the first glow curve, gave unequivocal results about the radiation treatment of the dry fruit samples.

  7. Process design of high-concentration benzimidazole wastewater treatment based on the molecular structure of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenru; Qian, Kun; Liu, Qinyao; Zhang, Qianyi; Yao, Chen; Song, Wei; Wang, Yihong

    2018-04-01

    Benzimidazole is an important intermediate in industry and it is usually difficult to be degraded by many treatment technologies. Looking for a highly effective, environment-friendly degradation process for benzimidazole wastewater is of great significance to reduce pollution. Based on the structure of contaminants, the micro-electrolysis (ME) coupled with the Fenton technique was chosen to degrade the industrial benzimidazole wastewater. Special feeding was applied to maintain the suitable hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentration to produce the hydroxyl radicals (•OH) as much as possible and protect •OH from being quenched by excess H 2 O 2 according to the reaction mechanism. The results showed that this combined technique was highly efficient to decompose benzimidazole compounds. More chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced when flow control was used, compared to the flow not being controlled. The COD removal rate could reach 85.2% at optimal parameters. Then the effluent of this process was combined with the existing biochemical system for further degradation. The studies of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry showed that both 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl) benzimidazole and 2-Acetylbenzimidazole were decomposed to the isopropanolamine and aniline after the ME treatment; then the intermediates were oxidized into oxalic acid after the Fenton reaction.

  8. Application of the biological forced air soil treatment (BIOFAST trademark) technology to diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, K.A.; Leavitt, M.E.; Graves, D.A.; Stanish, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    A subsurface Biological Forced Air Soil Treatment (BIOFAST trademark) system was constructed at the Yellow Freight System, Inc. (Yellow Freight) New Haven facility in Connecticut as a means of expediting the remediation of soils impacted by a diesel fuel release. Prior to beginning construction activities the soils were evaluated for the feasibility of bioremediation based on soil characteristics including contaminant degrading bacteria, moisture content, and pH. Based on results of stimulant tests with oxygen and nutrients, the addition of fertilizer during the construction of the cell was recommended. Following the removal of underground storage tanks, the bioremediation cell was constructed by lining the enlarged excavation with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and backfilling alternating layers of nutrient-laden soil and pea gravel. Passive and active soil vapor extraction (SVE) piping was included in the gravel layers and connected to a blower and vapor treatment unit, operated intermittently to supply oxygen to the subsurface cell. Operating data have indicated that the bacteria are generating elevated levels of CO 2 , and the SVE unit is evacuating the accumulated CO 2 from the soils and replacing it with fresh air. These data suggest that the bioremediation process is active in the soils. Soil samples collected from within the soil pit subsequent to installation and again after 10 months of operation indicate that TPH concentrations have decreased by as much as 50%

  9. Contaminant removal and hydraulic conductivity of laboratory rain garden systems for stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, J F; O'Sullivan, A D; Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of substrate composition on stormwater treatment and hydraulic effectiveness, mesocosm-scale (180 L, 0.17 m(2)) laboratory rain gardens were established. Saturated (constant head) hydraulic conductivity was determined before and after contaminant (Cu, Zn, Pb and nutrients) removal experiments on three rain garden systems with various proportions of organic topsoil. The system with only topsoil had the lowest saturated hydraulic conductivity (160-164 mm/h) and poorest metal removal efficiency (Cu ≤ 69.0% and Zn ≤ 71.4%). Systems with sand and a sand-topsoil mix demonstrated good metal removal (Cu up to 83.3%, Zn up to 94.5%, Pb up to 97.3%) with adequate hydraulic conductivity (sand: 800-805 mm/h, sand-topsoil: 290-302 mm/h). Total metal amounts in the effluent were pH was elevated (up to 7.38) provided by the calcareous sand in two of the systems, whereas the topsoil-only system lacked an alkaline source. Organic topsoil, a typical component in rain garden systems, influenced pH, resulting in poorer treatment due to higher dissolved metal fractions.

  10. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil

  11. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass ∼ 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project

  12. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An integrated remediation system using synthetic and natural zeolites for treatment of wastewater and contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Reyes, Carlos; Appasamy, Danen; Clive, Roberts

    2011-01-01

    The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Different types of polluted aqueous effluents and sediments may be produced, which contain relatively high levels of heavy metals. During the 1990s, the large-scale development of constructed wetlands around the world drew much attention from public and environmental groups. The present study looks at the use of an integrated remediation system using zeolites for the treatment of wastewater and sediments. Zeolites have been widely studied in the past 10 years due to their attractive properties such as molecular-sieving, high cation exchange capacities, and their affinity for heavy metals. Coal industry by-products-based zeolites (faujasite type) have been tested as an effective and low-cost novel alternative for wastewater treatment, particularly their removing of heavy metals. On the other hand, a preliminary laboratory-scale experiment was conducted on the use of natural zeolites (clinoptilolite type) for the retention of heavy metals from canal sediments. Experimental work revealed promising results, which could be replicated on a bigger scale. Although this has been developed for canal sediments, the remediation strategy can be adapted to different waterways such as rivers. The development of the proposed remediation system in a specific experimental site as the major part of an innovation park can provide great benefits to a population living near contaminated effluents. It provides not only opportunities for the mitigation of environmental impact, improving water quality and landscape amenity, but also allows for several recreational opportunities

  14. In situ treatment of cyanide-contaminated groundwater by iron cyanide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Smith, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater contamination with cyanide is common at many former or active industrial sites. Metal-cyanide complexes typically dominate aqueous speciation of cyanide in groundwater systems, with iron-cyanide complexes often most abundant. Typically, metal-cyanide complexes behave as nonadsorbing solutes in sand-gravel aquifer systems in the neutral pH range, rendering cyanide relatively mobile in groundwater systems. Groundwater pump-and-treat systems have often been used to manage cyanide contamination in groundwater. This study examined the feasibility of using in situ precipitation of iron cyanide in a reactive barrier to attenuate the movement of cyanide in groundwater. Laboratory column experiments were performed in which cyanide solutions were passed through mixtures of sand and elemental iron filings. Removal of dissolved cyanide was evaluated in a variety of cyanide-containing influents under various flow rates and sand-to-iron weight ratios. Long-term column tests performed with various cyanide-containing influents under both oxic and anoxic conditions, at neutral pH and at flow rates typical of sand-gravel porous media, yielded effluent concentrations of total cyanide as low as 0.5 mg/L. Effluent cyanide concentrations achieved were close to the solubilities of Turnbull's blue-hydrous ferric oxide solid solutions, indicating co-precipitation of the two solids. Maximum cyanide removal efficiency was achieved with approximately 10% by weight of iron in the sand-iron mixtures; higher iron contents did not increase removal efficiency significantly. Results obtained indicate that in situ precipitation is a promising passive treatment approach for cyanide in groundwater

  15. Biologically active filters - An advanced water treatment process for contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangyi; Gitungo, Stephen W; Axe, Lisa; Raczko, Robert F; Dyksen, John E

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing concern of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in source water, this study examines the hypothesis that existing filters in water treatment plants can be converted to biologically active filters (BAFs) to treat these compounds. Removals through bench-scale BAFs were evaluated as a function of media, granular activated carbon (GAC) and dual media, empty bed contact time (EBCT), and pre-ozonation. For GAC BAFs, greater oxygen consumption, increased pH drop, and greater dissolved organic carbon removal normalized to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were observed indicating increased microbial activity as compared to anthracite/sand dual media BAFs. ATP concentrations in the upper portion of the BAFs were as much as four times greater than the middle and lower portions of the dual media and 1.5 times greater in GAC. Sixteen CECs were spiked in the source water. At an EBCT of 18 min (min), GAC BAFs were highly effective with overall removals greater than 80% without pre-ozonation; exceptions included tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and iopromide. With a 10 min EBCT, the degree of CECs removal was reduced with less than half of the compounds removed at greater than 80%. The dual media BAFs showed limited CECs removal with only four compounds removed at greater than 80%, and 10 compounds were reduced by less than 50% with either EBCT. This study demonstrated that GAC BAFs with and without pre-ozonation are an effective and advanced technology for treating emerging contaminants. On the other hand, pre-ozonation is needed for dual media BAFs to remove CECs. The most cost effective operating conditions for dual media BAFs were a 10 min EBCT with the application of pre-ozonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DIRECT PULP CAPPING IN TREATMENT OF REVERSIBLE PULPITIS IN PRIMARY TEETH- CLINICAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Milcheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of primary teeth is identical morphologically and physiologically to that of permanent teeth and it is capable to answer to pathological stimuli by producing tertiary dentin. When the inflammation of the pulp is in its reversible stage vital methods of treatment are indicated in order to stimulate the healing processes in it and protect its vitality. In Bulgaria the most popular method of treatment of inflammation diseases of the pulp in primary dentition is the mortal amputation. The biological way of treatment is not very common even in cases where there are indications for it. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the approbated by us protocol for application of direct pulp capping for treatment of reversible pulpitis in primary teeth. Material and methods: On the base of world experience and our contemporary meta- analysis of the researches published in the last 15 years concerning the problems of diagnostics. We determined clinical and radiographic diagnostic criteria for reversible pulpitis in primary teeth and indications for application of direct pulp capping as a method of treatment. We give clinical steps for application of the method and summarized the clinical and radiographic criteria for success after treatment. Results/conclusion: We gather all the information for applying direct pulp cappingfor treatment of reversible pulpitis in primary dentition. We offer the method of direct pulp capping as a clinical protocol “step by step” and illustrated by scheme which can be useful for students and dentists in their everyday practice.

  17. Early glottic cancer: the influence of primary treatment on voice preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnicar, Hotimir; Smid, Lojze; Zakotnik, Branko

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis was performed to assess the influence of primary surgical or irradiation treatment on local control, survival, and final preservation of larynx in comparable groups of patients with T1N0 and T2N0 glottic cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred sixty-three previously untreated patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis (187T1 and 76T2) were treated with primary radiotherapy (159T1 and 60T2) or primary surgery (28T1 and 16T2) between January 1976 and December 1990, at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Conventional one daily fraction of 2 Gy to doses of 60-74 Gy (median: 65 Gy) were used in 98% of primarily irradiated patients through out the observed period. To enable better comparison between the two treatment groups, primarily irradiated patients were retrospectively stratified by the criteria of suitability for primary voice-sparing operation. Several host, tumor, and treatment parameters were analyzed. Results: Only the stage of the disease significantly influenced both 10-year recurrence-free and disease-specific survival regardless primary treatment modality (p = 0.0002). In all primary irradiated patients local control was significantly better for those with overall treatment time of less than 48 days (p = 0.007). In patients suitable for voice-sparing operation, local control of primarily operated patients was similar to that of patients primarily irradiated with shorter overall treatment time, which was 93 and 88% for T1 and 67 and 64% for T2 tumors, respectively. Ultimate local control in primary surgery and radiotherapy group was 96 and 96% for T1 and 89 and 88% for T2 tumors, respectively. Equal larynx preservation of 100% in T1 and 90% in T2 patients was achieved in finally cured primarily operated patients and those patients primarily irradiated with a shorter overall treatment time. If treatment time was longer than 48 days, significantly worse final larynx preservation of 84% in T1 and 75% in

  18. Primary care in the prevention, treatment and control of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojji, Dike B; Ojji, Dike B Ojji; Lamont, Kim; Sliwa, Karen; Ojji, Olubunmi I; Egenti, Bibiana Nonye; Sliwa, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the frontrunner in the disease spectrum of sub-Saharan Africa, with stroke and ischaemic heart disease ranked seventh and 14th as leading causes of death, respectively, on this sub-continent. Unfortunately, this region is also grappling with many communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional disorders. Limited resources and the high cost of CVD treatment necessitate that primary prevention should have a high priority for CVD control in sub- Saharan Africa. One major challenge of such an approach is how to equip primary care to respond promptly and effectively to this burden. We present a practical approach on how primary care in sub-Saharan Africa could effectively address the prevention, treatment and control of CVD on the subcontinent. For effective prevention, control and treatment of CVD in sub-Saharan Africa, there should be strategic plans to equip primary care clinics with well-trained allied healthcare workers who are supervised by physicians. PMID:28752890

  19. Treatment of depressive disorders in primary care - protocol of a multiple treatment systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Klaus

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several systematic reviews have summarized the evidence for specific treatments of primary care patients suffering from depression. However, it is not possible to answer the question how the available treatment options compare with each other as review methods differ. We aim to systematically review and compare the available evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments for patients with depressive disorders in primary care. Methods/Design To be included, studies have to be randomized trials comparing antidepressant medication (tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, hypericum extracts, other agents and/or psychological therapies (e.g. interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, behavioural therapy, short dynamically-oriented psychotherapy with another active therapy, placebo or sham intervention, routine care or no treatment in primary care patients in the acute phase of a depressive episode. Main outcome measure is response after completion of acute phase treatment. Eligible studies will be identified from available systematic reviews, from searches in electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Central, trial registers, and citation tracking. Two reviewers will independently extract study data and assess the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's corresponding tool. Meta-analyses (random effects model, inverse variance weighting will be performed for direct comparisons of single interventions and for groups of similar interventions (e.g. SSRIs vs. tricyclics and defined time-windows (up to 3 months and above. If possible, a global analysis of the relative effectiveness of treatments will be estimated from all available direct and indirect evidence that is present in a network of treatments and comparisons. Discussion Practitioners do not only want to know whether there is evidence that a specific treatment is more effective than

  20. Randomized controlled trial assessing a traditional Chinese medicine remedy in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, S.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Zhong, S.; Magill, P.; Vliet, T. van; Kistemaker, C.; Voors, C.; Pasman, W.

    2006-01-01

    A proof-of-concept study to assess the safety and efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine formula as treatment for primary dysmenorrhea showed no statistically significant benefit over placebo. However, some efficacy parameters suggested possible superiority of the active treatment and so a

  1. Treatment Strategies in Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma A 17-Center European Collaborative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, Anjo; Bromberg, Jacoline; Touitou, Valerie; Sobolewska, Bianka; Missotten, Tom; Baarsma, Seerp; Hoyng, Carel; Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Rozalski, Anna; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Guex-Crosier, Yan; Los, Leonoor I.; Bollemeijer, Jan Geert; Nolan, Andrew; Pawade, Joya; Willermain, Francois; Bodaghi, Bahram; ten Dam-van Loon, Ninette; Dick, Andrew; Zierhut, Manfred; Lightman, Susan; Mackensen, Friederike; Moulin, Alexandre; Erckens, Roel; Wensing, Barbara; le Hoang, Phuc; Lokhorst, Henk; Rothova, Aniki

    IMPORTANCE The best treatment option for primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) without signs of central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) involvement determined on magnetic resonance imaging or in cerebrospinal fluid is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the outcomes of treatment regimens used for PVRL in

  2. Effectiveness of transdiagnostic Internet cognitive behavioural treatment for mixed anxiety and depression in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newby, Jill M; Mewton, Louise; Williams, Alishia D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413576493; Andrews, Gavin

    BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment (iCBT) has been shown to be effective for the combined treatment of depression and anxiety in randomised controlled trials. The degree to which these findings generalise to patients in primary care awaits further investigation. METHODS:

  3. Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry and a New Process for Treatment of Pink Water and Related Contaminated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pH on the Degradation Kinetics of Nitrophenol Isomers in a Heterogeneous ...34 Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Water Contaminants: Kinetics and Hydroxyl Radical Mechanisms," Ph.D. Thesis, Raleigh, NC: North Carolina...Dioxide Systems : Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloro- and Nitrophenols ." Trace Met. Environ 3, no. Photocatalytic Purification and Treatment of Water

  4. Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in integrated wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhimiao; Song, Xinshan; Zhang, Yinjiang; Zhao, Yufeng; Wang, Bodi; Wang, Yuhui

    2017-12-01

    In the paper, we explored the influences of different dosages of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in algal ponds combined with constructed wetlands. After 1-year operation of treatment systems, based on the high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis of microbial communities, the optimal operating conditions were obtained as follows: the ACW10 system with Fe 3+ (5.6 mg L -1 ), iron powder (2.8 mg L -1 ), and CaCO 3 powder (0.2 mg L -1 ) in influent as the adjusting agents, initial phosphorus source (PO 4 3- ) in influent, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus (N/P) of 30 in influent, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency were improved significantly. The hydrolysis of CaCO 3 promoted the physicochemical precipitation in contaminant removal. Meanwhile, Fe 3+ and iron powder produced Fe 2+ , which improved contaminant removal. Iron ion improved the diversity, distribution, and metabolic functions of microbial communities in integrated treatment systems. In the treatment ACW10, the dominant phylum in the microbial community was PLANCTOMYCETES, which positively promoted nitrogen removal. After 5 consecutive treatments in ACW10, contaminant removal efficiencies for TN and TP respectively reached 80.6% and 57.3% and total iron concentration in effluent was 0.042 mg L -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Implementation and planning of preventive and multi-layered contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Arai, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    In Fukushima Daiichi D and D activities, one of the most challenging issues is contaminated water management. In order to control ground water inflow into the buildings so that amount of contaminated water does not increase and prevent contaminated water spread out to the environment including into the ocean, TEPCO are taking various measures: In order to remove contamination sources, the removal of the highly contaminated water in the seaside trenches are being implemented. And also, the acceleration of water purification is planned by contaminated water clean-up facility. For the purpose of Isolating water from contaminated sources, construction of the frozen-soil land-side wall started in order to prevent the groundwater from flowing in the area and contaminated water from flowing out from the area. In order to prevent leakage of contaminated water into the ocean, soil improvement with sodium silicate (liquid glass) and Installation of the sea-side impermeable walls are implemented. Furthermore, replacement of the flange-type tanks with welded-joint tanks to mitigate leakage risks is underway. (author)

  7. Treatment of Fukushima contaminated waters TEPCO selected Areva and Veolia solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seberac, Philippe; Paillard, Herve; Thierry, Jean-Marie; Bae, Ho-Il; Prevost, Thierry; Piot, Gregoire; Bertrand Ytournel

    2012-09-01

    The Actiflo-Rad TM system successfully contributed to treat the contaminated wastewaters from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The decontamination system jointly designed by AREVA and Veolia Water treated about 77 500 m 3 of high activity wastewater (∼10 6 Bq/cm 3 ), combining radionuclides adsorbents developed by AREVA and the know-how of Veolia in water treatment for the settlement of the adsorbed radioactive elements, producing sludge with a weight concentration of 80 g/L. Both companies delivered the treatment facility quickly with an efficient joint organization - in a very complex environment. Assembled on Fukushima site - badly damaged by the tsunami following the earthquake of March 11 th - the system was designed, built and started in a record time of 2 month 1 / 2 , instead of several years in a classical nuclear engineering project. The Actiflo-Rad TM was a key equipment to achieve a stable situation of reactors, allowing treated water to be reused for core cooling. Commissioned with the on-site support of Veolia experts, the system reduced by 10 000 the Cs-activity of the wastewater even with significant salt content (seawater diluted twice) at a flow-rate slightly below the design value of 50 m 3 /hr. The implemented technologies are already used separately on AREVA sites (la Hague, fuel reprocessing plant) and for many water treatment projects by Veolia all over the world (Actiflo TM and Multiflo TM processes, using lamellar settling devices - in addition, the first one making use of micro-sand for a better floc quality). The complete treatment process selected by TEPCO features a physico-chemical treatment and water desalination, in five steps. After de-oiling, wastewater is primarily decontaminated through zeolite columns (Kurion process). This pre-decontaminated water is then treated on the AREVA-Veolia two stages system; at each stage, more than 30 minutes contact time with radionuclides adsorbents is needed, adsorbed

  8. Comparative overview of primary sedimentation-based mechanical stage in some Romanian wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, C.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, wastewater (WW) treatment facilities are considered significant exposure pathways for solid particles, and also significant concerns of any quality conscious manufacturer. Most solid particles have some forms of organic coating either used as active material or to suspend and/or stabilize different present solid materials, having increase in toxicity that must be reduced, or sometimes even totally eliminated, especially if effluent is either discharged directly to surface water, or distributed through industrial water supplies. Representatives providing innovative technologies, comprehensive supports and expertise in wastewater and sludge treatment field are known, each one using modern treatment technology and facilities. Mechanical treatment is indispensable in primary treatment steps of both municipal and industrial WW applications, its main goal being separation of floating, settling and suspended materials (especially into a primary sedimentation-based treatment step). The aim of this work is to present comparatively the performance in solids removal of conventional mechanical WW treatment stages, especially those based on primary sedimentation, or sedimentation-like operations applied for Romanian urban WW treatment plants (serving two towns with ca 18,000 inhabitants), industrial WW treatment plants (deserving industries of vegetal food processing and organic chemicals’ manufacturing) and additional information on valorisation of separated solid material and improvement possibilities.

  9. Treatment of PAH-contaminated soil using cement-activated persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Bin; Peng, Changsheng; Li, Ning; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel method for the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon -contaminated soil using cement-activated persulfate was developed. The removal of PAHs in soil rose with increasing initial persulfate concentration, initial Portland cement (PC) concentration, and oxidation reaction time. At an initial persulfate and PC concentration of 19.20 mmol/kg and 10% of soil weight and a reaction time of 2 h, the removal rate of PAHs reached 57.3%. Residual PAHs were mainly adsorbed within the soil granules and thus became less available. The mechanism of PC facilitating the oxidation reaction was that PC addition can increase the pH and temperature of the system. When the soil was stabilized/solidified by 10% of PC, the leaching concentration of PAHs and TOC was significantly higher than that leached from untreated soil. Persulfate oxidation decreased the leaching concentration of PAHs but increased the leaching concentration of TOC in solidification/stabilization products. The addition of activated carbon can decrease the leaching concentrations of both PAHs and TOC. Freeze-thaw durability tests revealed that the leachability of PAHs was not affected by freeze-thaw cycles. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of treated soil samples after 12 freeze-thaw cycles was only 49.0% of that curing for 52 days, but the UCS was still > 1 MPa. The treated soil samples can resist disintegration during the process of freeze-thaw cycles.

  10. Nurse led, primary care based antiretroviral treatment versus hospital care: a controlled prospective study in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kerry A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment services delivered in hospital settings in Africa increasingly lack capacity to meet demand and are difficult to access by patients. We evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment by comparison with usual hospital care in a typical rural sub Saharan African setting. Methods We undertook a prospective, controlled evaluation of planned service change in Lubombo, Swaziland. Clinically stable adults with a CD4 count > 100 and on antiretroviral treatment for at least four weeks at the district hospital were assigned to either nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care or usual hospital care. Assignment depended on the location of the nearest primary care clinic. The main outcome measures were clinic attendance and patient experience. Results Those receiving primary care based treatment were less likely to miss an appointment compared with those continuing to receive hospital care (RR 0·37, p p = 0·001. Those receiving primary care based, nurse led care were more likely to be satisfied in the ability of staff to manage their condition (RR 1·23, p = 0·003. There was no significant difference in loss to follow-up or other health related outcomes in modified intention to treat analysis. Multilevel, multivariable regression identified little inter-cluster variation. Conclusions Clinic attendance and patient experience are better with nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care than with hospital care; health related outcomes appear equally good. This evidence supports efforts of the WHO to scale-up universal access to antiretroviral treatment in sub Saharan Africa.

  11. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  12. Rituximab in the treatment of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Guarino, M; Ortiz-Romero, P L; Fernández-Misa, R; Montalbán, C

    2014-06-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric mouse-human antibody that targets the CD20 antigen, which is found in both normal and neoplastic B cells. In recent years, it has been increasingly used to treat cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and is now considered an alternative to classic treatment (radiotherapy and surgery) of 2 types of indolent lymphoma, namely, primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. Rituximab is also administered as an alternative to polychemotherapy in the treatment of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. Its use as an alternative drug led to it being administered intralesionally, with beneficial effects. In the present article, we review the literature published on the use of rituximab to treat primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Semi-passive, Chemical Oxidation Schemes for the Long-term Treatment of Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank W. Schwartz

    2005-12-13

    This research involves a combined experimental and modeling study that builds on our previous DOE-sponsored work in investigating how KMnO{sub 4} can be better used with in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated ethylenes (e.g., PCE, TCE, DCE). This study aims to provide scientific basis for developing a new long-term, semi-passive ISCO scheme that uses controlled release KMnO{sub 4} as a reactive barrier component. Specific objectives of the study are (1) to construct controlled release KMnO{sub 4} as a new reactive barrier component that could deliver permanganate at a controlled rate over long time periods of years, (2) to quantitatively describe release mechanisms associated with the controlled release KMnO{sub 4}, (3) to demonstrate efficacy of the new remediation scheme using proof-of-concept experiments, and (4) to design advanced forms of controlled release systems through numerical optimization. The new scheme operates in a long-term, semi-passive manner to control spreading of a dissolved contaminant plume with periodic replacement of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} installed in the subsurface. As a first step in developing this remedial concept, we manufactured various prototype controlled release KMnO{sub 4} forms. Then we demonstrated using column experiments that the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} could deliver small amount of permanganate into flowing water at controlled rates over long time periods of years. An analytical model was also used to estimate the diffusivities and durations of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4}. Finally, proof-of-concept flow-tank experiments were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} scheme in controlling dissolved TCE plume in a long-term, semi-passive manner. Another important thrust of our research effort involved numerical optimization of controlled release systems. This study used a numerical model that is capable of describing release patterns of active

  14. Impact of contamination and pre-treatment on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of charred plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiglova, Petra; Snoeck, Christophe; Nitsch, Erika; Bogaard, Amy; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2014-12-15

    Stable isotope analysis of archaeological charred plants has become a useful tool for interpreting past agricultural practices and refining ancient dietary reconstruction. Charred material that lay buried in soil for millennia, however, is susceptible to various kinds of contamination, whose impact on the grain/seed isotopic composition is poorly understood. Pre-treatment protocols have been adapted in distinct forms from radiocarbon dating, but insufficient research has been carried out on evaluating their effectiveness and necessity for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. The effects of previously used pre-treatment protocols on the isotopic composition of archaeological and modern sets of samples were investigated. An archaeological sample was also artificially contaminated with carbonates, nitrates and humic acid and subjected to treatment aimed at removing the introduced contamination. The presence and removal of the contamination were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. The results show a ca 1‰ decrease in the δ(15)N values of archaeological charred plant material caused by harsh acid treatments and ultra-sonication. This change is interpreted as being caused by mechanical distortion of the grains/seeds rather than by the removal of contamination. Furthermore, specific infrared peaks have been identified that can be used to detect the three types of contaminants studied. We argue that it is not necessary to try to remove humic acid contamination for stable isotope analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of crushing the grains/seeds before pre-treatment are discussed. We recommend the use of an acid-only procedure (0.5 M HCl for 30 min at 80 °C followed by three rinses in distilled water) for cleaning charred plant remains. This study fills an important gap in plant stable isotope research that will enable future researchers to evaluate potential sources of isotopic change and pre

  15. Environmental risk assessment of effluents as a whole emerging contaminant: Efficiency of alternative tertiary treatments for wastewater depuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Pintado-Herrera, M G; Biel-Maeso, M; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Lara-Martín, P A; Perales, J A; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2017-08-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) and regulated compounds (RCs) from three different WWTP effluents were measured in the current study. The efficiency of two tertiary treatments, Photobiotreatment (PhtBio) and Multi-Barrier Treatment (MBT), for removing contaminants was determined. Results indicated different percentages of removal depending on the treatment and the origin of the effluent. Risk Quotients (RQs) were determined for different species of algae, Daphnia, and fish. RQ results revealed diverse risk values depending on the bioindicator species. Tonalide, galaxolide (fragrances), and ofloxacin (antibiotic) were the most persistent and harmful substances in tested effluents. "Negligible risk" category was reached since a wide diversity of ECs were removed by MBT with high removal percentages. Contrarily, PhtBio was effective only in the depuration of certain chemical compounds, and its efficiency depended on the composition of the raw effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Case of Primary Subglottic Malignant Melanoma with a Successful Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary subglottic malignant melanoma is a very rare and underdiagnosed neoplasm. We are reporting a case of primary malignant melanoma of subglottic mucosa in a 78-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with shortness of breath and hoarseness of voice. Laryngoscopy and excisional biopsy along with immunoreactivity to S-100 and human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45 confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with laryngectomy followed by radiotherapy. Five years following surgical treatment, she continues to be asymptomatic. To our knowledge, there is only one reported case of primary malignant melanoma of subglottic mucosa in the medical literatures.

  17. USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

  18. Thermochemical methods for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Rosana C.G.M. [Fundacao Jose Bonifacio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Nitrogen Generating System (SGN in Portuguese) is a thermochemical method first developed for cleaning and removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. SGN is based on a redox chemical reaction between two salts which is catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction is strongly exothermic and its products are nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. All reaction products are harmless to the environment. In January 2000 there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated 2400 tons of sand. This work, developed at PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES), was based on SGN technology which has been adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. By combining simultaneous effects of the SGN treatment such as heating, turbulence and floatation, one can remove, within 98% of efficiency, spilling oil from contaminated sand and removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. SGN technology has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in loco right after a contamination event. (author)

  19. Primary non-Hodgkins lymphoma of eye and adnexa. Effect of method of treatment for prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Grishina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify predictors of NHL of the vision associated with treatment choice for prognosis of primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma eye and adnexa.Methods: A retrospective and prospective study characteristics of the disease in 94 patients with primary lymphoma of the vision. Orbital lymphoma diagnosed in 35 patients (36 %, conjunctival — in 48 patients (52 %, the least damage observed age — 11 patients (12 %. Among the various types of malignant lymphomas morphologic immunological dominated B-cell lymphoma or marginal zone MALT-lymphoma, which were diagnosed in 70 (75 %. Patients were treated with radiation, chemotherapy and combined chemoradiotherapy.Results: During the follow-up period of 1 year to 26 years (median follow-up 5 years of the 94 patients the primary lymphoma of the vision in 22 cases (23 % relapses occurred in a period of 6 months to 10 years (median 2 years. In analyzing the data we found that the 5‑year disease-free survival with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and combination therapy is the same and is equal to — 70 %.Conclusion: The treatment and monitoring of patients with primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma eye and adnexa should be implemented jointly ophthalmologist and oncology. The choice of treatment, with adequate treatment is prescribed, can not be associated with the weather and can not be a predictor of the primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma eye and adnexa.

  20. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heartburn treatment in primary care: randomised, double blind study for 8 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlebakk, Jan G; Hyggen, Arild; Madsen, Per H; Walle, Per O; Schulz, Tom; Mowinckel, Petter; Bernklev, Tomm; Berstad, Arnold

    1999-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects and tolerability of omeprazole and cisapride with that of placebo for control of heartburn in primary care patients. Design Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Setting 65 primary care practices in Norway. Participants 483 untreated patients with complaints of heartburn ⩾3 days a week, with at most grade 1 reflux oesophagitis. Interventions Omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cisapride 20 mg twice daily, or placebo for 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Adequate control of heartburn, defined as ⩽1 day of the past 7 days with no more than mild heartburn, after 4 weeks of treatment. Results In the all patients treated analysis, adequate control of heartburn was achieved in 71% of patients taking omeprazole, 22% taking cisapride, and 18% taking placebo after 4 weeks of treatment (omeprazole v cisapride and placebo, Pheartburn whereas cisapride 20 mg twice daily was not significantly more effective than placebo. Key messagesIn primary care patients, heartburn is commonly treated empiricallyMost randomised clinical trials of treatment for heartburn have been conducted in specialist care, and documentation for empirical treatment is limitedOmeprazole was significantly more effective than cisapride or placebo in controlling heartburn and other symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux after 2, 4, and 8 weeks, whereas cisapride did not differ significantly from placeboOmeprazole should be considered as a first choice for empirical treatment of heartburn in primary care PMID:10463897

  2. The Efficacy of Zinc Administration in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Teimoori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dysmenorrhea is a common complaint in women. Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as painful menstruation in the absence of pelvic disease and is caused by uterine contractions caused by prostaglandins released from the endometrium. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral contraceptives. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.  Methods: Two-hundred participants with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into one of two groups. The intervention group received zinc and mefenamic acid, and the control group received mefenamic acid and a placebo drug. After three months of treatment, changes in the incidence of dysmenorrhea and the degree of pain were measured in both groups.  Results: The mean pain score before administration of zinc and mefenamic acid in the intervention group was 5.3±1.8 and after treatment was 1.2±1.9 (p 0.050. We also found that 64% of case group and 33% of the control group did not experience dysmenorrhea after treatment (p < 0.001.  Conclusions: The use of a zinc supplement in combination with mefenamic acid was superior in reducing primary dysmenorrhea compared to mefenamic acid alone.

  3. Ion exchange-based treatment of "6"0Co contaminated well-water for storing γ irradiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Meng; Miao Shilin; Zhang Xiaolu; Zhang Youjiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To select an efficient ion exchange resin to purify the "6"0Co contaminated well-water for storing radioactive source and to ensure the radioactivity of "6"0Co in treated well-water below 10 Bq/L. Methods: The radioactivity of "6"0Co in the water samples was measured by using the potassium cobaltinitrite coprecipitation-β counting method. The treatment efficiencies of two different ion exchange resins for the simulated "6"0Co-bearing waste water were compared to select a better one to dispose of the "6"0Co contaminated well-water. Results: The treatment efficiency of MBD-15-SC mixed ion exchange resin was about 5.8 times higher than ZGCNR50 strong-acid cation exchange resin. The radioactivity of "6"0Co in the contaminated well-water could be reduced from 4.16 × 10"5 Bq/L to 1.16 Bq/L by two-stage sorption of MBD-15-SC mixed ion exchange resin. Conclusions: Using several times of two-stage MBD-15-SC mixed ion exchange resin could effectively purify the "6"0Co contaminated well-water. The quality of the treated well-water could meet the sewage discharge standards. (authors)

  4. Minimizing the Health Risks from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils by Using Electric Field-Based Treatment for Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aura Istrate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the assessment of human health risk from soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs due to crude oil pollution, with a particular focus on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH group of carcinogenic and toxic substances. Given that the measured risk for human health exceeded the accepted level, the study considered an electrochemical remediation method. The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted by using an electric field-based treatment as a possible solution for the remediation of contaminated soil. After 20 days of treatment, while the voltage applied was 15 V (specific voltage of 1 V/cm, the hydrocarbon content was significantly reduced. The parameters measured to determine the overall remediation efficiency were pH, redox potential, ionic strength, soil characteristics, voltage gradient, and zeta potential. The remediation degree observed during the experiments was around 50% for TPHs and 46% for PAHs. The applied remediation method resulted in significant removal efficiency of the tested contaminants from the soil. Consequently, the human health risk assessment for the new degree of contaminants in the soil was achieved. This data demonstrated to what extent the application of the remediation applied technology ensured an acceptable risk under the same exposure conditions for the industrial workers.

  5. Impact of regular soap provision to primary schools on hand washing and E. coli hand contamination among pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E; Moe, Christine L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS.

  6. Feasibility study for private-sector treatment services for alpha-contaminated low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, R.R.; Rodriguez, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Rust Federal Services, under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Operations Office, performed a study to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a suggested private sector solution for the treatment of alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste (ALLMW) stored or produced at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feasibility study is an initial step in the potential procurement of privatized treatment services for these wastes. Rust's derived objective of the feasibility study was to define an optimal treatment system and analyze the feasibility of that system for accomplishing the processing objectives specified by DOE. All aspects of the selected treatment system were addressed in the feasibility study, including technical, regulatory, public involvement, and financial considerations. Two central elements of the study were a technology screening task to select the optimal treatment system and an analysis of the institutional, business, financial, and contractual issues that are likely to accompany the privatization of treatment services for DOE

  7. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  8. Biological in situ treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum - Laboratory scale simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvall, B.

    1997-06-01

    Laboratory scale simulations of biological in situ treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum compounds have been made in order to get a practical concept in the general case. The work was divided into seven distinct parts. Characterisation, leaching tests and introductory microbiological investigations were followed by experiments in suspended phases and in situ simulations of solid phase reactors. For the suspensions, ratios L/S 3/1 and shaking for a couple of hours were enough to detach organic compounds in colloid or dissolved form. When testing for a time of one month anaerobic environment and cold temperatures of 4 centigrade as well gave acceptable reductions of the actual pollution levels. The range of variation in the soil tests performed showed that at least triple samples are needed to get satisfactory statistical reliability. It was shown that adequate experimental controls demand very high concentrations of e.g. sodium azide when dealing with soil samples. For triple samples in suspended phase without inoculation the weight ratios of oxygen consumption/biological degradation of aliphatic compounds were 2.41 to 2.96. For the complex overall reduction no exact rate constants could be found. The reduction of hydrocarbons were in the interval 27 to 95 % in suspension tests. Solid phase simulations with maximum water saturation showed the highest degree of reduction of hydrocarbons when using dissolved peroxide of hydrogen as electron acceptor while the effect of an active sludge reactor in series was little - reductions of aliphatic compounds were between 21 and 33 % and of aromatic compounds between 32 and 65 %. The influence of different contents of water was greater than adding inoculum or shaking the soil at different intervals in the unsaturated cylinders. The starting level of hydrocarbons was 2400 mg/kg dry weight soil and the end analyses were made after 100 days. The reduction was between 32 and 80 %. 82 refs

  9. Treatment of arsenic contaminated water in a laboratory scale up-flow bio-column reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, P.; Majumder, C.B.; Mohanty, B.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper describes the observations on the treatment of arsenic contaminated synthetic industrial effluent in a bio-column reactor. Ralstonia eutropha MTCC 2487 has been immobilized on the granular activated carbon (GAC) bed in the column reactor. The synthetic water sample containing As(T) (As(III):As(V) = 1:1), Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn at the initial concentrations of 25, 10, 2, 5, 10 ppm, respectively, was used. Concentrations of all the elements have been found to be reduced below their permissible limits in the treated water. The significant effect of empty bed contact time (EBCT) and bed height on the arsenic removal was observed in the initial stage. However, after some time of operation (approximately 3-4 days) no such effect was observed. Removal of As(III) and As(V) was almost similar after ∼2 days of operation. However, at the initial stage As(V) removal was slightly more than that of As(III). In absence of washing, after ∼4-5 days of operation, the bio-column reactor was observed to act as a GAC column reactor based on physico-chemical adsorption. Like arsenic, the percent removals of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn also attained minimum after ∼1 day and increased significantly to the optimum value within 3-4 days of operation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) has been found to decrease along with the increasing bed height from the bottom. The pH of the solution in the reactor has increased slightly and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) has decreased with the time of operation

  10. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L; Buckwalter, Seanne P; Repert, Deborah A; Miller, Daniel N

    2005-05-01

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step.

  11. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR IN-SITU TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and field research has shown that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) containing a variety of materials can treat arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater. Sites where these PRBs are located include a mine tailings facility, fertilizer and chemical manufacturing sites, a...

  12. Contamination and Harm Relevant UCS-Expectancy Bias in Spider Phobic Individuals : Influence of Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J.; Huijding, Jorg; Peters, Madelon L.

    2010-01-01

    Phobic individuals expect aversive UCS's following encounters with phobic stimuli. Previous research using a thought-experiment procedure showed that contamination rather than harm-related outcome expectancies differentiated best between high and low spider fearful undergraduates. This study

  13. LOW COST SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DIOXIN, PCP AND CREOSOTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's NRMRL conducted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. Formulations developed during these studies wer...

  14. Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing primary medical treatment with primary trabeculectomy for people with newly diagnosed advanced glaucoma-study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony J; Fernie, Gordon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer M; Garway-Heath, Ted; Sparrow, John M; Vale, Luke; Hudson, Jemma; MacLennan, Graeme; McDonald, Alison; Barton, Keith; Norrie, John

    2017-10-26

    Presentation with advanced glaucoma is the major risk factor for lifetime blindness. Effective intervention at diagnosis is expected to minimise risk of further visual loss in this group of patients. To compare clinical and cost-effectiveness of primary medical management compared with primary surgery for people presenting with advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design : A prospective, pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT). Twenty-seven UK hospital eye services. Four hundred and forty patients presenting with advanced OAG, according to the Hodapp-Parish-Anderson classification of visual field loss. Participants will be randomised to medical treatment or augmented trabeculectomy (1:1 allocation minimised by centre and presence of advanced disease in both eyes). The primary outcome is vision-related quality of life measured by the National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire-25 at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include generic EQ-5D-5L, Health Utility Index-3 and glaucoma-related health status (Glaucoma Utility Index), patient experience, visual field measured by mean deviation value, logarithm of the mean angle of resolution visual acuity, intraocular pressure, adverse events, standards for driving and eligibility for blind certification. Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) based on EQ-5D-5L and glaucoma profile instrument will be estimated. The study will report the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of medical treatment against augmented trabeculectomy in patients presenting with advanced glaucoma in terms of patient-reported health and visual function, clinical outcomes and incremental cost per QALY at 2 years. Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study will be the first RCT reporting outcomes from the perspective of those with advanced glaucoma. ISRCTN56878850, Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  15. Radiological contribution in the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, K.; Hoffmann, G.; Loeffler, T.; Hausamen, T.

    1986-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with primary and secondary liver tumors has been improved recently by more aggressive operative, chemotherapeutic and embolization treatment. In a personal series of 40 patients with liver metastases colorectal cancer, regional intraarterial chemotherapy was superior to systematic intravenous treatment, with a tumor remission rate in 66% in comparison to 48% of the cases. But the benefit of intraarterial chemotherapy is still questionable considering the higher complication rate and the absence of prognostic data of the procedure. (orig.) [de

  16. Treatment strategy for primary lung cancer in patients over 80 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Yagi, Shinichi; Yoshida, Kouichirou; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Niki, Yoshihito; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Okimoto, Niro

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish the treatment strategies for primary lung cancer patients over 80 years old, we retrospectively analyzed the treatment methods and outcome of 174 patients admitted to our hospital from April 1987 to March 2002. A total of 174 patients were classified into stage I (n=25), stage II (n=7), stage III (n=64) and stage IV (n=78). Although the general condition and nutritional condition of patients over 80 years were comparatively poorer than all patients with primary lung cancer, there was no significant difference. In total, 73 patients were treated with surgical resection (13 patients), radiation (35 patients), chemotherapy (15 patients), and chemo-radiation (10 patients). Although the surgical treatment group predominantly included patients at stage I, there were no significant differences in general or nutritional condition, pulmonary function or arterial blood gas among the four treatment groups. The outcome of surgically treated patients was significantly better (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences among the other three groups or between the treated group and untreated groups. Only surgical treatment was evaluated to improve the prognosis of primary lung cancer patients over 80 years when respiratory function was adequate for surgical treatment. (author)

  17. The impact of temperament and character on the efficacy of nonpharmacologic treatment of primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Park, Jangho; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chung, Seockhoon

    2012-02-01

    Nonpharmacologic treatment, also known as cognitive behavioral treatment, is a first-line treatment of primary insomnia. We aimed to assess factors, including temperament and character, that were associated with responses to nonpharmacologic treatments of primary insomnia, that may assist physicians to recommend appropriate treatment. Outpatients diagnosed with psychophysiological insomnia (n = 99) were recruited between May 2009 and January 2010. Among 69 patients who consented to participate, 44 completed treatment and all assessment measures. In addition, 37 normal control subjects were also recruited. Baseline characteristics were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After treatment, all assessment scales excluding the Temperament and Character Inventory were repeated. All patients received nonpharmacologic treatments, including sleep restriction, cognitive therapy, and sleep hygiene education. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence scores were significantly different between normal controls and study subjects. Participants were divided into treatment responders (n = 23) and nonresponders (n = 21). Responders were significantly younger (50.3 ± 12.8 vs 58.7 ± 9.6 years, P = .02) and had significantly higher reward dependence scores (51.7 ± 5.9 vs 42.9 ± 6.9, P < .01) compared with nonresponders. The difference in reward dependence scores remained significant after controlling for other factors (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.40; P = .01). Among personality dimensions, reward dependence was significantly associated with response to nonpharmacologic treatment in patients with primary insomnia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency measures and treatment in the event of accidental aver exposure to radiation or of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1960-01-01

    In the first part the author presents an overall view of emergency measures to be applied in the case of internal or external radioactive contamination. He states in particular, in these two cases, the methods by which it is possible to eliminate the contaminating radioactive substances from the organism. The author then considers the therapeutic methods to be adopted in the case of an accident of overexposure to radiation, distinguishing between the case of a partial irradiation and that of an acute total irradiation. There will be essentially three methods used depending on the physical measures carried out (irradiation, conditions, estimation of the dose received) and of the clinical data collected: particular treatments, treatment for helping the organism during its return to normal activity, temporary or permanent replacement of the organs affected. (author) [fr

  19. Technical feasibility study for the electrochemical treatment of Phaeozem soil contaminated with radioactive organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdovinos G, V.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes in medicine and research generates radioactive waste. A large part of these wastes are composed by scintillation liquid (mixtures of organic solvents, as toluene and xylene, fluorescent materials and surfactants) contaminated with radioisotopes such as 3 H (12.3 y), 14 C (5730 y), 238 U (4.468 x 10 9 y), 232 Th (1.41 x 10 10 y), 204 Tl (3.7 y) or 22 Na (2.6 y). In Mexico during the 80 s, these wastes were absorbed on soil to decrease their hazardous behavior during interim storage. However, these wastes must be removed for reprocessing and final landscaping. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to study the technical feasibility of the electrochemical treatment of soils types Phaeozem contaminated with radioactive organic liquid waste (ROLW). For this study, an electrochemical treatment at laboratory level was applied, giving it an electrokinetic tracking. Control samples were prepared with different scintillation liquid (INSTAL Gel- XF, ULTIMA Gold AB TM and ULTIMA Gold XR TM as support electrolyte and polarization curves were constructed to select the current with the highest mass transfer. An analysis of the liquids and solids, before and after the application of the different potentials; the liquid phase was characterized by Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionized Detector (GC-FID) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Ft-Irs), and the solids by Ft-Irs. From the fourteen supports electrolytes studied, eleven did not have a stable diffusion current and the other three showed a diffusion current plateau in 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 m A·cm -2 . From polarization curves, the following experimental conditions were chosen for the treatment: electrodes (meshes of titanium as anode and rod of stainless steel as cathode), scintillation liquid (ULTIMA Gold XR TM : water, 1:1) and a current of 0.06 m A·cm -2 . Subsequently, radioactive control samples were prepared with soil-scintillation liquid, labeled with 24 Na, 99m Tc

  20. An approach for assessing potential sediment-bound contaminant threats near the intake of a drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    To assist in assessing a potential contaminated sediment threat near a drinking water intake in a large lake, a technique known as the fingerprint analysis of leachate contaminants (FALCON), was investigated and enhanced to help draw more statistically significant definitive conclusions. This represents the first application of this approach, originally developed by the USEPA to characterize and track leachate penetration in groundwater and contaminant migration from waste and landfill sites, in a large lake from the point-of-view of source water protection. FALCON provided valuable information regarding contaminated sediment characterization, source attribution, and transport within a surface water context without the need for knowledge of local hydrodynamic conditions, potentially reducing reliance on complicated hydrodynamic analysis. A t-test to evaluate the significance of correlations was shown to further enhance the FALCON procedure. In this study, the sensitivity of FALCON was found to be improved by using concentration data from both conserved organics and heavy metals in combination. Furthermore, data analysis indicated that it may be possible to indirectly assess the success of remediation efforts (and the corresponding need to plan for a treatment upgrade in the event of escalating contaminant concentrations) by examining the temporal change in correlation between the source and intake sediment fingerprints over time. This method has potential for widespread application in situations where conserved contaminants such as heavy metals and higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are being or have previously been deposited in sediment somewhere in, or within range of, an intake protection zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17beta-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Keefe, Steffanie H; Leblanc, Denis R; Bradley, Paul M; Chapelle, Francis H; Meyer, Michael T; Loftin, Keith A; Kolpin, Dana W; Rubio, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquiferthan NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br-) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br- and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly 130-60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20-90% recovered as 14CO2 in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  2. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Rubio, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquifer than NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br−) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br− and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly (30−60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20−90% recovered as 14CO2in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  3. Improved Understanding of Fenton-like Reactions for the In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Including Treatment of Sorbed Contaminants and Destruction of DNAPLs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watts, Richard J; Loge, Frank; Teel, Amy L

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, superoxide has a major role in the degradation of highly oxidized contaminants, the destruction of DNAPLs, and enhanced desorption of hydrophobic contaminants from soils and subsurface solids...

  4. Surgical treatment versus conventional chest tube drainage in primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Winnie Hedevang; Katballe, Niels; Sindby, Jesper Eske

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax frequently recurs after chest tube management. Evidence is lacking whether patients may benefit from surgery following their first episode. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomized trial and enrolled young, otherwise healthy patients admitted...... with their first episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and treated using conventional chest tube drainage. Patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography on fully expanded lungs, and using web-based randomization, we assigned patients to continued conservative chest tube treatment or chest tube...... treatment to prevent recurrence in patients with their first presentation of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and should be the standard of care when high-resolution computed tomography demonstrates bullae ≥2 cm. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT 02866305....

  5. Understanding and treatment of chronic abdominal pain in pediatric primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurman, Jennifer Verrill; Kessler, Emily D; Friesen, Craig A

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the practices used by primary care pediatricians to assess and treat chronic abdominal pain (CAP), as an initial step in guiding clinical practice guideline (CPG) development. A survey was mailed to a random sample of office-based pediatrician members (primary care pediatricians [PCPs]) of the American Medical Association. PCPs (n = 470) provided information about the typical presentation of CAP, assessment/treatment approaches used in their own practice, their definition of a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), and their familiarity with the Rome Criteria for diagnosing FGIDs. Substantial variability among PCPs was noted across all these areas. Results suggest that perceptions and practices of pediatric CAP vary widely among PCPs; no single standard of care emerged to guide development of a CPG for this population. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of specific strategies currently in use to identify potential opportunities for improving assessment and treatment of CAP in pediatric primary care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia in children: is octreotide an effective and safe option in the treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Sinan; Baris, Zeren; Dalgic, Buket

    2010-10-01

    Octreotide has been suggested as a medical treatment option in refractory cases of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL). There are few data about the long-term effect and safety of octreotide for IL in the literature. In the present article we analyzed pediatric cases of primary IL with long-term octreotide treatment and discussed its safety profile. Between 1999 and 2008, 13 children were diagnosed in our clinic as having IL. Six patients with primary IL were followed up, receiving octreotide therapy. The clinical data of the patients and duration of therapy, dose, and side effects of octreotide were evaluated. Octreotide, 15 to 20 μg per body weight 2 times daily subcutaneously, was given to all of the patients. Duration of the octreotide treatment changed between 3 and 37 months. Stool frequency decreased in all of the patients after starting octreotide treatment. Serum albumin could be maintained at normal levels in 3 patients. The requirement of albumin infusions decreased in all of the patients. Acute pancreatitis was observed as a side effect of octreotide in 1 patient. Octreotide may help to maintain serum albumin levels, improve clinical findings, and decrease the requirement of albumin infusions in refractory cases of primary IL.

  7. The value of rituximab treatment in primary Sjögren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, Gwenny M.; van Nimwegen, Jolien F.; Vissink, Arjan; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bootsma, Hendrika

    The rationale for B cell depletion therapy with rituximab in primary Sjogren's syndrome relies upon the well-established role of B cell hyperactivity in immunopathogenesis. In line with this notion, several biomarkers of B cell activity are significantly affected by treatment, both in the target

  8. When Problem Gambling Is the Primary Reason for Seeking Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, John; Mazmanian, Dwight; Penney, Alexander; Black, Nancy; Nguyen, An

    2011-01-01

    An existing database was used to compare problem gamblers (N = 138) who presented for treatment of their gambling problem to two other groups: alcohol and/or drug addiction clients who also had a gambling problem (N = 280) or who did not have a gambling problem (N = 2178). Clients with gambling as their primary problem were more likely to be…

  9. Treatment of primary Sjogren's syndrome with D-penicillamine: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Borg, E.J.; Haanen, H.C.M.; Haas, F.J.L.M.; Bistervels, J.H.G.M.; Huisman, F.W.; Kerckhaert, J.A.; Kallenberg, Cees

    2002-01-01

    Background: Up to now no satisfying systemic treatment is available for patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Methods: In a prospective, open study we investigated the effect of D-penicillamine (first three months 250 mg/day, next three months 500 mg/day) on clinical and immunological parameters

  10. A Systematic Review of Depression Treatments in Primary Care for Latino Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Hansen, Marissa C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing depression treatments in primary care for Latinos is conducted. The authors rate the methodological quality of studies, examine cultural and linguistic adaptations, summarize clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness findings, and draw conclusions for improving…

  11. Anxiety in adolescents: Update on its diagnosis and treatment for primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegel RS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca S Siegel, Daniel P DicksteinPediatric Mood, Imaging, and NeuroDevelopment Program, EP Bradley Hospital, East Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health concern facing adolescents today, yet they are largely undertreated. This is especially concerning given that there are fairly good data to support an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety, and also that untreated, these problems can continue into adulthood, growing in severity. Thus, knowing how to recognize and respond to anxiety in adolescents is of the utmost importance in primary care settings. To that end, this article provides an up-to-date review of the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders geared towards professionals in primary care settings. Topics covered include subtypes, clinical presentation, the etiology and biology, effective screening instruments, evidence-based treatments (both medication and therapy, and the long-term prognosis for adolescents with anxiety. Importantly, we focus on the most common types of anxiety disorders, often known as phobias, which include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety/social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and specific phobias. In summary, anxiety is a common psychiatric problem for adolescents, but armed with the right tools, primary care providers can make a major impact.Keywords: anxiety disorders, adolescents, presentation, etiology, assessment, treatment, primary care

  12. Primary care: constipation and encopresis treatment strategies and reasons to refer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philichi, Lisa; Yuwono, Melawati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess constipation and encopresis treatment strategies of primary care providers and determine reasons to refer to a pediatric gastroenterology specialist. A closed-ended questionnaire was mailed to a convenience sampling of 237 pediatric primary care providers. Ninety-one questionnaires were returned with a 38% response rate: 74 (81%) pediatricians and 17 (19%) nurse practitioners. The majority of responders recommended pharmacologic treatment and diet changes. Many providers (73%) estimated a 75%-100% success rate when managing constipation, whereas 19% providers estimated a greater than 80% success rate with encopresis patients. The number one reason to refer was unresponsiveness to treatment (71%), followed by parents want a second opinion (15%), rule out organic cause (9%), and management is too time-consuming (5%). Both primary care providers and pediatric gastroenterologists use medication strategies, but diet recommendations are not the same. Unresponsiveness to treatment is the main reason for referral. If better management can occur in the primary care setting, costly specialty services may be avoided and possibly reduce healthcare costs.

  13. The value of local treatment in patients with primary, disseminated, multifocal Ewing sarcoma (PDMES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeusler, Julia; Ranft, Andreas; Boelling, Tobias; Gosheger, Georg; Braun-Munzinger, Gabriele; Vieth, Volker; Burdach, Stefan; van den Berg, Henk; Juergens, Heribert; Dirksen, Uta

    2010-01-01

    The value of local treatment in patients with primary, disseminated, multifocal Ewing sarcoma (PDMES) was investigated. We analyzed 120 patients registered into the European Ewing Tumor Working Initiative of National Groups (EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99) trial at the trial center of Muenster from 1998 to

  14. Bone scintigraphy in Ewing's sarcoma during and after treatment - prognostic information from the primary tumor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piers, D.A.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Kamps, W.A.; Woldring, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    A bone scan can be negative in Ewing's sarcoma. The bone scan during and after treatment can give prognostic information on the primary tumor site: A persisting hot spot strongly suggests the presence of local malignancy, while a hot spot becomming negative points to local cure of Ewing's sarcoma. (orig.)

  15. Primary health care physicians' treatment of psychosocial problems: implications for social work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, R.; Rabinowitz, J.; Feldman, D.; Boerma, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which primary care physicians serve as gatekeepers for the treatment of psychosocial problems and the extent to which they have contact with social workers. We also attempted to identify physician variables related to gatekeeping and amount of contact with social

  16. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model

  17. Adjuvant treatment or primary topical monotherapy for ocular surface squamous neoplasia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arruda Viani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this systematic review, we evaluated studies involving adjuvant and primary topical treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN. The findings were: (i adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU reduces the risk of relapse after surgical excision with mild side effects [level Ib, grade of recommendation (GR A]. (ii Primary topical mitomycin (MMC produces a high rate of complete response, low recurrence rate, and mild side effects (level Ib, GR A. (iii Primary chemotherapy versus adjuvant chemotherapy produce similar rates of recurrence, with no significant difference (level IIb, GR B. (iv Adjuvant 5-FU versus MMC showed no significant differences, with mild side effects in both groups and a better toxicity profile for MMC (level III, GR C. (v Primary topical 5-FU versus MMC versus interferon (IFN showed similar rates of tumor recurrence, mild side effects for all drugs, and more severe side effects in the 5-FU arm, followed successively by MMC and IFN (level III, GR C.

  18. Stigma Predicts Treatment Preferences and Care Engagement among Veterans Affairs Primary Care Patients with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan G.; Bonner, Laura M.; Bolkan, Cory R.; Lanto, Andrew B.; Zivin, Kara; Waltz, Thomas J.; Klap, Ruth; Rubenstein, Lisa V.; Chaney, Edmund F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whereas stigma regarding mental health concerns exists, the evidence for stigma as a depression treatment barrier among patients in Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care (PC) is mixed. Purpose To test whether stigma, defined as depression label avoidance, predicted patients' preferences for depression treatment providers, patients' prospective engagement in depression care, and care quality. Methods We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analyses of existing data from 761 VA PC patients with probable major depression. Results Relative to low stigma patients, those with high stigma were less likely to prefer treatment from mental health specialists. In prospective controlled analyses, high stigma predicted lower likelihood of the following: taking medications for mood, treatment by mental health specialists, treatment for emotional concerns in PC, and appropriate depression care. Conclusions High stigma is associated with lower preferences for care from mental health specialists and confers risk for minimal depression treatment engagement. PMID:26935310

  19. A comparative study of cancer patients with short and long sick-leave after primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbergsson, Saevar Berg; Torp, Steffen; Fløtten, Tone; Fosså, Sophie D; Nielsen, Roy; Dahl, Alv A

    2011-04-01

    Sick-leave after primary cancer treatment has hardly been studied. This study compares Norwegian cancer patients (CPs) with shorter (≤8 months) and longer (≥9 months) sick-leave after primary cancer treatment. Our aim was to characterize factors associated with these two types of sick-leave in order to identify possible factors for interventions by which long-term sick-leaves may be avoided. A mailed questionnaire was completed by a sample of Norwegian CPs 15 to 39 months after primary treatment of the ten most common invasive types of cancer. The groups with shorter (n=359) and longer (n=481) sick-leaves (SSL vs LSL) were compared with each other by self-reported information as to socio-demographic and cancer-related variables, health, quality of life, work ability, work situation and supportive interventions. The LSL consisted of 78% females, and 76% of them had breast or gynaecological cancer. A higher proportion of patients with low level of education, economical problems, treated with chemotherapy, hormones and multimodal treatment belonged to LSL compared to SSL. Significantly more LSL had recurrences of cancer, co-morbidity, regular use of medication, and poorer self-rated health, quality of life and work ability. Compared to SSL, more LSL reported needs for and offers of supportive care such as physiotherapy, physical activities and psychosocial support. A multivariate regression analysis showed that reduced work ability, changes in employment due to cancer, lack of support from supervisors at work, and having had combined treatment were significantly associated with being LSL. Longer sick-leave after primary cancer treatment is associated with combined cancer treatment, lack of support from supervisors and reduced overall work ability. Interventions and counselling related to the work place and reduced work ability could be of value for prevention of long-term sick-leaves.

  20. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%, biochemical oxygen demand (BODT (93.98%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (95.59%, total suspended solid (TSS (95.98%, ammonia (80.68%, nitrite (79.71%, nitrate (71.16%, phosphorous (44.77%, total coliform (TC (99.9%, and fecal coliform (FC (99.9% was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  1. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  2. Petroleum contaminated soil in Oman: evaluation of bioremediation treatment and potential for reuse in hot asphalt mix concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Hassan, Hossam; Al-Oraimi, Salem

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study that aims at evaluating the leaching characteristics of petroleum contaminated soils as well as their application in hot mix asphalt concrete. Soil samples are environmentally characterized in terms of their total heavy metals and hydrocarbon compounds and leachability. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) present in the PCS before and after treatment was determined to be 6.8% and 5.3% by dry weight, indicating a reduction of 1% in the TPH of PCS due to the current treatment employed. Results of the total heavy metal analysis on soils indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals are lower when extraction of the soil samples is carried out using hexane in comparison to TCE. The results show that the clean soils present in the vicinity of contaminated sites contain heavy metals in the following decreasing order: nickel (Ni), followed by chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V). The current treatment practice employed for remediation of the contaminated soil reduces the concentrations of nickel and chromium, but increases the concentrations of all remaining heavy metals.

  3. Demonstration of the SOLTECR technology for the in situ physico-chemical treatment of a site contaminated by diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, P.; Tellier, J.G.; Michaud, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The remediation of a diesel oil spill at one of the Alcan plants was discussed. The hydrocarbon spill affected the groundwater in an area of more than 6,000 m 2 . Only an in-situ treatment for remediation was practical because the residual contaminated soil was located mainly under buildings and represented a volume of 3,000 m 3 . Alcan proposed the development and demonstration of the SOLTEC R in-situ physico-chemical treatment technology which consists of injecting chemicals into the soil. The chemicals are a mixture of calcium based solids with liquid and gaseous oxidizing agents. The degradation of the hydrocarbons is by oxidation and is completed in the soil in less than 24 hours after injection. Monitoring of the groundwater was conducted for one year after the completion of the soil treatment. It was concluded that the SOLTEC R process decreased and even eliminated the toxicity and geotoxicity of the diesel-contaminated soils. A volume of 3,000 m 3 of contaminated soil was treated within three months. The efficiency of hydrocarbon destruction was more than 95 per cent. 3 refs., 1 tab

  4. The use of CAM and conventional treatments among primary care consulters with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Martyn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the single most cited reason for use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Primary care is the most frequent conventional medical service used by patients with pain in the UK. We are unaware, however, of a direct evidence of the extent of CAM use by primary care patients, and how successful they perceive it to be. Methods Aims and objectives To determine CAM use among patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who have consulted about their pain in primary care. Study design Face-to-face interview-based survey. Setting Three general practices in North Staffordshire. Participants Respondents to a population pain survey who had reported having musculoskeletal pain in the survey and who had consulted about their pain in primary care in the previous 12 months as well as consenting to further research and agreeing to an interview. Information was gathered about their pain and the use of all treatments for pain, including CAM, in the previous year. Results 138 interviews were completed. 116 participants (84% had used at least one CAM treatment for pain in the previous year. 65% were current users of CAM. The ratio of over-the-counter CAM use to care from a CAM provider was 3:2. 111 participants (80% had used conventional treatment. 95 (69% were using a combination of CAM and conventional treatment. Glucosamine and fish oil were the most commonly used CAM treatments (38%, 35% respectively. Most CAM treatments were scored on average as being helpful, and users indicated that they intended to use again 87% of the CAM treatments they had already used. Conclusion We provide direct evidence that most primary care consulters with chronic musculoskeletal pain have used CAM in the previous year, usually in combination with conventional treatments. The high prevalence and wide range of users experiences of benefit and harm from CAM strengthen the argument for more research into this type of medicine

  5. The use of CAM and conventional treatments among primary care consulters with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artus, Majid; Croft, Peter; Lewis, Martyn

    2007-05-04

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the single most cited reason for use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Primary care is the most frequent conventional medical service used by patients with pain in the UK. We are unaware, however, of a direct evidence of the extent of CAM use by primary care patients, and how successful they perceive it to be. To determine CAM use among patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who have consulted about their pain in primary care. Face-to-face interview-based survey. Three general practices in North Staffordshire. Respondents to a population pain survey who had reported having musculoskeletal pain in the survey and who had consulted about their pain in primary care in the previous 12 months as well as consenting to further research and agreeing to an interview. Information was gathered about their pain and the use of all treatments for pain, including CAM, in the previous year. 138 interviews were completed. 116 participants (84%) had used at least one CAM treatment for pain in the previous year. 65% were current users of CAM. The ratio of over-the-counter CAM use to care from a CAM provider was 3:2. 111 participants (80%) had used conventional treatment. 95 (69%) were using a combination of CAM and conventional treatment. Glucosamine and fish oil were the most commonly used CAM treatments (38%, 35% respectively). Most CAM treatments were scored on average as being helpful, and users indicated that they intended to use again 87% of the CAM treatments they had already used. We provide direct evidence that most primary care consulters with chronic musculoskeletal pain have used CAM in the previous year, usually in combination with conventional treatments. The high prevalence and wide range of users experiences of benefit and harm from CAM strengthen the argument for more research into this type of medicine to quantify benefit and assess safety. The observation that most users of conventional medicine also used CAM

  6. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin as second-line treatment in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne Kirstine Hundahl; Pedersen, Karen Damgaard; Abildgaard, Julie Rafn

    2010-01-01

    tumours may be overrepresented. These patients could be candidates for GI tract-directed therapy. We here report the results obtained with oxaliplatin and capecitabine as second-line therapy in 25 recurrent/refractory CUP patients following first-line treatment with paclitaxel, cisplatin and gemcitabine.......Treatment of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) remains a challenge, and no effective second-line treatment has been identified. In CUP patients who are non-responsive or relapse early after first-line platinum/taxane-based regimens, it is likely that gastrointestinal (GI) tract...

  7. Response of Treatment in Patients with Primary Headaches and Hypertension: A Prospective Observational Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Cüneyt Hocagil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the priority in the treatment of patients with primary headaches accompanied by high blood pressure. In our study, we investigated whether there was a relationship between the decline in headache after treatment and the change in the average arterial pressure. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was performed with 101 patients who were admitted to the hospital emergency department with primary headache accompanied by high blood pressure. After treatment, the decrease in the severity of headaches, mean arterial pressure, and percentage value for the drop of mean arterial pressure were calculated for all patients. Results: In the study, 25 (24.8% patients’ headache decreased 3 levels, 43 (42.6% patients’ headache decreased 2 levels, and 23 (22.8% patients’ headache decreased one level. The mean arterial pressure value at admission was 118.58±12.65 mmHg, and after treatment at the 30th minute decreased to 98.41±13.43 mmHg. Although there was a statistically significant (p0.05 drop in the mean arterial pressure value of the patients with one level decrease in headache severity after treatment. Conclusion: This study showed that when a primary headache, which is often associated with high blood pressure, was treated instead of treating high blood pressure as a secondary cause of headache, blood pressure decreased spontaneously

  8. Review of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of common primary psychiatric causes of cutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krooks, J A; Weatherall, A G; Holland, P J

    2018-06-01

    Approximately half of all patients presenting to dermatologists exhibit signs and symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are either primary or secondary to cutaneous disease. Because patients typically resist psychiatric consult, dermatologists often are on the front line in evaluating and treating these patients. Accordingly, distinguishing the specific underlying or resulting psychiatric condition is essential for effective treatment. The etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and first-line treatment of specific primary psychiatric causes of dermatologic conditions, including delusional infestation, Morgellons syndrome, olfactory reference syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, excoriation disorder, trichotillomania, and dermatitis artefacta are discussed here, followed by a discussion of the recommended treatment approach with an overview of the different first-line therapies discussed in this review, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants. Included is a guide for dermatologists to use while prescribing these medications.

  9. [Laser therapy and famotidine in complex restorative treatment of primary chronic gastroduodenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, R M; Musaeva, O M

    2003-01-01

    Primary chronic gastroduodenitis (PCG) is one of the most frequent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Timely and efficient treatment of patients with PCG promotes ulcer prevention. In this connection, an urgent problem of restorative medicine is to develop medical programs with active introduction of pharmacophysiotherapeutic complexes, in particular, laser therapy and anti-secretory preparation (famotidine) that increase therapeutic efficacy of treatment of this disease. To this end, we give results of treatment of 50 patients with primary chronic gastroduodenitis (26 having undergone laser therapy only, and 24 having had a combination of laser therapy and famotidine), which demonstrated that the complex action method has a more adequate effect on pathogenetic components in this disease than monotherapy.

  10. Treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma. The role of external and endoluminal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.; Wannenmacher, M.; Becker, H.; Herth, F.; Gagel, B.

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In a retrospective study the role of radiation therapy for the treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma was investigated. Patients and Methods: Between 1984 and 1997, 25 patients with primary tracheal carcinoma were treated with external beam radiotherapy (17 squamous-cell carcinoma [SCC], 8 adenoid cystic carcinoma [ACC], median dose SCC 60 Gy, ACC 55 Gy). An additional brachytherapy boost was carried out in 10/25 patients (median dose SCC 18 Gy, ACC 15 Gy). Ten patients underwent operative treatment. Results: The median survival (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC was 33 months (ACC 94.2). The 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC were 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), and 26% (ACC 85.7%). Patients with ACC and patients with a complete remission after treatment had a significantly better survival probability (log rank test, p [de

  11. Investigations on potential bacteria for the bioremediation treatment of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, I.; Voicu, A.; Dobrota, S.; Stefanescu, M. [Institute of Biology of Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In Romania after more than 135 years of oil production and processing, some severe environmental pollution problems have accumulated. In this context a joint research group from Institute of Biology Bucharest and S.C. Petrostar S.A. Ploiesti became involved in a research project on bioremediation of an environment contaminated with hydrocarbon waste. In the first stage of this project, investigations on microbial communities occurring in environments contaminated with oil were carried out. In the second stage, the hundreds of bacterial strains and populations isolated from soils, slops, and water sites contaminated with waste oil and water waste oil mix were submitted to a screening program, to select a naturally occurring mixed culture with a high ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  12. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Ko, E-mail: miyoshi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato [Department of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2009-10-30

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  13. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Ko; Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li 2 CO 3 were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  14. Reduction of Listeria innocua contamination in vacuum-packaged dry-cured Italian pork products after high hydrostatic pressure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Merialdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to present the results of the application of a treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP on Italian fermented and dry-cured pork products. The products used in this study were portioned cured ham, portioned bacon and salami, vacuumpackaged and produced by a single processing company. Two studies were conducted on a single batch of the three products by means of an artificial contamination with Listeria innocua as a surrogate of L. monocytogenes. In the first trial a superficial contamination was obtained by immersion for 3 min in the culture broth with a concentration of approximately 9 log cfu/mL. At the end of the inoculum step, the pieces were dred at room temperature and vacuum packaged. In the second trial 50 kg of minced pork meat were contaminated before production of salami. In both cases the inoculum contained 5 strains of L. innocua. Subsequently, in both trials, 10 samples were randomly divided into two groups of 5 pieces each: i TH group, samples treated with HHP; ii group C, control samples, not subjected to any treatment. All samples were stored at refrigeration temperature at the end of HHP treatments (if applied, and analyzed for the determination of the surface (1st trial and deep (2nd trial quantitative contamination of L. innocua. pH and aW were also determined on 3 pieces of each products belonging to group C. The difference between the medians of the log cfu/cm2 or g established between controls and treated were compared using the non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test with P<0.01. In all products and in both trials the level of contamination detected in treatment groups was always significantly lower than in controls (P<0.01. In particular, in vacuum-packaged ham, bacon and salami viability logarithmic viability reductions equal to -2.29, -2.54 and -2.51 were observed, respectively. This study aimed to evaluate a not-thermal treatment on Italian cured or fermented pork products. The results of

  15. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R; Paek, Eunsu; Dai, Fei; Holsen, Thomas M; Bellona, Christopher L; Bohl, Douglas G; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant ( k obs ). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs , a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas–liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas–liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  16. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R.; Dai, Fei; Bellona, Christopher L.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Bohl, Douglas G.; Paek, Eunsu; Dickenson, Eric R. V.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant (k obs). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs, a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas-liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas-liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  17. An innovative acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Christine M.; Abercrombie, Priscilla D.; Gomolak, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent among adolescent women and a major cause of activity restriction. Standard pharmaceuticals used to treat dysmenorrhea are not effective for all women and have side effects that limit their use. Our study objective was to examine feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of acupuncture point injection of vitamin K1 as an alternative treatment for primary dysmenorrhea among US women. Methods/Design We conducted a pilot study using a crossover trial design. Women with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized to receive vitamin K1 injection in the Spleen-6 acupuncture point at the start of menstruation followed by saline in a non-acupuncture point after two months, or the reverse order of treatments. Setting/Participants The study was conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area among women 18 and 25 years of age diagnosed with primary dysmenorrhea; fourteen women completed all study visits. Primary Outcome Measure Dysmenorrhea pain intensity was measured using a 0–10 numeric rating scale before and after injections. Results Women had an average 2.5 point decrease in pain after vitamin K1 injection in Spleen-6 (p dysmenorrhea among young women in San Francisco. Pain decreased with both treatments, with a trend toward greater pain reduction for vitamin K1/Spleen-6 injection. This is consistent with outcomes from the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital in Shanghai, China, where the protocol was developed. PMID:24445356

  18. The Role of Melatonin in the Treatment of Primary Headache Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Amy A.; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide a summary of knowledge about the use of melatonin in the treatment of primary headache disorders. Background Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland; its production is regulated by the hypothalamus and increases during periods of darkness. Methods We undertook a narrative review of the literature on the role of melatonin in the treatment of primary headache disorders. Results There are randomized placebo-controlled trials examining melatonin for preventive treatment of migraine and cluster headache. For cluster headache, melatonin 10 mg was superior to placebo. For migraine, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of melatonin 3 mg (immediate release) was positive, though an underpowered trial of melatonin 2 mg (sustained release) was negative. Uncontrolled studies, case series, and case reports cover melatonin’s role in treating tension-type headache, hypnic headache, hemicrania continua, SUNCT/SUNA and primary stabbing headache. Conclusions Melatonin may be effective in treating several primary headache disorders, particularly cluster headache and migraine. Future research should focus on elucidating the underlying mechanisms of benefit of melatonin in different headache disorders, as well as clarifying optimal dosing and formulation. PMID:27316772

  19. Perceptions of substance use, treatment options and training needs among Iranian primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolan Kate A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to be optimally effective, continuing training programmes for health-care professionals need to be tailored so that they target specific knowledge deficits, both in terms of topic content and appropriate intervention strategies. A first step in designing tailored treatment programmes is to identify the characteristics of the relevant health-care professional group, their current levels of content and treatment knowledge, the estimated prevalence of drug and alcohol problems among their patients and their preferred options for receiving continuing education and training. This study reports the results of a survey of 53 primary care physicians working in Iran. The majority were male, had a mean age of 44 years and saw approximately 94 patients per week. In terms of their patients' drug use, primary care physicians thought most patients with a substance use problem were male, women were most likely to use tobacco (52%, opium (32% and marijuana/hashish and young people were most likely to use tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and heroin. Counselling and nicotine patches were the treatments most commonly provided. Although the majority (55% reported referring patients to other services, more than a third did not. Most primary care physicians reported being interested in attending further training on substance abuse issues. The implications of these data for ongoing education and training of primary care physicians in Iran are discussed.

  20. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  1. Experimental evaluation of washing for treatment of combustible plutonium-contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.; Wisbey, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out in order to assess the potential of washing as a method for removing plutonium from contaminated combustible wastes. A wide range of aqueous (eg 1 M HNO 3 , 1 M NaOH) and organic (1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane) reagents have been investigated. Both synthetically contaminated and real wastes have been investigated. The preferred wash reagent has been identified as 1 M sodium hydroxide solution; plutonium recoveries of ca.80 to 90% can be achieved. (author)

  2. Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Peter; Bernath, Balazs

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m 3 vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m 2 and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The

  3. [SEMERGEN positioning for the treatment of alcohol disorders in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesú, José Ángel; Gual, Antoni; Casquero, Rafael; Bobes, Julio; Ortega, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The present manuscript is based on the recommendations of a panel of health care professionals, including several experts in primary health care, psychiatry and addictions. The participants are recognized specialists in the treatment of alcohol use disorder. The panel met in Barcelona on 2015 April 22 with the aims of evaluating the current management of alcohol use disorder in primary health care and developing a strategy to address this problem, basing on the evidence and the recommendations of the scientific societies and national and international organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  4. Use of cement-fly ash-based stabilization techniques for the treatment of waste containing aromatic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszkiewicz, Kamil; Marcinkowski, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    Research on evaluation of evaporation rate of volatile organic compounds from soil beds during processing is presented. For the experiment, soil samples were prepared with the same amounts of benzene and stabilized using a mixture of CEMI 42.5R cement and fly ash from pit-coal combustion. Solidification of soils contaminated with BTEX hydrocarbons using hydraulic binders involves a risk of releasing vapours of these compounds during homogenization of waste with stabilizing mixture introduced and its dilution with water. The primary purposes of the research were: analysis of benzene volume emitted from soil during stabilization/solidification process and characterization of factors that may negatively affect the quality of measurements/the course of stabilization process. Analysis of benzene emission intensity during the process was based on concentration (C6H6) values, recorded with flame-ionization detector above the surface of reacting mixture. At the same time, gaseous contaminants emitted during waste stabilization were passed through pipes filled with activated carbon (SCK, Anasorb CSC). Benzene vapours adsorbed on activated carbon were subjected to analysis using gas chromatograph Varian 450-GC. Evaporation characteristics of benzene during processing contaminated soils revealed the stages creating the highest danger to workers' health, as well as a need for actions connected with modification of technological line.

  5. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi, E-mail: sergigarcia@ub.edu [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Level 4, Gehrmann Bld. (60), St Lucia, QLD 072 (Australia); Laboratori d’Electroquímica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Química Física, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Keller, Jürg [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Level 4, Gehrmann Bld. (60), St Lucia, QLD 072 (Australia); Brillas, Enric [Laboratori d’Electroquímica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Química Física, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Radjenovic, Jelena, E-mail: j.radjenovic@awmc.uq.edu.au [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Level 4, Gehrmann Bld. (60), St Lucia, QLD 072 (Australia)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineralization of secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with BDD anode. • Complete removal of 29 pharmaceuticals and pesticides at trace level concentrations. • Organochlorine and organobromine byproducts were formed at low μM concentrations. • Chlorine species evolution assessed to evaluate the anodic oxidation applicability. - Abstract: Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl{sup −} ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl{sub 2}/HClO/ClO{sup −}), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO{sup −} species led to the production of ClO{sub 3}{sup −} and ClO{sub 4}{sup −} ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment.

  6. Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plants from different geographical regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2018-04-15

    Emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and artificial sweeteners, are recognized as new classes of water contaminants due to their proven or potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. This review provides comprehensive data on the occurrence of 60 emerging contaminants (ECs) in influent, treated effluent, sludge, and biosolids in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In particular, data on the occurrence of ECs in the influents and effluents of WWTPs are systematically summarized and categorized according to geographical regions (Asia, Europe, and North America). The occurrence patterns of ECs in raw influent and treated effluents of WWTPs between geographical regions were compared and evaluated. Concentrations of most ECs in raw influent in Asian region tend to be higher than those in European and North American countries. Many antibiotics were detected in the influents and effluents of WWTPs at concentrations close to or exceeding the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection. The efficacy of EC removal by sorption and biodegradation during wastewater treatment processes are discussed in light of kinetics and parameters, such as sorption coefficients (K d ) and biodegradation constants (k biol ), and physicochemical properties (i.e. log K ow and pK a ). Commonly used sampling and monitoring strategies are critically reviewed. Analytical research needs are identified, and novel investigative approaches for future monitoring studies are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ADHD DURING ADOLESCENCE IN THE PRIMARY CARE SETTING: REVIEW AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Hilty, Donald M.; Hah, Mina; Han, Jaesu; Angkustsiri, Kathy; Schweitzer, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with a worldwide prevalence of about 5% in school age children. Objective The goal of this review is to assist primary care providers (PCPs) in diagnosing and treating ADHD in adolescents. Methods PubMed, PsychInfo and Science Citation Index databases were searched from March 1990–2015 with the key words: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, primary care/pediatrics and children/adolescents, abstracts addressing diagnosis and/or treatment with 105 citations identified including supplementary treatment guidelines/books. Results Adolescent ADHD presents with significant disturbances in attention, academic performance and family relationships with unique issues associated with this developmental period. Diagnostic challenges include the variable symptom presentation during adolescence, complex differential diagnosis and limited training and time for PCPs to conduct thorough evaluations. The evidence-base for treatments in adolescence in comparison to those in children or adults with ADHD is relatively weak. Providers should be cognizant of prevention, early identification and treatment of conditions associated with ADHD that emerge during adolescence as substance use disorders. Conclusions Adolescent ADHD management for the PCP is complex, requires further research, and perhaps new primary care-psychiatric models, to assist in determining the optimal care for patients at this critical period. PMID:27209327

  8. Human norovirus in untreated sewage and effluents from primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos J A; Avant, Justin; Lowther, James; Till, Dale; Lees, David N

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater treatments are considered important means to control the environmental transmission of human norovirus (NoV). Information about NoV concentrations in untreated and treated effluents, their seasonality and typical removal rates achieved by different treatment processes is required to assess the effectiveness of sewage treatment processes in reducing human exposure to NoV. This paper reports on a characterisation of concentrations of NoV (genogroups I and II) in untreated sewage (screened influent) and treated effluents from five full scale wastewater treatment works (WwTW) in England. Results are shown for effluent samples characteristic of primary- (primary settlement, storm tank overflows), secondary- (activated sludge, trickling filters, humus tanks) and tertiary (UV disinfection) treatments. NoV occurrence in untreated sewage varied between years. This variation was consistent with the annual variation of the virus in the community as indicated by outbreak laboratory reports. Significant differences were found between mean NoV concentrations in effluents subject to different levels of treatment. Primary settlement achieved approximately 1 log10 removal for both genogroups. Concentrations of NoV and Escherichia coli in untreated sewage were of the same order of magnitude of those in storm tank overflows. Of the secondary treatments studied, activated sludge was the most effective in removing NoV with mean log10 removals of 3.11 and 2.34 for GI and GII, respectively. The results of this study provide evidence that monitoring of NoV in raw sewage or treated effluents could provide early warning of an elevated risk for NoV and potentially help prevent outbreaks through environmental exposure. They also provide evidence that elimination of stormwater discharges and improvement of the efficiency of activated sludge for NoV removal would be effective for reducing the risk of environmental transmission. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Previously unclassified bacteria dominate during thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic pre-treatment of primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Hasina M; Batstone, Damien J; Bond, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Thermophilic biological pre-treatment enables enhanced anaerobic digestion for treatment of wastewater sludges but, at present, there is limited understanding of the hydrolytic-acidogenic microbial composition and its contribution to this process. In this study, the process was assessed by comparing the microbiology of thermophilic (50-65 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) pre-treatment reactors treating primary sludge. A full-cycle approach for the 16S rRNA genes was applied in order to monitor the diversity of bacteria and their abundance in a thermophilic pre-treatment reactor treating primary sludge. For the thermophilic pre-treatment (TP), over 90% of the sequences were previously undetected and these had less than 97% sequence similarity to cultured organisms. During the first 83 days, members of the Betaproteobacteria dominated the community sequences and a newly designed probe was used to monitor a previously unknown bacterium affiliated with the genus Brachymonas. Between days 85 and 183, three phylotypes that affiliated with the genera Comamonas, Clostridium and Lysobacter were persistently dominant in the TP community, as revealed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Hydrolytic and fermentative functions have been speculated for these bacteria. Mesophilic pre-treatment (MP) and TP communities were different but they were both relatively dynamic. Statistical correlation analysis and the function of closely allied reference organisms indicated that previously unclassified bacteria dominated the TP community and may have been functionally involved in the enhanced hydrolytic performance of thermophilic anaerobic pre-treatment. This study is the first to reveal the diversity and dynamics of bacteria during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Some physiotherapy treatments may relieve menstrual pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Priya; Claydon, Leica Sarah

    2014-03-01

    In women with primary dysmenorrhoea, what is the effect of physiotherapeutic interventions compared to control (either no treatment or placebo/sham) on pain and quality of life? Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Women with primary dysmenorrhea. Any form of physiotherapy treatment. The primary outcome was menstrual pain intensity and the secondary outcome was quality of life. The search yielded 222 citations. Of these, 11 were eligible randomised trials and were included in the review. Meta-analysis revealed statistically significant reductions in pain severity on a 0-10 scale from acupuncture (weighted mean difference 2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9) and acupressure (weighted mean difference 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.9), when compared to a control group receiving no treatment. However, these are likely to be placebo effects because when the control groups in acupuncture/acupressure trials received a sham instead of no treatment, pain severity did not significantly differ between the groups. Significant reductions in pain intensity on a 0-10 scale were noted in individual trials of heat (by 1.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.7), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (2.3, 95% CI 0.03 to 4.2), and yoga (3.2, 95% CI 2.2 to 4.2). Meta-analysis of two trials of spinal manipulation showed no significant reduction in pain. None of the included studies measured quality of life. Physiotherapists could consider using heat, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and yoga in the management of primary dysmenorrhea. While benefits were also identified for acupuncture and acupressure in no-treatment controlled trials, the absence of significant effects in sham-controlled trials suggests these effects are mainly attributable to placebo effects. Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Resource consumption and management associated with monitoring of warfarin treatment in primary health care in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Gunnar H

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warfarin is used for the prevention and treatment of various thromboembolic complications. It is an efficacious anticoagulant, but it has a narrow therapeutic range, and regular monitoring is required to ensure therapeutic efficacy and at the same time avoid life-threatening adverse events. The objective was to assess management and resource consumption associated with patient monitoring episodes during warfarin treatment in primary health care in Sweden. Methods Delphi technique was used to systematically explore attitudes, demands and priorities, and to collect informed judgements related to monitoring of warfarin treatment. Two separate Delphi-panels were performed in three and two rounds, respectively, one concerning tests taken in primary health care centres, involving 34 GPs and 10 registered nurses, and one concerning tests taken in patients' homes, involving 49 district nurses. Results In the primary health care panel 10 of the 34 GPs regularly collaborated with a registered nurse. Average time for one monitoring episode was estimated to 10.1 minutes for a GP and 21.4 minutes for a nurse, when a nurse assisted a doctor. The average time for monitoring was 17.6 minutes for a GP when not assisted by a nurse. Considering all the monitoring episodes, 11.6% of patient blood samples were taken in the individual patient's home. Average time for such a monitoring episode was estimated to 88.2 minutes. Of all the visits, 8.2% were performed in vain and took on average 44.6 minutes. In both studies, approximately 20 different elements of work concerning management of patients during warfarin treatment were identified. Conclusion Monitoring of patients during treatment with warfarin in primary health care in Sweden involves many elements of work, and demands large resources, especially when tests are taken in the patient's home.

  12. Population uptake of antiretroviral treatment through primary care in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KwaZulu-Natal is the South African province worst affected by HIV and the focus of early modeling studies investigating strategies of antiretroviral treatment (ART delivery. The reality of antiretroviral roll-out through primary care has differed from that anticipated and real world data are needed to inform the planning of further scaling up of services. We investigated the factors associated with uptake of antiretroviral treatment through a primary healthcare system in rural South Africa. Methods Detailed demographic, HIV surveillance and geographic information system (GIS data were used to estimate the proportion of HIV positive adults accessing antiretroviral treatment within northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in the period from initiation of antiretroviral roll-out until the end of 2008. Demographic, spatial and socioeconomic factors influencing the likelihood of individuals accessing antiretroviral treatment were explored using multivariable analysis. Results Mean uptake of ART among HIV positive resident adults was 21.0% (95%CI 20.1-21.9. Uptake among HIV positive men (19.2% was slightly lower than women (21.8%, P = 0.011. An individual's likelihood of accessing ART was not associated with level of education, household assets or urban/rural locale. ART uptake was strongly negatively associated with distance from the nearest primary healthcare facility (aOR = 0.728 per square-root transformed km, 95%CI 0.658-0.963, P = 0.002. Conclusions Despite concerns about the equitable nature of antiretroviral treatment rollout, we find very few differences in ART uptake across a range of socio-demographic variables in a rural South African population. However, even when socio-demographic factors were taken into account, individuals living further away from primary healthcare clinics were still significantly less likely to be accessing ART

  13. INSITU extracorporeal shock- wave lithotripsy as a primary treatment for ureteral stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Hisham

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the sudy was to evaluate the results ofextracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) as a primary treatment for ureteral calculi at different levels. We treated 166 consecutive patients with solitary ureteral stones (73 at the upper, 4 at the middle and 89 at the lower ureter) by primary in situ ESWL on an outpatient basis. A maximum of three treatments were given individually before adopting ureteroscopy as an alternative treatment. The success rate was calculated on the basis of complete stone clearance and resolution of any associated obstruction. Re-treatment rates ,complications and time to complete stone clearence were recorded. Complete stone clearance was received in 152 patients (91.6%) after an average of 10.2 days ( range1-28). The average treatment rate was 1.3 sessions per patient. As whole groups, lower ureteral stones required more treatment sessions than those in the upper ureter , and the difference was statistically significant.However, differences in the final success rate and time to stone clearence were statistically nonsignificant. When stratified according to size, the success rate was lowest for lower ureteral stones >1 cm in diameter. We believe ESWL is a safe and simple non-invasive option of choice for most ureteral calculi at different levels. Ureteroscopy represents an alternative choice in case of ESWL failure, or in cases of larger stones in the lower ureter when it might be the first option. (author)

  14. High-temperature treatment for efficient drying of bread rye and reduction of fungal contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, E.F.; Elmholt, S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    time of 10(.)5 min and a temperature of 64 degrees C killed 99% of the yeast propagules and 98% of the filamentous fungi. Moisture contents were reduced to about 12%. A similar drying regime in a supplementary trial reduced the number of P. verrucosum contaminated kernels from more than 70% to 12...

  15. Remediation technologies for treatment of PAH contaminated soil and strategies to enhance process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.; Alcantara, M. T.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    The presence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils poses a potential threat to human health. The removal of these contaminants presents a challenge to scientists and engineers. PAHs are characterized by their palpable hydrophobic nature. Consequently, these species tend to be adsorbed on solid particulates, especially on the organic fraction of the solids. (Author)

  16. Remediation technologies for treatment of PAH contaminated soil and strategies to enhance process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Alcantara, M. T.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils poses a potential threat to human health. The removal of these contaminants presents a challenge to scientists and engineers. PAHs are characterized by their palpable hydrophobic nature. Consequently, these species tend to be adsorbed on solid particulates, especially on the organic fraction of the solids. (Author)

  17. SURFACE-ALTERED ZEOLITES AS PERMEABLE BARRIERS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, Robert S.; Li, Zhaohui; Roy, Stephen J.; Burt, Todd; Johnson, Timothy L.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this effort is to develop and test a zeolite-based permeable barrier system for containing and remediating contaminated groundwater. The projected product is an engineered and tested permeable barrier system that can be adopted by the commercial sector

  18. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  19. Removal of Pah from clay soil contaminated with diesel oil by bioremediation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changas-spinelli, A. C. O.; Kato, M. T.; Lima, E. S.; Gavazza, S.

    2009-01-01

    Diesel oil is one of the most common soil organic pollutants, as a consequence of spilling of storage tank spills and accidental leaks. In Pernambuco State, Northeast part of Brazil, there are several evidences of soil contamination by petroleum derivates due to gas station leaking. (Author)

  20. ONSITE ENGINEERING REPORT FOR SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TREATMENT TESTING OF CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) is currently developing land disposal restrictions (LDRs) for contaminated soil and debris (CS&D). The Office of Research and Development, through its Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), is providing support...

  1. SURFACE-ALTERED ZEOLITES AS PERMEABLE BARRIERS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Bowman; Zhaohui Li; Stephen J. Roy; Todd Burt; Timothy L. Johnson; Richard L. Johnson

    1999-08-30

    The overall objective of this effort is to develop and test a zeolite-based permeable barrier system for containing and remediating contaminated groundwater. The projected product is an engineered and tested permeable barrier system that can be adopted by the commercial sector.

  2. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of steam generator tube materials in AVT (all volatile treatment) chemistry contaminated with lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Castano, M.L.; Garcia, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Alloy 600 steam generator tubing has shown a high susceptibility to stress corrosion degradation at the operation conditions of pressurized water reactors. Several contaminants, such as lead, have been postulated as being responsible for producing the secondary side stress corrosion cracking that has occurred mainly at the location where these contaminants can concentrate. An extensive experimental work has been carried out in order to better understand the effects of lead on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of steam generator tube materials, namely Alloys 600, 690 and 800. This paper presents the experimental work conducted with a view to determining the influence of lead oxide concentration in AVT (all volatile treatment) conditions on the stress corrosion resistance of nickel alloys used in the fabrication of steam generator tubing. (orig.)

  3. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-05

    To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Chinese women aged 14-25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (-0.71, CI -1.37 to -0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Acupuncture point injection of vitamin K3 relieves menstrual pain rapidly and is a useful treatment in an urban outpatient clinic. NCT00104546; Results

  4. Quality assessment of diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of infectious diseases in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saust, Laura Trolle; Monrad, Rikke Nygaard; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup

    2016-01-01

    QIs, especially disease-specific QIs concerning the diagnostic process, is needed. KEY POINTS In order to improve the use of antibiotics in primary care, measurable instruments, such as quality indicators, are needed to assess the quality of care being provided. A total of 11 studies were found......OBJECTIVE: To identify existing quality indicators (QIs) for diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of patients with infectious diseases in primary care. DESIGN: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. We included studies with a description of the development of QIs...... for diagnosis and antibiotic use in patients with infectious diseases in primary care. We extracted information about (1) type of infection; (2) target for quality assessment; (3) methodology used for developing the QIs; and (4) whether the QIs were developed for a national or international application. The QIs...

  5. Persistence of pharmacological treatment into adulthood, in UK primary care, for ADHD patients who started treatment in childhood or adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Suzanne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD guidelines in the UK suggest that children and adults who respond to pharmacological treatment should continue for as long as remains clinically effective, subject to regular review. To what extent patients persist with treatment from childhood and adolescence into adulthood is not clear. This study aims to describe, in UK primary care, the persistence of pharmacological treatment for patients with ADHD who started treatment aged 6–17 years and to estimate the percentage of patients who continued treatment from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Methods The Health Improvement Network (THIN database was used to identify patients with ADHD who received their first prescription for methylphenidate/ dexamfetamine/atomoxetine, aged 6–17 years. Patients were monitored until their ‘censored date’ (the earliest of the following dates: date the last prescription coded in the database ended, end of the study period (31st December 2008, date at which they transferred out of their practice, date of death, the last date the practice contributed data to the database. Persistence of treatment into adulthood was estimated using Kaplan Meier analysis. Results 610 patients had follow-up data into adulthood. 213 patients (93.4% male started treatment between 6–12 years; median treatment duration 5.9 years. 131 (61.5% stopped before 18 years, 82 (38.5% were still on treatment age ≥18 years. 397 patients (86.4% male started treatment between 13–17 years; median treatment duration was 1.6 years. 227 (57.2% stopped before 18 years, 170 (42.8% were still on treatment age ≥18 years. The number of females in both age categories was too small to formally test for differences between genders in persistence of treatment. Conclusion Persistence of treatment into adulthood is lower (~40% compared with published rates of persistence of the condition (~65% when symptomatic definition of remission used. Due to the limited number of

  6. Effective treatment options for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: A systematic overview of current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan C.; Foster, Nadine E.; Protheroe, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims Musculoskeletal pain, the most common cause of disability globally, is most frequently managed in primary care. People with musculoskeletal pain in different body regions share similar characteristics, prognosis, and may respond to similar treatments. This overview aims to summarise current best evidence on currently available treatment options for the five most common musculoskeletal pain presentations (back, neck, shoulder, knee and multi-site pain) in primary care. Methods A systematic search was conducted. Initial searches identified clinical guidelines, clinical pathways and systematic reviews. Additional searches found recently published trials and those addressing gaps in the evidence base. Data on study populations, interventions, and outcomes of intervention on pain and function were extracted. Quality of systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR, and strength of evidence rated using a modified GRADE approach. Results Moderate to strong evidence suggests that exercise therapy and psychosocial interventions are effective for relieving pain and improving function for musculoskeletal pain. NSAIDs and opioids reduce pain in the short-term, but the effect size is modest and the potential for adverse effects need careful consideration. Corticosteroid injections were found to be beneficial for short-term pain relief among patients with knee and shoulder pain. However, current evidence remains equivocal on optimal dose, intensity and frequency, or mode of application for most treatment options. Conclusion This review presents a comprehensive summary and critical assessment of current evidence for the treatment of pain presentations in primary care. The evidence synthesis of interventions for common musculoskeletal pain presentations shows moderate-strong evidence for exercise therapy and psychosocial interventions, with short-term benefits only from pharmacological treatments. Future research into optimal dose and application of the most

  7. The Use of Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation for Primary Treatment of Cartilage Lesions in the Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Dustin T; Sadr, Kamran N; Pulido, Pamela A; Bugbee, William D

    2015-10-01

    To assess the outcome of osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation as the primary treatment for cartilage injury in patients with no previous surgical treatment. Case series. Patients were identified in our outcomes database. Patients undergoing primary OCA transplantation with no prior surgical treatment and a minimum of 2 years follow-up were selected. Pain and function were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was assessed. Reoperations following OCA transplantation were captured. Failure was defined as revision OCA or conversion to arthroplasty. Fifty-five patients (61 knees) were included in the analysis. The study consisted of 30 males and 25 females (mean age = 32.9 years; range = 15.7-67.8 years). The most common diagnoses for the OCA transplantation were osteochondritis dissecans (44.3%) and avascular necrosis (31.1%). Pain and function improved preoperatively to postoperatively on all outcome scales (P OCA survivorship was 89.5% at 5 years and 74.7% at 10 years. At latest follow-up (mean = 7.6 years; range = 1.9-22.6 years), OCA remained in situ in 50 knees (82%). Eighteen knees (29.5%) had further surgery; 11 OCA failures and 7 other surgical procedure(s). Of the failed knees (mean time to failure = 3.5 years; range = 0.5-13.7 years), 8 were converted to arthroplasty, 2 had OCA revisions, and 1 had a patellectomy. OCA transplantation is an acceptable primary treatment method for some chondral and osteochondral defects of the knee. Failure of previous treatment(s) is not a prerequisite for OCA transplantation.

  8. Recent advances in treatment of severe primary immunodeficiencies [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gennery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are rare, inborn errors that result in impaired, disordered or uncontrolled immune responses. Whilst symptomatic and prophylactic treatment is available, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an option for many diseases, leading to cure of the immunodeficiency and establishing normal physical and psychological health. Newborn screening for some diseases, whilst improving outcomes, is focusing research on safer and less toxic treatment strategies, which result in durable and sustainable immune function without adverse effects. New conditioning regimens have reduced the risk of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and new methods of manipulating stem cell sources should guarantee a donor for almost all patients. Whilst incremental enhancements in transplantation technique have gradually improved survival outcomes over time, some of these new applications are likely to radically alter our approach to treating primary immunodeficiencies.

  9. Pretreatment costs of care and time to initial treatment for patients with cancer of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark S; Weinstein, Laura; Luo, Roger; Marino, Ingrid

    2018-06-01

    Time to treatment and pretreatment costs may be affected by unknown primary tumor site. This retrospective study used electronic medical record data from patients in ten US community oncology practices. Eligible patients were ≥18 years, diagnosed with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or known metastatic solid tumor, and presented between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2014. Patients with CUP (n = 294) had a longer interval than non-CUP patients (n = 92) from presentation to treatment initiation (1.18 vs 0.49 months, p < 0.0001), and had higher pretreatment costs (US$27,882 vs US$20,449, p = 0.0075). When analyzed as monthly cost, the difference between groups in log-cost per month was nonsignificant. Higher pretreatment costs in CUP patients appeared attributable to significantly longer time to initiation of therapy.

  10. Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome Associated With Treatment-Resistant Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence T. C. Ong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness that autoimmune diseases can present with neuropsychiatric manifestations. We present the case of a 17-year-old female requiring psychiatric hospitalization for obsessive–compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder with mixed affective features, who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Treatment with potent immunosuppression resulted in remission of psychiatric illness. Due to a lack of awareness and/or the lack of specific biomarkers, clinicians may not associate psychiatric symptoms with autoimmune disease, including primary Sjogren’s syndrome. This case demonstrates that Sjogren’s syndrome may be a causative or aggravating factor in mental disorders and that autoimmune diseases should be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric illness especially in cases of concurrent physical symptomatology and severity or treatment resistance of psychiatric disease.

  11. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation

  12. Off-Gas Treatment: Evaluation of Nano-structured Sorbents for Selective Removal of Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utgikar, Vivek; Aston, D. Eric; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2018-03-30

    Reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) is expected to play an important role for sustainable development of nuclear energy by increasing the energy extracted from the fuel and reducing the generation of the high level waste (HLW). However, aqueous reprocessing of UNF is accompanied by emission of off-gas streams containing radioactive nuclides including iodine, krypton, xenon, carbon, and tritium. Volatile iodine (129I), and krypton (85Kr) are long lived isotopes which have adverse effects on the environment as well as human health. Development of methods for the capture and long-term storage of radioactive gases is of crucial importance in order to manage their emissions that are anticipated to increase significantly with the growth of nuclear energy. For more than 70 years, porous solid sorbents have been in the forefront of radioactive contaminant removal due to promising results and their advantages such as high removal efficiency, low maintenance cost, simple equipment design and operation over other techniques. The research conducted in this project has focused on development of a novel nanostructured sorbent and its application for the capture of the above two contaminants of interest. Nanostructured carbon polyhedrons supported on Engelhard Titanosilicate-10 sorbent was synthesized using hydrothermal methods and subjected to structural and compositional characterization using various techniques including electron microscopy, Raman, x-ray diffraction and BET surface area analysis. Dynamic sorption experiments conducted using a flow-through column setup yielded information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of sorption in single-contaminant and multi-contaminant streams. Parameters varied in the study included carbon loading, temperature, contact time, contaminant concentration and humidity. The behavior of the system was modeled using models available in literature as well as development of a mass-transfer model from fundamental principles. Experimental

  13. Primary care in the prevention, treatment and control of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ojji, Dike B; Ojji, Dike B Ojji; Lamont, Kim; Sliwa, Karen; Ojji, Olubunmi I; Egenti, Bibiana Nonye; Sliwa, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the frontrunner in the disease spectrum of sub-Saharan Africa, with stroke and ischaemic heart disease ranked seventh and 14th as leading causes of death, respectively, on this sub-continent. Unfortunately, this region is also grappling with many communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional disorders. Limited resources and the high cost of CVD treatment necessitate that primary prevention should have a high priority for CVD control in sub- Saharan A...

  14. Viral indicators for fecal contamination - a one-year viral metagenomic study of treatment efficiency in danish waste water treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmér, Maria; Stranddorf, Kasper; Seidel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    from two urban waste water treatment plants in Copenhagen. All samples are investigated for their viral content and the presence of pathogens by metagenomic sequencing and analyzed specifically for HAdV, JCPyV, norovirus GI and GII (NoV GI and GII) using quantitative (q)PCR. Preliminary qPCR results......, the number of identified pathogenic viral species decreases with treatment of the waste water. Further bioinformatic analyses will investigate the seasonal variations of viral composition within a sample as well as the effect of the treatment system. Updated qPCR and metagenomics data will be presented....... are therefore using metagenomics sequencing with the aim to map the viriome in different water sources. In addition we investigate the possibility to use Human Adenovirus (HAdV) or JC Polyomavirus (JCPyV) as indicator for human fecal contamination. Water has been sampled monthly throughout the treatment process...

  15. Extraction Tools for Identification of Chemical Contaminants in Estuarine and Coastal Waters to Determine Toxic Pressure on Primary Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, P; Sjollema, S.B.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Voogt, P.; Stroomberg, G.J.; Vethaak, A.D.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which chemical stressors affect primary producers in estuarine and coastal waters is largely unknown. However, given the large number of legacy pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern present in the environment, this is an important and relevant issue that requires further study.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: how do Yuanhu painkillers effectively treat dysmenorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetao; Cao, Yu; Xie, Yanhua; Zhang, Xiaokai; Yang, Qian; Li, Xiaoqian; Sun, Jiyuan; Qiu, Pengcheng; Cao, Wei; Wang, Siwang

    2013-09-15

    To examine the efficacy of YuanHu painkillers (YHP) as a treatment for primary dysmenorrhea and to reveal YHP's principle formula. A Wistar rat uterine contraction model was utilized in this study. Rats were given 0.698g/kg YHP, 0.07g/kg tetrahydropalmatine (THP; YHP's main component), 0.02g/kg imperatorin (IMP), or THP+IMP (0.07+0.02g/kg) as polypharmacy (PG) by gavage. H&E staining and histopathological examination of the uteri tissue samples were performed. We then detected superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), i-κB, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) indices. PG significantly inhibited the uterine contraction of the primary dysmenorrhea rat model (peffects on primary dysmenorrhea in rats and remarkably alleviated the severity of experimental primary dysmenorrhea. The combined strategy proved to be more effective than either THP or IMP alone and may have synergistic effects in combination in primary dysmenorrhea. Mechanisms that might account for the beneficial effects include abating oxidative stress, inhibiting over-inflammatory reaction, and alleviating the contraction of isolated rat uteri by inhibiting the influx of extracellular Ca(2+). Broad potential for future clinical practice is foreseeable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary dentition status and treatment needs of children with cleft lip and/or palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankola Anil

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the primary dentition status and treatment needs in children with cleft lip, cleft palate and or both. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done through oral examination on a sample of 83, 2-5 years old cleft lip/palate children (46 boys and 37 girls. A self-designed questionnaire to obtain pertinent data related to level of education of parents and infant-feeding practices was used for recording the data while examining the children. Majority of cleft affected children had dental caries experience and required different types of treatment. The result of this study shows that: (1 all age groups of cleft affected children had dental caries experience, (2 children with primary type of cleft had less dental caries prevalence than children with cleft of secondary or combination type ( P < 0.05, (3 treatment needs due to caries were more in combination type of cleft compared to primary and secondary.

  18. Larynx preservation with primary non-surgical treatment for loco-regionally advanced larynx cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, June; Peters, Lester; D'Costa, Leta; Chua, Margaret; Peters, Lester J.; Vallance, Neil; Lyons, Bernard; Kleid, Stephen; Sizeland, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper was to review the results of primary non-surgical treatment with the aim of larynx preservation for loco-regionally advanced larynx cancer (LALC). Methods: All patients with LALC presenti:lg between January 2002 and Decem ber 2006 who were selected for primary non-surgical treatment were included in this study. Results: There were 60 patients, 48% with stage III and 52% with stage IV disease. The median follow-up of living patients was 41 months. Larynx preservation with local disease control was achieved in 83% and 77% of patients at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Failure-free survival at 3 and 5 years was 66% and 59%, respectively, and overall survival was 67% and 45%, respectively. All patients with larynx preservation had a functional voice. Two patients became feeding tube dependant. Thirty-nine percent of all deaths were unrelated to LALC. Conclusions: Primary non-surgical treatment achieves high rates of larynx preservation with a low rate of severe complications but overall survival remains disappointing.

  19. The role of arginine vasopressin in electroacupuncture treatment of primary sciatica in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Shun; Yang, Jun; Sun, Fang-Jie; Wang, Da-Xin; Wang, Chang-Hong; He, Wei-Ya

    2015-08-01

    It has been implicated that electroacupuncture can relieve the symptoms of sciatica with the increase of pain threshold in human, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the brain rather than the spinal cord and blood circulation participates in antinociception. Our previous study has proven that AVP in the brain played a role in the process of electroacupuncture analgesia in rat. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of AVP in electroacupuncture in treating primary sciatica in human. The results showed that (1) AVP concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (7.5 ± 2.5 pg/ml), not plasma (13.2 ± 4.2 pg/ml) in primary sciatica patients was lower than that in health volunteers (16.1 ± 3.8 pg/ml and 12.3 ± 3.4 pg/ml), although the osmotic pressure in CSF and plasma did not change; (2) electroacupuncture of the bilateral "Zusanli" points (St. 36) for 60 min relieved the pain sensation in primary sciatica patients; (3) electroacupuncture increased the AVP level of CSF, not plasma in primary sciatica patients; and (4) there was the positive correlation between the effect of electroacupuncture relieving the pain and the AVP level of CSF in the primary sciatica patients. The data suggested that central AVP, not peripheral AVP might improve the effect of electroacupuncture treatment of primary sciatica in human, i.e., central AVP might take part in the electroacupuncture relieving the pain sensation in primary sciatica patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comes, Helena I.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are an important environmental problem due to the persistence of these synthetic aromatic compounds and to the lack of a cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology. Recently, a new experimental setup has been proposed...... using electrodialytic remediation and iron nanoparticles. The current work compares the performance of this new setup (A) with conventional electrokinetics (setup B). An historically contaminated soil with an initial PCB concentration of 258 mu g kg-1 was treated during 5, 10, 20 and 45 d using...... different amounts of iron nanoparticles in both setups A and B. A PCB removal of 83% was obtained in setup A compared with 58% of setup B. Setup A also showed additional advantages, such as a higher PCB dechlorination, in a shorter time, with lower nZVI consumption, and with the use of half of the voltage...

  1. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...... by 95% in the upper samplers. Dosage and mixing of Fe-WTR in the soil proved to be difficult in the deeper part of the field, and pore water concentrations of arsenic was generally higher. Despite water logged conditions no increase in dissolved iron or arsenic was observed in the amended soil. Our...... field scale amendment of contaminated soil was overall successful in decreasing leaching of As, Cr and Cu.With minor improvements in the mixing and delivery strategy, this stabilization method is suggested for use in cases, where leaching of Cu, Cr and As constitutes a risk for groundwater...

  2. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Contaminated Sediment Management Guide for NSRP Shipyards. Appendix 5: Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-22

    Prc-trratmcnt technique for separatiojn sand/silt fraction and oxydation of organic pollutants be means of intensive aeration. r\\ SEDTEC Report...polyvinyl alcohol @‘VA) because it is a suitable carrier for the solid oxygen and it will gradually dissolve in water acting as a slow-release agent...polyvinyl alcohol (WA) encapsulated cells. Creosote contaminated sediment was seeded with PVA encapsulated sphingomonas paucimobilis strain EPA 505 and

  3. Treatment of organic aromatic contaminants in soil with fungi and biochar

    OpenAIRE

    Anasonye, Festus

    2017-01-01

    Soils that are contaminated with organic aromatic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) have previously been treated by combustion at elevated temperatures. Although, combustion is effective, it is expensive due to high energy and equipment requirements. However, innovative technologies such as the use of fungi and/or biochar can offer an alternative option that is friendly to the envir...

  4. Treatment of plutonium-contaminated solid waste: a review of handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, B.E.; Hardy, A.R.

    1985-02-01

    Handling techniques are reviewed to identify those suitable for adaptation for use in transporting large items of redundant plutonium contaminated plant and equipment to a remotely operated size reduction facility, moving them into the facility, presenting them to size reduction equipment and loading the processed waste into drums. It is concluded that an integrated system based on a combination of slatted conveyors, roller tables, air transporters and manipulators, merits further consideration. An appropriate experimental programme is outlined. (author)

  5. Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N.; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sa...

  6. In situ technologies for the remediation of contaminated sites. Part 8: Biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, M. (URS Consultants, Inc., Long Beach, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    The paper discusses the in-situ technique of biodegradation for removal of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, from contaminated soils. Biodegradation involves growing microorganisms in the soil which consume the waste, breaking it down into less harmful end products. Enhancing the biological activity may require pH adjustment or the addition of supplementary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, trace metals and organic carbon. This is potentially an effective, low cost, and safe method for soil and groundwater decontamination, but has yet to be demonstrated for large sites. Detox Industries of Houston, Texas, has selected and bred a bank of 200 naturally occurring, nonpathogenic soil microorganisms for degrading such substances as polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and creosote. At one site, 1200 cubic yards of soil experienced a 90 percent reduction in contamination (with methylene chloride, n-butyl alcohol, dimethylaniline, and acetone) over 3 years. Costs are site- specific, but is usually 30 to 60 percent less than carbon adsorption or air stripping methods. Advantages are ease, safety, and cost. Limitations include difficulty to monitor and control, lack of experience and test data, and inapplicability of the technique where contaminants are refractory or are present at toxic levels. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  7. The reality of radioactive contamination in construction of Taiwan and the treatment concerned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chin-Wang

    2005-01-01

    It has been more than 50 years since Taiwan started the research on the peace application of radioactivity. During the first 20-30 years, it was found that the radioactive contaminated waste steel from atomic power plants was recycled together with general waste steel and was used to make other products including reinforcing bars. It was because the radiation resources ware not carefully controlled and managed. Since 1982, the radioactive contaminated reinforcing bars and buildings were gradually found, as the radiation dose rates were 5 μSv/h and 0.5 μSv/h, respectively. The radioactive nuclide was all Co-60. By August 2003, 1,626 households, 7,824 people's houses were founded to be radioactive contaminated. Furthermore, radiation dose rates higher than 5 μSv/h were measured from 264 of those householders. The government has started to ameliorate this situation and 94.7% of the cases have become normal. The cancer death rate of these people is found to be 0.49% (89 patients in 7,824 people, 39 was dead), and it is 4 times higher than that for general people. In order to solute this pollution problem, the government has made the law to check the radioactivity of all reinforcing bars and to control and manage those radiation resources more carefully. Additionally, there are tax exemption, subsidy, and expropriation with compensation for the polluted buildings. (author)

  8. Use of dilute ammonia gas for treatment of 1,2,3-trichloropropane and explosives-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Charles G; Waisner, Scott A; Medina, Victor F; Griggs, Chris S

    2017-12-15

    Laboratory studies were performed to test a novel reactive gas process for in-situ treatment of soils containing halogenated propanes or explosives. A soil column study, using a 5% ammonia-in-air mixture, established that the treatment process can increase soil pH from 7.5 to 10.2. Batch reactor experiments were performed to demonstrate contaminant destruction in sealed jars exposed to ammonia. Comparison of results from batch reactors that were, and were not, exposed to ammonia demonstrated reductions in concentrations of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), 1,3-dichloropropane (1,3-DCP), 1,2-dicholoropropane (1,2-DCP) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) that ranged from 34 to 94%. Decreases in TCP concentrations at 23° C ranged from 37 to 65%, versus 89-94% at 62° C. A spiked soil column study was also performed using the same set of contaminants. The study showed a pH penetration distance of 30 cm in a 2.5 cm diameter soil column (with a pH increase from 8 to > 10), due to treatment via 5% ammonia gas at 1 standard cubic centimeter per minute (sccm) for 7 days. Batch reactor tests using explosives contaminated soils exhibited a 97% decrease in 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), an 83% decrease in nitrobenzene, and a 6% decrease in hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). A biotransformation study was also performed to investigate whether growth of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms could be stimulated via prolonged exposure of soil to ammonia. Over the course of the 283 day study, only a very small amount of nitrite generation was observed; indicating very limited ammonia monooxygenase activity. Overall, the data indicate that ammonia gas addition can be a viable approach for treating halogenated propanes and some types of explosives in soils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE's needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities

  10. Treatment of heterogeneous mixed wastes: Enzyme degradation of cellulosic materials contaminated with hazardous organics and toxic and radioactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderberg, L.A.; Foreman, T.M.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Brainard, J.R.; Sauer, N.

    1999-01-01

    The redirection and downsizing of the US Department of Energy's nuclear weapons complex requires that many facilities be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D). At Los Alamos National Laboratory, much of the low-level radioactive, mixed, and hazardous/chemical waste volume handled by waste management operations was produced by D and D and environmental restoration activities. A combination of technologies--air stripping and biodegradation of volatile organics, enzymatic digestion of cellulosics, and metal ion extraction--was effective in treating a radiologically contaminated heterogeneous paint-stripping waste. Treatment of VOCs using a modified bioreactor avoided radioactive contamination of byproduct biomass and inhibition of biodegradation by toxic metal ions in the waste. Cellulase digestion of bulk cellulose minimized the final solid waste volume by 80%. Moreover, the residue passed TCLP for RCRA metals. Hazardous metals and radioactivity in byproduct sugar solutions were removed using polymer filtration, which employs a combination of water-soluble chelating polymers and ultrafiltration to separate and concentrate metal contaminants. Polymer filtration was used to concentrate RCRA metals and radioactivity into <5% of the original wastewater volume. Permeate solutions had no detectable radioactivity and were below RCRA-allowable discharge limits for Pb and Cr

  11. Assessment of the feasibility of anaerobic composting for treatment of perchlorate - contaminated soils in a war zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objectives of this study were to determine the perchlorate concentrations in surface soils and assess feasibility of anaerobic bioremediation in full-scale for perchlorate-contaminated soils in a war zone. Materials and Methods: Fifteen samples of surface soil were collected using a composite sampling method in the study area. The soil samples, after extraction and preparation, were analyzed by ion chromatography. Anaerobic composting technique (soil excavation, mixing with manure, transfer into treatment cell and cover with a 6-mil high-density polyethylene liner considered to cleanup perchlorate-contaminated soil in a war zone. Results: The concentration of perchlorate in the soil surface samples ranged from 3 to 107.9 mg/kg, which is more than State advisory levels for residential and protection of domestic groundwater use pathway. This study indicates that technologies, skills, experience, raw materials (manure, lands, and machinery needed for implementation of full-scale composting, are available in the study area. Conclusions: Based on the results, anaerobic composting technique could be considered as a feasible, viable and cost-effective alternative for perchlorate bioremediation in the study area. According to the available of techniques and skills, successful experiences of anaerobic composting in other countries, and potential of study area, The application of anaerobic composting is technically feasible and can be use for perchlorate contaminated soil cleanup in a zone war.

  12. Treatment for Apraxia of Speech in Nonfluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Henry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature examining the utility of behavioral treatment in primary progressive aphasia (PPA. There are, however, no studies exploring treatment approaches to improve speech production in individuals with apraxia of speech (AOS associated with the nonfluent variant of PPA. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel approach to treatment of AOS in nonfluent PPA. We implemented a treatment method using structured oral reading as a tool for improving production of multisyllabic words in an individual with mild AOS and nonfluent variant PPA. Our participant showed a reduction in speech errors during reading of novel text that was maintained at one year post-treatment. Generalization of improved speech production was observed on repetition of words and sentences and the participant showed stability of speech production over time in connected speech. Results suggest that oral reading treatment may offer an efficient and effective means of addressing multisyllabic word production in AOS associated with nonfluent PPA, with lasting and generalized treatment effects.

  13. Radio-contaminated casualties treatment: an unusual application of technical shelters used on the Ile Longue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroche, P.; Rousset, J.; Abiliou, R.; Roe, H.; Berthelot, B.; Lemaire, L.

    2002-01-01

    While the radio-contaminated casualties treatment center (CTBRC) of the military hospital of Brest is reconstructed an unusual structure has been built on the Ile Longue site. Technical shelters (ETM) of the French military health service have been put together in order to constitute the CTBRC/ETM. This structure is adapted to the necessities of the nuclear site of Brest. First we explain the organization of the medical intervention in case of a nuclear accident; then we describe the functions of the CTBRC. People from hospital and medical teams of the nuclear oceanic French forces (FOST) take part in utilization, maintenance, training according to a particular protocol. (author)

  14. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil

  15. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Mu [Taipei Medical University - Shuang Ho Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Doyle, Pat [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Tsan, Yu-Tse [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung (China); Chung Shan Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Lee, Chang-Hsing [Ton Yen General Hospital, Department of Occupational Medicine, Hsinchu County (China); Wang, Jung-Der [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tainan (China); Chen, Pau-Chung [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Department of Public Health, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Taipei (China); Collaboration: Health Data Analysis in Taiwan (hDATa) Research Group

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the association between {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10{sup 5} person-years. {sup 131}I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative {sup 131}I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing {sup 131}I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between {sup 131}I dose and age (p = 0.94) or {sup 131}I dose and sex (p = 0.99). {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  16. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Mu; Doyle, Pat; Tsan, Yu-Tse; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between 131 I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative 131 I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of 131 I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10 5 person-years. 131 I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative 131 I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing 131 I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between 131 I dose and age (p = 0.94) or 131 I dose and sex (p = 0.99). 131 I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  17. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Mu; Doyle, Pat; Tsan, Yu-Tse; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung