WorldWideScience

Sample records for contaminants potential insights

  1. Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to several environmental contaminants: Potential insights into biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Brian C., E-mail: bcsanche@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 195 Marsteller Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J., E-mail: ralstonk@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 195 Marsteller Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kowalski, Kevin A., E-mail: kowalski@purdue.edu [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue Proteomics Facility, Purdue University, 1203 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dorota Inerowicz, H., E-mail: inerowic@purdue.edu [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue Proteomics Facility, Purdue University, 1203 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Adamec, Jiri, E-mail: jadamec@purdue.edu [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue Proteomics Facility, Purdue University, 1203 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 195 Marsteller Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to environmental contaminants was analyzed to identify novel biomarkers of exposure. Adult male bass were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, or toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 0.00067, 3.0, 2.5, 50, and 100 {mu}g/g, respectively. After a 96 h exposure, hepatic proteins were separated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins (vs. controls) recognized and identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. We identified, 30, 18, eight, 19, and five proteins as differentially expressed within the CdCl{sub 2}, atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, and toxaphene treatments, respectively. Alterations were observed in the expression of proteins associated with cellular ion homeostasis (toxaphene), oxidative stress (phenanthrene, PCB 126), and energy production including glycolysis (CdCl{sub 2}, atrazine) and ATP synthesis (atrazine). This work supports the further evaluation of several of these proteins as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish.

  2. Insights into Contaminant Leaching Through An Intensive Field Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Ali, M.; Steele, C.; Penrod, D.

    2014-12-01

    Risks to groundwater quality from mobile contaminants in the unsaturated zone associated with active or legacy mines present significant challenges for land managers and policy makers worldwide. Unsaturated zone flow processes are a dominant control on contaminant loading. However, the presence of unsaturated zone heterogeneity results in spatially and temporally variable flow pathways, due to capillary breaks and hydraulic barriers forming in various locations. This can result in the development of focused flow paths from where rapid contaminant transport to the water table may occur. In this study we designed an intensive monitoring program to attempt to characterise time-varying flow paths through a highly heterogeneous unsaturated zone through a dense network of combined soil moisture, electric conductivity and temperature probes. Estimations of surface fluxes and soil drainage along with observed water table response at a waste management site in Chalk River, Canada are presented providing insights into flow and transport processes.

  3. Potential food contaminants and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Lall, Shyam Bala; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2002-03-01

    The potential toxicants in food are derived from natural or industrial sources. Compounds like lectins and glycoalkaloids that are toxic to man are naturally present in some vegetables like potatoes or legumes. A wide variety of marine toxins mostly produced by dinoflagellates occurring secondarily in molluscs and mussels are usually ingested by human beings causing poisoning. On the other hand, toxic compounds find their way into food during manufacture, storage, or transportation. These include largely the industrial contaminants, persistent organic pollutants (POP), pesticides, heavy metals, and toxins of fungal and bacterial origin. Further, toxic compounds like higher alcohols may be produced as byproducts during processing. Migration of compounds from packaging materials into packaged food like contamination with lead from solder in certain metal cans is well known. Additives (emulsifiers, preservatives, and antioxidants) could also influence the quality of foods. Solvent residues may find their way into food as a result of their use in extraction processes like the use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride in decaffeination of coffee. In addition, poor hygiene, storage, and preparation may also lead to food contamination by various microbes and ova or cysts of nematodes. The problem of food contamination can be overcome to a great extent by regular surveillance and monitoring programmes and strict implementation of food and adulteration act. In the present review some of these aspects of food contamination have been discussed in detail.

  4. Transformers as a potential for soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stojić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of PCBs and heavy metals in the surrounding soil and also in the soil of the receiving pit located below the PCB contaminated transformer. Concentrations of PCBs in our samples are ranged from 0,308 to 0,872 mg/kg of absolutely dry soil.

  5. Organic contaminants in urban soils: major inputs and potential risks

    OpenAIRE

    Cachada, Anabela Ferreira de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Urban soil quality may be severely affected by hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), impairing environmental quality and human health. A comprehensive study was conducted in two contrasting Portuguese urban areas (Lisbon and Viseu) in order to assess the levels and potential risks of these contaminants, to identify sources and study their behaviour in soils. The concentrations of HOCs were related to the size of the city, with much higher contamination levels observed in ...

  6. Assessment of potential contaminant threats to Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary purpose of the NBS Manual is to provide a standardized and systematic approach for identifying existing or potential contaminant problems on National...

  7. An insight of environmental contamination of arsenic on animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Although adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues and is even increasing in some areas. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce arsenic exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. Animal are being exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water, feedstuff, grasses, vegetables and different leaves. Arsenic has been the most common causes of inorganic chemical poisoning in farm animals. Although, sub-chronic and chronic exposure of arsenic do not generally reveal external signs or symptoms in farm animals but arsenic (or metabolites concentrations in blood, hair, hoofs and urine are remained high in animals of arsenic contaminated zones. So it is assumed that concentration of arsenic in blood, urine, hair or milk have been used as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in field animals.

  8. Impact of inorganic contaminants on microalgae productivity and bioremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eric M; Hess, Derek; McNeil, Brian T; Guy, Tessa; Quinn, Jason C

    2017-05-01

    As underdeveloped nations continue to industrialize and world population continues to increase, the need for energy, natural resources, and goods will lead to ever increasing inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals, in various waste streams that can have damaging effects on plant life, wildlife, and human health. This work is focused on the evaluation of the potential of Nannochloropsis salina to be integrated with contaminated water sources for the concurrent production of a biofuel feedstock while providing an environmental service through bioremediation. Individual contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn) at various concentrations ranging from a low concentration (1X) to higher concentrations (10X, and 40X) found in contaminated systems (mine tailings, wastewater treatment plants, produced water) were introduced into growth media. Biological growth experimentation was performed in triplicate at the various contaminant concentrations and at 3 different light intensities. Results show that baseline concentrations of each contaminant slightly decreased biomass growth to between 89% and 99% of the control with the exception of Ni which dramatically reduced growth. Increased contaminant concentrations resulted in progressively lower growth rates for all contaminants tested. Lipid analysis shows most baseline contaminant concentrations slightly decrease or have minimal effects on lipid content at all light levels. Trace contaminant analysis on the biomass showed Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn were sorbed by the microalgae with minimal contaminants remaining in the growth media illustrating the effectiveness of microalgae to bioremediate these contaminants when levels are sufficiently low to not detrimentally impact productivity. The microalgae biomass was less efficient at sorption of As, Cr, Ni, and Se. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Isotopic insights into biological regulation of zinc in contaminated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Wesner, Jeff S.; Walters, David; Schmidt, Travis S.; Podda, Francesca; De Giudici, G.; Stricker, Craig A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Wolf, Ruth E.; Cidu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic organisms use a variety of biogeochemical reactions to regulate essential and non-essential trace metals. Many of these mechanisms can lead to isotopic fractionation, thus measurement of metal isotopes may yield insights into the processes by which organisms respond to metal exposure. We illustrate these concepts with two case studies, one involving an intra- and the other an extra-cellular mechanism of Zn sequestration. In the first study, the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer was grown in the laboratory, and fed a diet of Zn-doped diatoms at Zn levels exceeding the requirements for normal mayfly life functions. The N. triangulifer larvae consumed the diatoms and retained their Zn isotopic signature. Upon metamorphosis, the subimago life stage lost Zn mass either in the exuvia or by excretion, and the Zn retained was isotopically enriched. Thus, Zn uptake is nonfractionating, but Zn regulation favors the lighter isotope. Thus the Zn remaining in the subimago was isotopically heavier. In the second study, Zn was adsorbed on the cell walls and exopolysaccharide secretions of cyanobacteria, which favored the heavier Zn isotope. Continued adsorption eventually resulted in nucleation and biomineralization of hydrozincite {Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6}. These case studies demonstrate the utility of Zn isotopes to provide insights into how aquatic insects respond to metal exposure.

  10. Mapping organic contaminant plumes in groundwater using spontaneous potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Sarah

    Increased water demands have raised awareness of its importance. One of the challenges facing water resource management is dealing with contaminated groundwater; delineating, characterizing and remediating it. In the last decade, spontaneous potentials have been proposed as a method for delineating degrading organic contaminant plumes in groundwater. A hypothesis proposed that the redox potential gradient due to degradation of contaminants generated an electrical potential gradient that could be measured at the ground surface. This research was undertaken to better understand this phenomenon and find under what conditions it occurs. Spontaneous potentials are electrical potentials generated by three sources that act simultaneously: electrokinetic, thermoelectric and electrochemical sources. Over contaminant plumes electrochemical sources are those of interest. Thermoelectric sources are negligible unless in geothermal areas, but we hypothesized that electrokinetic potentials could be impacted by contaminants altering sediment surface properties. We built and calibrated a laboratory apparatus to make measurements that allowed us to calculate streaming current coupling coefficients. We tested sediment from hydrocarbon impacted sites with clean and hydrocarbon polluted groundwater and found a measurable though inconsistent effect. Moreover, numerical modelling was used to demonstrate that the impact of these changes on field measurements was negligible. Spontaneous potential surveys were conducted on two field sites with well characterized degrading hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater. We did not find a correlation between redox conditions and spontaneous potential, even after the electrical measurements were corrected for anthropogenic noise. In order to determine why the expected signal was not seen, we undertook numerical modelling based on coupled fluxes using two hypothesized types of current: redox and diffusion currents. The only scenarios that produced

  11. Insight into the neuroproteomics effects of the food-contaminant non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Laura; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente; Campagna, Roberta; Airoldi, Luisa; De Paola, Massimiliano; Fanelli, Roberto; Mariani, Alessandro; Mazzoletti, Marco; Pastorelli, Roberta

    2012-04-18

    Recent studies showed that food-contaminant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) congeners (PCB52, PCB138, PCB180) have neurotoxic potential, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal damage are not entirely known. The aim of this study was to assess whether in-vitro exposure to NDL-PCBs may alter the proteome profile of primary cerebellar neurons in order to expand our knowledge on NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. Comparison of proteome from unexposed and exposed rat cerebellar neurons was performed using state-of-the-art label-free semi-quantitative mass-spectrometry method. We observed significant changes in the abundance of several proteins, that fall into two main classes: (i) novel targets for both PCB138 and 180, mediating the dysregulation of CREB pathways and ubiquitin-proteasome system; (ii) different congeners-specific targets (alpha-actinin-1 for PCB138; microtubule-associated-protein-2 for PCB180) that might lead to similar deleterious consequences on neurons cytoskeleton organization. Interference of the PCB congeners with synaptic formation was supported by the increased expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins quantified by western blot and immunocytochemistry. Expression alteration of synaptic markers was confirmed in the cerebellum of rats developmentally exposed to these congeners, suggesting an adaptive response to neurodevelopmental toxicity on brain structures. As such, our work is expected to lead to new insights into the mechanisms of NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of 300 Area Contaminants of Potential Concern for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.W. Ovink

    2010-04-05

    This report documents the process used to identify source area contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) in support of the 300 Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan. This report also establishes the exclusion criteria applicable for 300 Area use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the COPCs.

  13. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  14. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue.

  15. Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Christopher J; Malik, Rifhat; Cooper, Rose A; Looker, Nick; Michaels, Barry

    2003-04-01

    Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic soil), bacterial, and staphylococcal load on ward handwash station surfaces, which could be touched during handwashing, is reported. Hand contact surfaces tested consisted of approximately 620 each of: faucet handles, soap dispenser activator mechanisms, and folded paper-towel dispenser exits. Failure rates in excess of benchmark clean values were higher with adenosine triphosphate assays than microbial counts. This could indicate the presence of a higher level of general organic debris (eg, skin cells) as opposed to microbial contamination or could reflect greater assay sensitivity. Faucet handles were more likely to be contaminated and be in excess of benchmark values than paper-towel dispenser exits. However, the latter are likely to be the final surface touched during the handwashing process and overall nearly 20% were above microbiologic benchmark values. Many of the organisms isolated were staphylococci and the results are discussed within the context of microbial cross-contamination and potential pathogen spread.

  16. Aspergillus flavus: A potential Bioremediator for oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Avasn Maruthi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly treatment for oily contaminated sites by the use of microorganisms. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the performance of fungal isolates in degradation of organic compounds contained in soils contaminated with petrol and diesel. As a result of the laboratory screening, two natural fungal strains capable of degrading total organic carbons (TOC were prepared from isolates enriched from the oil contaminated sites. Experiments were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks under aerobic conditions, with TOC removal percentage varied from 0.7 to 32% depending on strains type and concentration. Strains Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger exhibited the highest TOC removal percentage of 32 and 21%, respectively, before nutrient addition. TOC removal rate was enhanced after addition of nutrients to incubated flasks. The highest TOC reduction (45% was estimated after addition of combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur to Phanerocheate chrysosporium strains. Results of experimental work carried out elucidate that the fungi like Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger were capabled of producing enzymes at a faster rate to decompose the substrate hydrocarbon and released more CO2 and hence these potential fungi can be utilized effectively as agents of biodegradation in waste recycling process and Bioremediation of oil contaminated sites.

  17. Surfactant-Enhanced Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants: Potential and Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan-Zheng; LING Wan-Ting; ZHU Li-Zhong; ZHAO Bao-Wei; ZHENG Qing-Song

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is becoming a cost-effective technology for the in-situ clean up of sites polluted with hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). The major factors limiting phytoremediation are the mass transfer, rate of plant uptake, and microbial biodegradation of HOCs. This article discusses the potential of surfactants to enhance desorption, plant uptake, and biodegradation of HOCs in the contaminated sites. Positive effects of surfactants on phytoremediation have been recently observed in greenhouse studies. The presence of some nonionic surfactants including polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and polyoxyethylene(23)dodecanol (Brij35) at relatively low concentrations resulted in significant positive effects on phytoremediation for pyrene-contaminated soil. However, the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and the cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTMAB) were not useful because of their phytotoxicity or low efficiency for surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR). The mechanisms of SEPR for HOC-contaminated sites were evaluated by considering experimental observations. In view of concerns about the cost effectiveness and toxicity of surfactants to plants, more research is needed to enhance the use of SEPR technology.

  18. Potential sources of microbial contamination in unpasteurized apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luis; Henderson, John; Fabri, Martha; Oke, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify possible sources of microbial contamination and to assess the effect of good cleaning and sanitation practices on the microbial quality and safety of unpasteurized apple cider. Raw unwashed apples, washed apples, cleaning water, fresh cider, and finished cider samples were collected from five Ontario producers over 4 months and microbiologically tested. Total coliforms were found in 31, 71 and 38% of the unwashed apple, water, and washed apple samples, respectively. Escherichia coli was found in 40% of the water samples from one producer alone. The washing step was identified as a potential source of contamination, possibly due to water in the dump tanks seldom being refreshed, and because scrubbers, spray nozzles, and conveyors were not properly cleaned and sanitized. Higher total coliform counts (P cider compared with those in unwashed apples and washed apples indicated considerable microbial buildup along the process, possibly explained by the lack of appropriate equipment sanitation procedures. Results showed that producers who had better sanitary practices in place had lower (P cider in terms of total coliforms and that operators who pasteurize and/or UV treat their product should still be required to have a sound good manufacturing practices program in place to prevent recontamination. Cryptosporidium parvum, an important pathogen for this industry, was found in different sample types, including washed apples, water, and fresh and finished cider.

  19. Flow dynamics and potential for Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants in Fractured Rock Vadose Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, T.-S.; Liou, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Devera, J.C.

    1998-12-01

    We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in fractured-rock vadose zones. This approach is based on the coupling of fluid flow dynamics and biotransformation processes. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Biological activity can change liquid surface tension and generate biofilms that may change the nettability of solid surfaces, locally alter fracture permeability and redirect infiltrating liquids. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) physical and numerical experiments of liquid seepage in the fracture plane; (3) non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and, (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock ''geocosms''. Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. The insights gained from this approach should contribute to the design of techniques to monitor and stimulate naturally occurring biological activity and control the spread of organic contaminants.

  20. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  1. Insights into a 20-ha multi-contaminated brownfield megasite: An environmental forensics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R., E-mail: jgallego@uniovi.es; Rodríguez-Valdés, E.; Esquinas, N.; Fernández-Braña, A.; Afif, E.

    2016-09-01

    Here we addressed the contamination of soils in an abandoned brownfield located in an industrial area. Detailed soil and waste characterisation guided by historical information about the site revealed pyrite ashes (a residue derived from the roasting of pyrite ores) as the main environmental risk. In fact, the disposal of pyrite ashes and the mixing of these ashes with soils have affected a large area of the site, thereby causing heavy metal(loid) pollution (As and Pb levels reaching several thousands of ppm). A full characterisation of the pyrite ashes was thus performed. In this regard, we determined the bioavailable metal species present and their implications, grain-size distribution, mineralogy, and Pb isotopic signature in order to obtain an accurate conceptual model of the site. We also detected significant concentrations of pyrogenic benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs, and studied the relation of these compounds with the pyrite ashes. In addition, we examined other waste and spills of minor importance within the study site. The information gathered offered an insight into pollution sources, unravelled evidence from the industrial processes that took place decades ago, and identified the co-occurrence of contaminants by means of multivariate statistics. The environmental forensics study carried out provided greater information than conventional analyses for risk assessment purposes and for the selection of clean-up strategies adapted to future land use. - Highlights: • Complex legacy of contamination afflicts 20-ha brownfield • As and Pb highest soil pollutants • Forensic study reveals main waste and spills. • Comprehensive study of pyrite ashes (multi-point source of pollution) • Co-occurrence of PAH also linked to pyrite ashes.

  2. Estimation of Potential Population Level Effects of Contaminants on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.

    2001-06-11

    The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. Moreover, species sensitivities to contaminants is one of several criteria to be considered when selecting assessment endpoints (EPA 1997 and 1998), yet data on the sensitivities of many birds and mammals are lacking. The uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAEL s or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. This project included several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation

  3. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    A small-scale bioremediation assay was developed in order to get insight into the functioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading community during the time course of bioremediation treatment of a contaminated soil. The study was conducted with the aim to better understand the key mechanisms involved in PCB-removal from soils. Materials and methods Two bioremediation strategies were applied in the assay: (a) biostimulation (addition of carvone as inducer of biphenyl pathway, soya lecithin for improving PCB bioavailability, and xylose as supplemental carbon source) and (b) bioaugmentation with selected seed cultures TSZ7 or Rhodococcus sp. Z6 originating from the transformer station soil and showing substantial PCB-degrading activity. Functional PCB-degrading community was investigated by using molecular-based approaches (sequencing, qPCR) targeting bphA and bphC genes, coding key enzymes of the upper biphenyl pathway, in soil DNA extracts. In addition, kinetics of PCBs removal during the bioremediation treatment was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results and discussion bphA-based phylogeny revealed that bioremediation affected the structure of the PCB-degrading community in soils, with Rhodococcus-like bacterial populations developing as dominant members. Tracking of this population further indicated that applied bioremediation treatments led to its enrichment within the PCB-degrading community. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community, estimated by quantifying the copy number of bphA and bphC genes, revealed that it represented up to 0.3% of the total bacterial community. All bioremediation treatments were shown to enhance PCB reduction in soils, with approximately 40% of total PCBs being removed during a 1-year period. The faster PCB reduction achieved in bioaugmented soils suggested an important role of the seed cultures in bioremediation processes. Conclusions The PCBs degrading community was modified in response to

  4. Phytoremediation Potential of Lead-Contaminated Soil Using Tropical Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global problem concerning contamination of the environment because of human activities is increasing. Most of the environmental contaminants are chemical by-products and heavy metals such as lead (Pb). Lead released into the environment makes its way into the air, soil and water. Lead contribute...

  5. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as caffeine and nicotine. Many are relatively small polar molecules which may not be effectively removed by drinking water treatment. Data from the UK Environment Agency's groundwater screening programme for organic pollutants found within the 30 most frequently detected compounds a number of EGCs such as pesticide metabolites, caffeine and DEET. Specific determinands frequently detected include pesticides metabolites, pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine and triclosan, nicotine, food additives and alkyl phosphates. This paper discusses the routes by which these compounds enter groundwater, their toxicity and potential risks to drinking water and the environment. It identifies challenges that need to be met to minimise risk to drinking water and ecosystems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Potential Risks of Freshwater Aquifer Contamination with Geosequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Robert

    2013-09-30

    Substantial leakage of CO{sub 2} from deep geological strata to shallow potable aquifers is likely to be rare, but chemical detection of potential leakage nonetheless remains an integral component of any safe carbon capture and storage system. CO{sub 2} that infiltrates an unconfined freshwater aquifer will have an immediate impact on water chemistry by lowering pH in most cases and by altering the concentration of total dissolved solids. Chemical signatures in affected waters provide an important opportunity for early detection of leaks. In the presence of CO{sub 2}, trace elements such as Mn, Fe, and Ca can increase by an order of magnitude or more above control concentrations within 100 days. Therefore, these and other elements should be monitored along with pH as geochemical markers of potential CO{sub 2} leaks. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity can also be rapidly responsive to CO{sub 2} and are stable indicators of a leak. Importantly, such changes may be detectable long before direct changes in CO{sub 2} are observed. The experimental results also suggest that the relative severity of the impact of leaks on overlying drinking-water aquifers should be considered in the selection of CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. One primary selection criteria should be metal and metalloid availability, such as uranium and arsenic abundance, to carefully monitor chemical species that could trigger changes above maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Overall, the risks of leakage from underground CO{sub 2} storage are real but appear to be manageable if systems are closely monitored.

  7. Hydrochemical profiles in urban groundwater systems: New insights into contaminant sources and pathways in the subsurface from legacy and emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D; Lapworth, D J; Stuart, M E; Williams, P J

    2016-08-15

    It has long been known that groundwaters beneath urban areas carry a fingerprint from urban activities but finding a consistent tracer for anthropogenic influence has proved elusive. The varied sources of urban contaminants means that a single consistent and inexpensive means of tracing the fate of urban contaminants is not generally possible and multiple tracers are often required to understand the contaminant sources and pathways in these complex systems. This study has utilized a combination of micro-organic (MO) contaminants and inorganic hydrochemistry to trace recharge pathways and quantify the variability of groundwater quality in multi-level piezometers in the city of Doncaster, UK. A total of 23 MOs were detected during this study, with more compounds consistently detected during higher groundwater table conditions highlighting the importance of sampling under different hydrological conditions. Four of the compounds detected are EU Water Framework Directive priority substances: atrazine, simazine, naphthalene and DEHP, with a maximum concentration of 0.18, 0.03, 0.2, 16μg/l respectively. Our study shows that the burden of the banned pesticide atrazine persists in the Sherwood Sandstone and is detected at two of the three study sites. Emerging contaminants are seen throughout the borehole profiles and provide insights into transient pathways for contaminant migration in the sub-surface. Long term changes in inorganic hydrochemistry show possible changes in contaminant input or the dissolution of minerals. Nitrate was detected above 50mg/l but on the whole nitrate concentrations have declined in the intervening years either due to a reduction of nitrate application at the surface or a migration of peak nitrate concentrations laterally or to greater depth. This study shows that multiple tracers together with multi-level piezometers can give a better resolution of contaminant pathways and variable flow regimes within the relatively uncomplicated aquifer of

  8. Contaminants, benthic communities, and bioturbation: potential for PAH mobilisation in Arctic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalov, D.; Renaud, P.E.; Berge, J.; Voronkov, A.Y.; Cochrane, S.K.J. [Polar Environmental Center, Tromso (Norway)

    2010-07-01

    Marine benthic fauna and biological mixing were studied in relation to sediment organic enrichment and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bottom sediments of Svalbard. We investigated how organic enrichment may affect the fate and chemical composition of deposited contaminants by impacting biological reworking by faunal communities. Samples were collected near active coal mines at Barentsburg and at the mouth of Groenfjord. PAH sources in both areas were coal particles and pyrolytic compounds from coal-driven power stations. The results from a bioturbation experiment were consistent with the hypothesis that fauna enhance the vertical transport of PAHs within the sediment. Faunal community composition was similar at the two sites, with polychaete worms comprising 85% of the fauna. Abundances and taxon richness were eight and ten times higher in the organically enriched sediments near Barentsburg, and total PAH concentrations were up to three times higher in Barentsburg. Unlike expectations derived from models developed for temperate regions, organic enrichment in oligotrophic areas, such as this Arctic site, enhanced the biomass and bioturbation potential of benthic communities. Hence, new insights into the relationships among enrichment, benthic communities and the fate of contaminants must be considered in management and regulatory efforts in these areas.

  9. The Effect of Hydrocarbon Contamination on the Volta Potential of Second Phase Particles in Beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    Mallinson, Christopher; Watts, John

    2016-01-01

    The effect on the Volta potential, measured from second phase particles in beryllium, by the thin layer of hydrocarbon contamination pyrolised onto the surface under the action of an electron beam during secondary electron imaging has been investigated. Despite being only a few nanometres thick, this contamination has a significant influence on the Volta potential of second phase particles of interest. This work shows that such contamination can have a substantial effect on the measured poten...

  10. Potential Human Health Risks of Tannery Waste-contaminated Poultry Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Latiful Bari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The estimated daily intake value, THQ, along with the aggregate hazard index value, indicated a potential risk to consumers through consumption of contaminated chicken. Therefore, the study results clearly demonstrate heavy metals accumulation in chicken due to feeding SCW-based feed. The contaminated chicken further transfers these heavy metals to humans through ingestion. Hence, there is a potential human health risk through consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  11. Influence of climate change on the Arctic Contamination Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kaj M.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Brandt, Jørgen

    2014-05-01

    Using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) we have calculated the Arctic Contamination Potential (ACP). ACP is defined as the sum of masses in the arctic surface compartments (soil, vegetation, snow and water) at the end of a ten year simulated period normalised either with the total mass within the model domain of with the total amount emitted into the atmosphere during the ten year simulation. In this study we use the emission normalized ACP termed eACP. We have calculated the eACP for the physical-chemical phase space spanned by compounds with log Koa between 3 and 12 and log Kaw between -4 and 3 and for each point in this phase space grid we have included a perfectly persistent compound in the model. DEHM is a 3-D atmospheric chemistry-transport model modelling the atmospheric transport of four chemical groups: a group with SOx-NOx-VOC-ozone chemistry, a group with primary particulates group, a mercury chemistry group, and finally a group with Persistent Organic Pollutants with 2-d surface compartments (soil, vegetation, ocean water and a dynamic temporal snow cover) with inter-compartmental mass exchange process parameterizations. The model domain covers the Northern Hemisphere and thus includes all important source areas for the Arctic. The spatial horizontal resolution of the model system in this work is 150km x 150km and the model includes 20 vertical levels up to approximately 15km above the surface. The model system was run with meteorology obtain from ECHAM5/MPI-OM (SRES A1B scenario) for two decades: 1990-1999 and 2090-2099. Highest potential (12%) for reaching the Arctic surface compartments for the 1990s is seen for compounds with low log Koa and low log Kaw values. These are relative water soluble compounds referred to as "swimmers". For the 2090s, the overall pattern of the ACP phase space is similar to the pattern for the 1990s. ACP is generally larger for the 2090s than for the 1990s, with a maximum of 15%.

  12. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2013 and FY2014 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff, which supports National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) contamination areas. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  13. Management Can Reduce Contamination Potential of Beef Backgrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to “background” beef cattle on karst landscapes face great challenges. This is because without proper management, manure-borne contaminants from backgrounding sites can quickly degrade water quality in karst regions. Western Kentucky University and USDA-ARS reported on three-year ...

  14. A 28,000 years old Cro-Magnon mtDNA sequence differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Caramelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA sequences from ancient specimens may in fact result from undetected contamination of the ancient specimens by modern DNA, and the problem is particularly challenging in studies of human fossils. Doubts on the authenticity of the available sequences have so far hampered genetic comparisons between anatomically archaic (Neandertal and early modern (Cro-Magnoid Europeans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We typed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region I in a 28,000 years old Cro-Magnoid individual from the Paglicci cave, in Italy (Paglicci 23 and in all the people who had contact with the sample since its discovery in 2003. The Paglicci 23 sequence, determined through the analysis of 152 clones, is the Cambridge reference sequence, and cannot possibly reflect contamination because it differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Paglicci 23 individual carried a mtDNA sequence that is still common in Europe, and which radically differs from those of the almost contemporary Neandertals, demonstrating a genealogical continuity across 28,000 years, from Cro-Magnoid to modern Europeans. Because all potential sources of modern DNA contamination are known, the Paglicci 23 sample will offer a unique opportunity to get insight for the first time into the nuclear genes of early modern Europeans.

  15. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshlaf, Eman; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Makadia, Tanvi H; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-11-01

    Bioremediation is a broadly applied environmentally friendly and economical treatment for the clean-up of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the application of this technology to contaminated soil in Libya has not been fully exploited. In this study, the efficacy of different bioremediation processes (necrophytoremediation using pea straw, bioaugmentation and a combination of both treatments) together with natural attenuation were assessed in diesel contaminated Libyan soils. The addition of pea straw was found to be the best bioremediation treatment for cleaning up diesel contaminated Libyan soil after 12 weeks. The greatest TPH degradation, 96.1% (18,239.6mgkg(-1)) and 95% (17,991.14mgkg(-1)) were obtained when the soil was amended with pea straw alone and in combination with a hydrocarbonoclastic consortium respectively. In contrast, natural attenuation resulted in a significantly lower TPH reduction of 76% (14,444.5mgkg(-1)). The presence of pea straw also led to a significant increased recovery of hydrocarbon degraders; 5.7log CFU g(-1) dry soil, compared to 4.4log CFUg(-1) dry soil for the untreated (natural attenuation) soil. DGGE and Illumina 16S metagenomic analyses confirm shifts in bacterial communities compared with original soil after 12 weeks incubation. In addition, metagenomic analysis showed that original soil contained hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Pseudoxanthomonas spp. and Alcanivorax spp.). However, they require a biostimulant (in this case pea straw) to become active. This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

  16. Cellulases from Thermophilic Fungi: Recent Insights and Biotechnological Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Duo-Chuan Li; An-Na Li; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic fungal cellulases are promising enzymes in protein engineering efforts aimed at optimizing industrial processes, such as biomass degradation and biofuel production. The cloning and expression in recent years of new cellulase genes from thermophilic fungi have led to a better understanding of cellulose degradation in these species. Moreover, crystal structures of thermophilic fungal cellulases are now available, providing insights into their function and stability. The present pap...

  17. Emerging contaminants: a potential human health concern for sensitive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi P; He, Ke; Blaney, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotic molecules are being increasingly detected in drinking water, food crops, and breast milk. This issue represents a novel toxicological concern, especially for sensitive populations like pregnant women and breastfeeding infants. This commentary calls for more interdisciplinary research efforts focused on elucidating the transfer of contaminants of emerging concern from mother to child, as well as the relevant toxicological impacts on the child. The need for more tangible efforts to reduce pharmaceutical loads in environmental systems is also highlighted.

  18. Potential microbial contamination during sampling of permafrost soil assessed by tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Schostag, Morten; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2017-02-23

    Drilling and handling of permanently frozen soil cores without microbial contamination is of concern because contamination e.g. from the active layer above may lead to incorrect interpretation of results in experiments investigating potential and actual microbial activity in these low microbial biomass environments. Here, we present an example of how microbial contamination from active layer soil affected analysis of the potentially active microbial community in permafrost soil. We also present the development and use of two tracers: (1) fluorescent plastic microspheres and (2) Pseudomonas putida genetically tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein production to mimic potential microbial contamination of two permafrost cores. A protocol with special emphasis on avoiding microbial contamination was developed and employed to examine how far microbial contamination can penetrate into permafrost cores. The quantity of tracer elements decreased with depth into the permafrost cores, but the tracers were detected as far as 17 mm from the surface of the cores. The results emphasize that caution should be taken to avoid microbial contamination of permafrost cores and that the application of tracers represents a useful tool to assess penetration of potential microbial contamination into permafrost cores.

  19. Potential microbial contamination during sampling of permafrost soil assessed by tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Schostag, Morten; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2017-01-01

    Drilling and handling of permanently frozen soil cores without microbial contamination is of concern because contamination e.g. from the active layer above may lead to incorrect interpretation of results in experiments investigating potential and actual microbial activity in these low microbial biomass environments. Here, we present an example of how microbial contamination from active layer soil affected analysis of the potentially active microbial community in permafrost soil. We also present the development and use of two tracers: (1) fluorescent plastic microspheres and (2) Pseudomonas putida genetically tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein production to mimic potential microbial contamination of two permafrost cores. A protocol with special emphasis on avoiding microbial contamination was developed and employed to examine how far microbial contamination can penetrate into permafrost cores. The quantity of tracer elements decreased with depth into the permafrost cores, but the tracers were detected as far as 17 mm from the surface of the cores. The results emphasize that caution should be taken to avoid microbial contamination of permafrost cores and that the application of tracers represents a useful tool to assess penetration of potential microbial contamination into permafrost cores. PMID:28230151

  20. Potential microbial contamination during sampling of permafrost soil assessed by tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Schostag, Morten; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2017-02-01

    Drilling and handling of permanently frozen soil cores without microbial contamination is of concern because contamination e.g. from the active layer above may lead to incorrect interpretation of results in experiments investigating potential and actual microbial activity in these low microbial biomass environments. Here, we present an example of how microbial contamination from active layer soil affected analysis of the potentially active microbial community in permafrost soil. We also present the development and use of two tracers: (1) fluorescent plastic microspheres and (2) Pseudomonas putida genetically tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein production to mimic potential microbial contamination of two permafrost cores. A protocol with special emphasis on avoiding microbial contamination was developed and employed to examine how far microbial contamination can penetrate into permafrost cores. The quantity of tracer elements decreased with depth into the permafrost cores, but the tracers were detected as far as 17 mm from the surface of the cores. The results emphasize that caution should be taken to avoid microbial contamination of permafrost cores and that the application of tracers represents a useful tool to assess penetration of potential microbial contamination into permafrost cores.

  1. Fly pupae and puparia as potential contaminants of forensic entomology samples from sites of body discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A; Briggs, C A; Ranson, D L

    2006-11-01

    Fly pupae and puparia may contaminate forensic entomology samples at death scenes if they have originated not from human remains but from animal carcasses or other decomposing organic material. These contaminants may erroneously lengthen post-mortem interval estimates if no pupae or puparia are genuinely associated with the body. Three forensic entomology case studies are presented, in which contamination either occurred or was suspected. In the first case, blow fly puparia collected near the body were detected as contaminants because the species was inactive both when the body was found and when the deceased was last sighted reliably. The second case illustrates that contamination may be suspected at particularly squalid death scenes because of the likely presence of carcasses or organic material. The third case involves the presence at the body discovery site of numerous potentially contaminating animal carcasses. Soil samples were taken along transects to show that pupae and puparia were clustered around their probable sources.

  2. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation.

  3. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Li

    Full Text Available The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX, or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies.

  4. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies.

  5. The Client's Potential for Therapeutic Insight Assessed through the Ability to Reflect Verbally and Musically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Niels

    1999-01-01

    to the question of whether a client can gain a greater insight in his or her psychological structure and relational patterns of behavior in the course of music therapy: Is there a potential for psychological growth? Gaining insight is in this context related to the reflective ability of the client; reflection...

  6. Chemical coagulation-based processes for trace organic contaminant removal: current state and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jonathan T; Hai, Faisal I; Al-Aboud, Turki M

    2012-11-30

    Trace organic contaminants have become an increasing cause of concern for governments and water authorities as they attempt to respond to the potential challenges posed by climate change by implementing sustainable water cycle management practices. The augmentation of potable water supplies through indirect potable water reuse is one such method currently being employed. Given the uncertainty surrounding the potential human health impacts of prolonged ingestion of trace organic contaminants, it is vital that effective and sustainable treatment methods are utilized. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of the performance of the chemical coagulation process in removing trace organic contaminants from water. This study evaluated the removal data collated from recent research relating to various trace organic contaminants during the coagulation process. It was observed that there is limited research data relating to the removal of trace organic contaminants using coagulation. The findings of this study suggest that there is a gap in the current research investigating the potential of new types of coagulants and exploring coagulation-based hybrid processes to remove trace organic contaminants from water. The data analysed in this study regarding removal efficiency suggests that, even for the significantly hydrophobic compounds, hydrophobicity is not the sole factor governing removal of trace organic contaminants by coagulation. This has important implications in that the usual practice of screening coagulants based on turbidity (suspended solid) removal proves inadequate in the case of trace organic contaminant removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in temporary river sediments: Experimental insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Capri, Silvio; Casella, Patrizia; Fazi, Stefano; Marxsen, Juergen; Patrolecco, Luisa

    2016-01-15

    Temporary rivers are characterized by dry-wet phases and represent an important water resource in semi-arid regions worldwide. The fate and effect of contaminants have not been firmly established in temporary rivers such as in other aquatic environments. In this study, we assessed the effects of sediment amendment with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on benthic microbial communities. Experimental microcosms containing natural (Control) and amended sediments (2 and 20 mg PAHs kg(-1) were incubated for 28 days. The PAH concentrations in sediments were monitored weekly together with microbial community structural (biomass and phylogenetic composition by TGGE and CARD-FISH) and functional parameters (ATP concentration, community respiration rate, bacterial carbon production rate, extracellular enzyme activities). The concentration of the PAH isomers did not change significantly with the exception of phenanthrene. No changes were observed in the TGGE profiles, whereas the occurrence of Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria was significantly affected by the treatments. In the amended sediments, the rates of carbon production were stimulated together with aminopeptidase enzyme activity. The community respiration rates showed values significantly lower than the Control after 1 day from the amendment then recovering the Control values during the incubation. A negative trend between the respiration rates and ATP concentration was observed only in the amended sediments. This result indicates a potential toxic effect on the oxidative phosphorylation processes. The impoverishment of the energetic resources that follows the PAH impact may act as a domino on the flux of energy from prokaryotes to the upper level of the trophic chain, with the potential to alter the temporary river functioning.

  8. The stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, as a potential indicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rosa, Annelise; I'Anson Price, Robbie; Ferreira Caliman, Maria Juliana; Pereira Queiroz, Elisa; Blochtein, Betina; Sílvia Soares Pires, Carmen; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-08-01

    Neonicotinoids have the potential to enter the diet of pollinators that collect resources from contaminated plants. The species Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure, 1942) can be a useful indicator of the prevalence of these chemicals in the environment. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the authors devised a protocol for neonicotinoid residue extraction and detected the presence of neonicotinoids in the bee bodies. Thus, the authors consider this species to be a potential indicator of environmental contamination.

  9. Test evaluation of potential heatshield contamination of an outer planet probe's gas sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of retaining the heat shield for outer planet probes was investigated as a potential source of atmospheric sample contamination by outgassing. The onboard instruments which are affected by the concept are the pressure sensor, temperature sensor, IR detector, nephelometer, and gas sampling instruments. It was found that: (1) The retention of the charred heatshield and the baseline atmospheric sampling concepts are compatible with obtaining noncontaminated atmospheric samples. (2) Increasing the sampling tube length so that it extends beyond the viscous boundary layer eliminates contamination of the atmospheric sample. (3) The potential for contamination increases with angle of attack.

  10. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  11. Potential of groundwater contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a sensitive bedrock aquifer (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Jana; Novakowski, Kent; Reiner, Eric J.; Kolic, Terry

    2012-03-01

    It is necessary to understand the presence, movement, and persistence of contaminants in aquifers to develop adequate groundwater protection plans. Fractured bedrock aquifers with thin overburden cover are very sensitive to contamination, and little is known about transport processes from the ground surface to depth in this setting. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of groundwater contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are flame retardants, in a natural fractured bedrock aquifer in Canada proven to be sensitive to contamination. PBDEs, which had not been previously measured in groundwater in detail, were detected in the study aquifer at concentrations greater than those observed in surface-water bodies. Potential sources include manure, septic tanks, and the atmosphere. From this scoping study, it is evident that additional surveys of PBDE concentrations in groundwater are warranted, especially in settings with high potential source concentrations coupled with sensitive aquifers.

  12. Vitellogenin as a potential biomarker for environmental contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Molecular Biology; Folmar, L.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Sullivan, C.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology

    1994-12-31

    The authors have recently obtained N-terminal amino acid sequences for the egg protein vitellogenin (Vtg) from phylogenetically diverse teleost fish ranging from rainbow trout to the striped bass. Using the striped bass sequence as a template, the other teleost fish showed at least an 87% identity through the region of amino acids 7--20. The amino acid sequence was not as well conserved for other fishes; white sturgeon (60%) and brook lamprey (47%), the clawed frog Xenopus (47--60%) or the domestic chicken (40%). The authors synthesized a consensus peptide to this highly conserved region and have raised a polygonal antibody from rabbit. This antibody shows wide cross-reactivity to Vtg from many species of teleost fish. The authors have found that serum Vtg levels are elevated in both male and female brown bullheads with liver tumors from an area contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Serum levels of Vtg were also elevated in rainbow trout with liver tumors induced with aflatoxin B-1. The authors also describe an in-vitro system of plated hepatocytes to screen for estrogenic and antiestrogenic xenobiotic chemicals in the environment and using Vtg as a screening tool to establish structure-activity relationships for reproductive failure in female fish.

  13. Human Auditory Processing: Insights from Cortical Event-related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra P. Key

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human communication and language skills rely heavily on the ability to detect and process auditory inputs. This paper reviews possible applications of the event-related potential (ERP technique to the study of cortical mechanisms supporting human auditory processing, including speech stimuli. Following a brief introduction to the ERP methodology, the remaining sections focus on demonstrating how ERPs can be used in humans to address research questions related to cortical organization, maturation and plasticity, as well as the effects of sensory deprivation, and multisensory interactions. The review is intended to serve as a primer for researchers interested in using ERPs for the study of the human auditory system.

  14. Assessing nitrate contamination and its potential health risk to Kinmen residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lin, Chun-Nan; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Ling, Min-Pei; Tsai, Jeng-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Kinmen is located in the southwest of Mainland China. Groundwater supplies 50% of the domestic water use on the island. Residents of Kinmen drink groundwater over the long term because surface water resources are limited. Nitrate-N pollution is found and distributed primarily in the western part of groundwater aquifer whereas saline groundwater is distributed to the northeastern Kinmen. This work applied the DRASTIC model to construct the vulnerability map of Kinmen groundwater. MT3D was then used to evaluate the contamination potential of nitrate-N. The health risk associated with the ingestion of nitrate-N contaminated groundwater is also assessed. The results from DRASTIC model showed that the upland crop and grass land have high contamination potential, whereas the forest, reservoir and housing land have low contamination potential. The calibrated MT3D model inversely determined the high strength sources (0.09-2.74 kg/m(2)/year) of nitrate contaminant located in the west to the north west area and required 2-5 years travel time to reach the monitoring wells. Simulated results of MT3D also showed that both the continuous and instantaneous contaminant sources of nitrate-N release may cause serious to moderate nitrate contamination in the western Kinmen and jeopardize the domestic use of groundwater. The chronic health hazard quotient (HQ) associated with the potential non-carcinogenic risk of drinking nitrate-N contaminated groundwater showed that the assessed 95th percentile of HQ is 2.74, indicating that exposure to waterborne nitrate poses a potential non-cancer risk to the residents of the island. Corrective measures, including protecting groundwater recharge zones and reducing the number of agricultural and non-agricultural nitrogen sources that enters the aquifer, should be implemented especially in the western part of Kinmen to assure a sustainable use of groundwater resources.

  15. Potential for metal contamination by direct sonication of nanoparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need to examine the potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to establish regulations protective of environmental health and safety. During a series of experiments to evaluate the toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on terrestrial pla...

  16. Insights into lignin degradation and its potential industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M; Solbiati, Jose O; Cann, Isaac K O

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulose is an abundant biomass that provides an alternative source for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The depolymerization of the carbohydrate polymers in lignocellulosic biomass is hindered by lignin, which is recalcitrant to chemical and biological degradation due to its complex chemical structure and linkage heterogeneity. The role of fungi in delignification due to the production of extracellular oxidative enzymes has been studied more extensively than that of bacteria. The two major groups of enzymes that are involved in lignin degradation are heme peroxidases and laccases. Lignin-degrading peroxidases include lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), versatile peroxidase (VP), and dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP). LiP, MnP, and VP are class II extracellular fungal peroxidases that belong to the plant and microbial peroxidases superfamily. LiPs are strong oxidants with high-redox potential that oxidize the major non-phenolic structures of lignin. MnP is an Mn-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various phenolic substrates but is not capable of oxidizing the more recalcitrant non-phenolic lignin. VP enzymes combine the catalytic activities of both MnP and LiP and are able to oxidize Mn(2+) like MnP, and non-phenolic compounds like LiP. DyPs occur in both fungi and bacteria and are members of a new superfamily of heme peroxidases called DyPs. DyP enzymes oxidize high-redox potential anthraquinone dyes and were recently reported to oxidize lignin model compounds. The second major group of lignin-degrading enzymes, laccases, are found in plants, fungi, and bacteria and belong to the multicopper oxidase superfamily. They catalyze a one-electron oxidation with the concomitant four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases can oxidize phenolic lignin model compounds and have higher redox potential than bacterial laccases. In the presence of redox mediators, fungal laccases can oxidize non

  17. An insight on genistein as potential pharmacological and therapeutic agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahedur Rahman; Rezuanul Islam; AM Swaraz; Anesa Ansari; Anowar Khasru Parvez; Depak Kumar Paul

    2012-01-01

    Genistein recognized as phytoestrogens is one of the most extensively studied isoflavones. It comprises of significant portion of Asian diet including Japanese and Chinese cuisine in the form of Soy food products. Evidence showed that geinstein increases osteoblasts formation as well as decreases osteoclast production. It plays an important role in immunity; such as suppression of delayed hypersensitivity and increases host resistance to B16F10 tumor by proliferating cytotoxic T and NK cells. It also decreases the activity of lipoprotein lipase which in turn inhibits lipogenesis and prevents the uptake of glucose in type 2 diabetic in rats. Geinstein play important role in reproductive system where it regulates the productive of oestrogen and progesterone. Moreover Geinstein has the ability to inhibit the tumor and cancer cell proliferation. Numerous beneficial effect of Geinstein including cancer treatment and function in immunity, obesity, diabetes and reproductivity Geinstein proves the potentiality of phytoestrogens as a source of bioactive substance.

  18. Evaluating Potential Human Health Risks Associated with the Development of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Facilities on Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. -J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kygeris, C. [Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report presents a general methodology for obtaining preliminary estimates of the potential human health risks associated with developing a utility-scale solar energy facility on a contaminated site, based on potential exposures to contaminants in soils (including transport of those contaminants into the air).

  19. The Woman's Heart: Insights into New Potential Targeted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Ricardo; Feola, Tiziana; Lenzi, Andrea; Giannetta, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an increasingly common cause of death in women. There is as yet no consensus on the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors with regard to the specific, personalised treatment of pre- and post-menopausal women. Clinically significant cardioprotective and antiremodelling effects have been observed in animal and human studies exploring chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). The relationship between the heart, estrogens and PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5is) remains unclear. Experimental data suggest potential beneficial effects on cardiac geometry, function, endothelial function and microvascular coronary flow in women. It was recently postulated that the efficacy of PDE5is is estrogen-dependent in female heart disease. A registered randomised, placebo-controlled study, RECOGITO (NCT01803828), aimed at identifying the genderspecific efficacy of long-term PDE5 inhibition in diabetic cardiomyopathy, is currently recruiting patients. Estrogen receptor modulation could be a new promising approach to heart protection via PDE5is. PDE5is could be indicated as a gender-oriented strategy in modulated cardiac dysfunction and remodelling and in cardiac risk factors for selected cardiovascular diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Widespread occurrence and potential for biodegradation of bioactive contaminants in Congaree National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Battaglin, William A.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Henning, Frank; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke; Journey, Celeste; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Romanok, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants with designed molecular bioactivity, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, originate from human and agricultural sources, occur frequently in surface waters, and threaten the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Congaree National Park in South Carolina (USA) is a vulnerable park unit due to its location downstream of multiple urban and agricultural contaminant sources and its hydrologic setting, being composed almost entirely of floodplain and aquatic environments. Seventy-two water and sediment samples were collected from 16 sites in Congaree National Park during 2013 to 2015, and analyzed for 199 and 81 targeted organic contaminants, respectively. More than half of these water and sediment analytes were not detected or potentially had natural sources. Pharmaceutical contaminants were detected (49 total) frequently in water throughout Congaree National Park, with higher detection frequencies and concentrations at Congaree and Wateree River sites, downstream from major urban areas. Forty-seven organic wastewater indicator chemicals were detected in water, and 36 were detected in sediment, of which approximately half are distinctly anthropogenic. Endogenous sterols and hormones, which may originate from humans or wildlife, were detected in water and sediment samples throughout Congaree National Park, but synthetic hormones were detected only once, suggesting a comparatively low risk of adverse impacts. Assessment of the biodegradation potentials of 8 14C-radiolabeled model contaminants indicated poor potentials for some contaminants, particularly under anaerobic sediments conditions.

  1. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  2. Endophytes and their Potential to Deal with Co-contamination of Organic Contaminants (Toluene) and Toxic Metals (Nickel) during Phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Saenen, E.; Boulet, J.; Dupae, J.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-01-15

    The aim was to investigate if engineered endophytes that are capable of degrading organic contaminants, and deal with or ideally improve uptake and translocation of toxic metals, can improve phytoremediation of mixed organic-metal pollution. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive toluene/TCE degradation, and (b) the chromosomally inserted ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system. As controls, plants were inoculated with B. vietnamiensis BU61 (pTOM-Bu61) and B. cepacia BU72 (containing the ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system). Plants were exposed to mixes of toluene and Ni. Only inoculation with B. cepacia VM1468 resulted in decreased Ni and toluene phytotoxicity, as measured by a protective effect on plant growth and decreased activities of enzymes involved in antioxidative defence (catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) in the roots. Besides, plants inoculated with B. cepacia VM1468 and B. vietnamiensis BU61 released less toluene through the leaves than non-inoculated plants and those inoculated with B. cepacia BU72. Ni-uptake in roots was slightly increased for B. cepacia BU72 inoculated plants. These results indicate that engineered endophytes have the potential to assist their host plant to deal with co-contamination of toxic metals and organic contaminants during phytoremediation.

  3. Fungal contamination in swine: a potential occupational health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2013-01-01

    Poor air quality in a pig-confinement building may potentially place farmers at higher health risk than other workers for exposure to airborne pollutants that may reach infectious levels. The aim of this study was to assess worker exposure to fungi in indoor environments in Portuguese swine buildings. Air samples from 7 swine farms were collected at a flow rate of 140 L/min, at 1 m height, onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (MEA). Surfaces samples of the same indoor sites were obtained by swabbing the surfaces. Samples from the floor covering were also collected from four of seven swine farms. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5-7 days. After lab processing and incubation of obtained samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), CFU/cm(2), and CFU/g and qualitative results were determined with identification of isolated fungal species. Aspergillus versicolor was the most frequent species found in air (21%), followed by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17%) and Penicillium sp. (14%). Aspergillus versicolor was also the most frequent species noted on surfaces (26.6%), followed by Cladosporium sp. (22.4%) and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17.5%). Chrysosporium was the most frequently found genera in the new floor covering (38.5%), while Mucor was the most prevalent genera (25.1%) in used floor covering. Our findings corroborate a potential occupational health threat due to fungi exposure and suggest the need for a preventive strategy.

  4. Potential radiation dose from eating fish exposed to actinide contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Baker, D.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a maximum potential for transporting actinides to man via fish consumption. The study took place in U-Pond, a nuclear waste pond on the Hanford Site. It has concentrations of /sup 238/U, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu and /sup 241/Am that are approximately three orders of magnitude greater than background levels. Fish living in the pond contain higher actinide concentrations than those observed in fish from any other location. Experiments were performed in U-pond to determine maximum quantities of actinides that could accumulate in fillets and whole bodies of two centrarchid fish species. Doses to hypothetical consumers were then estimated by assuming that actinide behavior in their bodies was similar to that defined for Standard Man by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Results indicate that highest concentrations occurring in bluegill or bass muscle after more than a year's exposure to the pond would not be sufficient to produce a significant radiation dose to a human consumer, even if he ate 0.5 kg (approx.1 lb) of these fillets every day for 70 years. Natural predators (heron or coyote), having lifetime diets of whole fish from U-Pond, would receive less radiation dose from the ingested actinides than from natural background sources. 34 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Potential radiation dose from eating fish exposed to actinide contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Baker, D.A.; Soldat, J.K. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA))

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a maximum potential for transporting actinides to man via fish consumption. The study took place in U-pond, a nuclear waste pond on the Hanford Site. It has concentrations of /sup 238/U, /sup 238/Pu, sup(239,240)Pu and /sup 241/Am that are approx. 3 orders of magnitude greater than background levels. Fish living in the pond contain higher actinide concentrations than those observed in fish from any other location. Experiments were performed in U-Pond to determine maximum quantities of actinides that could accumulate in fillets and whole bodies of two centrarchid fish species. Doses to hypothetical consumers were then estimated. Results indicate that highest concentrations occurring in bluegill or bass muscle after more than a year's exposure to the pond would not be sufficient to produce a significant radiation dose to a human consumer, even if he ate 0.5 kg (of the order of 1 lb) of these fillets every day for 70 yr. Natural predators (heron or coyote), having lifetime diets of whole fish from U-Pond, would receive less radiation dose from the ingested actinides than from natural background sources.

  6. Utilization of grasses for potential biofuel production and phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Ronald A; Kelly, William J; Satrio, Justinus A; Ruiz-Felix, M Nydia; Fetterman, Marisa; Wynn, Rodd; Hagel, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on investigating the use of common biofuel grasses to assess their potential as agents of long-term remediation of contaminated soils using lead as a model heavy metal ion. We present evidence demonstrating that switch grass and Timothy grass may be potentially useful for long-term phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and describe novel techniques to track and remove contaminants from inception to useful product. Enzymatic digestion and thermochemical approaches are being used to convert this lignocellulosic feedstock into useful product (sugars, ethanol, biocrude oil+biochar). Preliminary studies on enzymatic hydrolysis and fast pyrolysis of the Switchgrass materials that were grown in heavy metal contaminated soil and non-contaminated soils show that the presence of lead in the Switchgrass material feedstock does not adversely affect the outcomes of the conversion processes. These results indicate that the modest levels of contaminant uptake allow these grass species to serve as phytoremediation agents as well as feedstocks for biofuel production in areas degraded by industrial pollution.

  7. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  8. Heavy metals contamination potential and distribution in sediments of the River Turia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Maiquez Moya, Mónica; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on the state of waters and sediments of the rivers in the European Union is compulsory. Identification and quantification and monitoring of contaminants is somewhat established in the Water Framework Directive, so it can be acquired a reliable knowledge of the quality for further application of corrective messures can be developed when required. Heavy metals is one of the groups of contaminants that appear in the list of priority substances and in the legislation, so it is essential to attend its study to provide knowledge on the existing loads in different environmental matrices, such as sediments. This work presents a procedure that determines the presence and degree of concentration of a group of seven heavy metals (Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the sediments of the River Turia, a typical Mediterranean River, located in the East of the Iberian Peninsula. The methodology includes their identification in two years (2012, 22 sampling points, and 2013, 27 sampling points). Two pollution index, one individual (Geo-accumulation Igeo, Igeo) that estimated the potential contamination of each metal and a synthetic one (Potential ecorisk index range, PERI) which gets the potential contamination of all 7 grouped applied to each set of data. In addition, to establish possible spatial patterns it has been developed an analysis of the distribution of both indicators and on both dates with Geographic Information Systems, for that purpose it has been divided the River into three segments: upper part (represented by 10 points in 2012 and 13 in 2013), middle part (with 7 points in 2012 and 6 in 2013) and lower section (with 5 points in 2012 and 8 in 2013). Results show that lower concentrations of contaminants were given in 2012 than in 2013. In 2012 the Igeo index, which is distributed in a qualitative range of seven categories ranging from low pollution to very high pollution, are only meaningful for Zn, with "low to moderate" pollution in 13 places (6 points in

  9. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Terrestrial Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1993-01-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is screening contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as contaminants of potential concern. This process is termed contaminant screening. It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 38 chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In addition, background information on the phytotoxicity and occurrence of the chemicals in soils is presented, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation is reviewed. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

  10. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Natsis, M.E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Walker, J.S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  11. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Natsis, M.E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Walker, J.S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  12. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants: 1994 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is screening contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as contaminants of potential concern. This process is termed contaminant screening. It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 38 chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In addition, background information on the phytotoxicity and occurrence of the chemicals in soils is presented, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation is reviewed. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

  13. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  14. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  15. Extracellular Trapping of Soil Contaminants by Root Border Cells: New Insights into Plant Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Hawes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water pollution by metals and other toxic chemicals is difficult to measure and control, and, as such, presents an ongoing global threat to sustainable agriculture and human health. Efforts to remove contaminants by plant-mediated pathways, or “phytoremediation”, though widely studied, have failed to yield consistent, predictable removal of biological and chemical contaminants. Emerging research has revealed that one major limitation to using plants to clean up the environment is that plants are programmed to protect themselves: Like white blood cells in animals, border cells released from plant root tips carry out an extracellular trapping process to neutralize threats and prevent injury to the host. Variability in border cell trapping has been found to be correlated with variation in sensitivity of roots to aluminum, and removal of border cell results in increased Al uptake into the root tip. Studies now have implicated border cells in responses of diverse plant roots to a range of heavy metals, including arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead, mercury, iron, and zinc. A better understanding of border cell extracellular traps and their role in preventing toxin uptake may facilitate efforts to use plants as a nondestructive approach to neutralize environmental threats.

  16. Bioremediation a potential approach for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs represent a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentration in soils of many industrially contaminated sites. Standards and criteria for the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs vary widely between countries. Bioremediation has gained preference as a technology for remediation contaminated sites as it is less expensive and more environmental friendly. Bioremediation utilizes microorganisms to degrade PAHs to less toxic compounds. This technology degrades contaminants through natural biodegradation mechanisms or enhanced biodegradation mechanism and can be performed in-situ or ex-situ under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight potential of using isolated strains from municipal sludge on soil remediation. Several indigenous bacteria from municipal sludge namely genus Micrococus, Sphingomonas, and Corynebacterium demonstrated a high removal rate of PAHs with more than 80% of lower molecular weight of PAHs degraded after one week incubation. Laboratory studies had established that these genus able to degrade PAHs on contaminated soil. The successful application of bacteria to the bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites requires a deeper understanding of how microbial PAH degradation proceeds. An overview of research focusing on biodegradation of PAHs will be presented.

  17. Real-time surrogate analysis for potential oil and gas contamination of drinking water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H.

    2015-09-01

    Public concerns related to the fast-growing shale oil and gas industry have increased during recent years. The major concern regarding shale gas production is the potential of fracturing fluids being injected into the well or produced fluids flowing out of the well to contaminate drinking water resources such as surface water and groundwater. Fracturing fluids contain high total dissolved solids (TDS); thus, changes in TDS concentrations in groundwater might indicate influences of fracturing fluids. An increase of methane concentrations in groundwater could also potentially be due to hydraulic fracturing activities. To understand the possible contamination of groundwater by fracturing activities, real-time groundwater monitoring is being implemented in the Denver-Julesburg basin of northeast Colorado. A strategy of monitoring of surrogate parameters was chosen instead of measuring potential contaminants directly, an approach that is not cost effective or operationally practical. Contaminant surrogates of TDS and dissolved methane were proposed in this study, and were tested for correlation and data distribution with laboratory experiments. Correlations between TDS and electrical conductivity (EC), and between methane contamination and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were strong at low concentrations of contaminants (1 mg/L TDS and 0.3 mg/L CH4). Dissolved oxygen (DO) was only an effective surrogate at higher methane concentrations (≥2.5 mg/L). The results indicated that EC and ORP are effective surrogates for detecting concentration changes of TDS and methane, respectively, and that a strategy of monitoring for easy to measure parameters can be effective detecting real-time, anomalous behavior relative to a predetermined baseline.

  18. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant

  19. Self-Potential (SP) and Active Electrical Geophysical Assessment of Bioremediation at a Contaminated Gasworks Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulessa, B.; Kalin, R.; Doherty, R.; Phillips, D.

    2006-05-01

    We have surveyed a former gasworks site in Portadown, Northern Ireland, using self-potential (SP), electrical resistivity, induced polarisation (IP), and ground conductivity (EM-31, EM-34, EM-61). Site lithology and hydrogeology were mapped in numerous trial pits, and groundwater redox conditions together with a host of associated biogeochemical and microbiological parameters have been monitored in several boreholes. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) together with groundwater flow control (slurry wall) and monitored natural attenuation (MNA) are used for remediation of the complex site contamination, including hydrocarbon and heavy metals. The electrical geophysical surveys mapped the foundations of former infrastructure at the site and detected a formerly unknown tar well and a pit filled with mixed waste. In the contaminated regions of the site the total, measured SP signal is comprised of streaming potential and electrochemical components; in the uncontaminated regions the streaming potential is dominant and electrochemical potentials are negligible. The streaming potential coupling coefficient is estimated by relating the hydraulic potentials from borehole monitoring and groundwater flow modelling to the total SP signal measured in the uncontaminated regions. Residual SP is determined by subtracting the calculated streaming potential component from the total SP data, and the impact of spatially variable, bulk ground conductivity on streaming potential is elucidated. We investigate the relationship between residual SP and redox potential measured in several successive, contaminated aquifer layers separated by aquitards. The SP and electrical geophysical signatures of microbial processes naturally degrading the subsurface contaminants are examined. Preliminary findings from SP and electrical geophysical monitoring of artificially disturbed microbial processes and subsurface redox conditions are also presented.

  20. An Insight into the Selection of Nano Particle for Removing Contaminants in Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandipriya J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste water treatment is a major challenge in automobile industries and manufacturing sectors. In past few decades, research in waste water treatment has gained significant importance. Feasibility of nanoparticles for removing impurities is explored. However the major challenge lies in the synthesis of these nanoparticles. But with the advancements in nanotechnology, non-hazardous nanoparticles of size less than 10nm can be synthesized and morphological characteristics can also be successfully studied. Owing to their extremely smaller size, good absorption characteristics, better chemical reactivity, large surface to volume ratio, nanoparticles are highly suitable for removing metal/non-metal, organic/inorganic contaminants from water. This paper provides an extensive literature survey on the suitability of various nanoparticles for waste water treatment

  1. Assessing potential impacts associated with contamination events in water distribution systems : a sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Taxon, T. N. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); (EPA)

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of the nature of the adverse effects that could be associated with contamination events in water distribution systems is necessary for carrying out vulnerability analyses and designing contamination warning systems. This study examines the adverse effects of contamination events using models for 12 actual water systems that serve populations ranging from about 104 to over 106 persons. The measure of adverse effects that we use is the number of people who are exposed to a contaminant above some dose level due to ingestion of contaminated tap water. For this study the number of such people defines the impact associated with an event. We consider a wide range of dose levels in order to accommodate a wide range of potential contaminants. For a particular contaminant, dose level can be related to a health effects level. For example, a dose level could correspond to the median lethal dose, i.e., the dose that would be fatal to 50% of the exposed population. Highly toxic contaminants may be associated with a particular response at a very low dose level, whereas contaminants with low toxicity may only be associated with the same response at a much higher dose level. This report focuses on the sensitivity of impacts to five factors that either define the nature of a contamination event or involve assumptions that are used in assessing exposure to the contaminant: (1) duration of contaminant injection, (2) time of contaminant injection, (3) quantity or mass of contaminant injected, (4) population distribution in the water distribution system, and (5) the ingestion pattern of the potentially exposed population. For each of these factors, the sensitivities of impacts to injection location and contaminant toxicity are also examined. For all the factors considered, sensitivity tends to increase with dose level (i.e., decreasing toxicity) of the contaminant, with considerable inter-network variability. With the exception of the population distribution (factor 4

  2. Potential bioremediation of mercury-contaminated substrate using filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, Evi; Arfarita, Novi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Kanno, Ariyo; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko

    2014-06-01

    The use of filamentous fungi in bioremediation of heavy metal contamination has been developed recently. This research aims to observe the capability of filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil for bioremediation of mercury contamination in a substrate. Six fungal strains were selected based on their capability to grow in 25 mg/L Hg(2+)-contaminated potato dextrose agar plates. Fungal strain KRP1 showed the highest ratio of growth diameter, 0.831, thus was chosen for further observation. Identification based on colony and cell morphology carried out by 18S rRNA analysis gave a 98% match to Aspergillus flavus strain KRP1. The fungal characteristics in mercury(II) contamination such as range of optimum pH, optimum temperature and tolerance level were 5.5-7 and 25-35°C and 100 mg/L respectively. The concentration of mercury in the media affected fungal growth during lag phases. The capability of the fungal strain to remove the mercury(II) contaminant was evaluated in 100 mL sterile 10 mg/L Hg(2+)-contaminated potato dextrose broth media in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks inoculated with 10(8) spore/mL fungal spore suspension and incubation at 30°C for 7 days. The mercury(II) utilization was observed for flasks shaken in a 130 r/min orbital shaker (shaken) and non-shaken flasks (static) treatments. Flasks containing contaminated media with no fungal spores were also provided as control. All treatments were done in triplicate. The strain was able to remove 97.50% and 98.73% mercury from shaken and static systems respectively. A. flavus strain KRP1 seems to have potential use in bioremediation of aqueous substrates containing mercury(II) through a biosorption mechanism.

  3. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures.

  4. Metagenomic insights into evolution of heavy metal-contaminated groundwater microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemme, C.L.; Deng, Y.; Gentry, T.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wu, L.; Barua, S.; Barry, K.; Green-Tringe, S.; Watson, D.B.; He, Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Tiedje, J.M.; Rubin, E.M.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-01

    Understanding adaptation of biological communities to environmental change is a central issue in ecology and evolution. Metagenomic analysis of a stressed groundwater microbial community reveals that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of heavy metals, nitric acid and organic solvents ({approx}50 years) has resulted in a massive decrease in species and allelic diversity as well as a significant loss of metabolic diversity. Although the surviving microbial community possesses all metabolic pathways necessary for survival and growth in such an extreme environment, its structure is very simple, primarily composed of clonal denitrifying {gamma}- and {beta}-proteobacterial populations. The resulting community is overabundant in key genes conferring resistance to specific stresses including nitrate, heavy metals and acetone. Evolutionary analysis indicates that lateral gene transfer could have a key function in rapid response and adaptation to environmental contamination. The results presented in this study have important implications in understanding, assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities on microbial communities ranging from human health to agriculture to environmental management, and their responses to environmental changes.

  5. Metagenomic Insights into Evolution of a Heavy Metal-Contaminated Groundwater Microbial Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemme, Christopher L.; Deng, Ye; Gentry, Terry J.; Fields, Matthew W.; Wu, Liyou; Barua, Soumitra; Barry, Kerrie; Tringe, Susannah G.; Watson, David B.; He, Zhili; Hazen, Terry C.; Tiedje, James M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-02-15

    Understanding adaptation of biological communities to environmental change is a central issue in ecology and evolution. Metagenomic analysis of a stressed groundwater microbial community reveals that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of heavy metals, nitric acid and organic solvents (~;;50 years) have resulted in a massive decrease in species and allelic diversity as well as a significant loss of metabolic diversity. Although the surviving microbial community possesses all metabolic pathways necessary for survival and growth in such an extreme environment, its structure is very simple, primarily composed of clonal denitrifying ?- and ?-proteobacterial populations. The resulting community is over-abundant in key genes conferring resistance to specific stresses including nitrate, heavy metals and acetone. Evolutionary analysis indicates that lateral gene transfer could be a key mechanism in rapidly responding and adapting to environmental contamination. The results presented in this study have important implications in understanding, assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities on microbial communities ranging from human health to agriculture to environmental management, and their responses to environmental changes.

  6. CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL OF SPECIFIC IONS IN SOIL TREATED WITH REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDLER MILTON PAIVA DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percolation columns constructed in the Laboratory can predict the degree of contamination in soil due to reject brine disposal and can be a tool for reducing environmental impacts. This study aim to evaluate the mobilization of ions in reject brine from desalination process by reverse osmosis. The mobilization of the contaminant ions in the saline waste was studied in glass percolation columns, which were filled with soil of contrasting textures (eutrophic CAMBISOL, typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, ENTISOL Quartzipsamment. Experiments ware repeated three times each, and the initial and final concentrations of the ion contaminants were analyzed. The pollution potential of this wastewater was determined by the retardation factor and dispersion-diffusion coefficient of K+, Cl- and Na+ for each studied soil. The differences in the displacement curves of the ions present in the saline waste among various soil types were analyzed. The Entisol Quartzipsamment showed a higher forward speed of the ions K+ and Cl- (greater retardation factor, i.e., greater power of the subsurface contamination for these ions. In typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, the ions move with greater ease and therefore produced greater groundwater contamination. In eutrophic CAMBISOL, the low coefficient of diffusion-dispersion in all ions was evaluated (i.e., reduced ion mobility is directly influenced by their exchangeable levels.

  7. Screening chemicals for the potential to be persistent organic pollutants: a case study of Arctic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank

    2008-07-15

    A large and ever-increasing number of chemicals are used in commerce, and researchers and regulators have struggled to ascertain that these chemicals do not threaten human health or cause environmental or ecological damage. The presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote environments such as the Arctic is of special concern and has international regulatory implications. Responding to the need for a way to identify chemicals of high concern, a methodology has been developed which compares experimentally measured properties, or values predicted from chemical structure alone, to a set of screening criteria. These criteria include partitioning properties that allow for accumulation in the physical Arctic environment and in the Arctic human food chain, and resistance to atmospheric oxidation. Atthe same time we quantify the extent of structural resemblance to a group of known Arctic contaminants. Comparison of the substances that are identified by a mechanistic description of the processes that lead to Arctic contamination with those substances that are structurally similar to known Arctic contaminants reveals the strengths and limitations of either approach. Within a data set of more than 100,000 distinct industrial chemicals, the methodology identifies 120 high production volume chemicals which are structurally similarto known Arctic contaminants and/or have partitioning properties that suggest they are potential Arctic contaminants.

  8. Multimedia persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Although intuitively it is apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must be related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to quantify this link formally. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence and/or overall residence time in a multimedia exposure environment and the population-level intake of contaminants as expressed by intake fraction (iF), the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We demonstrate that for any given contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multimedia persistence (Pov), or the overall multimedia residence time (Tov). The proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how Tov and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to Tov across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments and multimedia Pov to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. Results indicate that Pov derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  9. Emergency management of the individuals potentially contaminated by radioactive material and management of the hospitalization path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Muni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The organization that has to face the radiological emergencies in a nuclear disaster or terroristic attack must be carefully planned. In the hospitals with a level one Emergency Department, it is possible to draw a pathway for the contaminated patients, based on internal resources and on the recommendations of the nuclear medicine associations (as AIMN – Associazione Italiana di Medicina Nucleare; SNM – Society of Nuclear Medicine. The “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” hospital in Alessandria is a modern hospital and is the reference of an extended area, for its many highly specialized departments. In this background, and in a hospital with a level one Emergency Department, there are three qualified departments, able to play a primary role in the emergency management of the individuals potentially contaminated by nuclear materials: Emergency Department, Nuclear Medicine Unit and Health Physics Unit. Therefore the Alessandria Hospital is suitable to admit patients potentially contaminated by radioactive material, to determ i n e the level of contamination, to decontaminate them in the emergency decontamination area, to hospitalise and treat them in the nuclear medicine rooms.

  10. Test evaluation of potential heat shield contamination of an Outer Planet Probe's atmospheric sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. C.; Woeller, F. H.; Wilkins, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    An Outer Planets Probe which retains the charred heatshield during atmospheric descent must deploy a sampling tube through the heatshield to extract atmospheric samples for analysis. Once the sampling tube is deployed, the atmospheric samples ingested must be free of contaminant gases generated by the heatshield. Outgassing products such as methane and water vapor are present in planetary atmospheres and hence, ingestion of such species would result in gas analyzer measurement uncertainties. This paper evaluates the potential for, and design impact of, the extracted atmospheric samples being contaminated by heatshield outgassing products. Flight trajectory data for Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus entries are analyzed to define the conditions resulting in the greatest potential for outgassing products being ingested into the probe's sampling system. An experimental program is defined and described which simulates the key flow field features for a planetary flight in a ground-based test facility. The primary parameters varied in the test include: sampling tube length, injectant mass flow rate and angle of attack. Measured contaminant levels predict the critical sampling tube length for contamination avoidance. Thus, the study demonstrates the compatibility of a retained heatshield concept and high quality atmospheric trace species measurements.

  11. Potential of Trichoderma spp. strains for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pesántez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi species can degrade xenobiotic compounds contaminating the soil, including hydrocarbons. The objective of this work was to determine the potential of three strains of Trichoderma, isolated from soil contaminated with petroleum, for bioremediation. Trichoderma harzianum CCECH-Te1, Trichoderma viride CCECH-Te2 and Trichoderma psedokoningii CCECH-Te3 were included in one assay with each independent strain. The inoculum was adjusted to a concentration of 1x1010 conidia ml-1 which was applied to soil contaminated by an oil spill. After 96 days of inoculation, soil samples were taken at 10 and 15 cm depth. The content of total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals such as cadmium, nickel and lead were determined. With the data, it was calculated the percentage of removal of the analyzed compounds by each strain. At 10 cm and 15 cm depth, it was observed the removal of the compounds in percentages that reached between 47 and 69.1% in the hydrocarbons and up to 53.72% in the heavy metals. It which denoted the potential of the three strains for bioremediation in contaminated soils.   Keywords: heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, xenobiotic compounds

  12. Spatial distributions of sulphur species and sulphate-reducing bacteria provide insights into sulphur redox cycling and biodegradation hot-spots in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Pilloni, Giovanni; Ruth-Anneser, Bettina; Lueders, Tillman; Griebler, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Dissimilatory sulphate reduction (DSR) has been proven to be one of the most relevant redox reactions in the biodegradation of contaminants in groundwater. However, the possible role of sulphur species of intermediate oxidation state, as well as the role of potential re-oxidative sulphur cycling in biodegradation particularly at the groundwater table are still poorly understood. Here we used a combination of stable isotope measurements of SO42-, H2S, and S0 as well as geochemical profiling of sulphur intermediates with special emphasis on SO32-, S2O32-, and S0 to unravel possible sulphur cycling in the biodegradation of aromatics in a hydrocarbon-contaminated porous aquifer. By linking these results to the quantification of total bacterial rRNA genes and respiratory genes of sulphate reducers, as well as pyrotag sequencing of bacterial communities over depth, light is shed on possible key-organisms involved. Our results substantiate the role of DSR in biodegradation of hydrocarbons (mainly toluene) in the highly active plume fringes above and beneath the plume core. In both zones the concentration of sulphur intermediates (S0, SO32- and S2O32-) was almost twice that of other sampling-depths, indicating intense sulphur redox cycling. The dual isotopic fingerprint of oxygen and sulphur in dissolved sulphate suggested a re-oxidation of reduced sulphur compounds to sulphate especially at the upper fringe zone. An isotopic shift in δ34S of S0 of nearly +4‰ compared to the δ34S values of H2S from the same depth linked to a high abundance (∼10%) of sequence reads related to Sulphuricurvum spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria) in the same depth were indicative of intensive oxidation of S0 to sulphate in this zone. At the lower plume fringe S0 constituted the main inorganic sulphur species, possibly formed by abiotic re-oxidation of H2S with Fe(III)oxides subsequent to sulphate reduction. These results provide first insights into intense sulphur redox cycling in a hydrocarbon

  13. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  14. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging of animal feces and soil: potential use of fluorescence imaging for assessment of soil fecal contamination and compost maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination by pathogenic microorganisms can lead to serious illnesses, particularly if thermal mishandling of contaminated agricultural produce occurs and promotes the incubation of potential pathogens. Pathogenic microbial contamination of agricultural products can occur through a variety of pat...

  15. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  16. Isotopic disequilibrium and lower crustal contamination in slowly ascending magmas: Insights from Proterozoic anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, G. M.; Ashwal, L. D.

    2015-10-01

    Many Proterozoic anorthosite massifs show crustal isotopic signatures that have, for decades, fuelled debate regarding the source of these temporally-restricted magmas. Are these signatures indicative of lower crustal melting or of significant assimilation of crustal material into mantle-derived magmas? Traditional whole rock isotopic tracers (Sr, Nd, Pb and Os), like other geochemical, petrological and experimental tools, have failed to identify unambiguously the origins of the crust-like signature and resolve the source controversies for these feldspathic, cumulate intrusives. We make use of high precision Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mineral phases (plag, opx, mag) and comagmatic, high-pressure orthopyroxene megacrysts as well as whole rock anorthosites/leuconorites from the Mealy Mountains Intrusive Suite (MMIS) and the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) to probe the origin of the crustal isotopic signatures and assess the importance of differentiation at lower crustal depths. This selection of samples represents fragments from various stages of the polybaric ascent of the magmas, while the study of the Mealy Mountains Intrusive Suite and the Nain Plutonic Suite is instructive as each is intruded into crust of significantly different age and isotopic composition. We observe marked differences in the whole-rock isotopic composition of Proterozoic anorthosites and high-pressure megacrysts (e.g. εNd;T = +2 to -10) intruded into crustal terranes of different ages and isotopic compositions. Evidence for varying degrees of internal isotopic disequilibrium (ΔNd, ΔSr, ΔPb) in anorthosites from these different terranes reinforces the notion that crustal contamination, and more importantly, the nature of the crustal assimilant, has a profound influence on the chemical signature of Proterozoic anorthosites. While most samples from the MMIS and NPS show significant and measurable ΔNd and ΔPb disequilibrium, ΔSr compositions cluster around zero. This decoupling in

  17. Potential economic losses to the USA corn industry from aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N.J.; Bowers, E.; Hurburgh, C.; Wu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonize food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the United States corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the US and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from $52.1 million to $1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years. PMID:26807606

  18. Potential economic losses to the US corn industry from aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Bowers, Erin; Hurburgh, Charles; Wu, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the US corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the United States and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses the probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from US$52.1 million to US$1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years.

  19. Phytoremediation potential of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata in soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata link to Cu, Ni, and Zn phytoremediation. A 2-year microplot experiment with the tested grasses growing on metal-contaminated soil was carried out. Microplots with cement borders, measuring 1 × 1 × 1m, were filled with Haplic Luvisols soil. Simulated soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn was introduced in the following doses in mg kg(-1): 0-no metals, Cu1-100, Cu2-200, Cu3-400, Ni1-60, Ni2-100, Ni3-240, Zn1-300, Zn2-600, and Zn3-1200. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using a tolerance index (TI), bioaccumulation factor (BF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF). S. pectinata showed a higher tolerance to soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn compared to M. × giganteus. S. pectinata was found to have a high suitability for phytostabilization of Zn and lower suitability of Cu and Ni. M. × giganteus had a lower phytostabilization potential than S. pectinata. The suitability of both grasses for Zn phytoextraction depended on the age of the plants. Both grasses were not suitable for Cu and Ni phytoextraction. The research showed that one-season studies were not valuable for fully assessing the phytoremediation potential of perennial plants.

  20. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  1. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  2. Potential contaminants in the food chain: identification, prevention and issue management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Francis P

    2007-01-01

    Contaminants are a vast subject area of food safety and quality. They are generally divided into chemical, microbiological and physical classes and are present in our food chain from raw materials to finished products. They are the subject of international and national legislation that has widened to cover more and more contaminant classes and food categories. In addition, consumers have become increasingly aware of and alarmed by their risks, whether rightly or not. What is the food industry doing to ensure the safety and quality of the products we feed our children? This is a valid question which this article attempts to address from an industrial viewpoint. Chemical food safety is considered a complex field where the risk perception of consumers is often the highest. The effects of chronic or acute exposure to chemical carcinogens may cause disease conditions long after exposure that can be permanently debilitating or even fatal. It is also a moving target, as knowledge about the toxicity and occurrence data of new chemical contaminants continues to be generated. Their identification, prevention and management are challenges to the food industry as a whole. A reminder of the known chemical hazards in the food chain will be presented with an emphasis on the use of early warning to identify potential new contaminants. Early warning is also a means of prevention, anticipating food safety concerns before they become issues to manage. Current best management practices including Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points relating to the supply chain of baby foods and infant formulae will be developed. Finally, key lessons from a case study on recent contamination issues in baby food products will be presented.

  3. Soaking grapevine cuttings in water: a potential source of cross contamination by micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen WAITE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine nurseries soak cuttings in water during propagation to compensate for dehydration and promote root initiation. However, trunk disease pathogens have been isolated from soaking water, indicating cross contamination. Cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv. Sunmuscat and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris rootstock cv. 140 Ruggeri were immersed in sterilized, deionised water for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. The soaking water was cultured (25°C for 3 days on non-specific and specific media for fungi and bacteria. The base of each cutting was debarked and trimmed and three 3 mm thick, contiguous, transverse slices of wood cultured at 25°C for 3 days. The soaking water for both cultivars became contaminated with microorganisms within the first hour. Numbers of fungi iso-lated from the wood slices soaked for one hour were significantly greater than those from non-soaked cuttings. The number of bacterial colonies growing from the wood slices increased after soaking for 2‒4 h in Sunmuscat. In a second experiment Shiraz cuttings were soaked for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. The soaking water became contaminated within the first hour but only the bacterial count increased significantly over time. Microorganisms also established on the container surfaces within the first hour although there were no significant increases over 24 h. These results confirm that soaking cuttings is a potential cause of cross contamination and demonstrate contamination of cuttings occurs after relatively short periods of soaking. Avoiding exposing cuttings to water will reduce the transmission of trunk diseases in propagation.

  4. Evaluating the phytoremediation potential of Phragmites australis grown in pentachlorophenol and cadmium co-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Aissa, Nadhira Ben; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2014-01-01

    Pot-culture experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of a wetland plant species, Phragmites australis in cadmium (Cd) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) co-contaminated soil under glasshouse conditions for 70 days. The treatments included Cd (0, 5 and 50 mg kg(-1)) without or with PCP (50 and 250 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that growth of P. australis was significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP, decreasing with either Cd or PCP additions. Plant biomass was inhibited and reduced by the rate of 89 and 92% in the low and high Cd treatments and by 20 and 40% in the low and high PCP treatments compared to the control. The mixture of low Cd and low PCP lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth (by 144%). Under the joint stress of the two contaminants, the ability of Cd uptake and translocation by P. australis was weak, and the BF and TF values were inferior to 1.0. A low proportion of the metal is found aboveground in comparison to roots, indicating a restriction on transport upwards and an excluding effect on Cd uptake. Thus, P. australis cannot be useful for phytoextraction. The removal rate of PCP increased significantly (70%) in planted soil. Significant positive correlations were found between the DHA and the removal of PCP in planted soils which implied that plant root exudates promote the rhizosphere microorganisms and enzyme activity, thereby improving biodegradation of PCP. Based on results, P. australis cannot be effective for phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and PCP. Further, high levels of pollutant hamper and eventually inhibit plant growth. Therefore, developing supplementary methods (e.g. exploring the partnership of plant-microbe) for either enhancing (phytoextraction) or reducing the bioavailability of contaminants in the rhizosphere (phytostabilization) as well as plant growth promoting could significantly improve the process of phytoremediation in co-contaminated soil.

  5. Plants Rather than Mineral Fertilization Shape Microbial Community Structure and Functional Potential in Legacy Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridl, Jakub; Kolar, Michal; Strejcek, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Stursa, Petr; Paces, Jan; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions are of particular importance in polluted soils. This study sought to determine how selected plants (horseradish, black nightshade and tobacco) and NPK mineral fertilization shape the structure of soil microbial communities in legacy contaminated soil and the resultant impact of treatment on the soil microbial community functional potential. To explore these objectives, we combined shotgun metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene amplicon high throughput sequencing with data analysis approaches developed for RNA-seq. We observed that the presence of any of the selected plants rather than fertilization shaped the microbial community structure, and the microbial populations of the root zone of each plant significantly differed from one another and/or from the bulk soil, whereas the effect of the fertilizer proved to be insignificant. When we compared microbial diversity in root zones versus bulk soil, we observed an increase in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria or Bacteroidetes, taxa which are commonly considered copiotrophic. Our results thus align with the theory that fast-growing, copiotrophic, microorganisms which are adapted to ephemeral carbon inputs are enriched in the vegetated soil. Microbial functional potential indicated that some genetic determinants associated with signal transduction mechanisms, defense mechanisms or amino acid transport and metabolism differed significantly among treatments. Genetic determinants of these categories tend to be overrepresented in copiotrophic organisms. The results of our study further elucidate plant-microbe relationships in a contaminated environment with possible implications for the phyto/rhizoremediation of contaminated areas.

  6. An Integrated Approach for the Environmental Characterization of a Wide Potentially Contaminated Area in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Daniela; Albanese, Stefano; Boccia, Lorenzo; Celentano, Egidio; Cervelli, Elena; Corniello, Alfonso; Crispo, Anna; De Vivo, Benedetto; Iodice, Paolo; Langella, Carmela; Lima, Annamaria; Manno, Maurizio; Palladino, Mario; Pindozzi, Stefania; Rigillo, Marina; Romano, Nunzio; Sellerino, Mariangela; Senatore, Adolfo; Speranza, Giuseppe; Fiorentino, Nunzio; Fagnano, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the environmental characterization of a large and densely populated area, with a poor reputation for contamination, considering the contribution of environmental features (air, soil, soil hydraulic and groundwater) and the potential effects on human health. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) has made possible a georeferenced inventory and, by overlaying environmental information, an operational synthesis of comprehensive environmental conditions. The cumulative effects on environmental features were evaluated, taking into account superposition effects, by means of the Spatial MultiCriteria Decision Analysis (S-MCDA). The application of the S-MCDA for converging the combination of heterogeneous factors, related to soil, land and water, deeply studied by heterogeneous groups of experts, constitutes the novelty of the paper. The results confirmed an overall higher potential of exposure to contaminants in the environment and higher mortality rates in the study area for some tumours, but hospital admissions for tumours were generally similar to the regional trend. Besides, mortality data may be strictly dependent on the poor socioeconomic conditions, quality of therapy and a lack of welfare in the area relative to the rest of Italy. Finally, as regards the possible relationship between presence of contaminants in the environment and health conditions of the population no definite conclusions can be drawn, although the present study encourages the use of the new proposed methods, that increase the possibilities for studying the combined effect of more environmental factors. PMID:28654005

  7. A perspective on the potential risks of emerging contaminants to human and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Franco Bernardes, Mariana Furio; Pazin, Murilo; Tasso, Maria Júlia; Pereira, Paulo Henrique; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2015-09-01

    Technological, agricultural, and medical advances have improved the lifestyle of humankind. However, these advances have caused new problems that affect the environment and future generations. Emerging contaminants display properties such as low degradation potential and environmental persistence. In addition, most contaminants are lipophilic, which culminates in high bioaccumulation. The disposal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the environment underlies microbial and bacterial resistance. Plasticizers change several characteristics of industrialized materials, such as flexibility, but they are potentially carcinogenic and disrupt the endocrine system. Pesticides prevent the propagation of numerous kinds of pests; nevertheless, they exert neurotoxic and mutagenic effects, and they impact the environment negatively. Addition of flame retardants to a number of materials prevents flame propagation; however, after their release into the environment, these chemicals may bioaccumulate in organisms and disrupt the endocrine system, too. Surfactants can change the surface and interfacial properties of liquids, but their presence in the environment can interfere with countless enzymes and can even impair the endocrine system of various organisms and induce the feminization of species. Hence, gaining knowledge about emerging contaminants is increasingly important to minimize future damage and enable proper monitoring of each class of compounds in the environment which will help to improve legislation on this matter.

  8. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former USDA facility in Powhattan, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-02-02

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work to be conducted to investigate the subsurface contaminant conditions at the property formerly leased by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in Powhattan, Kansas (Figure 1.1). Data obtained during this event will be used to (1) evaluate potential contaminant source areas on the property; (2) determine the vertical and horizontal extent of potential contamination; and (3) provide recommendations for future action, with the ultimate goal of assigning this site No Further Action status. The planned investigation includes groundwater monitoring requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that has been approved by the KDHE. The Master Work Plan describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. It should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Powhattan.

  9. First evidence of persistent organic contaminants as potential anthropogenic stressors in the Barndoor Skate Dipturus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2017-01-16

    Although exploited populations of elasmobranchs may be able to recover from fishing pressure, there is little information regarding the Barndoor Skate's ability to cope with other anthropogenic stressors such as organic contaminants (OCs). Legacy OCs were measured in liver, muscle and ova from fourteen Barndoor Skates with mature skates having significantly greater mean concentrations of OCs than immature skates, demonstrating bioaccumulation with age. Using Toxic Equivalency Factors, skates were found to have levels of PCBs that have been shown to elicit negative physiological responses in other fishes and these results highlight the need for future studies to investigate the potential impacts that bioaccumulated organic contaminants have on the recovery and conservation of this vulnerable species.

  10. Contamination of Potentially Trace Metals in Aqaba and Eshidiya Phosphogypsum in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. AL-HWAITI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn and V in Jordan phosphogypsum by product has been determined. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of trace metals contamination caused by production plant of Aqaba and Eshidiya. Arsenic, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se and V have exhibited normal abundances where Cd and U had the highest enrichment factors of 16 and 4, respectively in Aqaba phosphogypsum and 18 and 1, respectively in Eshidiya phosphogypsum. In addition, the elements geo-accumulation index factor were calculated and found that As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn V are unpolluted to moderately polluted, with the exception of Cd, it shows highly polluted. Arsenic, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn show immobility to low mobility, whereas Se exhibits intermediate to high mobility. The results obtained in this study can be not worrying from the point of view of environmental safe use of phosphogypsum.

  11. Some New Insights into Trade Potential between the EU and Its Mediterranean Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Péridy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides new insights into the calculation of trade potential between the EU and its Southern and Eastern Mediterranean partners (MPs. It is based on an econometric specification which takes into account some new explanatory variables which are not included simultaneously in the previous studies. These include trade costs (tariffs, NTBs, and logistics costs, factor movement (migration and FDI, as well as governance. In addition, specific estimators are implemented in order to account for zero trade flows, endogeneity and dynamics. The main conclusion of this study is that contrary to some results found in previous studies, MPs have reached their export potential with the EU. It is also shown that there is no specificity of the MP-EU trade potential in comparison with the other main PTAs (NAFTA, MERCOSUR, and ASEAN which have also reached their trade potential. These results have strong policy implications.

  12. Delineating Groundwater Contaminant Plums Using Self-Potential Surveying Method In Perth Area Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Evans Onojasun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-potential survey was carried out in Kalamunda area of Perth Western Australia with aim of delineating groundwater contaminant plums leakages. Two self-potential electrode configuration the roving dipole where one electrode is left in a base position while the other electrode scouts each survey position and the leapfrogging approach were potential differences are measured between consecutive sample stations along the line were employed to collect data. Results obtained from the experiments shows numerous small circular potential anomalies which could be interpreted as sources of leakages due to geothermal activity but the only trends that could be correlated across all surveys were the linear E-W trend which shows the location and the direction of the pipe underground to a depth of perhaps 2m. Other anomalies on the map show variations which could be as a result of trees interference on the observed data.

  13. Phytosiderophore Effects on Subsurface Actinide Contaminants: Potential for Phytostabilization and Phytoextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Christy

    2005-06-01

    This project seeks to understand the influence of phytosiderophore-producing plants (grasses, including crops such as wheat and barley) on the biogeochemistry of actinide and other metal contaminants in the subsurface environment, and to determine the potential of phytosiderophore-producing plants for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of actinides and some metal soil contaminants. Phytosiderophores are secreted by graminaceous plants such as barley and wheat for the solubilization, mobilization and uptake of Fe and other essential nutrients from soils. The ability for these phytosiderophores to chelate and absorb actinides using the same uptake system as for Fe is being investigated though characterization of actinide-phytosiderophore complexes (independently of plants), and characterization of plant uptake of such complexes. We may also show possible harm caused by these plants through increased chelation of actinides that increase in actinide mobilization & migration in the subsurface environment. This information can then be directly applied by either removal of harmful plants, or can be used to develop plant-based soil stabilization/remediation technologies. Such technologies could be the low-cost, low risk solution to many DOE actinide contamination problems.

  14. Acoustic Cavitation: A Potential Remediation Technology for On-Site Elimination of Perfluorinated Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecitis, C. D.; Cheng, J.; Park, H.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals are emerging as globally ubiquitous contaminants which are recalcitrant to the conventional remediation techniques of adsorption and chemical oxidation. The release of these chemicals to the environment occurs from specific sites such as manufacturing plants, fire-fighting foams at airports and contaminated landfills. Even though these compounds are widely recognized as potentially hazardous, disposal regulations have been limited due to the ineffectiveness of current pump and treat technologies towards these species. We have shown that ultrasonically induced acoustic cavitation can effectively mineralize aqueous perfluorinated acid and sulfonate species by in situ pyrolysis and chemical oxidation at the lab and pilot scale. Efficiency has been tested on a variety of matrices such as tap water, groundwater and landfill pump-out with VOC content being the major detriment towards remediation. Advanced oxidation by the simultaneously application of ozone and ultrasound seems to partially eliminate this barrier by enhancing the rate of VOC mineralization. Application of this technology to a contaminated field site and the obstacles of scaling to such a degree are discussed.

  15. Printed paper and board food contact materials as a potential source of food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Van Hoeck, Els; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Mertens, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are estimated to be the largest source of food contamination. Apart from plastics, the most commonly used FCM are made of printed paper and board. Unlike their plastic counterparts, these are not covered by a specific European regulation. Several contamination issues have raised concerns towards potential adverse health effects caused by exposure to substances migrating from printed paper and board FCM. In the current study, an inventory combining the substances which may be used in printed paper and board FCM, was created. More than 6000 unique compounds were identified, the majority (77%) considered non-evaluated in terms of potential toxicity. Based on a preliminary study of their physicochemical properties, it is estimated that most of the non-evaluated single substances have the potential to migrate into the food and become bioavailable after oral intake. Almost all are included in the FACET tool, indicating that their use in primary food packaging has been confirmed by industry. Importantly, 19 substances are also present in one of the lists with substances of concern compiled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). To ensure consumer safety, the actual use of these substances in printed paper and board FCM should be investigated urgently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of biodegradation potential by two culture-independent methods in PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H S; Kahng, H-Y; Kim, J Y; Kukor, J J; Nam, K

    2006-04-01

    Biodegradation potentials of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined with soil samples collected from various depths of a PAH-contaminated site and of a site nearby where PAHs were not found. Putative dioxygenase genes were amplified by a primer set specific for initial dioxygenases and identified by web-based database homology search. They were further categorized into several groups of which four dioxygenases were selected as probes for DNA hybridization. The hybridization signals according to the presence of putative dioxygenases were positively related to the extent of PAH contamination. However, the signal intensities varied depending on the probes hybridized and moreover were not consistent with PAH biodegradation activities determined by CO2 evolution. Despite widely accepted advantages of molecular biodegradation assessment, our data clearly present the variations of assessment results depending on the genetic information used and suggest that the methodology may tend to underestimate the real biodegradation capacity of a site probably due to the limited dioxygenase database available at the moment. Therefore, the molecular assessment of biodegradation potential should involve a very careful primer and probe design and an extensive microbiological examination of a site of interest to accurately delineate the biodegradation potential of the site.

  17. Comparison of phytoremediation potential of three grass species in soil contaminated with cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołda Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the toleration of Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne and Festuca rubra to cadmium contamination as well as the phytoremediation potential of these three species of grass. The pot experiment was conducted in four replications in pots containing 2.0 kg of soil. The soil was contaminated with three doses of Cd – 30, 60 and 120 mg·kg−1. After two months, the aerial parts of plants were harvested. The roots were dug up, brushed off from the remaining soil and washed with water. The biomass was defined and the cadmium concentration was determined in aerial parts and roots. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using biomass of grasses, bioaccumulation factor (BF and translocation factor (TF. All three tested species of grasses had TF 1. It indicates their suitability for phytostabilisation and makes them unsuitable for phytoextraction of Cd from the soil. Comparing the usefulness of the tested grasses for phytoremediation has shown that the phytostabilisation potential of P. pratensis was lower than that of L. perenne and F. rubra. P. pratensis was distinguished by higher TF, smaller root biomass and lower tolerance for Cd excess in the soil in comparison with the two other test grasses. At the same time, L. perenne was characterised by the smallest decrease in biomass and the largest Cd accumulation in roots at the lowest dose of Cd. It indicates good usefulness for phytostabilisation of soils characterised by a relatively small pollution by cadmium.

  18. [Preliminary study on bacteroides as the potential fecal contamination indicator bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-yan; Chen, Zhi-jin; Ding, Xiao-bei; Huang, Wei; Yang, Rui-jia; Pei, Xiao-fang

    2011-03-01

    To explore the possibility of Bacteroides spp. as fecal contamination indicator bacteria with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) assay through analyzing the correlation between Bacteroides spp. and coliform group in external environment. Quantity of coliform group and Bacteroides in water samples were detected by most-probable-number method (MPN) and RT-PCR, respectively, and their detection correlation was evaluated with linear correlation analysis. Both methods were also applied to detect the contaminated time limits and river water samples collected at four sampling sites in three different times. Seventy two hours were needed for the numeration of coliform group with MPN method, while RT-PCR could detect Bacteroides within 3 hours. The contaminated time limit of indoor and outdoor water samples of coliform group was more than 40 days and 9 days, and Bacteroides 13 days and 5 days, respectively. Also, the positive correlation between the quantity of Bacteroides and coliform group in outdoor water samples was obtained, the quantity of Bacteroides was from 8.3 × 10(6) copies/ml to less than 10(4) copies/ml during the first day to the fifth day, while coliform group was 4.3 × 10(6) MPN/100 ml to 2.4 × 10(3) MPN/100 ml. A 100% coincidence rate of the detection results with both methods was also observed. These results indicated that the detection results of both methods had perfect consistency. Bacteroides spp. can be potentially used as fecal contamination indicator bacteria with RT-PCR rapid detection.

  19. Persistence and potential effects of complex organic contaminant mixtures in wastewater-impacted streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Natural and synthetic organic contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can cause ecosystem impacts, raising concerns about their persistence in receiving streams. In this study, Lagrangian sampling, in which the same approximate parcel of water is tracked as it moves downstream, was conducted at Boulder Creek, Colorado and Fourmile Creek, Iowa to determine in-stream transport and attenuation of organic contaminants discharged from two secondary WWTPs. Similar stream reaches were evaluated, and samples were collected at multiple sites during summer and spring hydrologic conditions. Travel times to the most downstream (7.4 km) site in Boulder Creek were 6.2 h during the summer and 9.3 h during the spring, and to the Fourmile Creek 8.4 km downstream site times were 18 and 8.8 h, respectively. Discharge was measured at each site, and integrated composite samples were collected and analyzed for >200 organic contaminants including metal complexing agents, nonionic surfactant degradates, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and pesticides. The highest concentration (>100 μg L–1) compounds detected in both WWTP effluents were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylate oligomers, both of which persisted for at least 7 km downstream from the WWTPs. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals were lower (<1 μg L–1), and several compounds, including carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole, were detected throughout the study reaches. After accounting for in-stream dilution, a complex mixture of contaminants showed little attenuation and was persistent in the receiving streams at concentrations with potential ecosystem implications.

  20. Lead-based paint in dwellings: The potential for contamination of the home environment during renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, M J; Hutton, M

    1987-12-01

    The quantity and particle size characteristics of lead in dust released during three different paint removal techniques was determined under controlled conditions and in situ in a dwelling. Air-lead and deposited dust-lead levels were highest after sanding but 'burning-off' and 'hot-air' removal methods also produced significant contamination. The importance of dust particle-size and lead is discussed in relation to the potential hazard to home renovators via inhalation and to children via the 'hand-to-mouth' route.

  1. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota: 1996 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tsao, C.L. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). School of the Environment

    1996-06-01

    This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life form contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening for benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented herein. This report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility. Also included is the updates of benchmark values where appropriate, new benchmark values, secondary sources are replaced by primary sources, and a more complete documentation of the sources and derivation of all values are presented.

  2. Phytoremediation potential of cadmium-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus under different coppice systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Xie, Xianming

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the phytoremediation potential of Eucalyptus globulus in Cd contaminated soil through two different harvest methods. Although replanting is more expensive than coppicing and produces less aboveground biomass, more Cd can be removed from the soil with roots removal at each harvest as the E. globulus absorbs vast majority of heavy metals in non-metabolically active parts like roots. Despite the higher cost of replanting in a single harvest, when phytoremediation efficiency and total duration are considered as important factors, the replanting treatment should be recommended as an appropriate method which can decrease the phytoremediation time obviously.

  3. [ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL RISK FOR CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER RESERVOIRS BY PATHOGENS OF HUMAN PARASITIC DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Dumbadze, O S; Aidinov, G T; Shendo, G L; Agirov, A Kh; Batchaev, Kh Kh

    2015-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitological studies of the waste effluents and surface reservoir waters were conducted in the south of Russia. The efficiency of purification of waste effluents from the pathogens of parasitic diseases was investigated in the region's sewage-purification facilities. The water of the surface water reservoirs was found to contain helminthic eggs and larvae and intestinal protozoan cysts because of the poor purification and disinfection of service fecal sewage waters. The poor purification and disinvasion of waste effluents in the region determine the potential risk of contamination of the surface water reservoirs and infection of the population with the pathogens of human parasitic diseases.

  4. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry

  5. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances; Guide methodologique: gestion des sites industriels potentiellement contamines par des substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  6. Final report : results of the 2007 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Powhattan, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-15

    The 2007 investigation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination at Powhattan, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2006a). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The primary purposes of the investigation were to evaluate potential contaminant source areas on the former CCC/USDA property, determine the horizontal and vertical extent of potential contamination, conduct groundwater monitoring, and provide recommendations for future action.

  7. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract.

  8. Potential of the Galega – Rhizobium galegae System for Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M. Jussila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation potential of the nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant Galega orientalis Lam. and its microsymbiont Rhizobium galegae was evaluated in microcosm and mesocosm scale in oil and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene contaminated soils, with m-toluate serving as a model for the latter group. G. orientalis and Rhizobium galegae remained viable in m-toluate fractions up to 3000 ppm. Plant growth and nodulation were inhibited in 500 ppm m-toluate, but were restored when plants were transferred to clean medium. In soil, G. orientalis nodulated and showed good growth in 2000 ppm m-toluate as well as in diesel-contaminated soil in the field, where the plant was stimulating bacterial growth in the rhizosphere. A collection of 52 indigenous m-toluate-tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of G. orientalis was characterised and identified by classical and molecular biological methods. 16SrDNA PCR-RFLP and (GTG5-PCR genomic fingerprinting combined with partial sequencing indicated the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. A TOL plasmid-specific xylE-PCR was developed in order to detect both active and potential degraders of m-toluate. The ability to degrade m-toluate in the presence of the gene xylE was detected only within the genus Pseudomonas. The isolates were tested for capacity to grow on m-toluate as their sole carbon and energy source. In laboratory experiments, the best rhizosphere isolates performed equally well to the positive control strain and are good candidates for inoculant production in the future. They have been tagged with marker genes for further studies on colonisation and persistence.

  9. Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Brenner, Nicole C.; Martin, Louise M.; Spencer, Emma; Delima, Jennifer; Singh, Gurmeet; McCann, Frances; Hudson, Carolyn; Johns, Tracy; Giffard, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. Methods The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. Results The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. Conclusions This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible. PMID:25349693

  10. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  11. Evaluation of the phytoremediation potential of Arundo donax L. for nickel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atma, Wafa; Larouci, Mohammed; Meddah, Boumedienne; Benabdeli, Khéloufi; Sonnet, Pascal

    2017-04-03

    This study investigates the accumulation and distribution of nickel in Arundo donax L. parts to assess the potential use of this plant in phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated soils. The effect of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and nutrient solution containing NPK on the plant was proped. A 35-day pot experiment was performed in the laboratory and the pots were irrigated with Ni-contaminated solution combined or not with EDTA and NPK. The growth of plants was evaluated at the end of the experiment. The accumulation of Ni was analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The obtained results indicate that the plant was able to survive with high Ni content. The growth and the concentrations of Ni in the plant tissues were less affected. In the absence of the amendments, Ni was accumulated in the stems and leaves. However, the addition of NPK significantly reduced Ni concentration in the stems and leaves. The application of EDTA enhanced Ni uptake in roots. The translocation factor (TF) was greater than 1, which categorizes A. donax L. as a great candidate for Ni phytoextraction. A. donax L. is suitable for phytoremediation of Ni. This investigation contributes to the studies on the potential of phytoremediation technologies in Algeria.

  12. The potential of Thelypteris palustris and Asparagus sprengeri in phytoremediation of arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, LaShunda L; Walsh, Maud; Roy, Amitava; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Merchan, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    The potential of two plants, Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) and Asparagus sprengeri (asparagus fern), for phytoremediation of arsenic contamination was evaluated. The plants were chosen for this study because of the discovery of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata (Ma et al., 2001) and previous research indicating asparagus fern's ability to tolerate > 1200 ppm soil arsenic. Objectives were (1) to assess if selected plants are arsenic hyperaccumulators; and (2) to assess changes in the species of arsenic upon accumulation in selected plants. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments arsenic treatment levels were established by adding potassium arsenate to solution. All plants were placed into the hydroponic experiments while still potted in their growth media. Marsh fern and Asparagus fern can both accumulate arsenic. Marsh fern bioaccumulation factors (> 10) are in the range of known hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata Therefore, Thelypteris palustris is may be a good candidate for remediation of arsenic soil contamination levels of arsenic. Total oxidation of As (III) to As (V) does not occur in asparagus fern. The asparagus fern is arsenic tolerant (bioaccumulation factors < 10), but is not considered a good potential phytoremediation candidate.

  13. F-RISA fungal clones as potential bioindicators of organic and metal contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J W; Fomina, M; Gadd, G M

    2010-08-01

    This work has examined the effects of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and selected toxic metals on fungal populations in a soil microcosm. By using fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (F-RISA) in combination with real-time PCR quantification, four fungi (D63P2-1, D63C2-1, D21Cu1-1 and D63Pb2-2) with specific primer pairs to each were successfully evaluated for their potential as bioindicators in response to pyrene, copper (Cu) and lead (Pb), supplied singly and in combination. F-RISA coupled with real-time PCR is a useful approach for the identification of microorganisms with potential as bioindicators of organic and toxic metal contamination. These bioindicators could be monitored for their population changes that may indicate pollutant-induced perturbations in a given system.

  14. Dose potential of sludge contaminated and/or TRU contaminated waste in B-25s for tornado and straight wind events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aponte, C.I.

    2000-02-17

    F and H Tank Farms generate supernate and sludge contaminated Low-Level Waste. The waste is collected, characterized, and packaged for disposal. Before the waste can be disposed of, however, it must be properly characterized. Since the radionuclide distribution in typical supernate is well known, its characterization is relatively straight forward and requires minimal effort. Non-routine waste, including potentially sludge contaminated, requires much more effort to effectively characterize. The radionuclide distribution must be determined. In some cases the waste can be contaminated by various sludge transfers with unique radionuclide distributions. In these cases, the characterization can require an extensive effort. Even after an extensive characterization effort, the container must still be prepared for shipping. Therefore a significant amount of time may elapse from the time the waste is generated until the time of disposal. During the time it is possible for a tornado or high wind scenario to occur. The purpose of this report is to determine the effect of a tornado on potential sludge contaminated waste, or Transuranic (TRU) waste in B-25s [large storage containers], to evaluate the potential impact on F and H Tank Farms, and to help establish a B-25 control program for tornado events.

  15. Enhancing Potentially Plant-Available Lead Concentrations in Contaminated Residential Soils Using a Biodegradable Chelating Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, S.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S.

    2007-12-01

    Chelation of heavy metals is an important factor in enhancing metal solubility and, hence, metal availability to plants to promote phytoremediation. In the present study, we compared the effects of application of a biodegradable chelating agent, namely, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) on enhancing plant available form of lead (Pb) in Pb-based paint contaminated residential soils compared to that of a more commonly used, but non-biodegradable chelate, i.e., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Development of a successful phytoremediation model for metals such as Pb depends on a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, along with the optimization of a chelate treatment to mobilize Pb from `unavailable' pools to potentially plant available fraction. In this context, we set out to perform batch incubation experiments to investigate the effectiveness of the two aforementioned chelates in enhancing plant available Pb at four different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 mM/kg soil) and three treatment durations (0, 10 and 30 days). We selected 12 contaminated residential soils from two major metropolitan areas (San Antonio, TX and Baltimore, MD) with varying soil physico-chemical properties - the soils from San Antonio were primarily alkaline and those from Baltimore were typically acidic. Total soil Pb concentrations ranged between 256 mg/kg and 4,182 mg/kg. Our results show that both chelates increased the solubility of Pb, otherwise occluded in the complex soil matrix. For both EDTA and EDDS, the exchangeable concentrations of soil Pb also increased with increase in chelate concentration and incubation time. The most effective treatment was 15 mM chelate kg-1 soil incubated for 30 days, which caused many fold increase in potentially plant available Pb (a combination of the soluble and exchangeable fractions) relative to the unamended controls. Step wise multiple linear regression analysis using chelate-extractable Pb and soil

  16. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota: 1994 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mabrey, J.B. [University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented herein. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. For the upper screening benchmark, there are the acute National Ambient Water Quality Criteria (NAWQC) and the Secondary Acute Values (SAV). The SAV concentrations are values estimated with 80% confidence not to exceed the unknown acute NAWQC for those chemicals with no NAWQC. The alternative chronic benchmarks are the chronic NAWQC, the Secondary Chronic Value (SCV), the lowest chronic values for fish and daphnids from chronic toxicity tests, the estimated EC20 for a sensitive species, and the concentration estimated to cause a 20% reduction in the recruit abundance of largemouth bass. It is recommended that ambient chemical concentrations be compared to all of these benchmarks. If NAWQC are exceeded, the chemicals must be contaminants of concern because the NAWQC are applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). If NAWQC are not exceeded, but other benchmarks are, contaminants should be selected on the basis of the number of benchmarks exceeded and the conservatism of the particular benchmark values, as discussed in the text. To the extent that toxicity data are available, this report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate benchmarks and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility.

  17. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.

  18. Mussels (Perna perna as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisi Ferreira Mariné Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60 were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21 and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21. The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2 were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants.

  19. Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Sefaur; Sinha, A C; Pati, R; Mukhopadhyay, D

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is becoming more and more a worldwide problem. Nearing 50 million of people are at health risk from arsenic contamination at Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin. The experimental results of the five blocks under Malda district of West Bengal, India, showed that the arsenic concentration in groundwater (0.41-1.01 mg/l) was higher than the permissible limit for drinking water (0.01 mg/l) (WHO) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) permissible limit for irrigation water (0.10 mg/l). The soil arsenic level (13.12 mg/kg) crossed the global average (10.0 mg/kg), but within the maximum acceptable limit for agricultural soil (20.0 mg/kg) recommended by the European Union. The total arsenic concentration on food crops varied from 0.000 to 1.464 mg/kg of dry weight. The highest mean arsenic concentration was found in potato (0.456 mg/kg), followed by rice grain (0.429 mg/kg). The total mean arsenic content (milligrams per kg dry weight) in cereals ranged from 0.121 to 0.429 mg/kg, in pulses and oilseeds ranged from 0.076 to 0.168 mg/kg, in tuber crops ranged from 0.243 to 0.456 mg/kg, in spices ranged from 0.031 to 0.175 mg/kg, in fruits ranged from 0.021 to 0.145 mg/kg and in vegetables ranged from 0.032 to 0.411 mg/kg, respectively. Hence, arsenic accumulation in cereals, pulses, oilseed, vegetables, spices, cole crop and fruits crop might not be safe in future without any sustainable mitigation strategies to avert the potential arsenic toxicity on the human health in the contaminated areas.

  20. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-04-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants.

  1. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  2. Phytoremediation potential of wild plants growing on soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čudić, Vladica; Stojiljković, Dragoslava; Jovović, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants to cleanup contaminated environments, including metal-polluted soils. Because it produces a biomass rich in extracted toxic metals, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. The aim of our study was to assess the five-year potential of the following native wild plants to produce biomass and remove heavy metals from a polluted site: poplar (Populus ssp.), ailanthus (Ailanthus glandulosa L.), false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), ragweed (Artemisia artemisiifolia L.), and mullein (Verbascum thapsus L). Average soil contamination with Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the root zone was 22,948.6 mg kg-1, 865.4 mg kg-1, 85,301.7 mg kg-1, 3,193.3 mg kg-1, 50.7 mg kg-1, 41.7 mg kg-1,and 617.9 mg kg-1, respectively. We measured moisture and ash content, concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the above-ground parts of the plants and in ash produced by combustion of the plants, plus gross calorific values. The plants' phytoextraction and phytostabilisation potential was evaluated based on their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF). Mullein was identified as a hyperaccumulator for Cd. It also showed a higher gross calorific value (19,735 kJ kg-1) than ragweed (16,469 kJ kg-1).The results of this study suggest that mullein has a great potential for phytoextraction and for biomass generation, and that ragweed could be an effective tool of phytostabilisation.

  3. Assessment of Potential Location of High Arsenic Contamination Using Fuzzy Overlay and Spatial Anisotropy Approach in Iron Mine Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanes Weerasiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19±2.86, 6.60±3.04, and 4.90±2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest.

  4. Assessment of potential location of high arsenic contamination using fuzzy overlay and spatial anisotropy approach in iron mine surrounding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasiri, Thanes; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Srisatit, Thares

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19 ± 2.86, 6.60 ± 3.04, and 4.90 ± 2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL) for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest.

  5. Engineered Nanoparticles as Potential Food Contaminants and Their Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaomo; Nguyen, Trang H D; Lin, Mengshi; Mustapha, Azlin

    2016-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as metallic or metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs), have gained much attention in recent years. Increasing use of ENPs in various areas may lead to the release of ENPs into the environment and cause the contamination of agricultural and food products by ENPs. In this study, we selected two important ENPs (zinc oxide [ZnO] and silver [Ag] NPs) as potential food contaminants and investigated their toxicity via an in vitro model using Caco-2 cells. The physical properties of ENPs and their effects on Caco-2 cells were characterized by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) techniques. Results demonstrate that a significant inhibition of cell viability was observed after a 24-h of exposure of Caco-2 cells to 3-, 6-, and 12-mM ZnO NPs or 0.5-, 1.5-, and 3-mM Ag NPs. The noticeable changes of cells include the alteration in cell shape, abnormal nuclear structure, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasmic deterioration. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, but not that of Ag NPs after exposure to simulated gastric fluid, significantly decreased. Scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that ZnO and Ag NPs penetrated the membrane of Caco-2 cells. EDS results also confirm the presence of NPs in the cytoplasm of the cells. This study demonstrates that ZnO and Ag NPs have cytotoxic effects and can inhibit the growth of Caco-2 cells.

  6. Phytoremediation potential of some agricultural plants on heavy metal contaminated mine waste soils, salem district, tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmapriya, S; Murugan, N; Ragavendran, C; Thangabalu, R; Natarajan, D

    2016-01-01

    The Pot culture experiment performed for phytoextraction potential of selected agricultural plants [millet (Eleusine coracana), mustard (Brassica juncea), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), black gram (Vigna mungo), pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)] grown in metal contaminated soils around the Salem region, Tamilnadu, India. Physiochemical characterization of soils, reported as low to medium level of N, P, K was found in test soils. The Cr content higher in mine soils than control and the values are 0.176 mg/L in Dalmia soil and 0.049 mg/L in Burn & Co soil. The germination rate low in mine soil than control soils (25 to 85%). The content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, carbohydrate and protein decreased in mine soils than control. The morphological parameters and biomass values decreased in experimental plants due to metal accumulation. Proline content increased in test plants and ranged from 0.113 mg g(-1) to 0.858 mg g(-1) which indicate the stress condition due to toxicity of metals. Sorghum and black gram plants reported as metal tolerant capacity. Among the plants, Sorghum produced good results (both biomass and biochemical parameters) which equal to control plant and suggests Sorghum plant is an ideal for remediation of metal contaminated soils.

  7. Potential of weed species applied to remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shu-He; ZHOU Qi-Xing; WANG Xin; CAO Wei; REN Li-ping; SONG Yu-fang

    2004-01-01

    To screen out a series of ideal plants that can effectively remedy contaminated soils by heavy metals is the main groundwork of phytoremediation engineering and the first step of its commercial application on a large scale. In this study, accumulation and endurance of 45 weed species in 16 families from an agricultural site were in situ examined by using the pot-culture field experiment, and remediation potential of some weed species with high accumulation of heavy metals was assayed. The results showed that Solanum nigrum and Conyza canadensis can not only accumulate high concentration of Cd, but also strongly endure to single Cd and Cd-Pb-Cu-Zn combined pollution. Thus the 2 weed species can be regarded as good hyperaccumulators for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. Although there were high Cd-accumulation in Artemigia selengensis, Znula britannica, Artemigia selengensis and Cephalanoplos setosum, their biomass was adversely affected due to action of heavy metals in the soils. If the problem of low endurance to heavy metals can be solved by a reinforcer, the 4 weed species can be perhaps applied commercially.

  8. The phytoremediation potential of bioenergy crop Ricinus communis for DDTs and cadmium co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huagang; Yu, Ning; Wang, Lijun; Gupta, D K; He, Zhenli; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yan, Xingchu; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) or its metabolite residues are frequently detected in agricultural soils and food, posing a threat to human health. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of 23 genotypes of Ricinus communis in mobilizing and uptake of Cd and DDTs (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE) in the co-contaminated soil. The plant genotypes varied largely in the uptake and accumulation of DDTs and Cd, with mean concentrations of 0.37, 0.43 and 70.51 for DDTs, and 1.22, 2.27 and 37.63 mg kg(-1) dw for Cd in leaf, stem and root, respectively. The total uptake of DDTs and Cd varied from 83.1 to 267.8 and 66.0 to 155.1 μg per pot, respectively. These results indicate that R. communis has great potential for removing DDTs and Cd from contaminated soils attributed to its fast growth, high biomass, strong absorption and accumulation for both DDTs and Cd. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential Application of Nanomaterials to treat and detect the contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    An ecosystem is very immense to maintain global environmental balance but an imbalance of water alters the function of ecosystems that affects all life on our planet Earth. The destruction of agricultural land, lakes, ponds, rivers, and oceans locally and globally creates environmental imbalances so that catastrophically damage to be appeared widely. The water cycle continually circulates evaporated water into the atmosphere and returns it as precipitation in balance form. If variety of toxins, heavy metals, oils and agricultural chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, all get absorbed into soil and groundwater. Then an imbalance appeared for example runoff carries these pollutants into lakes, rivers and oceanic water, as a result, all forms of water evaporated as part of the water cycle and return to the earth as acid rain, which causes worldwide environmental imbalances by killing our ecosystems. Deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization create environmental imbalances in many ways. Soil erosion in the form of dust from wind causes human infectious diseases, including anthrax and tuberculosis. An environmental imbalance occurs due to greenhouse gases, which accumulate in the atmosphere and trap excessive amounts of heat causes global warming, that is purportedly responsible for environmental disasters such as, rising sea levels, floods and the melting of polar ice caps. Our problem is "all talk, no action" and "jack of all trades, master of none". Our efforts in this hot topic are to make balance of water rather than imbalance of water by using positive potential of naomaterials utility and applications to eliminate toxicants/pollutants/adulterants/carcinogens from all forms of imbalance water to save our local and global ecosystems as a balance and healthy wealthy. Several natural, engineered, and non-engineered nanomaterials have strong antimicrobial properties (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, AgNPs, CNTs, fullerene, graphene), used as antimicrobial agents as

  10. Meta-analysis of biochar potential for pollutant immobilization and stabilization in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Marsz, Aleksandra; Fristak, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    -reviewed literature about the immobilizing potential of biochar for pollutants, we could use about 1300 comparisons of biochar application versus no application for a range of organic and inorganic pollutants in a soil environment. Our assessments have shown that in the average of all studies biochar decreased the availability of cationic heavy metals and organic pollutants significantly by 40-50 %. We could confirm that an increasing biochar application rate also increases contaminant sorption. The only exception was found for anionic heavy metals like As or Mo that are clearly mobilized by biochar applications. Differences in sorption efficiency depend on the type of biochar, on different pollutants and on the compartment where the reduction of bioavailability has been studied.

  11. Insights into the processes behind the contamination of degraded human teeth and bone samples with exogenous sources of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, E.

    2006-01-01

    A principal problem facing human DNA studies that use old and degraded remains is contamination from other sources of human DNA. In this study we have attempted to contaminate deliberately bones and teeth sampled from a medieval collection excavated in Trondheim, Norway, in order to investigate...... and are difficult to decontaminate using the tested protocol. We believe that this is largely due to the porous nature of bone and teeth facilitating the deep penetration of the contaminant DNA. To simulate a more realistic handling situation, 27 further teeth were directly handled and washed, then decontaminated...

  12. Potential and real ecological threat of heavy metals in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuzova, Galina; Barsova, Natalia; Makarichev, Ivan; Karpova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Introduction. Microelements or heavy metals (HM) occur in nature and are required for living organisms at low concentrations. High content of HM in soils characterize their potential danger for ecosystem. Their real ecological threat is presented by the mobility of HM in soils. The aim of this work was to characterize the potential and real danger of HM on the basis of HM mobility in soils and their influence of the most important soils properties. Materials and methods. Two types of materials are presented in this paper. The first ones are presented by the summarized information about the content of Cu, Zn, Mn and their mobile species in the soils of Russia and are included into the National Atlas of Russian soils (2011). The second part is presented by the results of laboratory experiments with some samples of Podzols, Podzoluvisol and Chernozem. The following parameters have been determined: a) the main chemical properties of soils; b) the water extracts from soils were investigated by the potentiometric titration with HM salts; c) the properties of the samples of humic acids (HA, extracted by 1n. NaOH) and HA-Cu complexes were determined: molecular-masses distribution (MMD), infrared spectra (IRS), hydrophobility, 1? NMR spectra Results and discussions. The major part of HM in soils of natural landscapes is firmly bound to several minerals. Their threat for living organisms is largely dependent on a relatively higher mobility of HM in soils. The main factors affecting the mobility of HM include soil reaction and sorption processes. In soils of natural landscapes the share of mobile HM compounds is estimated as some per cents from their total content. Having used the data about microelements in soils, their availability to living organisms, 14 natural biogeochemical provinces have been distinguished at the territory of the European part of the former USSR. It permitted to show the adverse impact rendered by microelements at low or high concentrations on living

  13. Potential bio-indicator for soil contamination in semi-tropical area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuying Lai; Paoshan Weng; Tiehchi Chu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Science

    1996-03-01

    Three kinds of common plant: bastard banian (Ficus retusa), hsianshih trees (Acacia confusa) and pine trees including their cones grown in semitropical areas were investigated to serve as bio-indicators for {sup 137}Cs contamination in soil in Taiwan. Gamma spectroscopy was performed to measure the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in soil and different parts of the plants. The results indicate that either the pendent rootlets of the bastard banian or the pine trees including its cones can be used as bio-indicators for environmental radioactivity monitoring. Though the effectiveness of the hsianshih tree as an indicator is known to be inferior to others, its popularity makes it a potential bio-indicator in semitropical area. (author).

  14. Screening of native plant species for phytoremediation potential at a Hg-contaminated mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2016-01-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury (Hg), and therefore, one of the major sources of Hg pollution in the environment. This study was conducted in the Alacrán gold-mining site, one of the most important ASGM sites in Colombia, to identify native plant species growing in Hg-contaminated soils used for agricultural purposes, and to assess their potential as phytoremediation systems. Twenty-four native plant species were identified and analysed for total Hg (THg) in different tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) and in underlying soils. Accumulation factors (AF) in the shoots, translocation (TF) from roots to shoots, and bioconcentration (BCF) from soil-to-roots were determined. Different tissues from all plant species were classified in the order of decreasing accumulation of Hg as follows: roots > leaves > stems. THg concentrations in soil ranged from 230 to 6320 ng g(-1). TF values varied from 0.33 to 1.73, with high values in the lower Hg-contaminated soils. No correlation was found between soils with low concentrations of Hg and plant leaves, indicating that TF is not a very accurate indicator, since most of the Hg input to leaves at ASGM sites comes from the atmosphere. On the other hand, the BCF ranged from 0.28 to 0.99, with Jatropha curcas showing the highest value. Despite their low biomass production, several herbs and sub-shrubs are suitable for phytoremediation application in the field, due to their fast growth and high AF values in large and easily harvestable plant parts. Among these species, herbs such as Piper marginathum and Stecherus bifidus, and the sub-shrubs J. curcas and Capsicum annuum are promising native plants with the potential to be used in the phytoremediation of soils in tropical areas that are impacted by mining.

  15. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-01-27

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work that will be conducted to investigate the subsurface contaminant conditions at the property formerly leased by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in Ramona, Kansas (Figure 1.1). Data obtained during this event will be used to (1) evaluate potential source areas on the property, (2) determine the vertical and horizontal extent of potential contamination, and (3) provide recommendations for future actions, with the ultimate goal of assigning this site No Further Action status. The planned investigation includes groundwater monitoring requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy. Under the Intergovernmental Agreement, Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne has issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. The Master Work Plan was approved by the KDHE. It contains materials common to investigations at locations in Kansas and should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Ramona.

  16. Exploring the role of shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean in determining the Arctic contamination potential of neutral organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Meyer, Torsten; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank

    2013-01-15

    The main objective of this study was to model the contribution of shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean to the total mass of neutral organic contaminants accumulated in the Arctic environment using a standardized emission scenario for sets of hypothetical chemicals and realistic emission estimates (1930-2100) for polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153). Shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean are shown to be important reservoirs for neutral organic chemicals across a wide range of partitioning properties, increasing the total mass in the surface compartments of the Arctic environment by up to 3.5-fold compared to simulations excluding this compartment. The relative change in total mass for hydrophobic organic chemicals with log air-water partition coefficients ≥0 was greater than for chemicals with properties similar to typical POPs. The long-term simulation of PCB-153 generated modeled concentrations in shelf sediments in reasonable agreement with available monitoring data and illustrate that the relative importance of shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean for influencing surface ocean concentrations (and therefore exposure via the pelagic food web) is most pronounced once primary emissions are exhausted and secondary sources dominate. Additional monitoring and modeling work to better characterize the role of shelf sediments for contaminant fate is recommended.

  17. Right Hemispheric Dominance of Creative Insight: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wangbing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemispheric effect of creative insight. This study used high-density ERPs to record participants' brain activity while they performed an insight task. Results showed that both insight solutions and incomprehension solutions elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N320~550) than noninsight solutions…

  18. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  19. Structural insights into Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 2 mediated prediction of potentially active semiochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-03-01

    Given the advantages of behavioral disruption application in pest control and the damage of Cydia pomonella, due progresses have not been made in searching active semiochemicals for codling moth. In this research, 31 candidate semiochemicals were ranked for their binding potential to Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 2 (CpomPBP2) by simulated docking, and this sorted result was confirmed by competitive binding assay. This high predicting accuracy of virtual screening led to the construction of a rapid and viable method for semiochemicals searching. By reference to binding mode analyses, hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction were suggested to be two key factors in determining ligand affinity, so is the length of molecule chain. So it is concluded that semiochemicals of appropriate chain length with hydroxyl group or carbonyl group at one head tended to be favored by CpomPBP2. Residues involved in binding with each ligand were pointed out as well, which were verified by computational alanine scanning mutagenesis. Progress made in the present study helps establish an efficient method for predicting potentially active compounds and prepares for the application of high-throughput virtual screening in searching semiochemicals by taking insights into binding mode analyses.

  20. Perspective: Insight into reaction coordinates and dynamics from the potential energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, D. J.

    2015-04-01

    This perspective focuses on conceptual and computational aspects of the potential energy landscape framework. It has two objectives: first to summarise some key developments of the approach and second to illustrate how such techniques can be applied using a specific example that exploits knowledge of pathways. Recent developments in theory and simulation within the landscape framework are first outlined, including methods for structure prediction, analysis of global thermodynamic properties, and treatment of rare event dynamics. We then develop a connection between the kinetic transition network treatment of dynamics and a potential of mean force defined by a reaction coordinate. The effect of projection from the full configuration space to low dimensionality is illustrated for an atomic cluster. In this example, where a relatively successful structural order parameter is available, the principal change in cluster morphology is reproduced, but some details are not faithfully represented. In contrast, a profile based on configurations that correspond to the discrete path defined geometrically retains all the barriers and minima. This comparison provides insight into the physical origins of "friction" effects in low-dimensionality descriptions of dynamics based upon a reaction coordinate.

  1. Mycopopulations and ochratoxin A: Potential contaminants of Petrovská klobása

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrovská klobása is traditionally produced dry fermented sausage from the area of Bački Petrovac (Vojvodina Province, Serbia that has been protected with designation of origin (PDO according to Serbian legislation. Contamination of this kind of sausage casings by different mould species often occur during the production process, mainly during the ripening and storage. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify moulds that contaminate ingredients used for Petrovská klobása production and its casings during different phases of ripening and storage. Sampling was done during the production process and after 2, 6, 9, 11, 14, 34, 65, 90, 120, 217 and 270 days. Total mould counts in components ranged from 1.60 (mechanically mixed filling to 4.14 (red hot paprika powder log10 CFU/g, while the number of moulds isolated from sausage casing surfaces ranged from 0.01 (C3 sausage, 217th day to 1.60 (C1 sausage, 270th day log10 CFU/cm2. After total mould counts were determined, isolates were identified and classified in five genera for components (Penicillium - 7 species; Fusarium - 2 species; Aspergillus - 1 species; Alternaria - 1 species; Verticilium - 1 species and 3 genera for casings surfaces (Penicllium - 3 species; Aspergillus - 1 species; Eurotium - 1 species. It was appointed that 83.33% of isolated species are potential producers of toxic metabolites. The analyses of ingredients and sausages on the presence of ochratoxin A, following the ELISA method, gave the negative results.

  2. Assessing Potential Environmental Contamination by Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs from Infected Raccoons in Southern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogdee, Jacob L; Henke, Scott E; Wester, David B; Fedynich, Alan M

    2017-03-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a large ascarid of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic threat. We documented the potential rate a raccoon population can contaminate their environment with B. procyonis eggs. We estimated the population size of raccoons using a 9 × 7 trapping grid of Havahart traps, identified locations of raccoon scats through systematic searches, and enumerated the distance B. procyonis eggs passively travel from site of origin upon scat decay. During an 8-week capture period, the raccoon population was estimated to be 19.6 ± 1.3 raccoons within the 63-ha study area (1 raccoon/3.2 ha). There were 781 defecation sites, of which 744 (95.3%) were isolated sites and 37 (4.7%) were latrine sites. Fifty-three (6.8%) defecation sites occurred in areas associated with human structures (commensal zone). Of the noncommensal sites, 9 (1.2%) and 719 (98.8%) sites were identified as latrine sites and isolated scats, respectively. More latrine sites were located within the commensal zone (p raccoon scats containing B. procyonis eggs were allowed to decay on level bare soil by way of simulated rain events, 13 were allowed to desiccate naturally in the environment, and 12 were allowed to desiccate and, subsequently, experience a simulated 1 cm rain event; eggs were found 49 ± 6, 28 ± 8, and 68 ± 8 cm from the initial scat location, respectively. We calculated that a single B. procyonis-infected raccoon could contaminate 0.03 ± 0.01 ha/year with B. procyonis eggs. Our findings indicate that B. procyonis represents a substantial risk to humans in areas where infected raccoons and humans co-occur.

  3. Validation of MODIS aerosol retrievals and evaluation of potential cloud contamination in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiang-ao; CHEN Hong-bin; WANG Pu-cai

    2004-01-01

    MODIS aerosol retrievals onboard Terra/Aqua and ground truth data obtained from AERONET(Aerosol Robtic Network) solar direct radiance measurements are collocated to evaluate the quality of the former in East Asia. AERONET stations in East Asia are separated into two groups according to their locations and the preliminary validation results for each station. The validation results showed that the accuracy of MODIS aerosol retrievals in East Asia is a little worse than that obtained in other regions such as Eastern U.S., Western Europe, Brazil and so on. The primary reason is due to the improper aerosol model used in MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm, so it is of significance to characterize aerosol properties properly according to long term ground-based remote sensing or other relevant in situ observations in order to improve MODIS retrievals in East Asia. Cloud contamination is proved to be one of large errors, which is demonstrated by the significant relation between MODIS aerosol retrievals versus cloud fraction, as well as notable improvement of linear relation between satellite and ground aerosol data after potential cloud contamination screened. Hence, it is suggested that more stringent clear sky condition be set in use of MODIS aerosol data. It should be pointed out that the improvement might be offset by other error sources in some cases because of complex relation between different errors. Large seasonal variation of surface reflection and uncertainties associated with it result in large intercepts and random error in MODIS aerosol retrievals in northern inland of East Asia. It remains to be a big problem to retrieve aerosols accurately in inland characterized by relatively larger surface reflection than the requirement in MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm.

  4. The potential risk of environmental contamination by mercury contained in Polish coal mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Antoszczyszyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains reference literature analysis concerning mercury content in Polish bituminous coal and post-mining waste as well as the impact of mercury content on the environment. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of the risk of contamination of the environment with mercury compounds found in demolition bituminous coal landfills. Mercury, due to its toxic properties has been classified among the most dangerous substances to human health. There are three groups of sources of mercury release into the environment: natural, anthropogenic and remission. Coal mining, its processing and use in the energy sector has the greatest relevance regarding the pollution of the environment with mercury compounds in Poland. A review of reference literature shows that the average content of mercury in Polish bituminous coal varies within a wide range of 41–399 ppb, which is conditional on the origin, age and type of coal. The production of coal has led to a number of facilities in the form of structurally and age-varied landfills, heaps and mining waste dumps. The content of mercury in post-mining waste is in the range from approximately 55 to 380 ppb. The problem of environmental contamination with mercury has attracted considerable interest due to the effects that its concentration have in the biosphere. On the basis of the existing data it has been found that the content of mercury in soils in areas degraded by mining and processing of coal is even 10–16 times higher, compared to the geochemical background. It is necessary to conduct research in this area due to the limited results of research on mercury content in deposited waste from the preparation and flotation of Polish bituminous coals and the potential harmful effect of mercury on the environment. The paper is dedicated to the mercury content in waste from the extraction and processing of bituminous coal.

  5. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szwabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. The main source of many zoonoses is soil contaminated with feline and canine faeces. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats adopted in Lodz shelter (Poland. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In total, 163 faecal samples were collected from 95 dogs and 68 cats from 2011 to 2012. The samples were processed by sedimentation techniques using Mini Parasep®SF. [b]Results.[/b] Six parasite genera belonging to protozoa, cestoda, and nematoda, were found in dogs, while eight were found in cats. Out of the 163 fecal samples, 37.4% were positive for the presence at least one species of intestinal parasites. The majority of positive dog samples contained eggs from Toxocara and Trichuris genera, and the family Ancylostomatidae, while Toxocara and Taenia eggs, as well as Cystoisospora oocysts, predominated in cat faeces. A significantly higher prevalence of parasites was noted in cats (48.5% than in dogs (29.5% (χ2=6.15, P=0.013. The Toxocara genus was the most prevalent parasite in both populations; eggs were found in 27.9% and 16.8% of cats and dogs, respectively. Animals younger than 12 months of age showed higher infection rates with Toxocara, but differences were not statistically significant. The average numbers of Toxocara eggs/gram of faeces in positive puppy and kitten samples were over 5 and 7 times higher than in older dogs and cats, respectively. Mixed infection were found in dogs (5.3% and cats (8.8%. [b]Conclusions.[/b] Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  6. Flow dynamics and potential for biodegradation of organic contaminants in fractured rock vadose zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, J. T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, G.; Conrad, M. E.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Cevera, J. C.

    2000-04-01

    We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in fractured rock vadose zones. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the United States Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) identification of important features of liquid distribution by means of seepage experiments in the fracture plane; (3) identification of the presence and activity of microorganisms by non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock "geocosms". Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Flow visualization and tracer breakthrough curves in transparent fracture replicas for unsaturated inlet conditions exhibited the channelized and intermittent nature of liquid seepage. The seepage of water and non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) of varying physical and chemical properties into an initially dry replica showed only subtle differences in liquid distribution. In contrast, the seepage of a NAPL into the fracture replica containing residual water resulted in complex trapping of NAPL along the solid/water/air contact lines and diversion of NAPL to previously dry parts of the fracture. We found that a mixed culture of viable bacteria exists on the natural rock surfaces

  7. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwabe, Katarzyna; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2017-03-22

    The main source of many zoonoses is soil contaminated with feline and canine faeces. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats adopted in Lodz shelter (Poland). In total, 163 faecal samples were collected from 95 dogs and 68 cats from 2011 to 2012. The samples were processed by sedimentation techniques using Mini Parasep®SF. Six parasite genera belonging to protozoa, cestoda, and nematoda, were found in dogs, while eight were found in cats. Out of the 163 fecal samples, 37.4% were positive for the presence at least one species of intestinal parasites. The majority of positive dog samples contained eggs from Toxocara and Trichuris genera, and the family Ancylostomatidae, while Toxocara and Taenia eggs, as well as Cystoisospora oocysts, predominated in cat faeces. A significantly higher prevalence of parasites was noted in cats (48.5%) than in dogs (29.5%) (χ2=6.15, P=0.013). The Toxocara genus was the most prevalent parasite in both populations; eggs were found in 27.9% and 16.8% of cats and dogs, respectively. Animals younger than 12 months of age showed higher infection rates with Toxocara, but differences were not statistically significant. The average numbers of Toxocara eggs/gram of faeces in positive puppy and kitten samples were over 5 and 7 times higher than in older dogs and cats, respectively. Mixed infection were found in dogs (5.3%) and cats (8.8%). Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  8. Impact of Potentially Contaminated River Water on Agricultural Irrigated Soils in an Equatorial Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Trujillo-González

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, it is estimated that 20 million hectares of arable land are irrigated with water that contains residual contributions from domestic liquids. This potentially poses risks to public health and ecosystems, especially due to heavy metals, which are considered dangerous because of their potential toxicity and persistence in the environment. The Villavicencio region (Colombia is an equatorial area where rainfall (near 3000 mm/year and temperature (average 25.6 °C are high. Soil processes in tropical conditions are fast and react quickly to changing conditions. Soil properties from agricultural fields irrigated with river water polluted by a variety of sources were analysed and compared to non-irrigated control soils. In this study, no physico-chemical alterations were found that gave evidence of a change due to the constant use of river water that contained wastes. This fact may be associated with the climatic factors (temperature and precipitation, which contribute to fast degradation of organic matter and nutrient and contaminants (such as heavy metals leaching, or to dilution of wastes by the river.

  9. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.T. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qiu, J.W. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, X.W. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhong, Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Lan, C.Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls04@zsu.edu.cn; Shu, W.S. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls53@zsu.edu.cn

    2006-09-15

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans.

  10. Potential of phytoremediation for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated salt marsh sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Hugo; Mucha, Ana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Bordalo, Adriano A

    2014-05-01

    Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in colonized and un-colonized sediments by salt marsh plants Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis collected in a temperate estuary was investigated during a 5-month greenhouse experiment. The efficiency of two bioremediation treatments namely biostimulation (BS) by the addition of nutrients, and bioaugmentation (BA) by addition of indigenous microorganisms was tested in comparison with hydrocarbon natural attenuation in un-colonized and with rhizoremediation in colonized sediments. Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms and root biomass were assessed as well as hydrocarbon degradation levels. During the study, hydrocarbon degradation in un-colonized sediments was negligible regardless of treatments. Rhizoremediation proved to be an effective strategy for hydrocarbon removal, yielding high rates in most experiments. However, BS treatments showed a negative effect on the J. maritimus potential for hydrocarbon degradation by decreasing the root system development that lead to lower degradation rates. Although both plants and their associated microorganisms presented a potential for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated salt marsh sediments, results highlighted that nutrient requirements may be distinct among plant species, which should be accounted for when designing cleanup strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Granulometric selectivity in Liza ramado and potential contamination resulting from heavy metal load in feeding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Canastreiro, Vera; Caçador, Isabel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro

    2008-11-01

    The stomach contents of thin-lipped grey mullets Liza ramado were analysed in terms of granulometric composition and compared to the sediment of potential feeding areas in the Tagus estuary. Total organic matter (TOM) content and heavy metal content were determined in the surface sediment of three areas and eight trace elements were quantified: Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. The three sampled areas did not differ in TOM; and the heavy metal content was below Effects Range-Low level for most elements. The mean observed concentrations were present in the following sequence: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu ≈ Ni > Co > Cd > Hg. Stomach contents granulometric composition provided information about the feeding selectivity of the mullets. Sediment fractions with particle size between 20 and 50 μm are preferred, independently of the fishes' length. Smaller standard length (SL) fishes have a higher positive selection of fine grained sediments than those with a larger SL. Finer fractions usually have higher concentration of heavy metals, which makes younger specimens of the thin-lipped grey mullet potentially more exposed to heavy metal load in the estuary. Metal concentration was not independent from the sampling point, presenting higher values near the margins and the estuary tidal drainage system. This means that during the first period of each tidal cycle, the mullets will feed first on the most contaminated areas, as a consequence of their movement following the rising tide to feed on previously exposed areas.

  12. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Qiu, J W; Wang, X W; Zhong, Y; Lan, C Y; Shu, W S

    2006-09-01

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents.

  13. Potential Biomarkers Found by Protein Profiling May Provide Insight for the Macrovascular Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. S. Cho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is an alarming threat to health of mankind, yet its pathogenesis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to find potential biomarkers to serve as indicators for the pathogenesis of DM in a time course manner. Based on our previous findings that oxidative stress occurred at week 8, aorta lysate and sera of 102 streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic and 85 control male Sprague-Dawley rats were obtained at the 4th, 8th and 12th week after STZ injection. The protein profiles were studied employing surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology in attomole sensitivity range. In the aorta, a multiple biomarker panel was discovered at the 4th week. At the 8th week, 4 biomarkers were found, while at the 12th week, 3 biomarkers were identified. In the sera, a triplet of 3 peaks and 2 biomarkers were all discovered to have 100% classification accuracy rate to differentiate the DM and control groups at all time intervals. Besides, 2 biomarkers were also found to have high classification value at week 12. Comparing the aorta and sera from DM and non-DM rats, a bundle of potential biomarkers with significant changes in peak intensities and high classification values were found. Two of the serum biomarkers matched with islet amyloid polypeptide and resistin in the SWISS-PROT knowledgebase. Validation has been conducted using immunoassay kits. These potential biomarkers may provide valuable insight on the pathogenesis of DM and macrovascular complications.

  14. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessments for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as {open_quotes}contaminants of potential concern.{close_quotes} This process is termed {open_quotes}contaminant screening.{close_quotes} It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to soil- and litter-dwelling invertebrates, including earthworms, other micro- and macroinvertebrates, or heterotrophic bacteria and fungi. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose, sets of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil on invertebrates and soil microbial processes, and benchmarks for chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy sites. In addition, literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the benchmarks and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

  15. Elevated nitrate enriches microbial functional genes for potential bioremediation of complexly contaminated sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Meiying; Zhang, Qin; Xia, Chunyu; Zhong, Yuming; Sun, Guoping; Guo, Jun; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    .... However, few studies have been focused on the effect of nitrate addition on the functional diversity, composition, structure and dynamics of sediment microbial communities in contaminated aquatic eco...

  16. Risks to Ecological Receptors Posed by Contaminants of Potential Concern in the Lower Three Runs Cooling Ponds and Canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blas, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-21

    The upper portion of Lower Three Runs includes several ponds, reservoirs, and canals that were formerly used as a cooling system for nuclear production reactors. This area was divided into nine exposure areas (EAs) for the assessment of environmental contamination resulting from past reactor operations and other industrial processes. A tiered screening process identified several contaminants of potential concern including aluminum, cyanide, lead, manganese, mercury, DDD, DDE, and DDT. Risks posed by these contaminants to ecological receptors (river otter, belted kingfisher, raccoon, and blue heron) were assessed using contaminant exposure models that estimated contaminant intake resulting from ingestion of food, water, and sediment/ soil and compared these intakes with toxicity reference values (TRVs). The contaminant exposure models showed that the TRVs were not exceeded in the otter model, exceeded by aluminum in EA 7 (Pond 2 and associated canals) in the raccoon model, and exceeded by mercury in EAs 2, 3 (Pond B), 6 (Par Pond), and 8 (Ponds 4 and 5 and Canal to Pond C) in both the kingfisher and blue heron models. Hazard quotients (total exposure dose divided by the TRV) were 2.8 for aluminum and 1.7- 3.6 for mercury. The primary route of exposure for aluminum was the ingestion of soil, and the primary route of exposure for mercury was the ingestion of mercury contaminated fish. Elevated levels of mercury in fish were at least partly the result of the aerial deposition of mercury onto Lower Three Runs and its watershed. The atmospheric deposition of mercury creates pervasive contamination in fish throughout the Savannah River basin. Another possible source of mercury was the discharge of mercury contaminated Savannah River water into the Lower Three Runs cooling ponds and canals during previous years of reactor operation. This contamination originated from industries located upstream of the SRS. The aluminum exceedance for the raccoon was likely the result of

  17. Investigation of the potential impacts from tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hysong, R. J.

    1998-12-21

    Based on a review of available data, significant contributions to low-level tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard have been made by airborne tritium fallout and rainout from the CP-5 ventilation system stack. Based on the distribution of tritium in the yard, it is also likely that leaks in secondary system piping which lead to the cooling towers were a significant contributor to tritium in CP-5 yard subsurface soil. Based on the foregoing analysis, low-level tritium contamination will not prohibit the release of the yard for unrestricted use in the future. Worst case dose estimates based on very conservative assumptions indicate that a 25 rmem annual effective dose equivalent limit will not be exceeded under the most restrictive residential-use family farm scenario. Given the impermeable nature of the glacial till under CP-5, low-level concentrations of tritium may be occasionally detected in the deep well (3300 12D), but the peak concentration will not approach the levels calculated by RESRAD; however, continued monitoring of the deep well is recommended. To ensure that all sources of potential tritium release have been removed from the CP-5 complex, removal of tritiated water from each rod-out hole and an evaluation of the physical integrity of the rod-out holes is recommended. This will also allow for an evaluation of tritium concentrations in shallow groundwater under CP-5 by sampling groundwater that is currently being forced into the drain tile system. Additional surface and subsurface soil sampling and analysis will be required to determine the final release status of soils around the Building 330 complex relative to elevated concentrations of CS-137, CO-60,Co-57, and Eu-152 identified during the 1993 IT Corporation characterization. The potential radiological impact from isolated elevations of the latter radionuclides is relatively low and can be evaluated as part of the final status survey of outdoor areas surrounding the Building 330 complex. In

  18. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    potential environmental risk, the environment has not yet been appreciably contaminated from Hg emissions produced by this incinerator. However the increase of Hg measured in downwind direction of the incinerator should be monitored for future potential risk.

  19. Potential impact of soil microbial heterogeneity on the persistence of hydrocarbons in contaminated subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleer, Sam; Adetutu, Eric M; Weber, John; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2014-04-01

    In situ bioremediation is potentially a cost effective treatment strategy for subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, however, limited information is available regarding the impact of soil spatial heterogeneity on bioremediation efficacy. In this study, we assessed issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation and soil spatial heterogeneity (samples designated as FTF 1, 5 and 8) from a site in which in situ bioremediation was proposed for hydrocarbon removal. Test pit activities showed similarities in FTF soil profiles with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations detected in all soils at 2 m below ground surface. However, PCR-DGGE-based cluster analysis showed that the bacterial community in FTF 5 (at 2 m) was substantially different (53% dissimilar) and 2-3 fold more diverse than communities in FTF 1 and 8 (with 80% similarity). When hydrocarbon degrading potential was assessed, differences were observed in the extent of (14)C-benzene mineralisation under aerobic conditions with FTF 5 exhibiting the highest hydrocarbon removal potential compared to FTF 1 and 8. Further analysis indicated that the FTF 5 microbial community was substantially different from other FTF samples and dominated by putative hydrocarbon degraders belonging to Pseudomonads, Xanthomonads and Enterobacteria. However, hydrocarbon removal in FTF 5 under anaerobic conditions with nitrate and sulphate electron acceptors was limited suggesting that aerobic conditions were crucial for hydrocarbon removal. This study highlights the importance of assessing available microbial capacity prior to bioremediation and shows that the site's spatial heterogeneity can adversely affect the success of in situ bioremediation unless area-specific optimizations are performed.

  20. The Potential Use of Vetiveria zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Antimony, Arsenic and Their Co-Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mubarak, Hussani; Chai, Li-Yuan; Yong, Wang; Khan, Muhammad Jamil; Khan, Qudrat Ullah; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Farooq, Umar; Sarwar, Rizwana; Yang, Zhi-Hui

    2017-08-07

    Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) contaminations are the well reported and alarming issues of various contaminated smelting and mining sites all over the world, especially in China. The present hydroponic study was to assess the capacity of Vetiveria zizanioides for Sb, As and their interactive accumulations. The novelty of the present research is this that the potential of V. zizanioides for Sb and As alone and their interactive accumulation are unaddressed. This is the first report about the interactive co-accumulation of Sb and As in V. zizanioides. Highest applied Sb and As contaminations significantly inhibited the plant growth. Applied Sb and As alone significantly increased their concentrations in the roots/shoot of V. zizanioides. While co-contamination of Sb and As steadily increased their concentrations, in the plant. The co-contamination of Sb and As revealed a positive correlation between the two, as they supplemented the uptake and accumulation of each other. The overall translocation (TF) and bioaccumulation factors (BF) of Sb in V. zizanioides, were 0.75 and 4. While the TF and BF of As in V. zizanioides, were 0.86 and 10. V. zizanioides proved as an effective choice for the phytoremediation and ecosystem restoration of Sb and As contaminated areas.

  1. Assessment of the genotoxic potential of contaminated estuarine sediments in fish peripheral blood: Laboratory versus in situ studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Pedro M., E-mail: pmcosta@fct.unl.pt [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Neuparth, Teresa S. [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Caeiro, Sandra [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Aberta, Rua da Escola Politecnica, 141, 1269-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lobo, Jorge [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M.; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos [IPIMAR-INRB, Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos, Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Angel DelValls, T. [UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop Chair-Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Costa, Maria H. [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Juvenile Senegalese soles (Solea senegalensis) were exposed to estuarine sediments through 28-day laboratory and in situ (field) bioassays. The sediments, collected from three distinct sites (a reference plus two contaminated) of the Sado Estuary (W Portugal) were characterized for total organic matter, redox potential, fine fraction and for the levels of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichloro diphenyl tricholoethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs). Genotoxicity was determined in whole peripheral blood by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or 'comet') assay and by scoring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA). Analysis was complemented with the determination of lipid peroxidation in blood plasma by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) protocol and cell type sorting. The results showed that exposure to contaminated sediments induced DNA fragmentation and clastogenesis. Still, laboratory exposure to the most contaminated sediment revealed a possible antagonistic effect between metallic and organic contaminants that might have been enhanced by increased bioavailability. The laboratory assay caused a more pronounced increase in ENA whereas a very significant increase in DNA fragmentation was observed in field-tested fish exposed to the reference sediment, which is likely linked to increased lipid peroxidation that probably occurred due to impaired access to food. Influence of natural pathogens was ruled out by unaltered leukocyte counts. The statistical integration of data correlated lipid peroxidation with biological variables such as fish length and weight, whereas the genotoxicity biomarkers were more correlated to sediment contamination. It was demonstrated that laboratory and field bioassays for the risk assessment of sediment contamination may yield different genotoxicity profiles although both provided results that are in overall accordance with

  2. Assessment of the genotoxic potential of contaminated estuarine sediments in fish peripheral blood: laboratory versus in situ studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro M; Neuparth, Teresa S; Caeiro, Sandra; Lobo, Jorge; Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T Angel; Costa, Maria H

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile Senegalese soles (Solea senegalensis) were exposed to estuarine sediments through 28-day laboratory and in situ (field) bioassays. The sediments, collected from three distinct sites (a reference plus two contaminated) of the Sado Estuary (W Portugal) were characterized for total organic matter, redox potential, fine fraction and for the levels of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichloro diphenyl tricholoethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs). Genotoxicity was determined in whole peripheral blood by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or "comet") assay and by scoring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA). Analysis was complemented with the determination of lipid peroxidation in blood plasma by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) protocol and cell type sorting. The results showed that exposure to contaminated sediments induced DNA fragmentation and clastogenesis. Still, laboratory exposure to the most contaminated sediment revealed a possible antagonistic effect between metallic and organic contaminants that might have been enhanced by increased bioavailability. The laboratory assay caused a more pronounced increase in ENA whereas a very significant increase in DNA fragmentation was observed in field-tested fish exposed to the reference sediment, which is likely linked to increased lipid peroxidation that probably occurred due to impaired access to food. Influence of natural pathogens was ruled out by unaltered leukocyte counts. The statistical integration of data correlated lipid peroxidation with biological variables such as fish length and weight, whereas the genotoxicity biomarkers were more correlated to sediment contamination. It was demonstrated that laboratory and field bioassays for the risk assessment of sediment contamination may yield different genotoxicity profiles although both provided results that are in overall accordance with sediment

  3. Understanding ship-grounding impacts on a coral reef: potential effects of anti-foulant paint contamination on coral recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Adrew P; Smith, Luke D; Webster, Nicole S; Heyward, Andrew J

    2002-02-01

    The 184 m cargo ship Bunga Teratai Satu collided with Sudbury Reef, part of the Great Barrier Reef and remained grounded for 12 days. The ship was re-floated only 3 days prior to the November 2000 mass coral spawning. No cargo or fuel was lost but the impact resulted in significant contamination of the reef with anti-foulant paint containing tributyltin (TBT), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Larvae of the reef-building scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to various concentrations of sediment collected from the grounding site in replicated laboratory experiments. Two experiments were performed, both of which used varying ratios of contaminated and control site sediment in seawater as treatments. In the first experiment, the influence of contaminated sediment on larval competency was examined using metamorphosis bioassays. In the second, the effect of contaminated sediment upon larval recruitment on pre-conditioned terracotta tiles was assessed. In both experiments, sediment containing 8.0 mg kg(-1) TBT, 72 mg kg(-1) Cu and 92 mg kg(-1) Zn significantly inhibited larval settlement and metamorphosis. At this level of contamination larvae survived but contracted to a spherical shape and swimming and searching behaviour ceased. At higher contamination levels, 100% mortality was recorded. These results indicate that the contamination of sediment by anti-fouling paint at Sudbury Reef has the potential to significantly reduce coral recruitment in the immediate vicinity of the site and that this contamination may threaten the recovery of the resident coral community unless the paint is removed.

  4. Mercury remediation potential of a mercury resistant strain Sphingopyxis sp. SE2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-01-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain SE2 was isolated from contaminated soil. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing confirms the strain as Sphingopyxis belongs to the Sphingomonadaceae family of the α-Proteobacteria group. The isolate showed high resistance to mercury with estimated concentrations of Hg that caused 50% reduction in growth (EC50) of 5.97 and 6.22mg/L and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32.19 and 34.95mg/L in minimal and rich media, respectively. The qualitative detection of volatilized mercury and the presence of mercuric reductase enzyme proved that the strain SE2 can potentially remediate mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of the remaining mercury in experimental broths indicated that a maximum of 44% mercury was volatilized within 6hr by live SE2 culture. Furthermore a small quantity (23%) of mercury was accumulated in live cell pellets. While no volatilization was caused by dead cells, sorption of mercury was confirmed. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. Homology was observed among the amino acid sequences of mercuric reductase enzyme of different organisms from α-Proteobacteria and ascomycota groups.

  5. Potential Use of Polyacrylamide Encapsulation for Treatment of Petroleum Drilling Cuttings and Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy H. Adams

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral soil of alluvial origin, contaminated with diesel+lubricating oil (1:2, was treated with a commercial polyacrylamide product at 100 % of the distributer recommended dosage, producing a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (EPA 9074 of 76 % that remained stable during the study period (38 days and even after thermal treatment (60 ºC, 18 hrs.. Increasing the dosage to 150 % did not improve the treatment results, but repeating the treatment (at 100 % resulted in a slight additional reduction (4 %. Similar results were obtained with oil-based drilling cuttings (~60 % reduction at both 100 % and 150 %. Pre-drying of the drilling cuttings prior to treatment did not improve the hydrocarbon reduction, but it did produce smaller, potentially more stable aggregates (0.5 – 1-0 mm in diameter. The treatment of organic soil resulted in a similar reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (65 % and a reduction of acute toxicity (Microtox to below background levels, however this effect was not stable. An additional application (including mixing of the polyacrylamide product resulted in partial disintegration of the organic fibres and release of the stabilized hydrocarbons, measuring an overall increase in hydrocarbon concentration of 19 %.

  6. Potential health risks from radioactive contamination of saltmarshes in NW England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubina; Plater, A J; Nolan, P J; Mauz, B; Appleby, P G

    2013-05-01

    The present study focuses on the detection of Sellafield-derived (137)Cs and (241)Am in contaminated saltmarshes from North-West England, UK, with a view to assessing the radiological impacts from radioactivity stored within the sediment record. The surface activities from these radionuclides were found in the range between 73 and 851 Bq kg(-1) whereas peak activities ranging from 383 to 12690 Bq kg(-1) were found below the surface of the upper marsh at a depth of approximately 5-20 cm. Potential radioactive exposure to humans from these highly active radionuclides comes mainly from direct exposure and resuspended dust inhalation for different saltmarsh users, which may be exacerbated by the remobilisation of radionuclides resulting from saltmarsh erosion. The total annual minimum, maximum and 'best estimate' doses ranging from 11 to 972 μSv y(-1), fall below the ICRP-recommended annual dose limit, but the highest estimated total effective dose (972 μSv y(-1)) for a marsh user falls within 97% of the recommended dose limit and the highest 'best estimate' total annual doses of 110 and 307 μSv y(-1) for Dee estuary and Biggar marshes, respectively, are almost 3 and 4 times higher than the estimated doses that are based on existing surface activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing biodegradation potential of PAHs in complex multi-contaminant matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, Zachary A.; Swindell, Annika L.; Allan, Ian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, UEA, Norwich, NR9 4QR (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Angela H. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Environmental Science Department and Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4QR (United Kingdom); Hare, Rina [Alcontrol Laboratories, Chester, CH5 3US (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Environmental Science Department and Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4QR (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, UEA, Norwich, NR9 4QR (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    This study sought to extend validation of a cyclodextrin based extraction method for the assessment of PAH-biodegradation potential to complex multi-contaminant matrices. To this end, four reference materials (RMs) were produced by blending, in different proportions, soils impacted with diesel, lubricating oil and spent oxide. These reference materials had modest {sigma}PAH (16 US EPA) concentrations that ranged from 5.6 {+-} 0.5 to 44.4 {+-} 4.5 mg kg{sup -1}. However, extractable petroleum hydrocarbon (EPH) concentrations were comparatively high (up to 2520 {+-} 204 mg kg{sup -1}). To complement these RMs, two further soils from a municipal gas plant (MGP) with highly elevated concentration of PAHs ranging from 877 {+-} 52 to 2620 {+-} 344 mg kg{sup -1} were also tested. Results showed, regardless of matrix complexity, that PAH biodegradation within the four RM substrates, and two MGP soils correlated well with biodegradation predicted by hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. - PAH biodegradation in complex media predicted using HPCD solutions.

  8. Assessing the potential of short rotation coppice (SRC) for cleanup of radionuclide-contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, M V; Humphreys, P N

    2005-01-01

    A small-scale greenhouse investigation was undertaken using Goat willow (Salix caprea) and aspen (Populus tremula) to evaluate the potential of short rotation coppice for remediation of 137Cs- and 90Sr-contaminated sites. Results showed that both species were able to accumulate these radionuclides from a representative disposal soil (aged) and a spiked soil S. caprea accumulating greater levels of 137Cs than P. tremula, with no difference between species for 90Sr accumulation. For each radionuclide, the distribution in both species was similar, with 137Cs accumulation greatest in the roots, whereas 90Sr accumulation was greatest in the leaves. It was also evident that the soil-to-plant transfer factor (Tf) values for 90Sr were greater than for 137Cs, agreeing with differences in the reported bioavailailablity of these radionuclides in soil Based on the Tf values for S. caprea (conservative), estimated remediation times were 92 and 56 yr, for 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. It is suggested that the selection of Salix species grown in a system of SRC provides a significant opportunity for removal of both 137Cs and 90Sr, primarily due to its higher biomass production. However, for 137Cs phytoremediation investigations into the appropriate use of soil amendments for increasing bioavailability are required.

  9. Bioremediation potential of a highly mercury resistant bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain, SA2, was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate showed 99% sequence similarity to the genera Sphingobium and Sphingomonas of α-proteobacteria group. However, the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with the genus Sphingobium suggesting the strain belongs to Sphingobium sp. Toxicity studies indicated resistance to high levels of mercury with estimated EC50 values 4.5 mg L(-1) and 44.15 mg L(-1) and MIC values 5.1 mg L(-1) and 48.48 mg L(-1) in minimal and rich media, respectively. The strain SA2 was able to volatilize mercury by producing mercuric reductase enzyme which makes it potential candidate for remediating mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of Hg supplemented culture solutions confirmed that almost 79% mercury in the culture suspension was volatilized in 6 h. A very small amount of mercury was observed to accumulate in cell pellets which was also evident according to ESEM-EDX analysis. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated sequence homology with α-proteobacteria and Ascomycota group.

  10. Relationships between Endocrine Traits and Life Histories in Wild Animals: Insights, Problems, and Potential Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Ben; Westrick, Sarah E; van Kesteren, Freya

    2016-08-01

    The endocrine mechanisms causing variation and plasticity in life history traits (e.g., development time, mass at birth/hatching, rate of postnatal growth, age or size at sexual maturity, litter or clutch size, annual survival, and lifespan) or fitness (annual or lifetime reproductive success) have recently garnered considerable interest. We review three issues facing studies that quantify relationships between endocrine traits and life histories or measures of fitness and describe possible solutions using insights from evolutionary ecology. We focus in particular on the steroid hormones glucocorticoids that are involved in the vertebrate neuroendocrine stress response. First, context-dependent associations between endocrine traits and life histories or fitness are widespread, and therefore, it is important to quantify how intrinsic or extrinsic factors modify these relationships. Second, studies in evolutionary endocrinology may aspire to quantify patterns of natural selection on endocrine traits, but this may not tell us how they influence fitness. Studies that also identify the actual targets of selection that the endocrine traits are influencing will be very useful. Third, environmental or intrinsic factors can cause co-variance between endocrine traits and life histories or fitness. This is problematic for interpreting the potential evolutionary consequences of selection on endocrine traits, but it can also produce divergent answers for relationships between endocrine traits and life histories or fitness depending upon whether the data are analyzed in an among- or within-year framework. Future long-term studies following uniquely marked individuals over their lifetime (longitudinal individual-based approach) in combination with experimental manipulations of the endocrine traits or environmental factors influencing both endocrine traits and life histories or fitness may help to produce new insights in evolutionary endocrinology despite these issues. This is an

  11. Relevance of Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) on a worldwide scale to assess soil vulnerability to 137Cs contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebroek, L.; Hees, Van M.; Delvaux, B.; Spaargaren, O.; Thiry, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of radiocaesium retention in soil is important to quantify the risk of further foodchain contamination. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP – Cremers et al., 1988, Nature 335, 247–249) is an intrinsic soil parameter which can be used to categorize soils or minerals in terms of th

  12. Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Deule river in Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Lesven, Ludovic; Charriau, Adeline [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Billon, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.billon@univ-lille1.fr [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ouddane, Baghdad [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boughriet, Abdel [Universite Lille Nord de France, Rue de l' Universite, P.O. Box 819, 62408 Bethune (France)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} A historical environmental pollution is evidenced with reference to background levels. {yields} Sedimentary trace metals partitioning is examined under undisturbed conditions. {yields} Anoxia and diagenetic processes induce geochemical and mineralogical variabilities. {yields} Do metals present in particles and pore waters exhibit a potential toxicity risk? {yields} Behaviour of binding fractions contributes to trace metals scavenging. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential sediment cumulative damage and toxicity due to metal contamination in a polluted zone of Deule river (in northern France) from nearby two smelters. Metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices measured with sediment depth revealed that - compared to background levels either in local reference soils or in world rivers sediments/suspended particulate matter - Cd contributed to the highest pollution levels, followed by Zn, Pb and to a much lesser extent Cu and Ni. A comparison of the vertical distribution of AVS (acid volatile sulfides), SEM (simultaneously extracted metals), TMC (total metal concentrations), TOC (total organic carbon) and interstitial water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu and to raise the possibility of their association with certain geochemical phases. To assess the actual environmental impacts of these metals in Deule river, numerical sediment quality guidelines were further used in the present work. Sedimentary Pb, Zn, and Cd contents largely exceeded PEC (probable effect concentration) values reported as consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima at the surficial layers of the sediment (1-3 cm) and IWCTU (Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Unit) observed for Pb and to a lesser extent Cd, violated the corresponding water

  13. Evaluation of metal contamination and phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophytes of East Kolkata Wetlands, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study analyzes metal contamination in sediment of the East Kolkata Wetlands, a Ramsar site, which is receiving a huge amount of domestic and industrial wastewater from surrounding areas. The subsequent uptake and accumulation of metals in different macrophytes are also examined in regard to their phytoremediation potential. Methods Metals like cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) were estimated in sediment, water and different parts of the macrophytes Colocasia esculenta and Scirpus articulatus. Results The concentration of metals in sediment were, from highest to lowest, Mn (205.0±65.5 mg/kg)>Cu (29.9±10.2 mg/kg)>Pb (22.7±10.3 mg/kg)>Cd (3.7±2.2 mg/kg). The phytoaccumulation tendency of these metals showed similar trends in both native aquatic macrophyte species. The rate of accumulation of metals in roots was higher than in shoots. There were strong positive correlations (p<0.001) between soil organic carbon (OC) percentage and Mn (r =0.771), and sediment OC percentage and Pb (r=0.832). Cation exchange capacity (CEC) also showed a positive correlation (p<0.001) with Cu (r=0.721), Mn (r=0.713), and Pb (r=0.788), while correlations between sediment OC percentage and Cu (r=0.628), sediment OC percentage and Cd (r=0.559), and CEC and Cd (r=0.625) were significant at the p<0.05 level. Conclusions Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factors of these two plants revealed that S. articulatus was comparatively more efficient for phytoremediation, whereas phytostabilization potential was higher in C. esculenta. PMID:27669754

  14. Microbial detoxification of bifenthrin by a novel yeast and its potential for contaminated soils treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen

    Full Text Available Bifenthrin is one the most widespread pollutants and has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health, yet little is known about microbial degradation in contaminated regions. A novel yeast strain ZS-02, isolated from activated sludge and identified as Candida pelliculosa based on morphology, API test and 18S rDNA gene analysis, was found highly effective in degrading bifenthrin over a wide range of temperatures (20-40 °C and pH (5-9. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM, the optimal degradation conditions were determined to be 32.3 °C and pH 7.2. Under these conditions, the yeast completely metabolized bifenthrin (50 mg · L(-1 within 8 days. This strain utilized bifenthrin as the sole carbon source for growth as well as co-metabolized it in the presence of glucose, and tolerated concentrations as high as 600 mg · L(-1 with a q(max, K(s and K(i of 1.7015 day(-1, 86.2259 mg · L(-1 and 187.2340 mg · L(-1, respectively. The yeast first degraded bifenthrin by hydrolysis of the carboxylester linkage to produce cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol. Subsequently, 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol was further transformed by biphenyl cleavage to form 4-trifluoromethoxy phenol, 2-chloro-6-fluoro benzylalcohol, and 3,5-dimethoxy phenol, resulting in its detoxification. Eventually, no persistent accumulative product was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. This is the first report of a novel pathway of degradation of bifenthrin by hydrolysis of ester linkage and cleavage of biphenyl in a microorganism. Furthermore, strain ZS-02 degraded a variety of pyrethroids including bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and fenpropathrin. In different contaminated soils introduced with strain ZS-02, 65-75% of the 50 mg · kg(-1 bifenthrin was eliminated within 10 days, suggesting the yeast could be a promising candidate for remediation of environments affected

  15. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens.

  16. The reproductive potential of the spiders Agelena labyrinthica and Xerolycosa nemoralis from areas contaminated with metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Grażyna; Szulińska, Elżbieta; Kędziorski, Andrzej; Franiel, Izabella; Migula, Paweł

    2012-10-01

    Spiders successfully colonize industrially contaminated environments and maintain relatively stable populations. The aim of this study was to explain the reproductive strategies of two spider species, Xerolycosa nemoralis (an actively hunting, sit-and-pursue predator) and Agelena labyrinthica (a web-building, sit-and-wait predator), between contaminated and uncontaminated sites. Spiders were collected from a reference site (Pilica) and two contaminated sites (Olkusz and Welnowiec). The amount of energy allocated to the eggs and the number of eggs and hatchlings as well as the hatching success were compared. Wolf spiders from the contaminated sites produced fewer but relatively energy-rich eggs, whereas web-building spiders invested their energy in the production of a higher number of less energy-rich eggs. The comparisons of the hatching percentages suggested that in the contaminated habitats, X. nemoralis achieve a hatching success similar to or higher than that of the reference population at Pilica. A. labyrinthica in the contaminated sites invested a larger amount of energy in eggs than at the reference site, but the hatching success found for this species in the contaminated areas was lower than that found at the reference site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  18. The weathering of a sulfide orebody: Speciation and fate of some potential contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin-Nomade, A.; Grosbois, C.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.C.; Beny, J.-M.; Foster, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    element distribution and relative abundance of the unweathered sulfides, this orebody still represents a significant reservoir of potential contaminants for the watershed, especially at the non-mining site, as a much greater proportion of sulfides is left to react and because of the lower porosity at this site.

  19. THE WEATHERING OF A SULFIDE OREBODY: SPECIATION AND FATE OF SOME POTENTIAL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Grosbois, Cecile; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Beny, Jean Michel; Foster, Andrea L.

    2010-07-16

    trace element distribution and relative abundance of the unweathered sulfides, this orebody still represents a significant reservoir of potential contaminants for the watershed, especially in the non-mining site, as a much greater proportion of sulfides is left to react and because of the lower porosity in this site.

  20. New Insights into Potential Prevention and Management Options for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Schloss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neurological complications such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN and neuropathic pain are frequent side effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy agents. An increasing survival rate and frequent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy treatments involving neurotoxic agents makes it imperative that accurate diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these neurological complications be implemented. Methods: A consideration was undertaken of the current options regarding protective and treatment interventions for patients undergoing chemotherapy with neurotoxic chemotherapy agent or experience with CIPN. Current knowledge on the mechanism of action has also been identified. The following databases PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CNKI, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant article retrieval. Results: A range of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and herbal medicine treatments were identified that either showed efficacy or had some evidence of efficacy. Duloxetine was the most effective pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of CIPN. Vitamin E demonstrated potential for the prevention of cisplatin-IPN. Intravenous glutathione for oxaliplatin, Vitamin B6 for both oxaliplatin and cisplatin, and omega 3 fatty acids for paclitaxel have shown protection for CIPN. Acetyl-L-carnitine may provide some relief as a treatment option. Acupuncture may be of benefit for some patients and Gosha-jinki-gan may be of benefit for protection from adverse effects of oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions: Clinicians and researchers acknowledge that there are numerous challenges involved in understanding, preventing, and treating peripheral neuropathy caused by chemotherapeutic agents. New insights into mechanisms of action from chemotherapy agents may facilitate the development of novel preventative and treatment options, thereby enabling medical staff to better support patients by

  1. A neurophysiological insight into the potential link between transcranial magnetic stimulation, thalamocortical dysrhythmia and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuggetta, Giorgio; Noh, Nor Azila

    2013-07-01

    Altered neural oscillations and their abnormal synchronization are crucial factors in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. There is increasing evidence that the perturbation with an abnormal increase of spontaneous thalamocortical neural oscillations lead to a phenomenon termed Thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) which underlies the symptomatology of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, tinnitus, major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neurophysiological tool that has been shown to both induce a modulation of neural oscillations and alleviate a wide range of human neuropsychiatric pathologies. However, little is known about the precise electrophysiological mechanisms behind the therapeutic effect of rTMS and its potential to improve abnormal oscillations across diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we show, using combined rTMS and surface electroencephalography (EEG), a short lasting frequency-dependent rTMS after-effect on thalamocortical rhythmic interplay of low-frequency oscillations in healthy humans at rest. In particular, high-frequency rTMS (10 Hz) induces a transient synchronised activity for delta (δ) and theta (θ) rhythms thus mimicking the pathological TCD-like oscillations. In contrast, rTMS 1 and 5 Hz have the opposite outcome of de-synchronising low-frequency brain rhythms. These results lead to a new neurophysiological insight of basic mechanisms underlying neurological and psychiatric disorders and a probable electrophysiological mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of rTMS. Thus, we propose the use of rTMS and EEG as a platform to test possible treatments of TCD phenotypes by restoring proper neural oscillations across various neuropsychiatric disorders. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential Application of Fluorescence Imaging for Assessing Fecal Contamination of Soil and Compost Maturity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Hyunjeong; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Sungyoun; Kim, Dongho; Lefcourt, Alan; Chan, Diane; Chung, Soo; Kim, Moon

    2016-01-01

      Pathogenic microorganisms can lead to serious outbreaks of foodborne illnesses, particularly if fresh produce becomes contaminated and then happens to be inappropriately handled in a manner that can incubate pathogens...

  3. Potential for Contaminant Exposure to Bald Eagles of the James River 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles on the east coast of the United States. Effects of environmental contaminants upon...

  4. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  5. A decision-making approach for delineating sites which are potentially contaminated by heavy metals via joint simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    This work develops a new approach for delineating sites that are contaminated by multiple soil heavy metals and applies it to a case study. First a number of contaminant sample data are transformed into multiple spatially un-correlated factors using Uniformly Weighted Exhaustive Diagonalization with Gauss iterations (U-WEDGE). Sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) is then used to generate sets of realizations of each resultant factor. These are then transformed into sets of sGs contaminant distribution realizations, which are then used to analyze the local and spatial (global) uncertainties in the distribution and concentration of contaminants via joint simulation. Finally, Info-Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) is used to consider different monitoring and or remediation regimes based on the analysis of contaminant realization spatial uncertainty. In our case study each heavy metal contaminant was considered individually and together with all other heavy metals; as the number of heavy metals considered increased, higher critical proportion values of local probability were chosen to obtain a low global uncertainty (to provide high reliability). Info-Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) yielded the most appropriate critical proportion values which minimized information loss in terms of specific goals. When the false negative rate is set to zero, meaning that it is necessary to monitor all potentially polluted areas, the corresponding false positive rates are at least 63%, 65%, 66%, 68%, 70%, and 78% to yield robustness levels of 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90, and 1.00 respectively. However, when the false negative rate tolerance threshold is raised to 50%, the false positive rate tolerance which yields robustness levels of 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90 and 1.00 drop to 12%, 14%, 15%, 18%, 20%, and 39%. The case study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed approach at making robust decisions concerning the delineation of sites contaminated by multiple heavy metals.

  6. The effectiveness of protective clothing in the reduction of potential DNA contamination of the scene of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, G N; Hopwood, A; Tucker, V

    2003-06-01

    The use of ultra-sensitive low copy number (LCN) DNA typing allows the analysis of picogram amounts of DNA. Trace evidence accidentally left at a scene of crime (SOC) by the investigating team may be inadvertently collected and analysed, potentially leading to spurious evidence being introduced into the criminal investigation. A series of experiments were undertaken to determine the extent to which an investigator could contribute to any DNA contamination of a scene of crime under different simulated activities. Further, the degree to which any contamination was reduced by the use of commercially available protective clothing was demonstrated. Precautions that should routinely be taken at a scene of crime to reduce the risk of DNA contamination are recommended.

  7. Using a biological indicator to detect potential sources of cross-contamination in the dental operatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, R W; Crawford, J J; Tulis, J J

    1998-11-01

    The authors conducted a study using surveillance monitoring methodology to identify operatory contamination and to evaluate the effectiveness of infection control procedures. Viridans streptococci were evaluated as biological indicators of oral contamination. Viridans streptococci, abundant in human saliva, were detected on operatory surfaces after dental treatments were finished and surfaces were disinfected. The findings validate current concepts of infection control as demonstrated in barrier methods.

  8. Phytoextractor Potential of Cultivated Species in Industrial Area Contaminated by Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Maria de Souza Gomes Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: High growth rate is one of the criteria used for the selection of species to be used in metal phytoextraction programs. This study was carried out to characterize the growth characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., castor bean (Ricinus communis L., corn (Zea mays L, and vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash] grown on a soil contaminated with lead (Pb, with and without pH correction, to improve agronomic practices regarding phytoremediation programs. The experiment was designed as a randomized block with four replications; treatments were arranged in a split-plot arrangement, with the main plot representing the species (sunflower, castor bean, corn, and vetiver, with or without pH correction and soil fertilization, and the split-plot representing harvest periods (60, 90, and 120 days after planting. After variance analysis and mean comparison analysis of the data by the Tukey test (p≤0.05, a significant effect was observed from soil pH correction for vetiver in all of the growth variables evaluated, except for the leaf area index at 120 days after planting (DAP. Castor bean and sunflower plants in soil with high acidity conditions, without pH correction (pH˂4.0, were affected by soil Pb levels. Corn plants benefited from soil pH correction and had improved results for the plant height, diameter, and leaf area variables at 60 and 90 DAP, as well as leaf area index at 60 DAP. There was no increase in these variables between the harvest periods evaluated. Regarding phytoextraction potential, corn and vetiver had the highest Pb translocation to the plant shoots at 90 DAP and were therefore considered the most suitable species for phytoremediation of the area under study. Overall, liming was essential for improving species biomass production for all the species studied in soils with high Pb availability in solution.

  9. Evaluation of potential embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of 42 herbicides, insecticides, and petroleum contaminants to mallard eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Results are reported for the embryotoxicity of 42 environmental contaminants applied externally to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs including crude and refined petroleum, and commercial formulations of herbicides and insecticides. Many of the petroleum pollutants were embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic and had LD50s of 0.3 to 5 ?l per egg (~6?90 ?g/g egg). The most toxic was a commercial oil used for control of road dust followed by South Louisiana crude oil, Kuwait crude, no. 2 fuel oil, bunker C fuel oil, and industrial and automotive waste oil. Prudhoe Bay crude, unused crankcase oil, aviation kerosene, and aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures were less toxic ( LD50s of 18 to over 75 ? l) and less teratogenic. The LD50s of herbicides and insecticides in aqueous emulsion were measured by egg immersion; the most toxic were paraquat and trifluralin (LD50s of about 1.5 Ibs/A; 1.7 kg/ha). Propanil, bromoxynil with MCPA, methyl diclofop, prometon, endrin, sulprofos, and parathion were toxic (LD50s of 7 to 40 Ibs/A; 7.8?44.8 kg/ha), whereas 2,4-D, glyphosate, atrazine, carbaryl, dalapon, dicamba, methomyl, and phosmet were only slightly toxic or not toxic (LD50s of 178 to over 500 Ibs/A; 199?560 kg/ha). Pesticides in nontoxic oil vehicle applied by microliter pipet were up to 18 times more toxic than when applied in water vehicle, which was probably due to better penetration of the pesticide past the eggshell and its membranes. Teratogenic effects and impaired embryonic growth are reported and results discussed in terms of potential hazard at field levels of application. A discussion is provided on the effects of pollutants on the eggs of other species of birds under laboratory and field conditions.

  10. Molecular identification and potential of an isolate of white rot fungi in bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi-sichani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Elimination or reduction of petroleum hydrocarbons from natural resources such as water and soil is a serious problem of countries, particularly oil-rich countries of the world. Using white rotting fungi compost for bioremediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons is effective. The aim of this study is molecular identification and potential of anisolate of white rot fungi in bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils. Materials and methods: Spent compost of white rotting fungi was inoculated with petroleum contaminated soil into 3%, 5% and 10% (w/w. Treatments were incubated at 25-23 °C for 3 months. Reduction of petroleum hydrocarbons in treated soil was determined by gas chromatography. Ecotoxicity of soil was evaluated by seed germination test. Results: Based on the genome sequence of 18s rRNA, it is revealed that this isolate is Ganoderma lucidum and this isolate is deposited as accession KX525204 in the Gene Bank database. Reduction of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil treated with compost (3, 5 and 10% ranged from 42% to 71%. The germination index (% in ecotoxicity tests ranged from 20.8% to 70.8%. Gas chromatography results also showed a decrease in soil Hydrocarbons compounds. Discussion and conclusion: The compost of Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot fungus, has a potential ability to remove petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. Removal of hydrocarbons was increased with increase in compost mixed with contaminated soil. Petroleum contaminated soil amended with spent compost of G.lucidum 10% during three months is appropriate to remove this pollutant.

  11. Effect of arsenic on p53 mutation and occurrence of teratogenic salamanders: their potential as ecological indicators for arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin-Soo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2009-05-01

    The p53 mutation in salamanders can be used as an indicator of arsenic contamination. The influence of arsenic exposure was studied on mutation of tumor suppressor gene in salamanders collected from several As-contaminated mine areas in Korea. Salamander eggs and larvae were exposed to arsenic in a toxicity test, and teratogenic salamanders found in heavy metal- and As-contaminated water from As-Bi mines were evaluated using PCR-SSCP to determine if they would be useful as an ecological indicator species. Changes in amino acids were shown to have occurred as a result of an arsenic-accumulating event that occurred after the DNA damage. In addition, both of the Hynobius leechii exposed groups were primarily affected by forms of skin damage, changes in the lateral tail/dorsal flexure and/or abnormality teratogenesis. Single-base sense mutation in codons 346 (AAG: Lys to ATG: Met), 224 (TTT: Phe to TTA: Leu), 211 (ATG: Met to AAG: Lys), 244 (TTT: Phe to TTTG: insertion), 245 (Glu GAG to Gln CAG) and 249 (TGT Cys to TGA stop) of the p53 gene were simultaneously found in mutated salamanders. Based on the results of our data illustrating the effect of arsenic exposure on the p53 mutation of salamanders in arsenic-contaminated mine areas, these mutated salamanders can be used as potential ecological indicators in the arsenic-contaminated ecosystems.

  12. A microbial fuel cell in contaminated ground delineated by electrical self-potential and normalized induced polarization data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, R.; Kulessa, B.; Ferguson, A. S.; Larkin, M. J.; Kulakov, L. A.; Kalin, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods to aid investigation and monitoring of complex biogeochemical environments, for example delineation of contaminants and microbial activity related to land contamination. We combined geophysical monitoring with chemical and microbiological analysis to create a conceptual biogeochemical model of processes around a contaminant plume within a manufactured gas plant site. Self-potential, induced polarization and electrical resistivity techniques were used to monitor the plume. We propose that an exceptionally strong (>800 mV peak to peak) dipolar SP anomaly represents a microbial fuel cell operating in the subsurface. The electromagnetic and electrical geophysical data delineated a shallow aerobic perched water body containing conductive gasworks waste which acts as the abiotic cathode of microbial fuel cell. This is separated from the plume below by a thin clay layer across the site. Microbiological evidence suggests that degradation of organic contaminants in the plume is dominated by the presence of ammonium and its subsequent degradation. We propose that the degradation of contaminants by microbial communities at the edge of the plume provides a source of electrons and acts as the anode of the fuel cell. We hypothesize that ions and electrons are transferred through the clay layer that was punctured during the trial pitting phase of the investigation. This is inferred to act as an electronic conductor connecting the biologically mediated anode to the abiotic cathode. Integrated electrical geophysical techniques appear well suited to act as rapid, low cost sustainable tools to monitor biodegradation.

  13. Resistivity and self-potential tomography applied to groundwater remediation and contaminant plumes: Sandbox and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Revil, A.; Hort, R. D.; Munakata-Marr, J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Kulessa, B.

    2015-11-01

    Geophysical methods can be used to remotely characterize contaminated sites and monitor in situ enhanced remediation processes. We have conducted one sandbox experiment and one contaminated field investigation to show the robustness of electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential (SP) tomography for these applications. In the sandbox experiment, we injected permanganate in a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated environment under a constant hydraulic gradient. Inverted resistivity tomograms are able to track the evolution of the permanganate plume in agreement with visual observations made on the side of the tank. Self-potential measurements were also performed at the surface of the sandbox using non-polarizing Ag-AgCl electrodes. These data were inverted to obtain the source density distribution with and without the resistivity information. A compact horizontal dipole source located at the front of the plume was obtained from the inversion of these self-potential data. This current dipole may be related to the redox reaction occurring between TCE and permanganate and the strong concentration gradient at the front of the plume. We demonstrate that time-lapse self-potential signals can be used to track the kinetics of an advecting oxidizer plume with acceptable accuracy and, if needed, in real time, but are unable to completely resolve the shape of the plume. In the field investigation, a 3D resistivity tomography is used to characterize an organic contaminant plume (resistive domain) and an overlying zone of solid waste materials (conductive domain). After removing the influence of the streaming potential, the identified source current density had a magnitude of 0.5 A m-2. The strong source current density may be attributed to charge movement between the neighboring zones that encourage abiotic and microbially enhanced reduction and oxidation reactions. In both cases, the self-potential source current density is located in the area of strong resistivity

  14. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kevin G

    2010-04-01

    acrylonitrile, did however develop a positive charge in the presence of the ionizer. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that the action of negative air ionizers significantly alters the electrostatic landscape of the clinical environment, and that this has the potential to cause any Acinetobacter-bearing particles in the air to be strongly repelled from some plastic surfaces and attracted to others. In so doing, this may prevent critical items of equipment from becoming contaminated with the bacterium.

  15. Micro-distribution of uranium in bone after contamination: new insight into its mechanism of accumulation into bone tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Damien [ICSM, LHYS, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Burt-Pichat, Brigitte [INSERM, UMR 1033 Lyon (France); Lyon Univ. (France); Le Goff, Xavier [ICSM, L2ME, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2015-09-15

    After internal contamination, uranium rapidly distributes in the body; up to 20 % of the initial dose is retained in the skeleton, where it remains for years. Several studies suggest that uranium has a deleterious effect on the bone cell system, but little is known regarding the mechanisms leading to accumulation of uranium in bone tissue. We have performed synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR μ-XRF) studies to assess the initial distribution of uranium within cortical and trabecular bones in contaminated rats' femurs at the micrometer scale. This sensitive technique with high spatial resolution is the only method available that can be successfully applied, given the small amount of uranium in bone tissue. Uranium was found preferentially located in calcifying zones in exposed rats and rapidly accumulates in the endosteal and periosteal area of femoral metaphyses, in calcifying cartilage and in recently formed bone tissue along trabecular bone. Furthermore, specific localized areas with high accumulation of uranium were observed in regions identified as micro-vessels and on bone trabeculae. These observations are of high importance in the study of the accumulation of uranium in bone tissue, as the generally proposed passive chemical sorption on the surface of the inorganic part (apatite) of bone tissue cannot account for these results. Our study opens original perspectives in the field of exogenous metal bio-mineralization.

  16. Potential of different AM fungi (native from As-contaminated and uncontaminated soils) for supporting Leucaena leucocephala growth in As-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jerusa; Bundschuh, Jochen; Rangel, Wesley de Melo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães

    2017-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation is considered a potential biotechnological tool for an eco-friendly remediation of hazardous contaminants. However, the mechanisms explaining how AM fungi attenuate the phytotoxicity of metal(oid)s, in particular arsenic (As), are still not fully understood. The influence of As on plant growth and the antioxidant system was studied in Leucaena leucocephala plants inoculated with different isolates of AM fungi and exposed to increasing concentrations of As (0, 35, and 75 mg dm(-3)) in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions using isolates of AM fungi selected from uncontaminated soils (Acaulospora morrowiae, Rhizophagus clarus, Gigaspora albida; and a mixed inoculum derived from combining these isolates, named AMF Mix) as well as a mix of three isolates from an As-contaminated soil (A. morrowiae, R. clarus, and Paraglomus occultum). After 21 weeks, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined in the shoots in addition to measuring plant height and mineral contents. In general, AM fungi have shown multiple beneficial effects on L. leucocephala growth. Although the activity of most of the stress-related enzymes increased in plants associated with AM fungi, the percentage increase caused by adding As to the soil was even greater for non-mycorrhizal plants when compared to AM-fungi inoculated ones, which highlights the phytoprotective effect provided by the AM symbiosis. The highest P/As ratio observed in AM-fungi plants, compared to non-mycorrhizal ones, can be considered a good indicator that the AM fungi alter the pattern of As(V) uptake from As-contaminated soil. Our results underline the role of AM fungi in increasing the tolerance of L. leucocephala to As stress and emphasize the potential of the symbiosis L. leucocephala-R. clarus for As-phytostabilization at moderately As-contaminated

  17. Potential of near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging for screening of farm feed contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Paliwal, Jitendra

    2005-09-01

    With the outbreak of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) (commonly known as mad cow disease) in 1987 in the United Kingdom and a recent case discovered in Alberta, more and more emphasis is placed on food and farm feed quality and safety issues internationally. The disease is believed to be spread through farm feed contamination by animal byproducts in the form of meat-and-bone-meal (MBM). The paper reviewed the available techniques necessary to the enforcement of legislation concerning the feed safety issues. The standard microscopy method, although highly sensitive, is laborious and costly. A method to routinely screen farm feed contamination certainly helps to reduce the complexity of safety inspection. A hyperspectral imaging system working in the near-infrared wavelength region of 1100-1600 nm was used to study the possibility of detection of ground broiler feed contamination by ground pork. Hyperspectral images of raw broiler feed, ground broiler feed, ground pork, and contaminated feed samples were acquired. Raw broiler feed samples were found to possess comparatively large spectral variations due to light scattering effect. Ground feed adulterated with 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10% of ground pork was tested to identify feed contamination. Discriminant analysis using Mahalanobis distance showed that the model trained using pure ground feed samples and pure ground pork samples resulted in 100% false negative errors for all test replicates of contaminated samples. A discriminant model trained with pure ground feed samples and 10% contamination level samples resulted in 12.5% false positive error and 0% false negative error.

  18. Status of metal levels and their potential sources of contamination in Southeast Asian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the concentration and status of metal contaminants in four major Southeast Asian river systems, water were collected from the Tonle Sap-Bassac Rivers (Cambodia), Citarum River (Indonesia), lower Chao Phraya River (Thailand), and Saigon River (Vietnam) in both dry and wet seasons. The target elements were Be, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb and the concentrations exceeded the background metal concentrations by 1- to 88-fold. This distinctly indicates enrichment by human urban area activities. The results of a normalization technique used to distinguish natural from enriched metal concentrations confirmed contamination by Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Cluster analysis revealed the probable source of metals contamination in most sampling sites on all rivers studied to be anthropogenic, including industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Stable lead isotopes analyses applied to track the sources and pathways of anthropogenic lead furthermore confirmed that anthropogenic sources of metal contaminated these rivers. Discharges of wastewater from both industrial and household activities were major contributors of Pb into the rivers. Non-point sources, especially road runoff and street dust, also contributed contamination from Pb and other metals.

  19. Self-potential monitoring of a crude oil contaminated site (Trecate, Italy): first results of the modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Rizzo, E.; Titov, K.; Maineult, A.; Lapenna, V.

    2012-04-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time. The existing methods used for the remediation of these contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). A particular attention is given to the self-potential (SP) method because SP is sensitive to the contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005; Revil et al., 2010). Here we show the results of SP investigations carried out at Trecate site (Italy). This site was affected by a crude oil contamination from a well blowout in 1994. Four SP surveys (October 2009, March 2010, October 2010, and March 2011) were conducted at the site, both in the contaminated and uncontaminated regions. Significant changes are observed between SP data collected at different times. In particular, we found mostly negative electrical potential in October surveys and positive electrical potential in March surveys. The SP distributions can be interpreted as the superposition of many components, including a horizontal water-flow in the saturated shallow aquifer toward South-East, the infiltration movement of water in the unsaturated zone and, possibly, the oxidation-reduction phenomena due to bacterial activity. As the groundwater flow usually produces SP linear trends, the data were detrended by linear regression, taking into account the measured piezometric heads in the aquifer. The detrended SP data show that the SP distribution within the contaminated zone is generally bipolar in October: the southern part of the contaminated area is characterized by negative values

  20. Phytoremediation potential of weeds in heavy metal contaminated soils of the Bassa Industrial Zone of Douala, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, A Fontem; Ngwa, E S A; Chikoye, D; Suh, C E

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising option for reclaiming soils contaminated with toxic metals, using plants with high potentials for extraction, stabilization and hyperaccumulation. This study was conducted in Cameroon, at the Bassa Industrial Zone of Douala in 2011, to assess the total content of 19 heavy metals and 5 other elements in soils and phytoremediation potential of 12 weeds. Partial extraction was carried out in soil, plant root and shoot samples. Phytoremediation potential was evaluated in terms of the Biological Concentration Factor, Translocation Factor and Biological Accumulation Coefficient. The detectable content of the heavy metals in soils was Cu:70-179, Pb:8-130, Zn:200-971, Ni:74-296, Co:31-90, Mn:1983-4139, V:165-383, Cr:42-1054, Ba:26-239, Sc:21-56, Al:6.11-9.84, Th:7-22, Sr:30-190, La:52-115, Zr:111-341, Y:10-49, Nb:90-172 in mg kg(-1), and Ti:2.73-4.09 and Fe:12-16.24 in wt%. The contamination index revealed that the soils were slightly to heavily contaminated while the geoaccumulation index showed that the soils ranged from unpolluted to highly polluted. The concentration of heavy metals was ranked as Zn > Ni > Cu > V > Mn > Sc > Co > Pb and Cr in the roots and Mn > Zn > Ni > Cu > Sc > Co > V > Pb > Cr > Fe in the shoots. Dissotis rotundifolia and Kyllinga erecta had phytoextraction potentials for Pb and Paspalum orbicularefor Fe. Eleusine indica and K. erecta had phytostabilisation potential for soils contaminated with Cu and Pb, respectively.

  1. Potentially toxic element contamination in soil and accumulation in maize plants in a smelter area in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannoni, Francesco; Rossi, Sara; Protano, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A biogeochemical field study was carried out in the industrial area of Kosovska Mitrovica in northern Kosovo, where agricultural soils were contaminated by potentially toxic elements due to smelting activity. Total and bioavailable contents of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, U and Zn in soil and their concentrations in maize roots and grains were determined. Soil contamination by As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn was variable from slightly to highly contaminated soils and influenced both the bioavailable fraction and accumulation of these potentially toxic elements in maize tissues. The comparison between potentially toxic element concentrations in roots and grains indicated that maize is able to limit the transfer of non-essential elements to edible parts. The plant-to-soil bioconcentration indices suggested that the transfer of potentially toxic elements from soil to plant was predicted better by bioavailable concentrations than by the total contents. These indices further identified some competitions and interactions among these elements in root uptake and root-to-grain translocation.

  2. Investigations on potential bacteria for the bioremediation treatment of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, I.; Voicu, A.; Dobrota, S.; Stefanescu, M. [Institute of Biology of Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In Romania after more than 135 years of oil production and processing, some severe environmental pollution problems have accumulated. In this context a joint research group from Institute of Biology Bucharest and S.C. Petrostar S.A. Ploiesti became involved in a research project on bioremediation of an environment contaminated with hydrocarbon waste. In the first stage of this project, investigations on microbial communities occurring in environments contaminated with oil were carried out. In the second stage, the hundreds of bacterial strains and populations isolated from soils, slops, and water sites contaminated with waste oil and water waste oil mix were submitted to a screening program, to select a naturally occurring mixed culture with a high ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  3. [Potential role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in bioremediation of uranium contaminated environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Mei-Mei; Bai, Ren

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing demand for new energy, nuclear industry has been developing very fast, and uranium (U) pollution becomes a serious environmental problem especially in the mining area. The discharge of U products and wastes can contaminate soil and water, and finally threaten human health. On the other side, as an environment-friendly biotechnology, the importance of mycorrhizal technology in remediation of polluted environments has received much attention in recent years. Following a brief introduction of the environmental impacts of U contamination, this review summarized the effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) on U uptake and accumulation by plants based on recent research progresses, suggested possible application of AM fungi in remediation of U contaminated environment, and finally discussed about the perspectives in relevant research area.

  4. Potential of glycerol and soybean oil for bioremediation of weathered oily-sludge contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, T.C.F.; Franca, F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica], E-mail: fpfranca@eq.ufrj.br; Oliveira, F.J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil was investigated on laboratory scale. This work evaluated the effect of co-substrate addition in tropical climate soil highly contaminated with oily residue. Glycerol and soybean oil were used as auxiliary co-substrates for contaminant degradation. Three different concentrations of co-substrate were tested, and the experiments were carried out over 60 days. The following parameters were monitored: humidity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene. The soil supplementation with renewable co-substrates improved the efficiency of the biodegradation TPH, with removals of 85% and 83% for glycerol and soybean oil, respectively, compared to a 55% removal yielded by the biodegradation process without supplementation. The use of glycerol increased Chrysene and Benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation by 50%, while soybean oil supplementation increased their removal by 36%. (author)

  5. Groundwater resource vulnerability and spatial variability of nitrate contamination: Insights from high density tubewell monitoring in a hard rock aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Sekhar, M; Mohan Kumar, M S; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Giriraja, P R; Praveenkumarreddy, Yerabham; Moger, Hemanth; Durand, Patrick; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Ruiz, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Agriculture has been increasingly relying on groundwater irrigation for the last decades, leading to severe groundwater depletion and/or nitrate contamination. Understanding the links between nitrate concentration and groundwater resource is a prerequisite for assessing the sustainability of irrigated systems. The Berambadi catchment (ORE-BVET/Kabini Critical Zone Observatory) in Southern India is a typical example of intensive irrigated agriculture and then an ideal site to study the relative influences of land use, management practices and aquifer properties on NO3 spatial distribution in groundwater. The monitoring of >200 tube wells revealed nitrate concentrations from 1 to 360mg/L. Three configurations of groundwater level and elevation gradient were identified: i) NO3 hot spots associated to deep groundwater levels (30-60m) and low groundwater elevation gradient suggest small groundwater reserve with absence of lateral flow, then degradation of groundwater quality due to recycling through pumping and return flow; ii) high groundwater elevation gradient, moderate NO3 concentrations suggest that significant lateral flow prevented NO3 enrichment; iii) low NO3 concentrations, low groundwater elevation gradient and shallow groundwater indicate a large reserve. We propose that mapping groundwater level and gradient could be used to delineate zones vulnerable to agriculture intensification in catchments where groundwater from low-yielding aquifers is the only source of irrigation. Then, wells located in low groundwater elevation gradient zones are likely to be suitable for assessing the impacts of local agricultural systems, while wells located in zones with high elevation gradient would reflect the average groundwater quality of the catchment, and hence should be used for regional mapping of groundwater quality. Irrigation with NO3 concentrated groundwater induces a "hidden" input of nitrogen to the crop which can reach 200kgN/ha/yr in hotspot areas, enhancing

  6. Investigation of the Potential Hazard in Releasing Scrap Steel Contaminated with Uranium to Commercial Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatz, Hanson; Harley, John H.; Eisenbud, Merril

    1951-06-15

    Tests were conducted on a laboratory and semi-plant scale to determine the effect of permitting scrap grossly contaminated with uranium to be used in steel manufacture. It was found the most of the uranium is removed with the slag. Steel made with this scrap would have a uranium constituent so little above that made with uncontaminated scrap as to be hardly significant. The slag itself would not present any hazard in handling or normal use. It is recommended, therefore, that in the future steel with only surface uranium contamination be released through normal scrap channels.

  7. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  8. Potential Jupiter-Family comet contamination of the main asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Haghighipour, Nader

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of "snapshot" numerical integrations of test particles representing comet-like and asteroid-like objects in the inner Solar System aimed at investigating the short-term dynamical evolution of objects close to the dynamical boundary between asteroids and comets as defined by the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, TJ (i.e., TJ = 3). As expected, we find that TJ for individual test particles is not always a reliable indicator of initial orbit types. Furthermore, we find that a few percent of test particles with comet-like starting elements (i.e., similar to those of Jupiter-family comets) reach main-belt-like orbits (at least temporarily) during our 2 Myr integrations, even without the inclusion of non-gravitational forces, apparently via a combination of gravitational interactions with the terrestrial planets and temporary trapping by mean-motion resonances with Jupiter. We estimate that the fraction of real Jupiter-family comets occasionally reaching main-belt-like orbits on Myr timescales could be on the order of ∼ 0.1-1%, although the fraction that remain on such orbits for appreciable lengths of time is certainly far lower. For this reason, the number of JFC-like interlopers in the main-belt population at any given time is likely to be small, but still non-zero, a finding with significant implications for efforts to use apparently icy yet dynamically asteroidal main-belt comets as tracers of the primordial distribution of volatile material in the inner Solar System. The test particles with comet-like starting orbital elements that transition onto main-belt-like orbits in our integrations appear to be largely prevented from reaching low eccentricity, low inclination orbits, suggesting that the real-world population of main-belt objects with both low eccentricities and inclinations may be largely free of this potential occasional Jupiter-family comet contamination. We therefore find that low-eccentricity, low-inclination main

  9. Phytostabilization potential of two ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides in cadmium-contaminated soils: greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusantisampan, Theerawut; Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Saengwilai, Patompong; Pichtel, John; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2016-10-01

    Soil contamination by cadmium (Cd) poses a serious environmental and public health concern. Phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, has been proposed for treatment of Cd-contaminated ecosystems. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of Vetiveria zizanioides, commonly known as vetiver, to serve as an effective phytoremediation agent. Two ecotypes, i.e., India and Sri Lanka, were grown in greenhouse pots and in the field. Soils were amended with cow manure, pig manure, bat manure, and an organic fertilizer. Among all amendments, pig manure performed best in both greenhouse and field studies in terms of increasing total V. zizanioides biomass production in both ecotypes. In both greenhouse and in the field, tissue of the Sri Lanka ecotype had higher Cd concentrations than did the India ecotype. In the greenhouse, the presence of Cd did not affect total biomass production or root dry weight. The Sri Lanka ecotype had 2.7 times greater adventitious root numbers and 3.6 times greater Cd accumulation in roots than did the India ecotype. In the field study, the Sri Lanka ecotype offers potential as an excluder species, as it accumulated Cd primarily in roots, with translocation factor values 1 for all experiments except for the pig manure amendment. In addition, the highest Cd concentration in the Sri Lanka ecotype root (71.3 mg kg(-1)) was consistent with highest Cd uptake (10.4 mg plant(-1)) in the cow manure treatment. The India ecotype contained lower root Cd concentrations, and Cd accumulation was slightly higher in shoots compared to roots, with translocation factor (TF) values >1. The India ecotype was therefore not considered as an excluder in the Cd-contaminated soil. With the use of excluder species combined with application of organic amendments, soil contamination by Cd may be treated by alternative remediation methods such as phytostabilization.

  10. Salting of dry-cured meat - A potential cause of contamination with the ochratoxin A-producing species Penicillium nordicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonjak, Silva; Ličen, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2011-09-01

    Penicillium nordicum is a known contaminant of protein-rich foods and is primarily found on dry-cured meat products. It is an important producer of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A, which has nephrotoxic and cancerogenic activities. Recently a high number of P. nordicum strains was isolated from different dry-cured meat products from one of the Slovenian meat-processing plants. Since we have isolated P. nordicum in high counts also from Artic habitats, such as sea water and sea ice and due to its ability to grow well at low temperatures and at increased salinity, sea salt was suspected as the possible source of P. nordicum. In the present study contamination of meat products, air in the meat-processing plant and sea salt used for salting were analysed. When 50 g of salt sample from a sealed package was dissolved in sterile water and filtered, 12 colonies of P. nordicum were obtained on solid medium incubated at 15 °C, while a salt sample from an open vessel in the meat-processing area developed high, uncountable number of colonies. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses of P. nordicum isolates from different sources showed that contamination of meat products via salt was possible. Three selected isolates examined for extrolites all produced ochratoxin A. As contamination of dry-cured meat products with P. nordicum represents a potential health risk for consumers and workers in the meat-processing plants, salt should be taken into account as a potential cause of such contaminations.

  11. Aspidosperma subincanum I. characterisation, extraction of an uleine-enriched fraction and potential health hazard due to the contaminant ellipticine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Daniel Federlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bark of the Brazilian tree Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A. DC., Apocynaceae, has been characterised, and its constituents concentrated to obtain an uleine-enriched extract with the aim to produce food supplements. The concentration of the contaminant alkaloid ellipticine was assessed, and its potential to elicit toxic effects on consumers evaluated. It was found that this alkaloid posited no danger.

  12. The potential for groundwater contamination along basin margins in the arid west: Alluvial fans and lake features

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Calvin G.; Oaks, Robert Q.; Peter T. Kolesar; Fisk, Edward P.

    1981-01-01

    Many towns of the arid west were built upon alluvial fans and upon sites underlain by Pleistocene lake deposits. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of these activities of man upon groundwater quality within these geological features. Emphasis was placed on shallow groundwater quality after it was determined that deep groundwater is rarely contaminated at such sites. A reconnaissance of...

  13. A chemical additive to limit potential bacterial contamination in chill tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler carcasses with different types and numbers of bacteria are commonly chilled together in an ice water bath which may lead to transfer of unwanted bacteria from carcass to carcass. Historically chill tanks have been chlorinated to help prevent cross contamination and recently other chemical a...

  14. Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize in Zambia: observed and potential concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize and groundnut, important staples in Zambia, are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Aflatoxins are potent human carcinogens also associated with stunting and immunosuppression. Although health and economic burdens of aflatoxins are well known, patterns of contamination in maize and grou...

  15. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water

  16. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contam

  17. Foodborne outbreaks and potential routes of contamination in fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been associated with mangoes, cantaloupes, and leafy green commodities, respectively. The 2011 outbreak of L. monocytogenes associated with the consumption of contaminated Rocky Ford cantaloupes was one of the m...

  18. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  19. Immunostimulatory Potential of β-Lactoglobulin Preparations: Effects Caused by Endotoxin Contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bovetto, L.; Fritsche, R.

    2003-01-01

    the immunomodulatory activity. Eventually, the immunostimulatory effect was found to be caused by endotoxin contamination.Conclusion: These results identify endotoxin as the main immunostimulatory component present in some commercial beta-lactoglobulin preparations. Moreover, the present study makes it evident...

  20. Assessing diversity and phytoremediation potential of mangroves for copper contaminated sediments in Subic Bay, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic metal pollution of water and soil is a major environmental problem and most conventional remediation approaches may not provide adequate solutions. An alternative way of reducing copper (Cu) concentration from contaminated sediments is through phytoremediation. Presently, there are few researc...

  1. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Regine; Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen; Broll, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world. For the rehabilitation of oil-contaminated sites, phytoremediation represents a promising technology whereby plants are used to enhance biodegradation processes in soil. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the tolerance of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) to a Venezuelan heavy crude oil in soil. Additionally, the plant's potential for stimulating the biodegradation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons was tested under the application of two fertilizer levels. In the presence of contaminants, biomass and plant height were significantly reduced. As for fertilization, the lower fertilizer level led to higher biomass production. The specific root surface area was reduced under the effects of petroleum. However, vetiver was found to tolerate crude-oil contamination in a concentration of 5% (w/w). Concerning total oil and grease content in soil, no significant decrease under the influence of vetiver was detected when compared to the unplanted control. Thus, there was no evidence of vetiver enhancing the biodegradation of crude oil in soil under the conditions of this trial. However, uses of vetiver grass in relation to petroleum-contaminated soils are promising for amelioration of slightly polluted sites, to allow other species to get established and for erosion control.

  2. Detection of Rubisco and mycotoxins as potential contaminants of a plantibody against the hepatitis B surface antigen purified from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geada, Déborah; Valdés, Rodolfo; Escobar, Arturo; Ares, Dulce M; Torres, Edel; Blanco, Reinaldo; Ferro, Williams; Dorta, Dayamí; González, Marcos; Alemán, María R; Padilla, Sigifredo; Gómez, Leonardo; Del Castillo, Norma; Mendoza, Otto; Urquiza, Dioslaida; Soria, Yordanka; Brito, José; Leyva, Alberto; Borroto, Carlos; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2007-10-01

    Antibodies have been one of the proteins widely expressed in tobacco plants for pharmaceutical purposes, which demand contaminant free preparations. Rubisco constitutes 40-60% of tobacco leaf soluble proteins; therefore it is the major potential protein contaminant of plantibodies, while mycotoxins are toxic compounds that could be introduced during the biomass production and post-harvest stages with important consequences to human health. The objective of this paper was to investigate whether Rubisco and mycotoxins are present in Plantibody HB-01 preparations used in the immunopurification of the hepatitis B surface antigen. Rubisco was purified from Nicotiana tabacum yielding 154 microg of protein per gram of leaves and purity over 95%. Among mouse monoclonal antibodies generated against this enzyme, the CBSS.Rub-2 was selected for its immunodetection. It recognizes a conserved sequential epitope of Rubisco large subunit with an affinity constant of 0.13 x 10(8)M(-1). Rubisco quantification limit was 1 microg spreading to the measurement of this contaminant less than 4% of plantibodies samples. Additionally, according to a Reverse Phase-HPLC used to measure the level of adventitiously introduced contaminants, it can be concluded that aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were undetected in the purified Plantibody HB-01 samples.

  3. Characterization of cell-free extracts from fenpropathrin-degrading strain Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and its potential for bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Wenwen; Han, Haitao; She, Changchun; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic pyrethroid fenpropathrin has received increasing attention because of its environmental contamination and toxic effects on non-target organisms including human beings. Here we report the degradation characteristics of cell-free extracts from fenpropathrin-degrading strain Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and its potential for pyrethroid bioremediation in soils. 50mg·L(-1) of fenpropathrin was decreased to 20.6mg·L(-1) by the enzymatic extracts (869.4mg·L(-1)) within 30min. Kinetic constants Km and Vm were determined to be 1006.7nmol·L(-1) and 56.8nmol·min(-1), respectively. Degradation products were identified as 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, α-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile and phenol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to degradation of fenpropathrin, the cell-free extracts could degrade other pyrethroids including beta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Additionally, the reaction conditions were optimized. In the sterile and non-sterile soils, 50mg·kg(-1) of fenpropathrin was reduced to 15.3 and 13.9mg·L(-1) in 1d, respectively. Sprayed 100 and 300mg·kg(-1) of fenpropathrin emulsifiable concentrate (EC), up to 84.6% and 92.1% of soil fenpropathrin were removed from soils within 7d, respectively. Taken together, our results depict the biodegradation characteristics of cell-free extracts from B. cereus ZH-3, highlight its promising potential in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils and also provide new insights into the utilization of degrading microbes.

  4. The petrogenesis of anorogenic felsic magmas and AMCG suites: Insights on element mobility and mutual cryptic contamination from polythermal experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert F.

    2012-10-01

    The close association of mantle-derived mafic rocks and crust-derived felsic rocks in AMCG suites the world over is now interpreted in terms of delamination of the lithospheric keel of an orogen within a short time after the cessation of a major collision. The stage is set for the ascent of an asthenospheric diapir, which is accompanied by the ascent of a stream of H2O-CO2 representing regional degassing of the mantle in the ensuing extensional setting. The crust gets variably metasomatized prior to melting, and this episode of melting seems to involve almost complete melting rather than the expected films of leucosome. Results of polythermal experiments with a large array of target rocks (pulverized) + H2O show that it is possible to mobilize the major elements K, Na, Al, Si and Fe such that the transported fractions resembles an A-type granite or syenite. The open-system process increases in efficiency with increasing temperature and increasing pressure. A stream of such fluid interacting with gabbro or basic magma could create anorthositic and ultrabasic assemblages that are candidates for contamination of pools of basic magma in the uppermost mantle and lower crust. The same stream continues its buoyant rise and makes over the sterile granulitic lower and middle crust into a geochemically fertile protolith for the generation of A-type felsic magmas by wholesale anatexis.

  5. Investigation of hydrophobic contaminants in an urban slough system using passive sampling - Insights from sampling rate calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.

    2008-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in the Columbia Slough, near Portland, Oregon, on three separate occasions to measure the spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the slough. Concentrations of PAHs and OCs in SPMDs showed spatial and seasonal differences among sites and indicated that unusually high flows in the spring of 2006 diluted the concentrations of many of the target contaminants. However, the same PAHs - pyrene, fluoranthene, and the alkylated homologues of phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluorene - and OCs - polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachloroanisole, chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, and the metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) - predominated throughout the system during all three deployment periods. The data suggest that storm washoff may be a predominant source of PAHs in the slough but that OCs are ubiquitous, entering the slough by a variety of pathways. Comparison of SPMDs deployed on the stream bed with SPMDs deployed in the overlying water column suggests that even for the very hydrophobic compounds investigated, bed sediments may not be a predominant source in this system. Perdeuterated phenanthrene (phenanthrene-d10). spiked at a rate of 2 ??g per SPMD, was shown to be a reliable performance reference compound (PRC) under the conditions of these deployments. Post-deployment concentrations of the PRC revealed differences in sampling conditions among sites and between seasons, but indicate that for SPMDs deployed throughout the main slough channel, differences in sampling rates were small enough to make site-to-site comparisons of SPMD concentrations straightforward. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  6. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  7. Reducing the bioavailability and leaching potential of lead in contaminated water hyacinth biomass by phosphate-assisted pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingna; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianfa; Huang, Xiaoyi; Cai, Jing; Lü, Jinhong; Wang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    For the purpose of safe disposal of biomass contaminated by biosorption of heavy metals, phosphate-assisted pyrolysis of water hyacinth biomass contaminated by lead (Pb) was tried to reduce the bioavailability and leaching potential of Pb, using direct pyrolysis without additive as a control method. Direct pyrolysis of the contaminated biomass at low temperatures (300 and 400°C) could reduce the bioavailability of Pb, but the leaching potential of Pb was increased with the rising pyrolysis temperature. While phosphate-assisted pyrolysis significantly enhanced the recovery and stability of Pb in the char. Specifically, the percentages of bioavailable Pb and leachable Pb in the chars obtained by phosphate-assisted pyrolysis at low temperatures were reduced to less than 5% and 7%, respectively. The sequential extraction test indicated the transformation of Pb into more stable fractions after phosphate-assisted pyrolysis, which was related to the formation of Pb phosphate minerals including pyromorphite and lead-substituted hydroxyapatite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional genes reveal the intrinsic PAH biodegradation potential in creosote-contaminated groundwater following in situ biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Kapanen, Anu; Piskonen, Reetta; Lukkari, Tuomas; Itävaara, Merja

    2009-08-01

    A small-scale functional gene array containing 15 functional gene probes targeting aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways was used to investigate the effect of a pilot-scale air sparging and nutrient infiltration treatment on hydrocarbon biodegradation in creosote-contaminated groundwater. Genes involved in the different phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation were detected with the functional gene array in the contaminant plume, thus indicating the presence of intrinsic biodegradation potential. However, the low aerobic fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA genes closely similar to sulphate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria and the negligible decrease in contaminant concentrations showed that aerobic PAH biodegradation was limited in the anoxic groundwater. Increased abundance of PAH biodegradation genes was detected by functional gene array in the monitoring well located at the rear end of the biostimulated area, which indicated that air sparging and nutrient infiltration enhanced the intrinsic, aerobic PAH biodegradation. Furthermore, ten times higher naphthalene dioxygenase gene copy numbers were detected by real-time PCR in the biostimulated area, which was in good agreement with the functional gene array data. As a result, functional gene array analysis was demonstrated to provide a potential tool for evaluating the efficiency of the bioremediation treatment for enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation in field-scale applications.

  9. Phytoextractor Potential of Cultivated Species in Industrial Area Contaminated by Lead

    OpenAIRE

    Silvânia Maria de Souza Gomes Nascimento; Adailson Pereira de Souza; Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima; Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento; Joab Josemar Vitor Ribeiro do Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: High growth rate is one of the criteria used for the selection of species to be used in metal phytoextraction programs. This study was carried out to characterize the growth characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), corn (Zea mays L), and vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash] grown on a soil contaminated with lead (Pb), with and without pH correction, to improve agronomic practices regarding phytoremediation programs. The experiment ...

  10. Phytoextractor Potential of Cultivated Species in Industrial Area Contaminated by Lead

    OpenAIRE

    Silvânia Maria de Souza Gomes Nascimento; Adailson Pereira de Souza; Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima; Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento; Joab Josemar Vitor Ribeiro do Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: High growth rate is one of the criteria used for the selection of species to be used in metal phytoextraction programs. This study was carried out to characterize the growth characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), corn (Zea mays L), and vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash] grown on a soil contaminated with lead (Pb), with and without pH correction, to improve agronomic practices regarding phytoremediation programs. The experiment ...

  11. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2011-11-01

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As contamination and evaluate the health risk of As for these countries. The detection of As contamination in groundwater resources, however, can create a substantial labor and cost burden for Southeast Asian countries. Therefore, modeling approaches for As concentration using conventional on-site measurement data can be an alternative to quantify the As contamination. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of four different models; specifically, multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR), artificial neural network (ANN), and the combination of principal components and an artificial neural network (PC-ANN) in the prediction of As concentration, and to provide assessment tools for Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. The modeling results show that the prediction accuracy of PC-ANN (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients: 0.98 (traning step) and 0.71 (validation step)) is superior among the four different models. This finding can be explained by the fact that the PC-ANN not only solves the problem of collinearity of input variables, but also reflects the presence of high variability in observed As concentrations. We expect that the model developed in this work can be used to predict As concentrations using conventional water quality data obtained from on-site measurements, and can further provide reliable and predictive information for public health management policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Preciado, Diana [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Matamoros, Victor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L{sup -1} and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L{sup -1}, on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from < 1 to 7677 ng kg{sup -1}, with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 {mu}g per person and week ({Sigma} 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  13. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from <1 to 7677 ng kg(-1), with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential of grasses and rhizosphere bacteria for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Paola Mezzari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques available for the remediation of environmental accidents involving petroleum hydrocarbons are generally high-cost solutions. A cheaper, practical and ecologically relevant alternative is the association of plants with microorganisms that contribute to the degradation and removal of hydrocarbons from the soil. The growth of three tropical grass species (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens and Paspalum notatum and the survival of root-associated bacterial communities was evaluated at different diesel oil concentrations. Seeds of three grass species were germinated in greenhouse and at different doses of diesel (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 g kg-1 soil. Plants were grown for 10 weeks with periodic assessment of germination, growth (fresh and dry weight, height, and number of bacteria in the soil (pots with or without plants. Growth and biomass of B. decumbens and P. notatum declined significantly when planted in diesel-oil contaminated soils. The presence of diesel fuel did not affect the growth of B. brizantha, which was highly tolerant to this pollutant. Bacterial growth was significant (p < 0.05 and the increase was directly proportional to the diesel dose. Bacteria growth in diesel-contaminated soils was stimulated up to 5-fold by the presence of grasses, demonstrating the positive interactions between rhizosphere and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the remediation of diesel-contaminated soils.

  15. Potential adverse effects of applying phosphate amendments to immobilize soil contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majs, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Seven-day batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to measure the efficacy of four phosphate amendments (trisodium trimetaphosphate [TP3], dodecasodium phytate [Na-IP6], precipitated calcium phytate [Ca-IP6], and hydroxyapatite [HA]) for immobilizing Ni and U in organic-rich sediment. Using the eight-step modified Miller's sequential extraction procedure and the USEPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, the effect of these amendments on the distribution of Ni and U was assessed. Relative to unamended controls, equilibrium aqueous-phase U concentrations were lower following HA and Ca-IP6 additions but higher following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments, whereas aqueous Ni concentrations were not decreased only in the Na-IP6 amended treatment relative to the control. The poor rates of contaminant immobilization following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments correlate with the dispersion of organic matter and organo-mineral colloids, which probably contain sorbed U and Ni. While all amendments shifted the U distribution toward more recalcitrant soil fractions, Ni was redistributed to more labile soil fractions. This study cautions that the addition of orthophosphates and organophosphates as contaminant immobilizing amendments may in fact have adverse effects, especially in high-organic soils. Particular attention is warranted at sites with mixed contaminants with varying geochemical behaviors. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Characterization and Potential Remediation Approaches for Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford 241-SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Sydnor, Harold A.; Parker, Danny L.; Glaser, Danney R.

    2013-01-10

    Unplanned releases of radioactive and hazardous wastes have occurred at the 241-SX Tank Farm on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Interim and long-term mitigation efforts are currently under evaluation for 241-SX Tank Farm. Two contiguous interim surface barriers have been designed for deployment at 241-SX Tank Farm to reduce future moisture infiltration; however, construction of the surface barriers has been deferred to allow testing of alternative technologies for soil moisture reduction and possibly contaminant source term reduction. Previous tests performed by other organizations at the Hanford Site have demonstrated that: vadose zone desiccation using large diameter (greater than 4 inch) boreholes is feasible; under certain circumstances, mobile contaminants may be removed in addition to water vapor; and small diameter (approximately 2 inch) boreholes (such as those placed by the direct push hydraulic hammer) can be used to perform vapor extractions. Evaluation of the previous work combined with laboratory test results have led to the design of a field proof-of-principle test to remove water and possibly mobile contaminants at greater depths, using small boreholes placed with the direct push unit.

  17. Toxicological benchmarks for potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1995-09-01

    An important step in ecological risk assessments is screening the chemicals occur-ring on a site for contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by comparing reported ambient concentrations to a set of toxicological benchmarks. Multiple endpoints for assessing risks posed by soil-borne contaminants to organisms directly impacted by them have been established. This report presents benchmarks for soil invertebrates and microbial processes and addresses only chemicals found at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. No benchmarks for pesticides are presented. After discussing methods, this report presents the results of the literature review and benchmark derivation for toxicity to earthworms (Sect. 3), heterotrophic microbes and their processes (Sect. 4), and other invertebrates (Sect. 5). The final sections compare the benchmarks to other criteria and background and draw conclusions concerning the utility of the benchmarks.

  18. Detection and Separation of Event-related Potentials from Multi-Artifacts Contaminated EEG by Means of Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGRong-chang; DUSi-dan; GAODun-tang

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERP) is an important type of brain dynamics in human cognition research. However, ERP is often submerged by the spontaneous brain activity EEG, for its relatively tiny scale. Further more, the brain activities collected from scalp electrodes are often inevitably contaminated by several kinds of artifacts, such as blinks, eye movements, muscle noise and power line interference. A new approach to correct these disturbances is presented using independent component analysis (ICA). This technique can effectively detect and extract ERP components from the measured electrodes recordings even if they are heavily contaminated. The results compare favorably to those obtained by parametric modeling. Besides, auto--adaptive projection of decomposed results to ERP components was also given. Through experiments, ICA proves to be highly capable of ERP extraction and S/N ratio improving.

  19. Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Sikdar, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply to the world's megacities is a problem of quantity and quality that will be a priority in the coming decades. Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system. These changes affect recharge area locations, which may shift closer to the city centre than before development, thereby increasing the potential for contamination. Hydrogeological simulation analysis allows evaluation of the impact on past, present and future pumping for the region of Kolkata, India, on recharge area locations in an aquifer that supplies water to over 13 million people. Relocated recharge areas are compared with known surface contamination sources, with a focus on sustainable management of this urban groundwater resource. The study highlights the impacts of pumping on water sources for long-term development of stressed city aquifers and for future water supply in deltaic and floodplain regions of the world.

  20. F-coliphages, porcine adenovirus and porcine teschovirus as potential indicator viruses of fecal contamination for pork carcass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-01-16

    There are concerns about the zoonotic transmission of viruses through undercooked pork products. There is a lack of information on suitable indicator viruses for fecal contamination with pathogenic enteric viruses in the meat processing chain. The study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with F-coliphages, porcine teschovirus (PTV), and porcine adenovirus (PAdV) at different stages of the dressing process to assess their potential as indicator viruses of fecal contamination. One hundred swab samples (200cm(2)) were collected from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 different stages of the dressing process and from retail pork over the span of a year from 2 pork processing plants (500/plant). Viable F-coliphages, PAdV DNA and PTV RNA were each detected on ≥99% of the incoming carcasses at both plants and were traceable through the pork processing chain. Significant correlations were observed between viable F-coliphages and PAdV DNA and between F-coliphages and PTV RNA but not between PAdV DNA and PTV RNA at the various stages of pork processing. Detection of viable F-coliphages was more sensitive than genomic copies of PAdV and PTV at low levels of contamination, making F-coliphages a preferred indicator in the pork slaughter process as it also provides an indication of infectivity. For plant A, F-RNA coliphages were detected in 25%, 63%, and 21% of carcass swabs after pasteurization, evisceration, and retail pork products, respectively. For plant B, F-coliphages were detected in 33%, 25%, and 13% of carcass swabs after skinning, evisceration, and retail pork samples, respectively. Viable F-RNA coliphages were genotyped. Viable F-RNA GII and GIII were generally not detected at the earlier stages of the slaughter process but they were detected on 13% of carcasses after evisceration and 2% of retail pork samples at plant A, which raises concerns of potential food handler contamination during pork processing. Consumers could be at risk

  1. Exploring the potential interference of estuarine sediment contaminants with the DNA repair capacity of human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel Ferreira; Louro, Henriqueta; Costa, Pedro M; Caeiro, Sandra; Silva, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries may be reservoirs of a wide variety of pollutants, including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances that may impact on the ecosystem and human health. A previous study showed that exposure of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells to extracts from sediment samples collected in two areas (urban/industrial and riverine/agricultural) of an impacted estuary (Sado, Portugal), produced differential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Those effects were found to be consistent with levels and nature of sediment contamination. The present study aimed at evaluating whether the mixtures of contaminants contained in those extracts were able to modulate DNA repair capacity of HepG2 cells. The residual level of DNA damage was measured by the comet assay in cells exposed for 24 or 48 h to different extracts, after a short preexposure to a challenging concentration range of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), as a model alkylating agent. The results suggested that the mixture of contaminants present in the tested samples, besides a potential direct effect on the DNA molecule, may also interfere with DNA repair mechanisms in HepG2 cells, thus impairing their ability to deal with genotoxic stress and, possibly, facilitating accumulation of mutations. Humans are environmentally/occupationally exposed to mixtures rather than to single chemicals. Thus, the observation that estuarine contaminants induce direct and indirect DNA strand breakage in human cells, the latter through the impairment of DNA repair, raises additional concerns regarding potential hazards from exposure and the need to further explore these endpoints in the context of environmental risk assessment.

  2. Proteomics Insights into the Biomass Hydrolysis Potentials of a Hypercellulolytic Fungus Penicillium funiculosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmolu, Funso Emmanuel; Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Mayank; Bashir, Zeenat; Pasari, Nandita; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2015-10-01

    The quest for cheaper and better enzymes needed for the efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass has placed filamentous fungi in the limelight for bioprospecting research. In our search for efficient biomass degraders, we identified a strain of Penicillium funiculosum whose secretome demonstrates high saccharification capabilities. Our probe into the secretome of the fungus through qualitative and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics studies revealed a high abundance of inducible CAZymes and several nonhydrolytic accessory proteins. The preferential association of these proteins and the attending differential biomass hydrolysis gives an insight into their interactions and clues about possible roles of novel hydrolytic and nonhydrolytic proteins in the synergistic deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Our study thus provides the first comprehensive insight into the repertoire of proteins present in a high-performing secretome of a hypercellulolytic Penicillium funiculosum, their relative abundance in the secretome, and the interaction dynamics of the various protein groups in the secretome. The gleanings from the stoichiometry of these interactions hold a prospect as templates in the design of cost-effective synthetic cocktails for the optimal hydrolysis of biomass.

  3. Analysis of the potential contamination risk of groundwater resources circulating in areas with anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spizzico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The area investigated is located in the province of Brindisi (Italy. It is a generally flat area separated from the nearby carbonatic plateau of the Murgia by quite indistinct and high fault scarps. As regards the geological features, carbonatic basement rocks and post-cretaceous terrains made up of calabrian calcarenites and middle-upper Pleistocenic marine terraced deposits can be distinguished. In the examined area there are two different hydrogeological environments. The first is represented by deep groundwater, the main groundwater resource in Apulia. The second hydrogeological environment, now of lesser importance than the deep aquifer in terms of size and use, is made up of some small shallow groundwater systems situated in post-calabrian sands and located in the eastern area. During some sampling cycles carried out in the studied area, water was withdrawn from both the deep aquifer and from the shallow groundwater. For every sample, the necessary parameters were determined for the physical and chemical characterisation of two different hydrogeological environments. Moreover, some chemical parameters indicating anthropogenic activities were determined. Analysis of the aerial distribution of the measured parameters has shown some main areas subject to different conditions of contamination risk, in accordance with the hydrogeological and geological features of the investigated area. In the south-eastern part of the investigated area, the important action performed by the surface aquifer for protecting the deep groundwater from contamination of anthropogenic origin is clear. On the other hand, in the shallow groundwater, areas of nitrate and nitrite contamination have been identified, which result from the extensive use of fertilizers.

  4. Potential Application of Fluorescence Imaging for Assessing Fecal Contamination of Soil and Compost Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjeong Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic microorganisms can lead to serious outbreaks of foodborne illnesses, particularly if fresh produce becomes contaminated and then happens to be inappropriately handled in a manner that can incubate pathogens. Pathogenic microbial contamination of produce can occur through a variety of pathways, such as from the excrement of domesticated and wild animals, biological soil amendment, agricultural water, worker health and hygiene, and field tools used during growth and harvest. The use of mature manure compost and preventative control of fecal contamination from wildlife and livestock are subject to safety standards to minimize the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. However, in a field production environment, neither traces of animal feces nor the degree of maturity of manure compost can be identified by the naked eye. In this study, we investigated hyperspectral fluorescence imaging techniques to characterize fecal samples from bovine, swine, poultry, and sheep species, and to determine feasibilities for both detecting the presence of animal feces as well as identifying the species origin of the feces in mixtures of soil and feces. In addition, the imaging techniques were evaluated for assessing the maturity of manure compost. The animal feces exhibited dynamic and unique fluorescence emission features that allowed for the detection of the presence of feces and showed that identification of the species origin of fecal matter present in soil-feces mixtures is feasible. Furthermore, the results indicate that using simple single-band fluorescence imaging at the fluorescence emission maximum for animal feces, simpler than full-spectrum hyperspectral fluorescence imaging, can be used to assess the maturity of manure compost.

  5. Development of an efficient bacterial consortium for the potential remediation of hydrocarbons from contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuvmani Patowary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia towards total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples 5 isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1 and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1 and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and Bacillus cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH after five weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  6. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  7. Mapping the environmental risk potential on surface water of pesticide contamination in the Prosecco's vineyard terraced landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Patricia; Ferrarese, Francesco; Loddo, Donato; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; Varotto, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cropping systems today represent a paramount issue in terms of environmental impacts, since agricultural pollutants can constitute a potential threat to surface water, non-target organisms and aquatic ecosystems. Levels of pesticide concentrations in surface waters are indeed unquestionably correlated to crop and soil management practices at field-scale. Due to the numerous applications of pesticides required, orchards and vineyards can represent relevant non-point sources for pesticide contamination of water bodies, mainly prompted by soil erosion, surface runoff and spray drift. To reduce risks of pesticide contamination of surface water, the Directive 2009/128/CET imposed the local implementation of agricultural good practices and mitigation actions such as the use of vegetative buffer filter strips and hedgerows along river and pond banks. However, implementation of mitigation actions is often difficult, especially in extremely fragmented agricultural landscapes characterized by a complex territorial matrix set up on urban sprawling, frequent surface water bodies, important geomorphological processes and protected natural areas. Typically, such landscape matrix is well represented by the, Prosecco-DOCG vineyards area (NE of Italy, Province of Treviso) which lays on hogback hills of conglomerate, marls and sandstone that ranges between 50 and 500 m asl. Moreover such vineyards landscape is characterized by traditional and non-traditional agricultural terraces The general aim of this paper is to identify areas of surface water bodies with high potential risk of pesticide contamination from surrounding vineyards in the 735 ha of Lierza river basin (Refrontolo, TV), one of the most representative terraced landscape of the Prosecco-DOCG area. Specific aims are i) mapping terraced Prosecco-DOCG vineyards, ii) classifying potential risk from pesticide of the different areas. Remote sensing technologies such as four bands aerial photos (RGB+NIR) and Light

  8. Natural Oxidant Demand Variability, Potential Controls, and Implications for in Situ, Oxidation-Based Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, A.; Cruz, S.; Dungan, B.; Holguin, F. O.; Ulery, A. L.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally occurring reduced species associated with subsurface materials can impose a significant natural oxidant demand (NOD), which is the bulk consumption of oxidants by soil water, minerals, and organic matter. Although injection of oxidants has been used for chemical transformation of organic contaminants, NOD represents a challenge for the in-situ delivery of oxidants as a remediation alternative. Co-injection of complexation agents with oxidants has been proposed to facilitate the delivery of oxidants for in situ chemical oxidation remediation of contaminated groundwater. This study investigates variability of NOD for different oxidants and sediments. The effect of the addition of various complexation agents, including EDTA, tween 80, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), humic acid, and four generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, on the NOD was also examined. NOD was measured for a clay loam (collected from Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, AZ). Varying amounts of biosolids were mixed with subsamples of the clay loam to create three additional reference soils in order to study the effect of organic matter and other soil characteristics on the NOD. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the NOD for various oxidants, using the four soils, and replicated with and without various delivery agents. Measured NOD showed variability for each soil and oxidant composition. Additionally, significant differences were observed in NOD with the addition of delivery agents. The results support the elucidation of potential controls over NOD and have implications for in situ, oxidation-based remediation of contaminated groundwater.

  9. [Application potential of siderophore-producing rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metals-contaminated soils: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Li; Lin, Qing-Qi; Li, Yu; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-07-01

    Siderophore-producing rhizobacteria (SPR) are a group of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, being able to play an important role in assisting the phytoremediation of heavy metals-contaminated soils. Based on the comprehensive analysis of related researches at home and abroad, this paper elaborated the functions of SPR in alleviating the heavy metals stress and toxicity to plants and the mechanisms of SPR in improving the heavy metals bioavailability in soil, and indicated that SPR had good application potential in promoting the plant growth in heavy metals-contaminated soils and reinforcing the heavy metals accumulation in plants. The contradictory phenomena of SPR in increasing or decreasing heavy metals accumulation in plants, which existed in current researches, were also analyzed. Aiming at the deficiencies in current researches, it was suggested that in the future researches, the mechanisms of the interactions between SPR and plants, especially hyperaccumulators, should be further studied, the key factors affecting the heavy metals complexation and mobilization in soil by siderophores should also be further clarified, the effects of siderophores on the heavy metals bioavailability and its subsequent influence on the heavy metals uptake by plants should be comprehensively considered, and the measures for improving the colonization of SPR in heavy metals-contaminated soil should be explored.

  10. Effect of Soil Aging on the Phytoremediation Potential of Zea mays in Chromium and Benzo[a]Pyrene Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the phytoremediation potential of Zea mays in soil either aged or freshly amended with chromium (Cr) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Z. mays showed increased shoot biomass in aged soils than in freshly spiked soils. The shoot biomass in contaminated soils increased by over 50% in aged soil when compared to freshly amended soils, and over 29% more Cr was accumulated in the shoot of Z. mays in aged soil than in freshly amended soil. Planting Z. mays in aged soil helped in the dissipation of more than 31% B[a]P than in freshly spiked soil, but in the absence of plants, there seemed to be no difference between the dissipation rates of B[a]P in freshly and aged co-contaminated soil. Z. mays seemed to enhance the simultaneous removal of Cr and B[a]P in aged soil than in freshly spiked soil and hence can be a good plant choice for phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils.

  11. Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Kulp, Thomas R; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Yang, Huai-Jen; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230 °C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90 °C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3(-) type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3(-) type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119 mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contaminated tooth brushes-potential threat to oral and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Naik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth brushing is most common method of maintaining oral hygiene. In removing plaque and other soft debris from the teeth, tooth brushes become contaminated with bacteria, blood, saliva and oral debris. These contaminated tooth brushes can be a source of infection. Aims and objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of microorganisms in the tooth brushes and to investigate the effect of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and water to decontaminate them. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one children were asked to brush their teeth for 5 days with a tooth brush. The tooth brushes were put in Robertson′s Cooked Meat broth and were observed for growth of Streptococcal microorganisms. These tooth brushes were then placed in disinfectants such as 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (Group I, 1% sodium hypochlorite (Group II and water (Group III for 24 hrs and then cultured again. Reduction of growth of microorganisms was seen in Group I, Group II and remnants of growth seen in Group III. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of disinfectant for a tooth brush is a must for every individual at least at regular intervals.

  13. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study.

  14. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Genetically modified Pseudomonas spp. and their arsenic-phytoremediation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizova, O.I.; Kochetkov, V.V.; Validov, S.Z.; Boronin, A.M. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kosterin, P.V.; Lyubun, Y.V. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Sorghum was inoculated with Pseudomonas bacteria, including strains harboring an As-resistance plasmid, pBS3031, to enhance As-extraction by the plants. Pseudomonas strains (P. fluorescens 38a, P. putida 53a, and P. aureofaciens BS1393) were chosen because they are antagonistic to a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, and they can stimulate plant growth. The resistance of natural rhizospheric pseudomonads to sodium arsenite was assessed. Genetically modified Pseudomonas strains resistant to As(III)/As(V) were obtained via conjugation or transformation. The effects of the strains on the growth of sorghum on sodium-arsenite-containing soils were assessed. The conclusions from this study are: (1) It is possible to increase the survivability of sorghum growing in sodium-arsenite-containing soil by using rhizosphere pseudomonads. (2) The presence of pBS3031 offers the strains a certain selective advantage in arsenite-contaminated soil. (3) The presence of pBS3031 impairs plant growth, due to the As-resistance mechanism determined by this plasmid: the transformation of the less toxic arsenate into the more toxic, plant-root-available arsenite by arsenate reductase and the active removal of arsenite from bacterial cells. (4) Such a mechanism makes it possible to develop a bacteria-assisted phytoremediation technology for the cleanup of As-contaminated soils and is the only possible way of removing the soil-sorbed arsenates from the environment. (orig.)

  16. Phytoremediation potential of maize (Zea mays L.) in co-contaminated soils with pentachlorophenol and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdennaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous coexistence of heavy metals and organic contaminants was increased in the polluted soil and phytoremediation as a remedial technology and management option is recommended to solve the problems of co-contamination. Growth of Zea mays L and pollutant removal ability may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants. Pot-culture experiments were conduced to investigate the single and interactive effect of cadmium (Cd) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) on growth of Zea mays L, PCP, and Cd removal from soil. Growth response of Zea mays L is considerably influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP, significantly declining with either Cd or PCP additions. The dissipation of PCP in soils was notably affected by interactions of Cd, PCP, and plant presence or absence. At the Pentachlorophenol in both planted and non-planted soil was greatly decreased at the end of the 10-week culture, accounting for 16-20% of initial extractable concentrations in non-planted soil and 9-14% in planted soil. With the increment of Cd level, residual pentachlorophenol in the planted soil tended to increase. The pentachlorophenol residual in the presence of high concentration of Cd was even higher in the planted soil than that in the non-planted soil.

  17. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  18. Bacterial Diversity and Bioremediation Potential of the Highly Contaminated Marine Sediments at El-Max District (Egypt, Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Ranya A; Mapelli, Francesca; El Gendi, Hamada M; Barbato, Marta; Goda, Doaa A; Corsini, Anna; Cavalca, Lucia; Fusi, Marco; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R

    2015-01-01

    Coastal environments worldwide are threatened by the effects of pollution, a risk particularly high in semienclosed basins like the Mediterranean Sea that is poorly studied from bioremediation potential perspective especially in the Southern coast. Here, we investigated the physical, chemical, and microbiological features of hydrocarbon and heavy metals contaminated sediments collected at El-Max bay (Egypt). Molecular and statistical approaches assessing the structure of the sediment-dwelling bacterial communities showed correlations between the composition of bacterial assemblages and the associated environmental parameters. Fifty strains were isolated on mineral media supplemented by 1% crude oil and identified as a diverse range of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria involved in different successional stages of biodegradation. We screened the collection for biotechnological potential studying biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, and the capability to utilize different hydrocarbons. Some strains were able to grow on multiple hydrocarbons as unique carbon source and presented biosurfactant-like activities and/or capacity to form biofilm and owned genes involved in different detoxification/degradation processes. El-Max sediments represent a promising reservoir of novel bacterial strains adapted to high hydrocarbon contamination loads. The potential of the strains for exploitation for in situ intervention to combat pollution in coastal areas is discussed.

  19. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus as potential biocontrol agents to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanuts harvested in Northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz Zanon, María Silvina; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofía Noemí

    2016-08-16

    Biological control is one of the most promising strategies for preventing aflatoxin contamination in peanuts at field stage. A population of 46 native Aspergillus flavus nonaflatoxin producers were analysed based on phenotypic, physiological and genetic characteristics. Thirty-three isolates were characterized as L strain morphotype, 3 isolates as S strain morphotype, and 10 isolates did not produce sclerotia. Only 11 of 46 non-aflatoxigenic isolates did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. The vegetative compatibility group (VCG) diversity index for the population was 0.37. For field trials we selected the non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus AR27, AR100G and AFCHG2 strains. The efficacy of single and mixed inocula as potential biocontrol agents in Northern Argentina was evaluated through a 2-year study (2014-2015). During the 2014 peanut growing season, most of the treatments reduced the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains in both soil and peanut kernel samples, and no aflatoxin was detected in kernels. During the 2015 growing season, there was a reduction of aflatoxigenic strains in kernel samples from the plots treated with the potential biocontrol agents. Reductions of aflatoxin contamination between 78.36% and 89.55% were observed in treated plots in comparison with the un-inoculated control plots. This study provides the first data on aflatoxin biocontrol based on competitive exclusion in the peanut growing region of Northern Argentina, and proposes bioproducts with potential use as biocontrol agents.

  20. The potential role of biochar in the removal of organic and microbial contaminants from potable and reuse water: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the potential benefits, economics, and challenges of applying biochar in water treatment operations to remove organic and microbial contaminants was reviewed. Minimizing the use of relatively more expensive traditional sorbents in water treatment is a motivating aspect of biochar production, e.g., $246/ton non-activated biochar to $1500/ton activated carbon. Biochar can remove organic contaminants in water, such as some pesticides (0.02-23 mg g(-1)), pharmaceutical and personal care products (0.001-59 mg g(-1)), dyes (2-104 mg g(-1)), humic acid (60 mg g(-1)), perfluorooctane sulfonate (164 mg g(-1)), and N-nitrosomodimethylamine (3 mg g(-1)). Including adsorption/filtration applications, biochar can potentially be used to inactivate Escherichia coli via disinfection, and transform 95% of 2-chlorobiphenyl via advanced oxidation processes. However, more sorption data using biochar especially at demonstration-scale, for treating potable and reuse water in adsorption/filtration applications will help establish the potential of biochars to serve as surrogates for activated carbons.

  1. Bacterial Diversity and Bioremediation Potential of the Highly Contaminated Marine Sediments at El-Max District (Egypt, Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranya A. Amer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal environments worldwide are threatened by the effects of pollution, a risk particularly high in semienclosed basins like the Mediterranean Sea that is poorly studied from bioremediation potential perspective especially in the Southern coast. Here, we investigated the physical, chemical, and microbiological features of hydrocarbon and heavy metals contaminated sediments collected at El-Max bay (Egypt. Molecular and statistical approaches assessing the structure of the sediment-dwelling bacterial communities showed correlations between the composition of bacterial assemblages and the associated environmental parameters. Fifty strains were isolated on mineral media supplemented by 1% crude oil and identified as a diverse range of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria involved in different successional stages of biodegradation. We screened the collection for biotechnological potential studying biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, and the capability to utilize different hydrocarbons. Some strains were able to grow on multiple hydrocarbons as unique carbon source and presented biosurfactant-like activities and/or capacity to form biofilm and owned genes involved in different detoxification/degradation processes. El-Max sediments represent a promising reservoir of novel bacterial strains adapted to high hydrocarbon contamination loads. The potential of the strains for exploitation for in situ intervention to combat pollution in coastal areas is discussed.

  2. Bacterial Diversity and Bioremediation Potential of the Highly Contaminated Marine Sediments at El-Max District (Egypt, Mediterranean Sea)

    KAUST Repository

    Amer, Ranya A.

    2015-02-01

    Coastal environments worldwide are threatened by the effects of pollution, a risk particularly high in semienclosed basins like the Mediterranean Sea that is poorly studied from bioremediation potential perspective especially in the Southern coast. Here, we investigated the physical, chemical, and microbiological features of hydrocarbon and heavy metals contaminated sediments collected at El-Max bay (Egypt). Molecular and statistical approaches assessing the structure of the sediment-dwelling bacterial communities showed correlations between the composition of bacterial assemblages and the associated environmental parameters. Fifty strains were isolated on mineral media supplemented by 1% crude oil and identified as a diverse range of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria involved in different successional stages of biodegradation. We screened the collection for biotechnological potential studying biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, and the capability to utilize different hydrocarbons. Some strains were able to grow on multiple hydrocarbons as unique carbon source and presented biosurfactant-like activities and/or capacity to form biofilm and owned genes involved in different detoxification/degradation processes. El-Max sediments represent a promising reservoir of novel bacterial strains adapted to high hydrocarbon contamination loads. The potential of the strains for exploitation for in situ intervention to combat pollution in coastal areas is discussed.

  3. Atrazine Contamination and Potential Health Effects on Freshwater Mussel Uniandra contradens Living in Agricultural Catchment at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchai Thitiphuree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml and sediment (0.23 µg/g of the catchment. To monitor potential effects of atrazine on aquatic animals, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens was used as a sentinel species for bioaccumulation and potential health effects. Mussels collected from the catchment during 2010-2011 were subjected to analysis for atrazine residue in tissue and condition factor based on body weight and shell length. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in mussel tissue with the highest level (8.40  2.06 ng/g in late wet season when runoff from heavy rain was evidenced. Condition factor, an indicative of overall health, showed a significant negative correlation with atrazine residue in the tissue. This information could be used as part of the monitoring program for herbicide contamination and potential health effects in agricultural environment.

  4. Fenpropathrin biodegradation pathway in Bacillus sp. DG-02 and its potential for bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Chang, Changqing; Deng, Yinyue; An, Shuwen; Dong, Yi Hu; Zhou, Jianuan; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2014-03-12

    The widely used insecticide fenpropathrin in agriculture has become a public concern because of its heavy environmental contamination and toxic effects on mammals, yet little is known about the kinetic and metabolic behaviors of this pesticide. This study reports the degradation kinetics and metabolic pathway of fenpropathrin in Bacillus sp. DG-02, previously isolated from the pyrethroid-manufacturing wastewater treatment system. Up to 93.3% of 50 mg L(-1) fenpropathrin was degraded by Bacillus sp. DG-02 within 72 h, and the degradation rate parameters qmax, Ks, and Ki were determined to be 0.05 h(-1), 9.0 mg L(-1), and 694.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Analysis of the degradation products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of seven metabolites of fenpropathrin, which suggest that fenpropathrin could be degraded first by cleavage of its carboxylester linkage and diaryl bond, followed by degradation of the aromatic ring and subsequent metabolism. In addition to degradation of fenpropathrin, this strain was also found to be capable of degrading a wide range of synthetic pyrethroids including deltamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, β-cypermethrin, β-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and permethrin, which are also widely used insecticides with environmental contamination problems with the degradation process following the first-order kinetic model. Bioaugmentation of fenpropathrin-contaminated soils with strain DG-02 significantly enhanced the disappearance rate of fenpropathrin, and its half-life was sharply reduced in the soils. Taken together, these results depict the biodegradation mechanisms of fenpropathrin and also highlight the promising potentials of Bacillus sp. DG-02 in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.

  5. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Soil and Litter Invertebrates and Heterotrophic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for the purpose of ''contaminant screening,'' performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals. The work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304). In addition, this report presents sets of data concerning the effects of chemicals in soil on invertebrates and soil microbial processes, benchmarks for chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy sites, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation.

  6. Potential of Igniscum sachalinensis L. and Salix viminalis L. for the Phytoremediation of Copper-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Isong Godlove Tingwey; Seth Nii-Annang; Dirk Freese

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Salix viminalis L. and Igniscum sachalinensis L. for phytoremediation of copper- (Cu-) contaminated soils was studied under greenhouse conditions. Approximately 5 kg of potted agricultural and sewage amended soils sampled from the top 0 to 20 cm depth in Neuruppin, Germany, was treated with CuSO4 at concentrations 0 (control), 250, 750, and 1250 mg Cu kg−1 soil and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 1000 mg kg−1 soil, respectively. Each plant species was grown on four ...

  7. Histological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Gills as Potential Biomarkers for Fungicide Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Stoyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the histological alterations in common carp gills caused by a fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide tested in laboratory conditions at 30, 38 and 50 mg/L concentration. In general, all the tested concentrations activated compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, which caused pathological changes in the fish gills. Results showed different histological alterations in the gill structure, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. Blood circulatory system showed vasodilatation of the secondary lamellae and aneurysms. Overall, there was enhancement of the gill histological changes, which was dose-dependent, i.e., proportional to the increasing fungicide concentrations. Thus, based on the results, it was concluded that the histological alterations in common carp gills could be applied as possible biomarkers in risk assessment and monitoring programs for pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  8. A hybrid strategy for surveillance of individuals potentially exposed to contaminated methylprednisolone acetate--Virginia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvese, Kate; Forlano, Laurie; Gibson, Lex

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, a multistate outbreak of fungal infections associated with the use of contaminated steroid products resulted in 675 exposed persons in Virginia and 53 cases of fungal infections, including 2 deaths. This article describes the design and implementation of a "hybrid" active public health surveillance system and related communication activities in partnership with key clinical stakeholders in Virginia. Strong collaboration with clinical partners is critical in establishing and implementing a surveillance system for an evolving outbreak. While clinicians focused on diagnosis, treatment, and routine follow-up of patients who presented with symptoms consistent with the outbreak case definition, public health took on the responsibility of weekly surveillance phone calls to all exposed persons who did not enter clinical care. Communication between clinical partners and public health was essential and included the somewhat atypical role of public health actively performing assessment and referral to care functions during an outbreak.

  9. A case of contagious toxicity? Isoprostanes as potential emerging contaminants of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-01

    Isoprostanes are useful biomarkers of human and animal health, being representative of oxidative stress processes, and having biological impacts associated with toxicity and disease. Isoprostanes are also chemically stable, a property facilitating population-level health assessments through wastewater sampling. However, as biologically-active entities, the presence of isoprostanes in domestic effluents could have toxic impacts on biota in receiving environments. As such it is proposed that isoprostanes are emerging organic contaminants of particular concern. Fish and aquatic invertebrates may be affected by the presence of isoprostanes in wastewaters through mechanisms such as reproductive impairment, cardiovascular disturbance and/or oxidative stress. This would represent a unique scenario of "contagious" toxicity, whereby human health has a direct toxicological consequence on aquatic animal health.

  10. Potential remediation approach for uranium-contaminated groundwaters through potassium uranyl vanadate precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, T.K.; Kim, Y.; Wan, J.

    2009-06-01

    Methods for remediating groundwaters contaminated with uranium (U) through precipitation under oxidizing conditions are needed because bioreduction-based approaches require indefinite supply of electron donor. Although strategies based on precipitation of some phosphate minerals within the (meta)autunite group have been considered for this purpose, thermodynamic calculations for K- and Ca-uranyl phopsphates, meta-ankoleite and autunite, predict that U concentrations will exceed the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL = 0.13 {micro}M for U) at any pH and pCO{sub 2}, unless phosphate is maintained at much higher concentrations than the sub-{micro}M levels typically found in groundwaters. We hypothesized that potassium uranyl vanadate will control U(VI) concentrations below regulatory levels in slightly acidic to neutral solutions based on thermodynamic data available for carnotite, K{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}V{sub 2}O8. The calculations indicate that maintaining U concentrations below the MCL through precipitation of carnotite will be sustainable in some oxidizing waters having pH in the range of 5.5 to 7, even when dissolution of this solid phase becomes the sole supply of sub-{micro}M levels of V. Batch experiments were conducted in solutions at pH 6.0 and 7.8, chosen because of their very different predicted extents of U(VI) removal. Conditions were identified where U concentrations dropped below its MCL within 1 to 5 days of contact with oxidizing solutions containing 0.2 to 10 mM K, and 0.1 to 20 {micro}M V(V). This method may also have application in extracting (mining) U and V from groundwaters where they both occur at elevated concentrations.

  11. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions.

  12. Potential therapeutic implications of new insights into respiratory syncytial virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Openshaw Peter JM

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalization in infants under 6 months of age, and 70% of all cases of bronchiolitis are caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Early RSV infection is associated with respiratory problems such as asthma and wheezing later in life. RSV infection is usually spread by contaminated secretions and infects the upper then lower respiratory tracts. Infected cells release proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-8. These activate other cells and recruit inflammatory cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, and T lymphocytes, into the airway wall and surrounding tissues. The pattern of cytokine production by T lymphocytes can be biased toward 'T-helper-1' or 'T-helper-2' cytokines, depending on the local immunologic environment, infection history, and host genetics. T-helper-1 responses are generally efficient in antiviral defense, but young infants have an inherent bias toward T-helper-2 responses. The ideal intervention for RSV infection would be preventive, but the options are currently limited. Vaccines based on protein subunits, live attenuated strains of RSV, DNA vaccines, and synthetic peptides are being developed; passive antibody therapy is at present impractical in otherwise healthy children. Effective vaccines for use in neonates continue to be elusive but simply delaying infection beyond the first 6 months of life might reduce the delayed morbidity associated with infantile disease.

  13. Technology insight: metabonomics in gastroenterology-basic principles and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Nielsen, Ole H; Wang, Yulan L

    2008-01-01

    successfully to the study of human diseases, toxicology, microbes, nutrition, and plant biology. This Review introduces the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and commonly used tools for multivariate data analysis, before considering the applications and future potential...

  14. Novel Insights Into Causes of Scleroderma Offer Potential New Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Into Causes of Scleroderma Offer Potential New Treatment Strategies Integrins, a large class of cell surface molecules, ... that targeting integrins could be a promising treatment strategy for scleroderma. The scientists were also curious about ...

  15. Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

    2003-06-01

    Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  16. Cadmium accumulation characteristics and removal potentials of high cadmium accumulating rice line grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou

    2016-08-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remove cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils. In this research, the two different Cd accumulation rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) were grown in soils with different Cd treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) to evaluate Cd accumulation characteristics and Cd removal potentials. When the concentration of Cd in soil increased, Lu527-8 showed less symptoms of phytotoxicity when compared to Lu527-4. Furthermore, Lu527-8 demonstrated greater shoot Cd accumulation (321.17-964.95 mg plant(-1)) than Lu527-4 (50.37-201.66 μg plant(-1)) at the jointing and filling stages. The soil available Cd content of Lu527-8 significantly decreased by 26.92-38.97 and 27.77-63.44 % at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. Meanwhile, the total Cd content in soil also reduced by 11.64-46.75 and 21.41-54.11 % at jointing and filling stages, respectively. When the Cd concentration in soil was 20 mg kg(-1), the Cd extraction rate in shoots of Lu527-8 reached 2.12 and 2.85 % which increased 10.60 and 6.48 times compared with that of Lu527-4 at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Lu527-8 shows great abilities of Cd accumulation and Cd removal potential from contaminated soils with different Cd treatments and it is a promising species for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils.

  17. Novosphingobium and its potential role in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: insights from microbiome studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleluiah Rutebemberwa

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of lung airways underlies some of the main complications of COPD, significantly impacting disease progression and outcome. Colonization by bacteria may further synergize, amplify, or trigger pathways of tissue damage started by cigarette smoke, contributing to the characteristic airway inflammation and alveolar destruction of COPD. We sought to elucidate the presence and types of lung bacterial populations in different stages of COPD, aimed at revealing important insights into the pathobiology of the disease. Sequencing of the bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene in 55 well-characterized clinical lung samples, revealed the presence of Novosphingobium spp. (>2% abundance in lungs of patients with GOLD 3-GOLD 4 COPD, cystic fibrosis and a subset of control individuals. Novosphingobium-specific quantitative PCR was concordant with the sequence data and high levels of Novosphingobium spp. were quantifiable in advanced COPD, but not from other disease stages. Using a mouse model of subacute lung injury due to inhalation of cigarette smoke, bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil and macrophage counts were significantly higher in mice challenged intratracheally with N. panipatense compared to control mice (p<0.01. Frequencies of neutrophils and macrophages in lung tissue were increased in mice challenged with N. panipatense at room air compared to controls. However, we did not observe an interaction between N. panipatense and subacute cigarette smoke exposure in the mouse. In conclusion, Novosphingobium spp. are present in more severe COPD disease, and increase inflammation in a mouse model of smoke exposure.

  18. Plant-microbe Cross-talk in the Rhizosphere: Insight and Biotechnological Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Rhizosphere, the interface between soil and plant roots, is a chemically complex environment which supports the development and growth of diverse microbial communities. The composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is dynamic and controlled by multiple biotic and abiotic factors that include environmental parameters, physiochemical properties of the soil, biological activities of the plants and chemical signals from the plants and bacteria which inhabit the soil adherent to root-system. Recent advancement in molecular and microbiological techniques has unravelled the interactions among rhizosphere residents at different levels. In this review, we elaborate on various factors that determine plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, with an emphasis on the impact of host genotype and developmental stages which together play pivotal role in shaping the nature and diversity of root exudations. We also discuss about the coherent functional groups of microorganisms that colonize rhizosphere and enhance plant growth and development by several direct and indirect mechanisms. Insights into the underlying structural principles of indigenous microbial population and the key determinants governing rhizosphere ecology will provide directions for developing techniques for profitable applicability of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and nature restoration.

  19. Phosphate-Based Mineralization of Arsenic in Contaminated Soil: A Potential Remediation Method for Soil and Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, G.; Donahoe, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Soil arsenic contamination resulting from the use of arsenical compounds is a widespread environmental problem. A phosphate-based remediation method which has the potential to immobilize arsenic in both oxidizing and reducing subsurface systems is under laboratory investigation. Although phosphate treatments have been reported to be effective in removal of arsenic from contaminated water, its use in contaminated soils has not been tested. This study aims to (1) determine the competitive adsorption/desorption of arsenate and phosphate at surfaces of ferric hydroxide coated sand in the absence or presence of calcium ions, and (2) develop a method of arsenic fixation which involves phosphoric acid flushing of arsenic from contaminated soil and precipitation of arsenic as apatite-like phases. Ferric hydroxide is a significant arsenic sequestering constituent in soil. Phosphate competes with arsenate for adsorption sites on the ferric hydroxide surface. Batch adsorption experiments conducted using ferric hydroxide coated sand have indicated similar pH-controlled adsorption mechanisms for both arsenate and phosphate. The data obtained from the adsorption experiments is being used to guide the development of a phosphate-based method for soil and groundwater arsenic remediation. Batch experiments were performed using 3g of contaminated soil in contact with 45 ml of treatment fluid (a dilute phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide solution). Solution samples were collected at 24, 72, 144, 312, and 384 hours, with continuous agitation at 200 rpm. Solution concentrations of phosphorus and calcium generally decreased with time and were primarily controlled by pH. It has been experimentally demonstrated that solution arsenic concentrations can be lowered by maintaining high pH with adequate calcium supply. A batch experiment conducted at pH > 11, using 1 kg of soil in contact with 1 liter of 0.25% H3PO4, precipitated a white material giving an XRD signature indicative of brushite

  20. Phytoremedial Potential of Typha latifolia, Eichornia crassipes and Monochoria hastata found in Contaminated Water Bodies Across Ranchi City (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Moushumi; Avishek, Kirti; Pathak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses green plants (living machines) for removal of contaminants of concern (COC). These plant species have the potential to remove the COC, thereby restoring the original condition of soil or water environment. The present study focuses on assessing the heavy metals (COC) present in the contaminated water bodies of Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Phytoremedial potential of three plant species: Typha latifolia, Eichornia crassipes and Monochoria hastata were assessed in the present study. Heterogenous accumulation of metals was found in the three plant species. It was observed that the ratio of heavy metal concentration was different in different parts, i.e., shoots and roots. Positive results were also obtained for translocation factor of all species with minimum of 0.10 and maximum of 1. It was found experimentally that M. hastata has the maximum BFC for root as 4.32 and shoot as 2.70 (for Manganese). For T. latifolia, BCF of maximum was observed for root (163.5) and respective shoot 86.46 (for Iron), followed by 7.3 and 5.8 for root and shoot (for Manganese) respectively. E. crassipes was found to possess a maximum BCF of 278.6 (for Manganese and 151 (for Iron) and shoot as 142 (for Manganese) and 36.13 (for Iron).

  1. Advantages of the rapid HIV-1 test in occupational accidents with potentially contaminated material among health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO Alcyone Artioli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In occupational accidents involving health professionals handling potentially contaminated material, the decision to start or to continue prophylactic medication against infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has been based on the ELISA test applied to a blood sample from the source patient. In order to rationalize the prophylactic use of antiretroviral agents, a rapid serologic diagnostic test of HIV infection was tested by the enzymatic immunoabsorption method (SUDS HIV 1+2, MUREX® and compared to conventional ELISA (Abbott HIV-1/ HIV-2 3rd Generation plus EIA®. A total of 592 cases of occupational accidents were recorded at the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto from July 1998 to April 1999. Of these, 109 were simultaneously evaluated by the rapid test and by ELISA HIV. The rapid test was positive in three cases and was confirmed by ELISA and in one the result was inconclusive and later found to be negative by ELISA. In the 106 accidents in which the rapid test was negative no prophylactic medication was instituted, with an estimated reduction in costs of US$ 2,889.35. In addition to this advantage, the good correlation of the rapid test with ELISA, the shorter duration of stress and the absence of exposure of the health worker to the adverse effects of antiretroviral agents suggest the adoption of this test in Programs of Attention to Accidents with Potentially Contaminated Material.

  2. Preliminary description of hydrologic characteristics and contaminant transport potential of rocks in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    This report aims at consolidating existing data useful in defining the hydrologic characteristics of the Pasco Basin within south-central Washington. It also aims at compiling the properties required to evaluate contaminant transport potential within individual subsurface strata in this basin. The Pasco Basin itself is a tract of semi-arid land covering about 2,000 square miles in south-central Washington. The regional geology of this basin is dominated by tholeiitic flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The surface hydrology of the basin is dominated by the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers. Short-lived ephemeral streams may flow for a short period of time after a heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The subsurface hydrology of the Pasco Basin is characterized by an unconfined aquifer carrying the bulk of the water discharged within the basin. This aquifer overlies a series of confined aquifers carrying progressively smaller amounts of groundwater as a function of depth. The hydraulic properties of the various aquifers and non-water-bearing strata are characterized and reported. A summary of the basic properties is tabulated. The hydrochemical data obtained are summarized. The contaminant transport properties of the rocks in the Pasco Basin are analyzed with emphasis on the dispersion and sorption coefficients and the characteristics of the potential reactions between emplaced waste and the surrounding medium. Some basic modeling considerations of the hydrogeologic systems in the basin with a brief discussion of model input requirements and their relationship to available data are presented.

  3. Environmental dioxin contamination in Chapaevsk, Russia: an evaluation of potential human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revich, B. [Center for Demography and Human Ecology of Inst. for Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sergeyev, O. [Chapaevsk Medical Association, Chapaevsk (Russian Federation); Zeilert, V. [Central Medical Hospital, Chapaevsk (Russian Federation); Hauser, R. [Dept. of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The town of Chapaevsk (population 80 thousand) is located in Middle Volga region. During 1967- 1987 a chemical plant there produced hexachlorcyclohexan (lindan) and its derivatives. Later it produced crop protection chemicals (liquid chlorine, acids, methyl chloroform, vinyl chloride, and some other chemicals). Previously it was considered that hexachlorane production was responsible for dioxin contamination in the city's environment. Tests seemed to confirm it. But after the production was stopped in 1987, a continued output of dioxin was still observed. At present the plant stands practically idle; the main contamination source is represented by the old technological equipment, the plant's territory and industrial wastes. In 1994 an average concentration of dioxins in the air was 0.116 pg/m{sup 3}. The calculations were made when the plant worked at 20% capacity, so one can extrapolate that dioxin air emissions had been higher previously. Moving away from the plant one can see the decrease in dioxin levels down to 36.8 ng/kg in downtown (2.7 km from the plant); down to 3.9 ng/kg in the southern part of the city; down to 0.9 ng/kg at 10 - 15 km from the plant. Private house owners (18,000 in Chapaevsk) grow essentially all their vegetables and fruits for their own use, thus receiving an additional dioxin load. The results received in Chapaevsk boys study show a high proportion of the boys consumed locally grown or raised foods during their lifetime: over 70% consumed locally produced dairy products, over 50% consumed locally raised chickens or eggs, and over 80% consumed locally caught fish during their lifetime. In 1994 we began studies of dioxins impact on human health with the following aims: (1) to estimate dioxin levels in human blood and milk; (2) to estimate incidence and mortality rates, and specifically describe reproductive health in the population according to official statistical data; (3) to estimate dioxin exposure as a risk factor for

  4. Exploring the potential of DOC fluorescence as proxy for groundwater contamination by pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, Julien; Gallé, Tom; Bayerle, Michael; Pittois, Denis; Huck, viola

    2017-04-01

    Of the different water quality surrogates the fluorescence of dissolved organic content (FDOC) appears particularly promising due to its sensitivity and specificity. A complete spectrum of FDOC can be obtained using bench top instruments scanning a spectral space going from short wavelength UV to visible blue, yielding a so-called an excitation-emission matrix (EEM). The raw EEM can be either used directly for correlation analysis with the variable of interest, or first decomposed into underlying elements corresponding to different groups of organic compounds displaying similar properties using multiway techniques such as Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fluorescence spectroscopy has up to now only rarely been applied specifically to groundwater environments. The objective of the project was to explore systematically the possibilities offered by FDOC and PARAFAC for the assessment of groundwater contamination by pesticides, taking into account the transit time from the pesticide source to the groundwater outlet. Three sites corresponding to different transit times were sampled: -one spring regularly contaminated by surface water from a nearby stream (sub-daily to daily response to fast-flow generating storm events) -one spring displaying a weekly to monthly response to interflow -sampling along a flowline consisting of a series of springs and an observation well situated upgradient with mean transit times difference of several years Preliminary results show that a three component PARAFAC model is sufficient to decompose the raw EEMs, which is less than the seven or eight component models often encountered in surface water studies. For the first site, one component in the protein-like region 275(excitation)/310 (emission) nm measured in the stream samples was filtrered completely by the aquifer and did not appear in the spring samples. The other two components followed roughly the trend of the DOC and pesticide breakthrough. For the second site, soil sampling of

  5. Streaming potential modeling in fractured rock: Insights into the identification of hydraulically active fractures

    CERN Document Server

    Roubinet, D; Jougnot, D; Irving, J

    2016-01-01

    Numerous field experiments suggest that the self-potential (SP) geophysical method may allow for the detection of hydraulically active fractures and provide information about fracture properties. However, a lack of suitable numerical tools for modeling streaming potentials in fractured media prevents quantitative interpretation and limits our understanding of how the SP method can be used in this regard. To address this issue, we present a highly efficient two-dimensional discrete-dual-porosity approach for solving the fluid flow and associated self-potential problems in fractured rock. Our approach is specifically designed for complex fracture networks that cannot be investigated using standard numerical methods. We then simulate SP signals associated with pumping conditions for a number of examples to show that (i) accounting for matrix fluid flow is essential for accurate SP modeling and (ii) the sensitivity of SP to hydraulically active fractures is intimately linked with fracture-matrix fluid interaction...

  6. Understanding Food Insecurity in the USA and Canada: Potential Insights for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity is a leading nutrition-related health care issue in the USA due to the magnitude of the problem (almost 50 million Americans are food insecure) and its association with a wide array of negative health and other outcomes. Alongside this interest in the USA, there has also been growing interest in Canada. In contrast, food insecurity has received less attention in Europe. Nevertheless, there is both direct and indirect evidence that food insecurity and its attendant consequences are present in Europe. Given the similarities between the USA, Canada, and Europe, previous research can offer numerous insights into the causes and consequences of food insecurity in Europe and possible directions to address these through measurement and public policies. I first cover the methods used to measure food insecurity in the USA and Canada. In both countries, a series of 18 questions in the Core Food Security Module are used to identify whether a household is food insecure. I then briefly cover the current extent of food insecurity in each country along with some discussion of the recent history of food insecurity. A central advantage to using the Core Food Security Module in Europe is that the measure has been proven useful in other high-income countries, and using a standardized measure would allow for cross-country comparisons. I next cover two large-scale food assistance programs from the USA, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) and the National School Lunch Program. For each, I summarize how the program is structured, how eligibility is established, and how participation proceeds. Europe has generally used income-based assistance programs to improve the well-being of low-income households; I consider a couple of reasons for why food assistance programs may also be worth considering.

  7. Genesis Solar Wind Science Canister Components Curated as Potential Solar Wind Collectors and Reference Contamination Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind for 27 months at Earth-Sun L1 on both passive and active collectors carried inside of a Science Canister, which was cleaned and assembled in an ISO Class 4 cleanroom prior to launch. The primary passive collectors, 271 individual hexagons and 30 half-hexagons of semiconductor materials, are described in. Since the hard landing reduced the 301 passive collectors to many thousand smaller fragments, characterization and posting in the online catalog remains a work in progress, with about 19% of the total area characterized to date. Other passive collectors, surfaces of opportunity, have been added to the online catalog. For species needing to be concentrated for precise measurement (e.g. oxygen and nitrogen isotopes) an energy-independent parabolic ion mirror focused ions onto a 6.2 cm diameter target. The target materials, as recovered after landing, are described in. The online catalog of these solar wind collectors, a work in progress, can be found at: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/gencatalog/index.cfm This paper describes the next step, the cataloging of pieces of the Science Canister, which were surfaces exposed to the solar wind or component materials adjacent to solar wind collectors which may have contributed contamination.

  8. Potential for contamination during removal of radioactive seeds from surgically excised tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classic, K L; Brunette, J B; Carlson, S K

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a scalpel or electrocautery to remove radioactive sealed sources ("seeds") from surgically excised tissue could damage the seed and cause it to leak its radioactive contents. Attempts were made to cut or burn Oncura Model 6711 non-radioactive seeds while in pig muscle or on a stainless steel plate. Additionally, one active 125I seed was purposely charred using pressure with an electrocautery knife to see whether the casing could be damaged. Electron microscopy scanning was performed on the dummy seeds to determine if the integrity of the metal casing had been compromised. Two types of leak tests were performed on the active seed to verify the presence or absence of loose contamination. The seed casing was not damaged from either use of a scalpel or electrocautery when the seed was in tissue. The active seed was not found to be leaking after applying pressure with an electrocautery knife while the seed was on a stainless steel plate. We conclude that removal of active Model 6711 seeds from surgically excised tissue can be done safely with a scalpel or electrocautery because constant, firm pressure cannot be applied to the seed. This is likely true for seeds made of similar materials.

  9. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza L; Leite, Deborah C A; Ferreira, Edir M; Ferreira, Lívia Q; Paula, Geraldo R; Maguire, Michael J; Hubert, Casey R J; Peixoto, Raquel S; Domingues, Regina M C P; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-30

    Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0-5, 15-20 and 35-40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0-5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15-20 and 35-40 cm), which were similar to each other.

  10. Potential of four forage grasses in remediation of Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Xia, Hanping; Li, Zhian; Zhuang, Ping; Gao, Bo

    2010-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the phytoremediation abilities of four forage grasses with respect to soil Cd and Zn pollution. High Cd pollution significantly increased the biomass of Pennisetum americanum (L.) LeekexPennisetum purpureum Schumach, showed no effect on Silphium perfoliatum Linn and significantly decreased biomass of Paspalum atratum cv. Reyan No. 11 and Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Reyan II. High Zn pollution significantly decreased biomass of all grasses. Shoot Cd extraction amounts were 624, 179, 21 and 15mug/plant for P. americanumxP. purpureum, P. atratum, S. guianensis and S. perfoliatum respectively at soil Cd concentration of 8mg/kg. The shoot Zn extraction amount for P. americanumxP. purpureum was 8189mug/plant while the other three grasses were severely intoxicated at the soil Zn concentration of 600mg/kg. P. americanumxP. purpureum and P. atratum could be useful for phytoextraction of either or both Cd and Zn pollution; S. perfoliatum could be regarded as a candidate species for phytostabilization of Cd contamination; while S. guianensis had no remediation capability.

  11. Activated carbon prepared from coffee pulp: potential adsorbent of organic contaminants in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maraisa; Guerreiro, Mário César; Ramos, Paulize Honorato; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Alves; Sapag, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The processing of coffee beans generates large amounts of solid and liquid residues. The solid residues (pulp, husk and parchment) represent a serious environmental problem and do not have an adequate disposal mechanism. In this work, activated carbons (ACs) for adsorption of organic compounds were prepared from coffee pulp by controlled temperature at different pulp/Na2HPO4 ratios (4:1, 2:1, 5:4 and 1:1). The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms showed ACs with high quantities of mesopores and micropores and specific surface areas of 140, 150, 450 and 440 m(2)g(-1) for AC 4:1, AC 2:1, AC 5:4 and AC 1:1, respectively. The prepared material AC 5:4 showed a higher removal capacity of the organic contaminants methylene blue (MB), direct red (DR) and phenol than did a Merck AC. The maximum capacities for this AC are approximately 150, 120 and 120 mg g(-1) for MB, DR and phenol, respectively. Thus, a good adsorbent was obtained from coffee pulp, an abundant Brazilian residue.

  12. Traditional herbal medicines: potential degradation of sterols and sterolins by microbial contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Govender

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants with a high content of sterols and sterolins, such as Bulbine natalensis (rooiwortel and Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato, are commonly and inappropriately used in South Africa for the treatment of HIV/AIDS due to the inaccessibility of antiretroviral drugs. This study investigated the presence of active compounds, such as sterols and sterolins, in the herbal medicines. The research was carried out in the Nelson Mandela Metropole area. The effect of microbial contaminants isolated from the medicines on sterols and sterolins of rooiwortel extracts was assessed. Sterols and sterolins were detected in rooiwortel, raw African potatoes and one ready-made mixture. Co-incubation of rooiwortel with bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas putida and fungi (Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. that were isolated from these samples increased the rate of degradation of sterols and sterolins over time, with slower degradation at 4°C than at 28°C.

  13. Developmental Changes in Memory Encoding: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Leslie; Riggins, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes between 6-year-old children and adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although episodic memory ("EM") effects have been reported in both children and adults at retrieval and subsequent memory effects have been established in adults, no…

  14. Insight into the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells based on transcriptomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mouse dental mesenchymal cells (mDMCs from tooth germs of cap or later stages are frequently used in the context of developmental biology or whole-tooth regeneration due to their odontogenic potential. In vitro-expanded mDMCs serve as an alternative cell source considering the difficulty in obtaining primary mDMCs; however, cultured mDMCs fail to support tooth development as a result of functional failures of specific genes or pathways. The goal of this study was to identify the genes that maintain the odontogenic potential of mDMCs in culture. Methods. We examined the odontogenic potential of freshly isolated versus cultured mDMCs from the lower first molars of embryonic day 14.5 mice. The transcriptome of mDMCs was detected using RNA sequencing and the data were validated by qRT-PCR. Differential expression analysis and pathway analysis were conducted to identify the genes that contribute to the loss of odontogenic potential. Results. Cultured mDMCs failed to develop into well-structured tooth when they were recombined with dental epithelium. Compared with freshly isolated mDMCs, we found that 1,004 genes were upregulated and 948 were downregulated in cultured mDMCs. The differentially expressed genes were clustered in the biological processes and signaling pathways associated with tooth development. Following in vitro culture, genes encoding a wide array of components of MAPK, TGF-β/BMP, and Wnt pathways were significantly downregulated. Moreover, the activities of Bdnf, Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 were significantly inhibited in cultured mDMCs. Supplementation of VEGFα, BMP2, and BMP7 restored the expression of a subset of downregulated genes and induced mDMCs to form dentin-like structures in vivo. Conclusions. Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 play a role in the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mDMCs.

  15. Assessment of the potential for groundwater contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn Jong; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a major environmental problem in South Korea with the marked expansion of the industrial base and the explosive growth of the population. Even in rural areas, the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, the presence of acid-mine drainage, and increase of volumes of domestic wastewaters are adding to groundwater pollution. The DRASTIC/EGIS model was used to evaluate the potential for groundwater contamination in the Cheongju city area, the first of several pilot studies. The model allows the designation of hydrogeologic settings within the study area, based on a composite description of all the major geologic and hydrogeologic factors for each setting. Then, a scheme for relative ranking of the hydrogeologic factors is applied to evaluate the relative vulnerability to groundwater contamination of each hydrogeologic setting. DRASTIC/EGIS can serve as a tool to evaluate pollution potential and so facilitate programs to protect groundwater resources. Résumé La contamination de l'eau souterraine devient un problème environnemental majeur en Corée du Sud, en relation avec le développement industriel bien marqué et l'explosion démographique. Meme dans les zones rurales, l'utilisation accrue d'engrais et de pesticides, le drainage acide de mines et les rejets croissants d'eaux usées contribuent à la pollution des nappes. Le modèle DRASTIC/EGIS a été utilisé pour évaluer le potentiel de contamination des eaux souterraines dans la région de la ville de Cheongju, la première de plusieurs régions pilotes. Le modèle permet de définir des ensembles hydrogéologiques dans la région étudiée, à partir de la description composite de tous les facteurs géologiques et hydrogéologiques essentiels pour chaque ensemble. Ensuite, un schéma pour le classement des facteurs hydrogéologiques est mis en oeuvre pour évaluer la vulnérabilité relative à la contamination des eaux souterraines pour chaque ensemble. DRASTIC

  16. Theoretical insights into a potential lead-free hybrid perovskite: substituting Pb(2+) with Ge(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping-Ping; Li, Quan-Song; Yang, Li-Na; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2016-01-21

    In recent years, perovskite solar cells have been considerably developed, however the lead in the absorber MAPbI3 is a potential threat to the environment. To explore potential alternatives, the structural and electronic properties of MAGeX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) were investigated using different density functional theory methods, including GGA-PBE, PBE-SOC, HSE06 and HSE-SOC. The results implied that MAGeI3 exhibits an analogous band gap, substantial stability, remarkable optical properties, and significant hole and electron conductive behavior compared with the so far widely used absorber MAPbI3. Moreover, the calculations revealed that the energy splitting resulting from the spin-orbit coupling is evident on Pb, moderate on Ge, I and Br, and negligible on Cl. Our work not only sheds some light on screening novel absorbers for perovskite solar cells but also deepens the understanding of these functional materials.

  17. Potential clinical insights into microRNAs and their target genes in esophageal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su Q; Wang, He M; Cao, Xiu F

    2011-12-01

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) are characterized by dysregulation of microRNAs, which play an important roles as a posttranscriptional regulators in protein synthesis, and are involved in cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Recently, altered miRNAs expression has been comprehensively studied in EC by high-throughput technology. Increased understanding of miRNAs target genes and their potential regulatory mechanisms have clarified the miRNAs activities and may provide exciting opportunities for cancer diagnosis and miRNA-based genetherapy. Here, we reviewed the most recently discovered miRNA target genes, with particular emphasis on the deciphering of their possible mechanisms and the potential roles in miRNAs-based tumour therapeutics.

  18. RNA Interference (RNAi) as a Potential Tool for Control of Mycotoxin Contamination in Crop Plants: Concepts and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Rajtilak; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Cary, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in food and feed crops is a major concern worldwide. Fungal pathogens of the genera Aspergillus. Fusarium, and Penicillium are a major threat to food and feed crops due to production of mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, 4-deoxynivalenol, patulin, and numerous other toxic secondary metabolites that substantially reduce the value of the crop. While host resistance genes are frequently used to introgress disease resistance into elite germplasm, either through traditional breeding or transgenic approaches, such resistance is often compromised by the evolving pathogen over time. RNAi-based host-induced gene silencing of key genes required by the pathogen for optimal growth, virulence and/or toxin production, can serve as an alternative, pre-harvest approach for disease control. RNAi represents a robust and efficient tool that can be used in a highly targeted, tissue specific manner to combat mycotoxigenic fungi infecting crop plants. Successful transgenic RNAi implementation depends on several factors including (1) designing vectors to produce double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that will generate small interfering RNA (siRNA) species for optimal gene silencing and reduced potential for off-target effects; (2) availability of ample target siRNAs at the infection site; (3) efficient uptake of siRNAs by the fungus; (4) siRNA half-life and (5) amplification of the silencing effect. This review provides a critical and comprehensive evaluation of the published literature on the use of RNAi-based approaches to control mycotoxin contamination in crop plants. It also examines experimental strategies used to better understand the mode of action of RNAi with the aim of eliminating mycotoxin contamination, thereby improving food and feed safety.

  19. Insights into the Antimicrobial Properties of Hepcidins: Advantages and Drawbacks as Potential Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by host proteases or inhibition by host body fluid composition, potential toxicity, and high production costs. This review focuses on the hepcidins, which are peptides produced by the human liver with a known role in iron homeostasis, as well by numerous other organisms (including fish, reptiles, other mammals, and their potential as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of human hepcidins are enhanced at acidic pH, rendering these peptides appealing for the design of new drugs targeting infections that occur in body areas with acidic physiological pH. This review not only considers current research on the direct killing activity of these peptides, but evaluates the potential application of these molecules as coating agents preventing biofilm formation and critically assesses technical obstacles preventing their therapeutic application.

  20. Pyrethroid-Degrading Microorganisms and Their Potential for the Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control pests in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, public health and for indoor home use for more than 20 years. Because pyrethroids were considered to be a safer alternative to organophosphate pesticides (OPs), their applications significantly increased when the use of OPs was banned or limited. Although, pyrethroids have agricultural benefits, their widespread and continuous use is a major problem as they pollute the terrestrial and aquatic environments and affect non-target organisms. Since pyrethroids are not degraded immediately after application and because their residues are detected in soils, there is an urgent need to remediate pyrethroid-polluted environments. Various remediation technologies have been developed for this purpose; however, bioremediation, which involves bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation and is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach, has emerged as the most advantageous method for cleaning-up pesticide-contaminated soils. This review presents an overview of the microorganisms that have been isolated from pyrethroid-polluted sites, characterized and applied for the degradation of pyrethroids in liquid and soil media. The paper is focused on the microbial degradation of the pyrethroids that have been most commonly used for many years such as allethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin. Special attention is given to the bacterial strains from the genera Achromobacter, Acidomonas, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Catellibacterium, Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingobium, Streptomyces, and the fungal strains from the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, and Trichoderma, which are characterized by their ability to degrade various pyrethroids. Moreover, the current knowledge on the degradation pathways of pyrethroids, the enzymes that are involved in the cleavage of

  1. Pyrethroid-Degrading Microorganisms and Their Potential for the Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sebastian Cycoń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control pests in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, public health and for indoor home use for more than 20 years. Because pyrethroids were considered to be a safer alternative to organophosphate pesticides (OPs, their applications significantly increased when the use of OPs was banned or limited. Although pyrethroids have agricultural benefits, their widespread and continuous use is a major problem as they pollute the terrestrial and aquatic environments and affect non-target organisms. Since pyrethroids are not degraded immediately after application and because their residues are detected in soils, there is an urgent need to remediate pyrethroid-polluted environments. Various remediation technologies have been developed for this purpose; however, bioremediation, which involves bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation and is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach, has emerged as the most advantageous method for cleaning-up pesticide-contaminated soils. This review presents an overview of the microorganisms that have been isolated from pyrethroid-polluted sites, characterized and applied for the degradation of pyrethroids in liquid and soil media. The paper is focused on the microbial degradation of the pyrethroids that have been most commonly used for many years such as allethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and permethrin. Special attention is given to the bacterial strains from the genera Achromobacter, Acidomonas, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Catellibacterium, Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingobium, Streptomyces and the fungal strains from the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium and Trichoderma, which are characterized by their ability to degrade various pyrethroids. Moreover, the current knowledge on the degradation pathways of pyrethroids, the enzymes that are involved in the

  2. Using indicator kriging for the evaluation of arsenic potential contamination in an abandoned mining area (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I M H R; Albuquerque, M T D

    2013-01-01

    arsenic contamination and those waters should not be used for human consumption.

  3. Tracing potential soil contamination in the historical Solvay soda ash plant area, Jaworzno, Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkowska, Katarzyna; Teper, Leslaw; Stania, Monika

    2015-11-01

    This study of soil conditions was carried out on 30 meadow soil (podzol) samples from the vicinity of the soda ash heap in Jaworzno, supplemented by analyses of 18 samples of waste deposited on the heap. In all samples, the total content of macroelements (Ca and Na) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) as well as pH were analysed. The element concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The materials examined were neutral to ultra-alkaline. Total accumulations (mg kg(-1)) of chemical elements in the soil vary from 130.24 to 14076.67 for Ca, 41.40-926.23 for Na, 0.03-3.34 for Cd, 0.94-103.62 for Cr, 0.94-35.89 for Ni, 3.51-76.47 for Pb and 12.05-279.13 for Zn, whereas quantities of the same elements in the waste samples vary from 171705.13 to 360487.94 for Ca, 517.64-3152.82 for Na, 0.2-9.89 for Cd, 1.16-20.40 for Cr, 1.08-9.79 for Ni, 0.1-146.05 for Pb and 10.26-552.35 for Zn. The vertical distribution of the metals was determined in each soil profile. Despite enrichment of heavy metals in the uppermost horizon on the top of the heap, the results lead to the conclusion that the relation of historical production of soda ash in Jaworzno to current contamination of the local soil environment is insignificant.

  4. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luiza L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm, which were similar to each other.

  5. Theoretical insights into a potential lead-free hybrid perovskite: substituting Pb2+ with Ge2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping-Ping; Li, Quan-Song; Yang, Li-Na; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, perovskite solar cells have been considerably developed, however the lead in the absorber MAPbI3 is a potential threat to the environment. To explore potential alternatives, the structural and electronic properties of MAGeX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) were investigated using different density functional theory methods, including GGA-PBE, PBE-SOC, HSE06 and HSE-SOC. The results implied that MAGeI3 exhibits an analogous band gap, substantial stability, remarkable optical properties, and significant hole and electron conductive behavior compared with the so far widely used absorber MAPbI3. Moreover, the calculations revealed that the energy splitting resulting from the spin-orbit coupling is evident on Pb, moderate on Ge, I and Br, and negligible on Cl. Our work not only sheds some light on screening novel absorbers for perovskite solar cells but also deepens the understanding of these functional materials.In recent years, perovskite solar cells have been considerably developed, however the lead in the absorber MAPbI3 is a potential threat to the environment. To explore potential alternatives, the structural and electronic properties of MAGeX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) were investigated using different density functional theory methods, including GGA-PBE, PBE-SOC, HSE06 and HSE-SOC. The results implied that MAGeI3 exhibits an analogous band gap, substantial stability, remarkable optical properties, and significant hole and electron conductive behavior compared with the so far widely used absorber MAPbI3. Moreover, the calculations revealed that the energy splitting resulting from the spin-orbit coupling is evident on Pb, moderate on Ge, I and Br, and negligible on Cl. Our work not only sheds some light on screening novel absorbers for perovskite solar cells but also deepens the understanding of these functional materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optimized structures of the MAPbI3 and MASnI3 perovskites, band structures of the different

  6. Characterization Of Contaminant Migration Potential In The Vicinity Of An In-Place Sand Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterized the chemical transport potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the vicinity of a sand cap placed in the nearshore zone of a tidal marine embayment. Groundwater seepage was investigated along the per...

  7. Potential for heavy metal (copper and zinc) removal from contaminated marine sediments using microalgae and light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeong Kyu; Jeon, Jin Young; Oh, Seok Jin

    2017-03-01

    The effects of monochromatic (blue, yellow and red LED) and mixed wavelengths (fluorescent lamp) on the adsorption and absorption of Cu and Zn by Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nitzschia sp., Skeletonema sp., and Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. In addition, we confirmed the potential of microalgae for phytoremediation of these heavy metals from contaminated marine sediment by using microcosm experiments that incorporated LEDs and semipermeable membrane (SPM) tube containing microalgae. Among the four microalgae, C. vulgaris grown under red LED exhibited the highest Cu and Zn removal with values of 17.5 × 10-15 g Cu/cell and 38.3 × 10-15 g Zn/cell, respectively. Thus, C. vulgaris could be a useful species for phytoremediation. In the microcosm experiments with SPM containing C. vulgaris, the highest Cu and Zn removal from sediment and interstitial water showed under red LED. Therefore, phytoremediation using LED and SPM tube containing microalgae could be utilized as an eco-friendly technique for remediating contaminated marine sediment.

  8. Potential for heavy metal (copper and zinc) removal from contaminated marine sediments using microalgae and light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeong Kyu; Jeon, Jin Young; Oh, Seok Jin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of monochromatic (blue, yellow and red LED) and mixed wavelengths (fluorescent lamp) on the adsorption and absorption of Cu and Zn by Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nitzschia sp., Skeletonema sp., and Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. In addition, we confirmed the potential of microalgae for phytoremediation of these heavy metals from contaminated marine sediment by using microcosm experiments that incorporated LEDs and semipermeable membrane (SPM) tube containing microalgae. Among the four microalgae, C. vulgaris grown under red LED exhibited the highest Cu and Zn removal with values of 17.5 × 10-15 g Cu/cell and 38.3 × 10-15 g Zn/cell, respectively. Thus, C. vulgaris could be a useful species for phytoremediation. In the microcosm experiments with SPM containing C. vulgaris, the highest Cu and Zn removal from sediment and interstitial water showed under red LED. Therefore, phytoremediation using LED and SPM tube containing microalgae could be utilized as an eco-friendly technique for remediating contaminated marine sediment.

  9. Geochemical investigation as a tool in determining of the potential hazard for soil contamination (Kremna Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perunović Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical composition of soils and underlying sediments in the Kremna Basin was investigated. The aim was to assess whether observed heavy metal concentrations in soil samples represent geogenic or anthropogenic contamination. The second objective is to show that geochemical data of underlying sediments should be used as a tool in determining of potential hazard for soil contamination. For this purpose, comparison of contents of As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn of soil samples with standard values, the reference soil sample and local background values of underlying sediments was performed. The soil samples are unpolluted regarding to contents of As, Hg, Pb and Zn. All samples have higher contents of Cr and Ni, whereas three samples have higher content of Cu than the limit standard values. Geochemical parameters showed that higher concentration of Cr, Cu and Ni in soils can be attributed to geogenic impact. This conclusion is supported by Chemical Proxy of Alteration and Chemical Index of Weathering values, which indicate intense weathering of sediments. The obtained results show that Kremna area is under slight to moderate hazard if land use change would occur, and prove the importance of geochemical composition of underlying sediments in the interpretation of heavy metal pollution.

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of drywells as tools for stormwater management and aquifer recharge and their groundwater contamination potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Emily C.; Harter, Thomas; Fogg, Graham E.; Washburn, Barbara; Hamad, Hamad

    2016-08-01

    Drywells are gravity-fed, excavated pits with perforated casings used to facilitate stormwater infiltration and groundwater recharge in areas where drainage and diversion of storm flows is problematic. Historically, drywells have predominantly been used as a form of stormwater management in locations that receive high volumes of precipitation; however the use of drywells is increasingly being evaluated as a method to supplement groundwater recharge, especially in areas facing severe drought. Studies have shown that drywells can be an effective means to increase recharge to aquifers; however, the potential for groundwater contamination caused by polluted stormwater runoff bypassing transport through surface soil and near surface sediment has prevented more widespread use of drywells as a recharge mechanism. Numerous studies have shown that groundwater and drinking water contamination from drywells can be avoided if drywells are used in appropriate locations and properly maintained. The effectiveness of drywells for aquifer recharge depends on the hydrogeologic setting and land use surrounding a site, as well as influent stormwater quantity and quality. These parameters may be informed for a specific drywell site through geologic and hydrologic characterization and adequate monitoring of stormwater and groundwater quality.

  11. Organ-wise accumulation of fluoride in Prosopis juliflora and its potential for phytoremediation of fluoride contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2012-10-01

    Fluoride (F) contamination is a global environmental problem, as there is no cure of fluorosis available yet. Prosopis juliflora is a leguminous perennial, phreatophyte tree, widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of world. It extensively grows in F endemic areas of Rajasthan (India) and has been known as a "green" solution to decontaminate cadmium, chromium and copper contaminated soils. This study aims to check the tolerance potential of P. juliflora to accumulate fluoride. For this work, P. juliflora seedlings were grown for 75 d on soilrite under five different concentrations of F viz., control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg NaF kg(-1). Organ-wise accumulation of F, bioaccumulation factor (BF), translocation factor (TF), growth ratio (GR) and F tolerance index (TI) were examined. Plant accumulated high amounts of F in roots. The organ-wise distribution showed an accumulation 4.41 mg kg(-1)dw, 12.97 mg kg(-1)dw and 16.75 mg kg(-1)dw F, in stem, leaves and roots respectively. The results indicated significant translocation of F from root into aerial parts. The bioaccumulation and translocation factor values (>1.0) showed high accumulation efficiency and tolerance of P. juliflora to F. It is concluded that P. juliflora is a suitable candidate for phytoremediation purpose and can be explored further for the decontamination of F polluted soils.

  12. Co-occurrence of mylodontid sloths and insights on their potential distributions during the late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Luciano; Fariña, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) for the last interglacial (LIG), the global last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Holocene climatic optimum (HCO) were generated for three extinct South American Pleistocene mylodontid giant sloths, Glossotherium robustum, Lestodon armatus and Mylodon darwinii. They are recorded co-occurring in some localities including Arroyo del Vizcaíno site (AdV) in Uruguay. Co-occurrence records were studied based on the overlap of their generated areas of potential distributions, and compared with the available biome reconstructions of South America during the LGM to analyze their distribution patterns, ecological requirements and possible interactions between them. Our results suggest that these sloths could have co-existed mainly in the Chaco-Paraná Basin and the plains in the Río de la Plata area. Areas of high suitability were observed for submerged parts of the continental shelf that were exposed during the LGM showing an overall increase in potential habitat compared to the LIG and HCO. This suggests that there was a drastic reduction in total available areas of preferred habitat at the end of the Pleistocene. The co-occurrence of these sloths at the AdV site suggests the presence of vegetation indicative of mainly open, cold to temperate habitats but with mixed patches typical of humid climates.

  13. Assessing the potential for fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Insight from bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M.A.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of annual food consumption and biomass were modeled for several fish species across representative rivers and lakes in eastern North America. Results were combined to assess the relative potential of fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Predicted annual food consumption by fishes in southern waters was over 100% greater than that in northern systems because of warmer annual water temperatures and presumed increases in metabolic demand. Although generally increasing with latitude, biomasses of several key zebra mussel fish predators did not change significantly across latitudes. Biomasses of some less abundant fish predators did increase significantly with latitude, but increases were not of the magnitude to offset predicted decreases in food consumption. Our results generally support the premise that fishes in rivers and lakes of the southern United States (U.S.) have inherently greater potential to impact zebra mussels by predation. Our simulations may provide a partial explanation of why zebra mussel invasions have not been as rapid and widespread in southern U.S. waters compared to the Great Lakes region. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  14. Mechanistic Insight of Bivalent Compound 21MO as Potential Neuroprotectant for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Saathoff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently developed a bivalent strategy to provide novel compounds that potentially target multiple risk factors involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Our previous studies employing a bivalent compound with a shorter spacer (17MN implicated that this compound can localize into mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER, thus interfering with the change of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP and Ca2+ levels in MC65 cells upon removal of tetracycline (TC. In this report, we examined the effects by a bivalent compound with a longer spacer (21MO in MC65 cells. Our results demonstrated that 21MO suppressed the change of MMP, possibly via interaction with the mitochondrial complex I in MC65 cells. Interestingly, 21MO did not show any effects on the Ca2+ level upon TC removal in MC65 cells. Our previous studies suggested that the mobilization of Ca2+ in MC65 cells, upon withdraw of TC, originated from ER, so the results implicated that 21MO may preferentially interact with mitochondria in MC65 cells under the current experimental conditions. Collectively, the results suggest that bivalent compounds with varied spacer length and cell membrane anchor moiety may exhibit neuroprotective activities via different mechanisms of action.

  15. From antidepressant drugs to beta-mimetics: preclinical insights on potential new treatments for neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrot, Michel; Yalcin, Ipek; Choucair-Jaafar, Nada; Benbouzid, Malika; Freund-Mercier, Marie-José

    2009-11-01

    The market for pain treatment is a major segment of nervous system pathologies. Despite this dynamism, the management of some pain conditions remains a clinical challenge. Neuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system. It is generally a chronic and disabling condition which is difficult to treat. Antidepressant drugs are recommended as one of the first line treatments, but they display noticeable side effects and are not effective on all patients. Using a murine model of neuropathy, we demonstrated that the stimulation of beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2-AR) is not only necessary for antidepressant drugs to exert their antiallodynic action but that it is in fact sufficient to alleviate neuropathic allodynia. Chronic, but not acute, treatment with beta-mimetics such as terbutaline, salbutamol, fenoterol, salmeterol, ritodrine, isoprenaline (isoproterenol), metaproterenol (orciprenaline), procaterol, formoterol, clenbuterol or bambuterol, relieves allodynia. Agonists of beta2-ARs, and more generally any molecule stimulating beta2-ARs such as beta-mimetics, are thus proposed as potential new treatments for neuropathic pain. Clinical studies are now in preparation to confirm this potential in patients with neuropathic pain. This article reviews the findings leading to propose beta-mimetics for neuropathic pain treatment and other recent patents on the topic.

  16. Numerical Computation of Electric Field and Potential Along Silicone Rubber Insulators Under Contaminated and Dry Band Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad; Nekahi, A.; McMeekin, S. G.; Farzaneh, M.

    2016-09-01

    Electrical field distribution along the insulator surface is considered one of the important parameters for the performance evaluation of outdoor insulators. In this paper numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the electric field and potential distribution along silicone rubber insulators under various polluted and dry band conditions. Simulations were performed using commercially available simulation package Comsol Multiphysics based on the finite element method. Various pollution severity levels were simulated by changing the conductivity of pollution layer. Dry bands of 2 cm width were inserted at the high voltage end, ground end, middle part, shed, sheath, and at the junction of shed and sheath to investigate the effect of dry band location and width on electric field and potential distribution. Partial pollution conditions were simulated by applying pollution layer on the top and bottom surface respectively. It was observed from the simulation results that electric field intensity was higher at the metal electrode ends and at the junction of dry bands. Simulation results showed that potential distribution is nonlinear in the case of clean and partially polluted insulator and linear for uniform pollution layer. Dry band formation effect both potential and electric field distribution. Power dissipated along the insulator surface and the resultant heat generation was also studied. The results of this study could be useful in the selection of polymeric insulators for contaminated environments.

  17. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-19

    Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. Seven technical objectives have been proposed for the Hanover investigation. They are as follows: (1) Identify the sources and extent of soil contamination beneath the former CCC/USDA facility; (2) Characterize groundwater contamination beneath the former CCC/USDA facility; (3) Determine groundwater flow patterns; (4) Define the vertical and lateral extent of the groundwater plume outside the former CCC/USDA facility; (5) Evaluate the aquifer and monitor the groundwater system; (6) Identify any other potential sources of contamination that are not related to activities of the CCC/USDA; and (7) Determine whether there is a vapor intrusion problem at the site attributable to the former CCC/USDA facility. The technical objectives will be accomplished in a phased approached. Data collected during each phase will be evaluated to determine whether the subsequent phase is necessary. The KDHE project manager and the CCC/USDA will be contacted during each phase and kept apprised of the results. Whether implementation of each phase of work is necessary will be discussed and mutually agreed upon by the CCC/USDA and KDHE project managers.

  18. Emerging Insights on Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Invasion: The Potential Role of Soil Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 km2 of terrestrial surface, fueled in part by the prevalence of the hybrid genotypes and environmental perturbations. It displays some of the well-established invasive mechanisms but there is a serious dearth of knowledge on the plant–microbe–soil interactions and whether the rhizobiome plays any roles in the displacement of native flora and the range expansion of BP. Several control measures, including chemical, mechanical, and biological antagonism have been used with limited success while restoration of natives in soils from which BP was removed has proved problematic partly due to a poorly understood phenomenon described as the “BP legacy effect.” Emerging evidence suggests that allelopathy, selective recruitment of beneficial soil microbes, disruption of microbial community structure and alteration of nutrient cycling, exhibited by many other invasive plant species may also be involved in the case of BP. This brief review discusses the well-established BP invasion mechanisms and highlights the current understanding of the molecular, below-ground processes. It also points out the gaps in studies on the potential role of microbial interactions in the success of BP invasion. These hitherto poorly studied mechanisms could further explain the aggressive spread of BP and could potentially contribute significantly to effective control measures and enable appropriate strategies for restoring native plants. The review advocates for the use of cutting-edge techniques in

  19. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  20. Potential use of mesenchymal stem cells in human meniscal repair: current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    The menisci of the human knee play an important role in maintaining normal functions to provide stability and nutrition to the articular cartilage, and to absorb shock. Once injured, these important structures have very limited natural healing potential. Unfortunately, the traditional arthroscopic meniscectomy performed on these damaged menisci may predispose the joint toward early development of osteoarthritis. Although a very limited number of studies are available, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as an alternative therapeutic modality to repair human knee meniscal tears. This review summarizes the results of published applications of MSCs in human patients, which showed that the patients who received MSCs (autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells or culture-expanded bone marrow-derived stem cells) presented symptomatic improvements, along with magnetic resonance imaging evidences of the meniscal repair. PMID:28356779

  1. The upper crust of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone: Insights from potential fields inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmayr, Enrico; Vlahovic, Gordana

    2016-08-01

    The study investigates the crustal structure of the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) by means of potential field inversion through the located Euler deconvolution method. Inversion of magnetic field data shows that the top of the magnetic basement ranges between 6 and 12 km depth in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province while it is shallower (< 2 km depth) and locally outcropping in the Blue Ridge and Cumberland Plateau provinces. The estimated depth to the top of the magnetic basement is in general agreement with existing sedimentary cover maps of the broad study area. The inversion of gravity data is much more ambiguous, pointing to a generally deeper source, than magnetic data inversion. The findings support the interpretation of ETSZ seismicity as originating in basement structures not related to Appalachian orogeny and likely dating to Grenville age.

  2. Beyond Cockpit-ism: Four Insights to Enhance the Transformative Potential of the Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Hajer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG have the potential to become a powerful political vision that can support the urgently needed global transition to a shared and lasting prosperity. In December 2014, the United Nations (UN Secretary General published his report on the SDGs. However, the final goals and targets that will be adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2015 risk falling short of expectations because of what we call “cockpit-ism”: the illusion that top-down steering by governments and intergovernmental organizations alone can address global problems. In view of the limited effectiveness of intergovernmental efforts and questions about the capacity of national governments to affect change, the SDGs need to additionally mobilize new agents of change such as businesses, cities and civil society. To galvanize such a broad set of actors, multiple perspectives on sustainable development are needed that respond to the various motives and logics of change of these different actors. We propose four connected perspectives which can strengthen the universal relevance of the SDGs: “planetary boundaries” to stress the urgency of addressing environmental concerns and to target governments to take responsibility for (global public goods; “the safe and just operating space” to highlight the interconnectedness of social and environmental concerns and its distributive consequences; “the energetic society” to benefit from the willingness of a broad group of actors worldwide to take action; and “green competition” to stimulate innovation and new business practices. To realize the transformative potential of the SDGs, these four perspectives should be reflected in the focus and content of the SDGs that will be negotiated in the run up to September 2015 and its further implementation.

  3. Current aspects of Salmonella contamination in the US poultry production chain and the potential application of risk strategies in understanding emerging hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kalavathy; Shi, Zhaohao; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-05-01

    One of the leading causes of foodborne illness in poultry products is Salmonella enterica. Salmonella hazards in poultry may be estimated and possible control methods modeled and evaluated through the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) models and tools. From farm to table, there are many possible routes of Salmonella dissemination and contamination in poultry. From the time chicks are hatched through growth, transportation, processing, storage, preparation, and finally consumption, the product could be contaminated through exposure to different materials and sources. Examination of each step of the process is necessary as well as an examination of the overall picture to create effective countermeasures against contamination and prevent disease. QMRA simulation models can use either point estimates or probability distributions to examine variables such as Salmonella concentrations at retail or at any given point of processing to gain insight on the chance of illness due to Salmonella ingestion. For modeling Salmonella risk in poultry, it is important to look at variables such as Salmonella transfer and cross contamination during processing. QMRA results may be useful for the identification and control of critical sources of Salmonella contamination.

  4. Evaluation of the potential of Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) for bioindication and phytoremediation of aquatic environments contaminated with arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnese, F S; Oliveira, J A; Lima, F S; Leão, G A; Gusman, G S; Silva, L C

    2014-08-01

    Specimens of Pistia stratiotes were subjected to five concentrations of arsenic (As) for seven days. Growth, As absorption, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic activities, amino acids content and anatomical changes were assessed. Plant arsenic accumulation increased with increasing metalloid in the solution, while growth rate and photosynthetic pigment content decreased. The MDA content increased, indicating oxidative stress. Enzymatic activity and amino acids content increased at the lower doses of As, subsequently declining in the higher concentrations. Chlorosis and necrosis were observed in the leaves. Leaves showed starch accumulation and increased thickness of the mesophyll. In the root system, there was a loss and darkening of roots. Cell layers formed at the insertion points on the root stems may have been responsible for the loss of roots. These results indicate that water lettuce shows potential for bioindication and phytoremediation of As-contaminated aquatic environments.

  5. Evaluation of the potential of Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce for bioindication and phytoremediation of aquatic environments contaminated with arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS Farnese

    Full Text Available Specimens of Pistia stratiotes were subjected to five concentrations of arsenic (As for seven days. Growth, As absorption, malondialdehyde (MDA content, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic activities, amino acids content and anatomical changes were assessed. Plant arsenic accumulation increased with increasing metalloid in the solution, while growth rate and photosynthetic pigment content decreased. The MDA content increased, indicating oxidative stress. Enzymatic activity and amino acids content increased at the lower doses of As, subsequently declining in the higher concentrations. Chlorosis and necrosis were observed in the leaves. Leaves showed starch accumulation and increased thickness of the mesophyll. In the root system, there was a loss and darkening of roots. Cell layers formed at the insertion points on the root stems may have been responsible for the loss of roots. These results indicate that water lettuce shows potential for bioindication and phytoremediation of As-contaminated aquatic environments.

  6. Evaluation of the fertilizer and contamination potential of different broiler litter types subjected to various use cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Zapata Marín

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two types of poultry bedding litter (wood shavings and coffee husks with increasing use cycles, the best time to proceed with composting based on the carbon/nitrogen ratio and the ability to generate ammonia. The results obtained with the present experiment conditions indicated that the litter with wood shavings in the first cycle and the litter with coffee husks in the first and second cycles presented the best behavior in terms of the C/N ratio needed for later use as compost. In regards to the contamination potential, it was found that increasing the number of reutilizations for both the wood-shaving and coffee-husk litters resulted in a greater ammonia emission.

  7. Global climate change and contaminants--an overview of opportunities and priorities for modelling the potential implications for long-term human exposure to organic compounds in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; Quinn, Cristina L; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    This overview seeks to provide context and insight into the relative importance of different aspects related to global climate change for the exposure of Northern residents to organic contaminants. A key objective is to identify, from the perspective of researchers engaged in contaminant fate, transport and bioaccumulation modelling, the most useful research questions with respect to projecting the long-term trends in human exposure. Monitoring studies, modelling results, the magnitude of projected changes and simplified quantitative approaches are used to inform the discussion. Besides the influence of temperature on contaminant amplification and distribution, accumulation of organic contaminants in the Arctic is expected to be particularly sensitive to the reduction/elimination of sea-ice cover and also changes to the frequency and intensity of precipitation events (most notably for substances that are highly susceptible to precipitation scavenging). Changes to key food-web interactions, in particular the introduction of additional trophic levels, have the potential to exert a relatively high influence on contaminant exposure but the likelihood of such changes is difficult to assess. Similarly, changes in primary productivity and dynamics of organic matter in aquatic systems could be influential for very hydrophobic contaminants, but the magnitude of change that may occur is uncertain. Shifts in the amount and location of chemical use and emissions are key considerations, in particular if substances with relatively low long range transport potential are used in closer proximity to, or even within, the Arctic in the future. Temperature-dependent increases in emissions via (re)volatilization from primary and secondary sources outside the Arctic are also important in this regard. An increased frequency of boreal forest fires has relevance for compounds emitted via biomass burning and revolatilization from soil during/after burns but compound-specific analyses are

  8. Enrichment and Characterization of PCB-Degrading Bacteria as Potential Seed Cultures for Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Hršak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our study was to obtain seed cultures for enhancing the transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in contaminated soil of the transformer station in Zadar, Croatia, damaged during warfare activities in 1991. For enrichment, six soil samples were collected from different polluted areas and microcosm approach, stimulating the growth of biphenyl-degrading bacteria, was employed. Enrichment experiments resulted in the selection of two fast growing mixed cultures TSZ7 and AIR1, originating from the soil of the transformer station and the airport area, respectively. Both cultures showed significant PCB-degrading activity (56 to 60 % of PCB50 mixture was reduced after a two-week cultivation. Furthermore, the cultures displayed similar PCB-degrading competence and reduced di-to tetrachlorobiphenyls more effectively than penta- to hepta-chlorobiphenyls. Strain Z6, identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, was found to be the only culture member showing PCB-transformation potential similar to that of the mixed culture TSZ7, from which it was isolated. Based on the metabolites identified in the assay with the single congener 2,4,4’-chlorobiphenyl, we proposed that the strain Z6 was able to use both the 2,3-and 3,4-dioxygenase pathways. Furthermore, the identified metabolites suggested that beside these pathways another unidentified pathway might also be active in strain Z6. Based on the obtained results, the culture TSZ7 and the strain Z6 were designated as potential seed cultures for bioremediation of the contaminated soil.

  9. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kunz, James L; Brumbaugh, William G; Kane, Cindy M; Evans, R Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  10. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  11. Brain functions after sports-related concussion: insights from event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Bottari, Carolina; Johnston, Karen; Ptito, Alain

    2010-10-01

    The high incidence of concussions in contact sports and their impact on brain functions are a major cause for concern. To improve our understanding of brain functioning after sports-related concussion, advanced functional assessment techniques, namely event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been recently used in research studies. Contrary to neuropsychological tests that measure verbal and/or motor responses, ERPs and fMRI assess the neural activities associated with cognitive/behavioral demands, and thus provide access to better comprehension of brain functioning. In fact, ERPs have excellent temporal resolution, and fMRI identifies the involved structures during a task. This article describes ERP and fMRI techniques and reviews the results obtained with these tools in sports-related concussion. Although these techniques are not yet readily available, they offer a unique clinical approach, particularly for complex cases (ie, athletes with multiple concussions, chronic symptoms) and objective measures that provide valuable information to guide management and return-to-play decision making.

  12. A Comprehensive Review on the Chemotherapeutic Potential of Piceatannol for Cancer Treatment, with Mechanistic Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed, Mohamed Ali; Jantan, Ibrahim; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Vijayaraghavan, Kavitha

    2016-02-03

    Cancer is a diverse class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth that constitutes the greatest cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite steady progress, the treatment modalities of cancer are still insufficient. Several new concepts have emerged for therapeutic intervention in malignant diseases with the goal of identifying specific targets and overcoming resistance against current cytotoxic therapies. Many studies have reported the remarkable and significant properties of dietary plant polyphenols such as curcumin, resveratrol, flavopiridol, indirubin, magnolol, piceatannol, parthenolide, epigallocatechin gallate, and cucurbitacin as anticancer agents known for their pleiotropic effects on cancer, immune cells, and inflammation. Piceatannol, an analogue and metabolite of resveratrol, is a natural stilbene commonly found in grape skins and wine. Compared to resveratrol, this molecule exhibits superior bioactivities as an inhibitor of COX-1/2 and the CSN-associated kinase. Piceatannol is thought to be a potent natural compound with many therapeutic effects, such as the prevention of hypercholesterolemia, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular diseases. It also demonstrates vasorelaxation, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. This comprehensive review summarizes the current data regarding the mechanisms of action of piceatannol, its chemopreventive properties, and its possible therapeutic potential against various types of human cancer.

  13. First insights on the potential of Sentinel-1 for landslides detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Barra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the potential of Sentinel-1 for landslide detection, mapping and characterization with the aim of updating inventory maps and monitoring landslide activity. The study area is located in Molise, one of the smallest regions of Italy, where landslide processes are frequent. The results achieved by integrating Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR deformation maps and time series, and Geographical Information System (GIS multilayer analysis (optical, geological, geomorphological, etc. are shown. The adopted methodology is described followed by an analysis of future perspectives. Sixty-two landslides have been detected, thus allowing the updating of pre-existing landslide inventory maps. The results of our ongoing research show that Sentinel-1 might represent a significant improvement in terms of exploitation of SAR data for landslide mapping and monitoring due to both the shorter revisit time (up to 6 days in the close future and the wavelength used, which determine an higher coherence compared to other SAR sensors.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Giordano, Gennaro; Tagliaferri, Sara; Caglieri, Andrea; Mutti, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants, widely used in a variety of consumer products. In the past several years, PBDEs have become widespread environmental pollutants, and have been detected in water, soil, air, animals and human tissues. Exposure occurs in particular through the diet and the indoor environment. Infants and toddlers have the highest body burden, due to exposure via maternal milk and through house dust. Tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs are the congeners most commonly found in humans. Recent concerns on possible adverse health effects of PBDEs are focusing on their potential endocrine disrupting effects and on developmental neurotoxicity.

  15. Low-frequency rTMS inhibitory effects in the primary motor cortex: Insights from TMS-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Elias P; Tarantino, Vincenza; Basso, Demis; Arcara, Giorgio; Marino, Giuliana; Toffolo, Gianna Maria; Rothwell, John C; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S

    2014-09-01

    The neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been mostly investigated by peripheral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). New TMS-compatible EEG systems allow a direct investigation of the stimulation effects through the analysis of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). We investigated the effects of 1-Hz rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of 15 healthy volunteers on TEP evoked by single pulse TMS over the same area. A second experiment in which rTMS was delivered over the primary visual cortex (V1) of 15 healthy volunteers was conducted to examine the spatial specificity of the effects. Single-pulse TMS evoked four main components: P30, N45, P60 and N100. M1-rTMS resulted in a significant decrease of MEP amplitude and in a significant increase of P60 and N100 amplitude. There was no effect after V1-rTMS. 1-Hz rTMS appears to increase the amount of inhibition following a TMS pulse, as demonstrated by the higher N100 and P60, which are thought to originate from GABAb-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. Our results confirm the reliability of the TMS-evoked N100 as a marker of cortical inhibition and provide insight into the neuromodulatory effects of 1-Hz rTMS. The present finding could be of relevance for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

  16. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-12-08

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10(-4). The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  17. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from controlled laboratory and natural field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Dellinger, Mathieu; Golombek, Nina; Hilton, Robert G.; Hovius, Niels; Sachse, Dirk; Turowski, Jens M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-04-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere is thought to be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and hence global climate. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion and transport of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering (France-Lanord and Derry, 1997; Bouchez et al., 2010). Despite field data showing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in both controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We consider both rock-derived and biospheric OC. Our experiments simulated fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of OC concentration in both the solid (POC) and dissolved (DOC) loads, as well as measurements of rhenium concentration, which serves as a proxy for the oxidation of rock-derived OC. These transport experiments were compared to static, control experiments where water and sediment in the same proportion were placed in still water. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show similar behavior between the transport and static

  18. Potential impacts of damming the Juba Valley, western Somalia: Insights from geomorphology and alluvial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are

  19. Transgenic plants and hairy roots: exploiting the potential of plant species to remediate contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Sabrina; Talano, Melina; Ontañon, Ornella; Suman, Jachym; Medina, María I; Macek, Tomas; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2016-09-25

    Phytoremediation has emerged as an attractive methodology to deal with environmental pollution, which is a serious worldwide problem. Although important advances have been made in this research field, there are still some drawbacks to become a widely used practice, such as the limited plant's metabolic rate and their difficulty to break down several organic compounds or to tolerate/accumulate heavy metals. However, biotechnology has opened new gateways in phytoremediation research by offering the opportunity for direct gene transfer to enhance plant capabilities for environmental cleanup. In this context, hairy roots (HRs) have emerged as an interesting model system to explore the potential of plants to remove inorganic and organic pollutants. Besides, their use in rhizoremediation studies has also been explored. In this minireview we will discuss the most recent advances using genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation capabilities of plants and HRs.

  20. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Johnsen, Anders R.; Christensen, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    and either hydroxylated or oxidized to carboxylic acids at the methyl group. The metabolism of the sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC resulted in sulfate conjugates. The sorption of the PAC metabolites to three soils was determined using a batch equilibrium method, and partition coefficients (Kd's) were......-methylphenanthrene, 1-methylpyrene), and one sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC (dibenzothiophene). Fifty-eight metabolites were tentatively identified; metabolites from the un-substituted PACs were hydroxylated and sulfate conjugated, whereas metabolites from alkyl-substituted PACs were sulfate conjugated...... calculated for fourteen representative metabolites. Sulfate conjugated metabolites displayed Kd's below 70 whereas the metabolites with both a sulfate and a carboxylic acid group had Kd's below 2.8. The low Kd's of water-soluble PAC metabolites indicate high mobility in soil and a potential for leaching...

  1. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds ( 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of the

  2. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Ireland: A spatial analysis of occurrence and potential risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrory, Ellen R; Brown, Colin; Bargary, Norma; Williams, Natalya Hunter; Mannix, Anthony; Zhang, Chaosheng; Henry, Tiernan; Daly, Eve; Nicholas, Sarah; Petrunic, Barbara M; Lee, Monica; Morrison, Liam

    2017-02-01

    The presence of arsenic in groundwater has become a global concern due to the health risks from drinking water with elevated concentrations. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union calls for drinking water risk assessment for member states. The present study amalgamates readily available national and sub-national scale datasets on arsenic in groundwater in the Republic of Ireland. However, due to the presence of high levels of left censoring (i.e. arsenic values below an analytical detection limit) and changes in detection limits over time, the application of conventional statistical methods would inhibit the generation of meaningful results. In order to handle these issues several arsenic databases were integrated and the data modelled using statistical methods appropriate for non-detect data. In addition, geostatistical methods were used to assess principal risk components of elevated arsenic related to lithology, aquifer type and groundwater vulnerability. Geographic statistical methods were used to overcome some of the geographical limitations of the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sample database. Nearest-neighbour inverse distance weighting (IDW) and local indicator of spatial association (LISA) methods were used to estimate risk in non-sampled areas. Significant differences were also noted between different aquifer lithologies, indicating that Rhyolite, Sandstone and Shale (Greywackes), and Impure Limestone potentially presented a greater risk of elevated arsenic in groundwaters. Significant differences also occurred among aquifer types with poorly productive aquifers, locally important fractured bedrock aquifers and regionally important fissured bedrock aquifers presenting the highest potential risk of elevated arsenic. No significant differences were detected among different groundwater vulnerability groups as defined by the Geological Survey of Ireland. This research will assist management and future policy directions of

  3. RNA sequencing of contaminated seeds reveals the state of the seed permissive for pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination and points to a potential susceptibility factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most potent naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and b...

  4. White Paper on Potential Hazards Associated with Contaminated Cheesecloth Exposed to Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    This white paper addresses the potential hazards associated with waste cheesecloth that has been exposed to nitric acid solutions. This issue was highlighted by the cleanup of a 100 ml leak of aqueous nitric acid solution containing Heat Source (HS) plutonium on 21 June 2016. Nitration of cellulosic material is a well-understood process due to industrial/military applications of the resulting material. Within the Department of Energy complex, nitric acids have been used extensively, as have cellulosic wipes. If cellulosic materials are nitrated, the cellulosic material can become ignitable and in extreme cases, reactive. We have chemistry knowledge and operating experience to support the conclusion that all current wastes are safe and compliant. There are technical questions worthy of further experimental evaluation. An extent of condition evaluation has been conducted back to 2004. During this time period there have been interruptions in the authorization to use cellulosic wipes in PF-4. Limited use has been authorized since 2007 (for purposes other than spill cleanup), so our extent of condition includes the entire current span of use. Our evaluation shows that there is no indication that process spills involving high molarity nitric acid were cleaned up with cheesecloth since 2007. The materials generated in the 21 June leak will be managed in a safe manner compliant with all applicable requirements.

  5. Water quality near three sources of potential contamination of the Taquari River - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Muller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Taquari Valley has several food industries and tanneries which release their effluents into the Taquari River, as well as a cemetery in a Permanent Preservation Area in Muçum town. This study performed physicochemical and microbiological analyses of water from before and after three Taquari River sites considered potentially polluting and compared the results of those samples. The chosen sites were a cemetery and a tannery in Muçum and a tannery next to a poultry processing plant located in Roca Sales. We analyzed pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (O2, total nitrogen (N and thermotolerant coliforms. We also isolated Escherichia coli and performed resistance tests to neomycin, rifampicin, clindamycin and penicillin antibiotics. The physicochemical analyses showed that only turbidity, in four out of the six analyzed spots, had values above the established threshold of class I water. These elevated values are probably of inorganic origin. Bacteria isolated from the samples collected after the cemetery and both before and after the Roca Sales industries were sensitive to neomycin, rifampicin and clindamycin, and resistant to penicillin. It can be concluded, therefore, that even the release of the pollutant effluents does not substantially interfere with the water quality of the three analyzed sites.

  6. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sorption to soil of water-soluble metabolites from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The soil fungus Cunninghamella elegans was used to produce PAC metabolites from two un-substituted PACs (phenanthrene, pyrene), three alkyl-substituted PACs (2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 1-methylpyrene), and one sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC (dibenzothiophene). Fifty-eight metabolites were tentatively identified; metabolites from the un-substituted PACs were hydroxylated and sulfate conjugated, whereas metabolites from alkyl-substituted PACs were sulfate conjugated and either hydroxylated or oxidized to carboxylic acids at the methyl group. The metabolism of the sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC resulted in sulfate conjugates. The sorption of the PAC metabolites to three soils was determined using a batch equilibrium method, and partition coefficients (Kd's) were calculated for fourteen representative metabolites. Sulfate conjugated metabolites displayed Kd's below 70 whereas the metabolites with both a sulfate and a carboxylic acid group had Kd's below 2.8. The low Kd's of water-soluble PAC metabolites indicate high mobility in soil and a potential for leaching to surface- and groundwaters.

  7. Contamination and potential biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments of Xiamen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yun; Luo, Yuan-rong; Zheng, Tian-ling; Cai, Li-zhe; Cao, Xiao-xing; Yan, Chong-ling

    2008-06-01

    Five stations were established in the Fenglin mangrove area of Xiamen, China to determine the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the numbers of PAH-degrading bacteria in surface sediments. Assessing the biodegradation potential of indigenous microorganisms and isolating the high molecule weight (HMW)-PAH degrading bacteria was also one of the aims of this work. The results showed that the total PAH concentration of sediments was 222.59 ng g(-1) dry weight, whereas the HMW-PAH benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) had the highest concentration among 16 individual PAH compounds. The variation in the numbers of PAH-degrading bacteria was 2.62 x 10(2)-5.67 x 10(4)CFU g(-1) dry weight. The addition of PAHs showed a great influence in increasing the microbial activity in mangrove sediments. A bacterial consortium, which could utilize BaP as the sole source of carbon and energy, and which was isolated from mangrove sediments and enriched in liquid medium for nearly one year degraded 32.8% of BaP after 63 days incubation.

  8. Suspected radioactive contamination: evaluation of 45 Israeli citizens potentially exposed to polonium-210 in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Havkin, Ofra; Davidovitch, Nadav; Poles, Lion; Shapira, Chen

    2008-02-01

    The lethal poisoning of Alexander Litvinenco with the radioactive element polonium-210, and the risk that many civilians (including Israeli citizens) who were in the same location in London at the same time were exposed to radiation, was an unprecedented event in the western world. This was only the second known death due to 210Po, a natural alpha radiation-emitting element. A task team was created to handle the event. The team comprised representatives from the Ministry of Health's advisory committee for radiological events (which includes the Israel Defense Force, the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission and the Ministry of Environmental Protection), the Public Health Services Central District, and a public relations expert. Forty-seven people were located and underwent an epidemiological inquiry, and urine samples for detection of 210Po were sent abroad to a specialized laboratory. The radiotoxicological results were analyzed and evaluated by the expert team and follow-up recommendations were made. This unfamiliar and potentially stressful scenario was handled successfully by a multi-organizational multidisciplinary task team. The joint work of the task team was a real-life "exercise" simulating a radiological event in Israel. This team has recommended further evaluation of various vital missions in the event of any possible future radiological event, with special emphasis on a proactive communication approach to the media and the public.

  9. Fate of Potential Contaminants Due to Disposal of Olive Mill Wastewaters in Unprotected Evaporation Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Elaiopoulos, K; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Soupios, P

    2017-03-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) in shallow and unprotected evaporation ponds is a common, low-cost management practice, followed in Mediterranean countries. So far, the fate of potential soil pollutants in areas located near evaporation ponds is not adequately documented. This study investigates the extent in which the long-term disposal of OMW in evaporation ponds can affect the soil properties of the area located outside the evaporation pond and assesses the fate of the pollution loads of OMW. Four soil profiles situated outside and around the down slope side of the disposal area were excavated. The results showed considerable changes in concentration of soil phenols at the down-site soil profiles, due to the subsurface transport of the OMW. In addition, excessive concentrations of NH4(+), PO4(3-) and phenols were recorded in liquid samples taken from inside at the bottom of the soil profiles. It is concluded that unprotected evaporation ponds located in light texture soils pose a serious threat to favour soil and water pollution.

  10. A computer program for estimating instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is very important in a variety of ways to the residents of southeastern Montana; however, it is especially vulnerable to spilled contaminants. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a study to develop a computer program to rapidly estimate instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant in the Yellowstone River using regression equations developed in 1999 by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to describe these equations and their limitations, describe the development of a computer program to apply the equations to the Yellowstone River, and provide detailed instructions on how to use the program. This program is available online at [http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2006-5057/includes/ytot.xls]. The regression equations provide estimates of instream travel times and concentrations in rivers where little or no contaminant-transport data are available. Equations were developed and presented for the most probable flow velocity and the maximum probable flow velocity. These velocity estimates can then be used to calculate instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant. The computer program was developed so estimation equations for instream travel times and concentrations can be solved quickly for sites along the Yellowstone River between Corwin Springs and Sidney, Montana. The basic types of data needed to run the program are spill data, streamflow data, and data for locations of interest along the Yellowstone River. Data output from the program includes spill location, river mileage at specified locations, instantaneous discharge, mean-annual discharge, drainage area, and channel slope. Travel times and concentrations are provided for estimates of the most probable velocity of the peak concentration and the maximum probable velocity of the peak concentration. Verification of estimates of instream travel times and

  11. Newly described human polyomaviruses Merkel Cell, KI and WU are present in urban sewage and may represent potential environmental contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carratala Anna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, three new polyomaviruses (KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus have been reported to infect humans. It has also been suggested that lymphotropic polyomavirus, a virus of simian origin, infects humans. KI and WU polyomaviruses have been detected mainly in specimens from the respiratory tract while Merkel cell polyomavirus has been described in a very high percentage of Merkel cell carcinomas. The distribution, excretion level and transmission routes of these viruses remain unknown. Here we analyzed the presence and characteristics of newly described human polyomaviruses in urban sewage and river water in order to assess the excretion level and the potential role of water as a route of transmission of these viruses. Nested-PCR assays were designed for the sensitive detection of the viruses studied and the amplicons obtained were confirmed by sequencing analysis. The viruses were concentrated following a methodology previously developed for the detection of JC and BK human polyomaviruses in environmental samples. JC polyomavirus and human adenoviruses were used as markers of human contamination in the samples. Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 7/8 urban sewage samples collected and in 2/7 river water samples. Also one urine sample from a pregnant woman, out of 4 samples analyzed, was positive for this virus. KI and WU polyomaviruses were identified in 1/8 and 2/8 sewage samples respectively. The viral strains detected were highly homologous with other strains reported from several other geographical areas. Lymphotropic polyomavirus was not detected in any of the 13 sewage neither in 9 biosolid/sludge samples analyzed. This is the first description of a virus isolated from sewage and river water with a strong association with cancer. Our data indicate that the Merkel cell polyomavirus is prevalent in the population and that it may be disseminated through the fecal/urine contamination of water. The procedure developed may

  12. A survey of Canadian mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents: insights concerning the potential to affect fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Tibor G; Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Hewitt, L Mark; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Van Den Heuvel, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Building on breakthroughs recently made at kraft mills, a survey of mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents was undertaken to gain insights concerning potential effects on fish reproduction. Effluents from seven Canadian mills were characterized chemically for conventional parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS). Each sample was further subjected to solvent extraction followed by gas chromatographic separation for the determination of resin/fatty acids and for the estimation of a gas chromatography (GC) profile index. Each mill effluent was assessed for the potential to affect fish reproduction in the laboratory using a five day adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) egg production bioassay with exposures to 100% effluent. The seven effluents were found to have substantial variation both in terms of chemical characterization and effects on fish reproduction. Temporal variations were also noted in effluent quality at mills sampled on different occasions. Similar to what has been observed for kraft mills, a general trend of greater reductions in egg production caused by effluents with greater BOD concentrations and GC profile indices was noted. Effluents with BOD > 25 mg/L and GC Profile indices >5.0 caused a complete cessation of egg production. At the same time, about half of the total effluents sampled had BOD reproductive effects caused by such effluents is presently unclear. The effluent quality parameters considered in this study may require further refinement to address their utility in predicting the adverse reproductive effects induced by effluents from mechanical pulp and paper mills.

  13. Genomic insights into the metabolic potential of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium N47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Franz; Selesi, Draženka; Weinmaier, Thomas; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2011-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is an important process during natural attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbon spills. However, knowledge about metabolic potential and physiology of organisms involved in anaerobic degradation of PAHs is scarce. Therefore, we introduce the first genome of the sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium N47 able to catabolize naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, or 2-naphthoic acid as sole carbon source. Based on proteomics, we analysed metabolic pathways during growth on PAHs to gain physiological insights on anaerobic PAH degradation. The genomic assembly and taxonomic binning resulted in 17 contigs covering most of the sulfate reducer N47 genome according to general cluster of orthologous groups (COGs) analyses. According to the genes present, the Deltaproteobacterium N47 can potentially grow with the following sugars including d-mannose, d-fructose, d-galactose, α-d-glucose-1P, starch, glycogen, peptidoglycan and possesses the prerequisites for butanoic acid fermentation. Despite the inability for culture N47 to utilize NO(3) (-) as terminal electron acceptor, genes for nitrate ammonification are present. Furthermore, it is the first sequenced genome containing a complete TCA cycle along with the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The genome contained a significant percentage of repetitive sequences and transposase-related protein domains enhancing the ability of genome evolution. Likewise, the sulfate reducer N47 genome contained many unique putative genes with unknown function, which are candidates for yet-unknown metabolic pathways.

  14. Potential of Igniscum sachalinensis L. and Salix viminalis L. for the Phytoremediation of Copper-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isong Godlove Tingwey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Salix viminalis L. and Igniscum sachalinensis L. for phytoremediation of copper- (Cu- contaminated soils was studied under greenhouse conditions. Approximately 5 kg of potted agricultural and sewage amended soils sampled from the top 0 to 20 cm depth in Neuruppin, Germany, was treated with CuSO4 at concentrations 0 (control, 250, 750, and 1250 mg Cu kg−1 soil and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA at 1000 mg kg−1 soil, respectively. Each plant species was grown on four replicates of each soil treatment. Copper accumulated in aboveground tissues tends to increase with increasing soil Cu concentration and was the lowest in stem and leaf of both plant species grown on control soils. At 750 and 1250 mg Cu kg−1 soil, Cu accumulated in stem and leaf of I. sachalinensis increased by over 12- and 20-fold, respectively, whereas there was no vegetative growth in S. viminalis beyond 250 mg Cu kg−1 soil. Application of EDTA to sewage amended soils increased Cu accumulated in the stem and leaf, especially in I. sachalinensis. In general, I. sachalinensis seems to have the potential to tolerate high soil Cu content and simultaneously bioaccumulate Cu in tissues and thus may have better prospects for phytoremediation.

  15. Estimates of potential childhood lead exposure from contaminated soil using the US EPA IEUBK Model in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Mohmmad, Shaike M; Gulson, Brian L; Taylor, Mark P; Kristensen, Louise J; Birch, Gavin

    2017-07-01

    Surface soils in portions of the Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) urban area are contaminated with lead (Pb) primarily from past use of Pb in gasoline, the deterioration of exterior lead-based paints, and industrial activities. Surface soil samples (n=341) were collected from a depth of 0-2.5cm at a density of approximately one sample per square kilometre within the Sydney estuary catchment and analysed for lead. The bioaccessibility of soil Pb was analysed in 18 samples. The blood lead level (BLL) of a hypothetical 24 month old child was predicted at soil sampling sites in residential and open land use using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Integrated Exposure Uptake and Biokinetic (IEUBK) model. Other environmental exposures used the Australian National Environmental Protection Measure (NEPM) default values. The IEUBK model predicted a geometric mean BLL of 2.0±2.1µg/dL using measured soil lead bioavailability measurements (bioavailability =34%) and 2.4±2.8µg/dL using the Australian NEPM default assumption (bioavailability =50%). Assuming children were present and residing at the sampling locations, the IEUBK model incorporating soil Pb bioavailability predicted that 5.6% of the children at the sampling locations could potentially have BLLs exceeding 5µg/dL and 2.1% potentially could have BLLs exceeding 10µg/dL. These estimations are consistent with BLLs previously measured in children in Sydney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of potential hazards of fluoride contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati

    2009-05-01

    We assessed the potential of fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in India as a function of its lithology and agricultural activities. Three hundred and eight groundwater samples were collected at different depths from various types of wells and analyzed for pH, EC, NO(3)-N load and F content. A typical litholog was constructed and database on fertilizer and pesticide uses were also recorded for the district. The water samples were almost neutral in reaction and non-saline in nature with low NO(3)-N content (0.02 to 4.56 microg mL(-1)). Fluoride content in water was also low (0.01 to 1.18 microg mL(-1)) with only 2.27% of them exceeding 1.0 microg mL(-1) posing a potential threat of fluorosis. On average, its content varied little spatially and along depth of sampling aquifers because of homogeneity in lithology of the district. The F content in these samples showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.12, P < or = 0.05) with the amount of phosphatic fertilizer (single super phosphate) used for agriculture but no such relation either with the anthropogenic activities of pesticide use or NO(3)-N content, pH and EC values of the samples was found. The results suggest that the use of phosphatic fertilizer may have some role to play in F enrichment of groundwater.

  17. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  18. Development and testing of a contamination potential mapping system for a portion of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, J.M.; Berg, R.C.; Shafer, J.M.; Covington, E.R.; Reed, J.K.; Bennett, C.B.; Trudnak, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    A methodology was developed to evaluate and map the contamination potential or aquifer sensitivity of the upper groundwater flow system of a portion of the General Separations Area (GSA) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to integrate diverse subsurface geologic data, soils data, and hydrology utilizing a stack-unit mapping approach to construct mapping layers. This is the first time that such an approach has been used to delineate the hydrogeology of a coastal plain environment. Unit surface elevation maps were constructed for the tops of six Tertiary units derived from over 200 boring logs. Thickness or isopach maps were created for five hydrogeologic units by differencing top and basal surface elevations. The geologic stack-unit map was created by stacking the five isopach maps and adding codes for each stack-unit polygon. Stacked-units were rated according to their hydrogeologic properties and ranked using a logarithmic approach (utility theory) to establish a contamination potential index. Colors were assigned to help display relative importance of stacked-units in preventing or promoting transport of contaminants. The sensitivity assessment included the effects of surface soils on contaminants which are particularly important for evaluating potential effects from surface spills. Hydrogeologic/hydrologic factors did not exhibit sufficient spatial variation to warrant incorporation into contamination potential assessment. Development of this contamination potential mapping system provides a useful tool for site planners, environmental scientists, and regulatory agencies.A methodology was developed to evaluate and map the contamination potential or aquifer sensitivity of the upper groundwater flow system of a portion of the General Separations Area (GSA) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to

  19. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens RB4 and Bacillus subtilis 189 on the phytoremediation potential of Catharanthus roseus (L.) in Cu and Pb-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Waheed Ullah; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Yasin, Nasim Ahmad; Ali, Aamir; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2017-06-03

    The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils has become a critical issue due to toxic effects of these metals on living organisms. The current research was conducted to study the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens RB4 and Bacillus subtilis 189 on the growth and phytoremediation potential of Catharanthus roseus in Cu- and Pb-contaminated soils. The bacterial strains exhibited significantly higher level of water-extractable Pb and Cu in Pb, Cu, and Cu+Pb-contaminated. The P. fluorescens RB4 inoculated plants, produced 102%, 48%, and 45% higher fresh weight (FW) in soils contaminated with Cu, Pb, and both elements, respectively, as compared to un-inoculated control plants. Similarly, B. subtilis 189 inoculated plants produced 108%, 43%, and 114% more FW in the presence of Cu, Pb, and both elements. The plants co-cultivated with both bacteria exhibited 121%, 102%, and 177% higher FW, in Cu, Pb, and both elements contaminated soils, as compared to respective un-inoculated control. Co-cultivation of P. fluorescens RB4, B. subtilis 189, and P. fluorescens RB4 + B. subtilis 189 resulted in higher accumulation of Cu and Pb in shoots of the C. roseus grown in contaminated soils as compared to un-inoculated control. Bacterial treatments also improved the translocation and metal bioconcentration factors. The growth and phytoextraction capability of C. roseus was improved by inoculation of P. fluorescens RB4 and B. subtilis 189.

  20. Interaction of organic contaminant with natural clay type geo sorbents: potential use as geologic barrier in urban landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, N.; Procopio, J. R.; Sevilla, T.; Cuevas, J.; Rodirguez, M.

    2009-07-01

    The great amount of municipal solid wastes generated by the cities can be processed in different ways such as incineration, derivation to composting plants or, simply, deposition in controlled landfills. One of the landfill characteristics is possess and adequate geological barrier for contaminant contention. The most important chemical processes an adequate geological battier for contaminant contention. (Author)

  1. Risk assessment of historical soil contamination with cyanides; origin, potential human exposure and evaluation of Intervention Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster HW; LBG

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate, and indicate possible adjustment of, the current Dutch Intervention Values for cyanides (CN) a review has been made of sources of CN soil contamination, behaviour of CN species and present environmental concentrations related to soils contaminated before 1987. Knowledge on ecotoxicolog

  2. New insights into the stratigraphic, paleogeographic and tectonic evolution and petroleum potential of Kerkennah Islands, Eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfessi, Maroua

    2017-01-01

    This work presents general insights into the stratigraphic and paleogeographic evolution as well as the structural architecture and the petroleum potential of Kerkennah Islands, located in the Eastern Tunisia Foreland, from Cenomanian to Pliocene times. Available data from twenty wells mostly drilled in Cercina and Chergui fields are used to establish three lithostratigraphic correlations as well as isopach and isobath maps in order to point out thickness and depth variations of different geological formations present within our study area; in addition to a synthetic log and isoporosity map of the main carbonate reservoir (the nummulites enriched Reineche Member). The integrated geological study reveals relatively condensed but generally continuous sedimentation and a rugged substrate with horsts, grabens and tilted blocks due to the initiation and the individualization of Kerkennah arch throughout the studied geological times. Furthermore, a relationship was highlighted between the evolution of our study zone and those of Sirt basin, Western Mediterranean Sea and Pelagian troughs; this relationship is due to the outstanding location of Kerkennah Islands. The main Bou Dabbous source rock is thicker and more mature within the central-east of the Gulf of Gabes indicating therefore the southeast charge of Reineche reservoir which shows NW-SE trending tilted block system surrounded by normal faults representing the hydrocarbon migration pathways. Besides, the thick Oligo-Miocene formations deposited during the collapse of the Pelagian block caused the maturation of the Ypresian source rock, while the Pliocene unconformity allowed basin inversion and hydrocarbon migration.

  3. Genome of Diaporthe sp. provides insights into the potential inter-phylum transfer of a fungal sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena Filho, Jose Guedes; Quin, Maureen B; Spakowicz, Daniel J; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Kucera, Kaury; Dunican, Brian; Strobel, Scott A; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Fungi have highly active secondary metabolic pathways which enable them to produce a wealth of sesquiterpenoids that are bioactive. One example is Δ6-protoilludene, the precursor to the cytotoxic illudins, which are pharmaceutically relevant as anticancer therapeutics. To date, this valuable sesquiterpene has only been identified in members of the fungal division Basidiomycota. To explore the untapped potential of fungi belonging to the division Ascomycota in producing Δ6-protoilludene, we isolated a fungal endophyte Diaporthe sp. BR109 and show that it produces a diversity of terpenoids including Δ6-protoilludene. Using a genome sequencing and mining approach 17 putative novel sesquiterpene synthases were identified in Diaporthe sp. BR109. A phylogenetic approach was used to predict which gene encodes Δ6-protoilludene synthase, which was then confirmed experimentally. These analyses reveal that the sesquiterpene synthase and its putative sesquiterpene scaffold modifying cytochrome P450(s) may have been acquired by inter-phylum horizontal gene transfer from Basidiomycota to Ascomycota. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that inter-phylum transfer of these minimal sequiterpenoid secondary metabolic pathways may have occurred in other fungi. This work provides insights into the evolution of fungal sesquiterpenoid secondary metabolic pathways in the production of pharmaceutically relevant bioactive natural products.

  4. In-silico insights on the prognostic potential of immune cell infiltration patterns in the breast lobular epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, J. C. L.; Schaadt, N. S.; Schönmeyer, R.; Brieu, N.; Forestier, G.; Wemmert, C.; Feuerhake, F.; Hatzikirou, H.

    2016-09-01

    Scattered inflammatory cells are commonly observed in mammary gland tissue, most likely in response to normal cell turnover by proliferation and apoptosis, or as part of immunosurveillance. In contrast, lymphocytic lobulitis (LLO) is a recurrent inflammation pattern, characterized by lymphoid cells infiltrating lobular structures, that has been associated with increased familial breast cancer risk and immune responses to clinically manifest cancer. The mechanisms and pathogenic implications related to the inflammatory microenvironment in breast tissue are still poorly understood. Currently, the definition of inflammation is mainly descriptive, not allowing a clear distinction of LLO from physiological immunological responses and its role in oncogenesis remains unclear. To gain insights into the prognostic potential of inflammation, we developed an agent-based model of immune and epithelial cell interactions in breast lobular epithelium. Physiological parameters were calibrated from breast tissue samples of women who underwent reduction mammoplasty due to orthopedic or cosmetic reasons. The model allowed to investigate the impact of menstrual cycle length and hormone status on inflammatory responses to cell turnover in the breast tissue. Our findings suggested that the immunological context, defined by the immune cell density, functional orientation and spatial distribution, contains prognostic information previously not captured by conventional diagnostic approaches.

  5. Distribution and stable isotopic composition of amino acids from fungal peptaibiotics: assessing the potential for meteoritic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E; Callahan, Michael P; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P; Brückner, Hans

    2011-03-01

    The presence of nonprotein α-dialkyl-amino acids such as α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB) and isovaline (Iva), which are considered to be relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids. However, recent work showing the presence of α-AIB and Iva in peptides produced by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the α-AIB observed in some meteorites. We measured the amino acid distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of four α-AIB-containing fungal peptides and compared this data to similar meteoritic measurements. We show that the relatively simple distribution of the C(4) and C(5) amino acids in fungal peptides is distinct from the complex distribution observed in many carbonaceous chondrites. We also identify potentially diagnostic relationships between the stable isotopic compositions of pairs of amino acids from the fungal peptides that may aid in ruling out fungal contamination as a source of meteoritic amino acids.

  6. Comparison of the phytoremediation potentials of Medicago falcata L. And Medicago sativa L. in aged oil-sludge-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Leonid; Muratova, Anna; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen-year monitoring of the vegetation growing in the industrial and adjacent areas of an oil refinery showed the prevalence of yellow medick (Medicago falcata L.) over other plant species, including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A comparative field study of the two Medicago species established that yellow medick and alfalfa exhibited similar resistance to soil petroleum hydrocarbons and that the pollutant concentration in their rhizosphere was 30% lower than that in the surrounding bulk soil. In laboratory pot experiments, yellow medick reduced the contaminant content by 18% owing to the degradation of the major heavy oil fractions, such as paraffins, naphthenes, and alcohol and benzene tars; and it was more successful than alfalfa. Both species were equally effective in stimulating the total number of soil microorganisms, but the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, was larger in the root zone of alfalfa. In turn, yellow medick provided a favorable balance of available nitrogen. Both Medicago species equally stimulated the dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities of the soil, and yellow medick increased the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase but reduced the activity of catalase. The root tissue activity of catalase, ascorbate oxidase, and tyrosinase was grater in alfalfa than in yellow medick. The peroxidase activity of plant roots was similar in both species, but nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed some differences in the peroxidase profiles of the root extracts of alfalfa and yellow medick. Overall, this study suggests that the phytoremediation potentials of yellow medick and alfalfa are similar, with some differences.

  7. Long-term persistence of sedimentary copper contamination in Lake Orta: potential environmental risks 20 years after liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide A.L. Vignati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta, northern Italy, has suffered from severe copper pollution and human-induced acidification between the 1920s and the 1990s because of discharges from a rayon factory and electroplating industries located in its water basin. Following liming operations in the late 1990s, the chemical quality of the water column has been restored and signs of, still ongoing, biological recovery observed. Examination of two sediment cores collected close to the main historical Cu discharge and in the central part of the Lake shows that Cu concentrations in the uppermost layers of bottom sediments remain 10 to 40-fold higher than background levels. Past studies demonstrated the toxic potential of Lake Orta sediments to a variety of organisms at Cu concentrations comparable to present ones. Comparison with published results suggests that current level of Cu contamination may still pose a risk to sediment-ingesting organisms and slow down further ecological recovery of Lake Orta. Particular attention should be given to understand the effects of dietary ingestion of Cu from sediments which, unlike in previous ecotoxicological studies, may now represent the main route of Cu exposure for sediment-ingesting benthic organisms.

  8. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L; Aalberse, Rob C; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-12-15

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and detecting rabbit antibodies were raised against pepsin-digested hazelnut and untreated hazelnut protein, respectively. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.7 ng/mL hazelnut protein or hazelnut in 1 g food matrix and a maximum of 0.034% cross-reactivity (peanut). Chocolate samples spiked with 0.5-100 microg hazelnut/g chocolate showed a mean recovery of 97.3%. In 9/12 food products labeled "may contain nuts", hazelnut was detected between 1.2 and 417 microg hazelnut/g food. It can be concluded that the application of antibodies directed to pepsin-digested food extracts in ELISA can facilitate specific detection of stable proteins that have the highest potential of inducing severe food anaphylaxis.

  9. Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae as potential risk of OTA contamination in food products in warm climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Serna, Jessica; Patiño, Belén; Cortes, Laura; Gonzalez-Jaen, Maria Teresa; Vazquez, Covadonga

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae are the main ochratoxin A (OTA) producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati. Due to its recent description, few data are available about the influence of ecophysiological factors on their growth and OTA production profiles. In this work, the effect of temperature (20, 24 and 28 °C) and water activity (aw) (0.928, 0.964 and 0.995) on growth, sporulation and OTA production by these fungi was examined in CYA and media prepared from paprika, green coffee, anise, grapes, maize and barley. Growth was positively affected by the highest temperature and aw values indicating that both species might be expected in warm climates or storage conditions. However, optimal growth conditions showed differences depending on the medium. OTA production was markedly affected by substrate and showed qualitative and quantitative differences. Both species, especially A. steynii, represent a great potential risk of OTA contamination due to their high production in a variety of conditions and substrates, in particular in barley and paprika-based media. Additionally, neither growth nor sporulation did result good indicators of OTA production by A. steynii or A. westerdijkiae; therefore, specific and highly-sensitive detection methods become essential tools for control strategies to reduce OTA risk by these species.

  10. Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on contaminated sites and their potential accumulation capacity in Heqing, Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohai; Gao, Yuntao; Khan, Sardar; Duan, Gang; Chen, Aikui; Ling, Li; Zhao, Leil; Liu, Zhonghan; Wu, Xuecan

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is one of the cost-effective and environmental friendly technologies used to remove contaminants from contaminated soils, which has been intensively studied during the last decade. Presently, few economical and effective remediation methods are available for the remediation of Pb contaminated sites. This study was conducted to assess the potential of 19 plants growing on contaminated sites in Pb mine area. Plants and associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total metal concentrations. While total soil Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations varied from 1,239 to 4,311, 36 to 1,020 and 240 to 2,380 mg/kg, those in the plant shoots ranged from 6.3 to 2,029, 20 to 570, and 36 to 690 mg/kg, respectively. Among the plants, we found that one cultivated crop (Ricinus communis L.) and two native species (Tephrosia candida and Debregeasia orientalis) have a great potential for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soils, the Pb hyperaccumulation capacity of the 3 plants was found as the order: R. communis > D. orientalis > T. candida in the investigated area.

  11. Accumulation of Pb,Cu,and Zn in native plants growing on contaminated sites and their potential accumulation capacity in Heqing,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaohai; GAO Yuntao; Sardar Khan; DUAN Gang; CHEN Aikui; LING Li; ZHAO Lei; LIU Zhonghan; WU Xuecan

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is one of the cost-effective and environmental friendly technologies used to remove contaminants from contaminated soils, which has been intensively studied during the last decade. Presently, few economical and effective remediation methods are available for the remediation of Pb contaminated sites. This study was conducted to assess the potential of 19 plants growing on contaminated sites in Pb mine area. Plants and associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total metal concentrations. While total soil Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations varied from 1,239 to 4,311, 36 to 1,020 and 240 to 2,380 mg/kg, those in the plant shoots ranged from 6.3 to 2,029, 20 to 570, and 36 to 690 mg/kg, respectively. Among the plants, we found that one cultivated crop (Ricinus communis L.) and two native species (Tephrosia candida and Debregeasia orientalis) have a great potential for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soils, the Pb hyperaccnmulation capacity of the 3 plants was found as the order: R. communis D. orientalis T. candida in the investigated area.

  12. Distinction of clenbuterol intake from drug or contaminated food of animal origin in a controlled administration trial – the potential of enantiomeric separation for doping control analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Blokland, Marco H.; Liebetrau, Franz; Schmidt, Alexander H.; Meijer, Thijs; Stanic, Mijo; Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Waraksa, Emilia; Sterk, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    The differentiation of clenbuterol abuse and unintentional ingestion from contaminated meat is crucial with respect to the valuation of an adverse analytical finding in human sports doping control. The proportion of the two enantiomers of clenbuterol may serve as potential discriminating parameter.

  13. Early transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana to polymetallic contamination: implications for the identification of potential biomarkers of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Barrutia, Oihana; Ribas, Griselda; Garbisu, Carlos; Becerril, José M

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contaminated sites are frequently characterized by the simultaneous presence of several heavy metals. However, many studies report metal-induced plant responses after long-term exposure to just one metal. By contrast, whole genome expression microarrays were employed here to investigate the early (3 h) transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to polymetallic treatment (Pb, Hg, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mn) at low (L) and high (H) concentrations. After 3 h of exposure to polymetallic treatment, a total of 1315 noticeably (≥2-fold) and significantly (P < 0.05) differentially expressed genes were identified: 656 and 351 upregulated and 314 and 200 downregulated genes in L and H treatments, respectively. Functional analysis revealed that many genes involved in oxidative stress and perception/signalling/regulation systems were activated. Genes encoding proteins involved in hormone regulation (jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, and auxins), glucosinolate metabolism and sulphur and nitrogen transport were also modulated. RT-qPCR analysis of four downregulated (AOP2, SAUR16, BBX31, and MTPC3) and upregulated genes (ASN1, DIN2, BT2, and EXL5), markedly responsive to both L and H treatments, validated our microarray data and suggested the potential of some of these genes (AOP2, SAUR16, ASN1, and DIN2) as early biomarkers of metal exposure. Relevant changes in gene expression occur as early as 3 h after exposure to polymetallic treatment. Four genes deserve further studies as novel putative biomarkers of early metal exposure and also owing to their potential implications in stress-related mechanisms: sulphur balance (AOP2), phytohormone regulation of plant growth and development (SAUR16), ammonium detoxification (ASN1) and senescence (DIN2).

  14. Assessment of Chlamydia psittaci Shedding and Environmental Contamination as Potential Sources of Worker Exposure throughout the Mule Duck Breeding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, V; Bernard, P; Vorimore, F; Aaziz, R; Cléva, D; Robineau, J; Durand, B; Angelis, L; Siarkou, V I; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-28

    Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for avian chlamydiosis, otherwise known as psittacosis, a zoonotic disease that may lead to severe atypical pneumonia. This study was conducted on seven mule duck flocks harboring asymptomatic birds to explore the circulation and persistence of C. psittaci during the entire breeding process and assess the potential sources of worker exposure. Cloacal swabs and air samples were taken on each occasion requiring humans to handle the birds. In parallel, environmental samples, including dust, water, and soil, were collected. Specific real-time PCR analyses revealed the presence of C. psittaci in all flocks but with three different shedding patterns involving ducks about the age of 4, 8, and 12 weeks with heavy, moderate, and low excretion levels, respectively. Air samples were only positive in flocks harboring heavy shedders. Dust in flocks with heavy or moderate shedders carried chlamydial loads strongly associated with the loads detected in avian and soil samples. Environmental contamination, significantly correlated with shedding dynamics, was considered to be the most probable source of exposure. The high prevalence of bacteriophage Chp1 in all flocks, mostly jointly present with chlamydia, suggests an important factor in C. psittaci persistence, thus creating a greater risk for humans. A survey conducted in these flocks regarding farming practices and activities showed that disinfection seems to be the most promising practice for reducing C. psittaci prevalence in ducks and that the place and the duration of action during operations seem to be potential risk factors. Strict adherence to good practices is strongly recommended.

  15. Bacteria as Potential Indicators of Heavy Metal Contamination in a Tropical Mangrove and the Implications on Environmental and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa-Acosta, Melanie; Jiménez-Collazo, Johannys; Maldonado-Román, Marixa; Malavé-Llamas, Karlo; Musa-Wasil, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) exposure has been associated with human health diseases like cancer, kidney and liver damage, neurological disorders, motor skills, low bone density and learning problems. With the beginning of the industrialization, the heavy metals in high concentration contribute to putting on the risk the humans in the vicinity. Our study site is located in Cataño, Puerto Rico. This is a highly industrialized area. It is surrounded by a recreational park, a rum distillery, two thermoelectric factories, and was impacted by CAPECO (oil refinery) explosion in 2009. Las Cucharillas marsh is part of The San Juan Bay Estuary System, considered as a critical wildlife area. The mangrove marsh has three of the four mangrove species found in PR Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle. This study was aimed at seven different heavy metals: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Mercury (Hg) and Copper (Cu). These metals at high concentrations are of human health concern due to their toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulative and bio magnification potentials. Contamination of surface sediments with HM affects the food chain, starting with marine organisms up to humans. The people who live near the contaminated area and the local fishermen are at high risk of exposure. Studies reveal that certain microorganisms can resist the toxicity of heavy metals even at high concentrations. Our study pretends to exploit the sensitive nature of some bacteria to HM and use them as bioindicators. The objective of this research is to assess the bacterial community on the mangrove marsh, identify these bacteria and correlate bacterial species with the type and concentration of the metals found on the site. Our preliminary results with the BIOLOG® identification were five bacteria that are: Carnobacterium inhibens, Cupriavidus gilardii, Enterococcus maloduratus, Microbacterium flavescens and Ralstonia pickettii. This study will continue with an

  16. Potential toxic trace element (PTE) contamination in Baoji urban soil (NW China): spatial distribution, mobility behavior, and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoping; Wu, Ting; Bao, Hongxiang; Liu, Xianyu; Xu, Changlin; Zhao, Yanan; Liu, Dongying; Yu, Hongtao

    2017-07-06

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization may cause increased exposure levels to potential toxic trace elements (PTEs) and associated health risks for population living in cities. The main objectives of this study are to investigate systematically the occurrence, source, fate, and risk of PTE contamination from industrial influence in Baoji urban soil. Seven PTE levels (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, V, Sb, and As) were surveyed in 50 composite samples from Baoji urban soil by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Results reveal that the long-term industrial activities have increased PTEs Pb (409.20 mg/kg mean value), Cu (107.19 mg/kg mean value), Zn (374.47 mg/kg mean value), and Sb (26.00 mg/kg mean value) to enrich in urban soil at the different extents. The same results concur with the significant similarity of spatial distribution patterns of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sb (slightly similar distribution) interpolated by GIS, implying a considerable Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sb contamination pool in urban soil disturbance from local metallic industrial activities. Whereas As in study area mainly controls parent material leaching and therefore has natural sources. Cr and V with the heterogeneous spatial distributions are possibly inclined to coal combustion sources. Those conclusions are also confirmed by the results of multivariate analysis. The chemical forms of PTEs fractionated by BCR three-stage sequential extraction procedure show that Pb and Cu are highly associated to the reducible phase (62.55 and 36.41%, respectively). However, Zn is highly associated to the oxidizable phase (33.68%), and a significant concentration is associated to acid and water extractable fractionation of 15.93% for Zn and 34.40% for Pb. In contrast, As, Cr, V, and Sb are mainly bound to the residual phase (>65% for all elements) with low concentrations retained to water extractable fractionation. The health risk assessed by a new classification Modified Integrate Risk Assessment Code (MI

  17. Final report : results of the 2006 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-18

    The investigation reported here was conducted by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in 2006. The investigation addressed carbon tetrachloride contamination on the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Ramona, Kansas. The results clearly demonstrate that only minimal contamination is associated with the past use of carbon tetrachloride on the former CCC/USDA property. No soil contamination was detected at concentrations above Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) risk-based screening level (RBSL) Tier 2 standard of 200 {micro}g/kg for the soil-to-groundwater protection pathway. Carbon tetrachloride concentrations in groundwater above the RBSL and maximum contaminant level (MCL) value of 5.0 {micro}g/L were detected in only two samples, collected at adjacent locations on the southeast part of the property. The relatively low concentrations detected and the limited areal extent of the contamination demonstrate that no imminent threat exists on the former CCC/USDA property to warrant remediation. The soil and groundwater contamination detected on the former CCC/USDA property is clearly separate from contamination detected at off-site locations. The carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination in groundwater (at concentrations above the RBSL and MCL value) associated with past activities on the former CCC/USDA property is contained within the property boundaries. Data collected independently by the KDHE in 2006 validate these findings and, furthermore, provide additional evidence that the sources identified on the Co-op property (west of the former CCC/USDA property) are separate from the comparatively minor results of past activities on the former CCC/USDA property. The KDHE concluded in its 2006 report that the sources are separate and that the Co-op is the principally responsible party for the carbon tetrachloride contamination detected during its 2006 investigation.

  18. A vertical hydroclimatology of the Upper Indus Basin and initial insights to potential hydrological change in the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate projections of future water resource availability and variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. Correctly projecting future hydrological conditions depends first and foremost on a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and processes of present hydroclimatology. The vertical and horizontal spatial variations in key climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) govern the contributions of the various elevation zones and subcatchments comprising the UIB. Trends in this complex mountainous region are highly varied by season and parameter. Observed changes here often do not match general global trends or even necessarily those found in neighbouring regions. This study considers data from a variety sources in order to compose the most complete picture possible of the vertical hydroclimatology of the UIB. The study presents the observed climatology and trends for precipitation and temperature from local observations at long-record meteorological stations (Pakistan Meteorological Department). These data are compared to characterisations of additional water cycle parameters (humidity, cloud, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent) derived from local short-record automatic weather stations, the ECMWF ‘ERA' reanalysis projects and satellite based observations (AVHRR, MODIS, etc). The potential

  19. Vegetation-derived insights on the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides from the Nopal I natural analog site, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, B.W.; Pickett, D.A.; Pearcy, E.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico is a source term and contaminant transport natural analog to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In an attempt to characterize the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone at the Nopal I deposit, vegetation growing on ore piles was analyzed for {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th decay-series isotopes. Specimens of Phacelia robusta growing on high-grade piles of U ore were collected and analyzed by alpha autoradiography, and by alpha and gamma spectrometry. Activities for U, thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) isotopes (Bq/kg dried plant) were 300, 1,000, and 7,000 for {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 226}Ra, respectively. The {sup 226}Ra activities in these specimens are among the highest ever measured for plants; furthermore, the plant-to-soil {sup 226}Ra concentration ratio is higher than expected. These results demonstrate the large mobility and bio-availability of Ra in the Nopal I environment, and support previous indications of recent loss of {sup 226}Ra from the ore body. Comparison between the activities of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay-chain Th isotopes in the plants and in the ore substrate indicate that relative mobilization into pore solutions of {sup 228}Th > {sup 230}Th > {sup 232}Th, in a ratio of about 50--25:4:1, respectively. The similarity of the plant's {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio ({approximately}1.2) to that of a caliche deposit that formed adjacent to the Nopal ore body around 54 ka suggests the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio of U released from the ore is approximately 1.2. The U and {sup 226}Ra isotope activities of the plants and ore substrate, and solubility considerations, are used to assess a source term model of the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These results suggest the use of a natural analog source term model in performance assessments may be non-conservative.

  20. Influence of Land Use and Watershed Characteristics on Protozoa Contamination in a Potential Drinking Water Resources Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative changes in the microbial quality of Lake Texoma, on the border of Texas and Oklahoma, were investigated by monitoring protozoan pathogens, fecal indicators, and factors influencing the intensity of the microbiological contamination of surface water reservoirs. The waters...

  1. Influence of Land Use and Watershed Characteristics on Protozoa Contamination in a Potential Drinking Water Resources Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative changes in the microbial quality of Lake Texoma, on the border of Texas and Oklahoma, were investigated by monitoring protozoan pathogens, fecal indicators, and factors influencing the intensity of the microbiological contamination of surface water reservoirs. The waters...

  2. Design and implementation of an epidemiological study for the characterization of potential pathway human exposure in a contaminated estuary environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Carlos Matias; Machado, Ausenda; Paixão, Eleonora; Mateus, Inês; Joaquin, Toro; Caeiro, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sado River estuary is located in the west coast of Portugal. Previous environmental studies identified industrial contamination, non-point anthropogenic sources and contamination coming from the river, all promoting accumulation of polluted sediments with known impacts on the ecological system. Surrounding human populations have intense economic fishery activities. Together with agriculture, estuary fishing products are available to local residents. Food usage previously chara...

  3. Improvement in phytoremediation potential of Solanum nigrum under cadmium contamination through endophytic-assisted Serratia sp. RSC-14 inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdul Latif; Park, Gun-Seok; Waqas, Muhammad; Hong, Sung-Jun; Jung, Byung Kwon; Kwak, Yunyoung; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The growth of hyperaccumulator plants is often compromised by increased toxicity of metals like cadmium (Cd). However, extraction of such metals from the soil can be enhanced by endophytic microbial association. Present study was aimed to elucidate the potential of microbe-assisted Cd phytoextraction in hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum plants and their interactions under varied Cd concentrations. An endophytic bacteria Serratia sp. RSC-14 was isolated from the roots of S. nigrum. In addition to Cd tolerance up to 4 mM, the RSC-14 exhibited phosphate solubilization and secreted plant growth-promoting phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (54 μg/mL). S. nigrum plants were inoculated with RSC-14 and were grown in different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, and 30 mg Cd kg(-1) sand). Results revealed that Cd treatment caused significant cessation in plant growth, biomass, and chlorophyll content, whereas significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte production in leaves were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, RSC-14 inoculation relived the toxic effects of Cd-induced stress by significantly increasing root/shoot growth, biomass production, and chlorophyll content and decreasing MDA and electrolytes contents. Ameliorative effects on host growth were also observed by the regulation of metal-induced oxidative stress enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol peroxidase. Activities of these enzymes were significantly reduced in RSC-14 inoculated plants as compared to control plants under Cd treatments. The lower activities of stress responsive enzymes suggest modulation of Cd stress by RSC-14. The current findings support the beneficial uses of Serratia sp. RSC-14 in improving the phytoextraction abilities of S. nigrum plants in Cd contamination.

  4. Microbial diversity, community composition and metabolic potential in hydrocarbon contaminated oily sludge: prospects for in situ bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit; Kazy, Sufia K

    2014-06-01

    Microbial community composition and metabolic potential have been explored in petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge of an oil storage facility. Culture-independent clone library-based 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed that the bacterial community within the sludge was dominated by the members of β-Proteobacteria (35%), followed by Firmicutes (13%), δ-Proteobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%), Acidobacteria (6%), α-Proteobacteria (3%), Lentisphaerae (2%), Spirochaetes (2%), and unclassified bacteria (5%), whereas the archaeal community was composed of Thermoprotei (54%), Methanocellales (33%), Methanosarcinales/Methanosaeta (8%) and Methanoculleus (1%) members. Methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) gene (a functional biomarker) analyses also revealed predominance of hydrogenotrophic, methanogenic Archaea (Methanocellales, Methanobacteriales and Methanoculleus members) over acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosarcinales members). In order to explore the cultivable bacterial population, a total of 28 resident strains were identified and characterized in terms of their physiological and metabolic capabilities. Most of these could be taxonomically affiliated to the members of the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Aerococcus, and Zimmermannella, while two strains were identified as Pseudomonas and Pseudoxanthomonas. Metabolic profiling exhibited that majority of these isolates were capable of growing in presence of a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon, tolerating different heavy metals at higher concentrations (≥1 mM) and producing biosurfactant during growth. Many strains could grow under a wide range of pH, temperature, or salinity as well as under anaerobic conditions in the presence of different electron acceptors and donors in the growth medium. Correlation between the isolates and their metabolic properties was estimated by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis. Overall

  5. Evaluation of Cr in ophiolite and groundwater and its potential to contaminate the environment in SE of Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khaledi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Cr(VI in groundwater resources is governed by pH and Eh of water and its compounds are generally soluble and have more toxicicity and mobility in oxidizing environments. In this article, the Cr concentration in ophiolite units, in sediments, and in groundwater resources, and also its potential to contaminate the environment have been investigated in southeast of Birjand. During sampling, 17 water samples (2 rain water samples and 15 groundwater samples, and 8 sediment samples were collected. The concentrations of cations (major cations and Cr and anions in water samples were measured at Ottawa University, Canada using IC and ICP-AES methods, respectively. Cr concentrations of sediments were measured using XRF, and concentrations of Cr in collected Selective Sequential Extraction (SSE fractions were measured using Atomic Absorption (AA at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The average Cr concentrations in sediments and water resources are 627 and 0.026 ppm, respectively. According to the pH of sediments and Eh-pH of water samples, the Cr in water resources is as Cr(VI. Furthermore, the results of SSE show that the majority of Cr was found with residual matter, attached to the iron and manganese oxides, bound to carbonates, organic matter, and the soluble fractions, respectively. The hydrogeochemical properties of water resources show that the average values of EC, TDS and pH are 509 mg/l, 1045 µs/cm and 8.1, respectively, and the concentrations of Cl-, Na+, Mg2+ and SO42- ions are higher than the levels of WHO and Iran National Standard (1053. According to the WQI classification, while 20 percent of the water resources have excellent quality, 53 percent show good quality and 20 percent of water resources are poor in quality.

  6. Semi-quantitative evaluation of fecal contamination potential by human and ruminant sources using multiple lines of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, D.M.; Stelzer, E.A.; Stogner, R.W.; Mau, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Protocols for microbial source tracking of fecal contamination generally are able to identify when a source of contamination is present, but thus far have been unable to evaluate what portion of fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB) came from various sources. A mathematical approach to estimate relative amounts of FIB, such as Escherichia coli, from various sources based on the concentration and distribution of microbial source tracking markers in feces was developed. The approach was tested using dilute fecal suspensions, then applied as part of an analytical suite to a contaminated headwater stream in the Rocky Mountains (Upper Fountain Creek, Colorado). In one single-source fecal suspension, a source that was not present could not be excluded because of incomplete marker specificity; however, human and ruminant sources were detected whenever they were present. In the mixed-feces suspension (pet and human), the minority contributor (human) was detected at a concentration low enough to preclude human contamination as the dominant source of E. coli to the sample. Without the semi-quantitative approach described, simple detects of human-associated marker in stream samples would have provided inaccurate evidence that human contamination was a major source of E. coli to the stream. In samples from Upper Fountain Creek the pattern of E. coli, general and host-associated microbial source tracking markers, nutrients, and wastewater-associated chemical detections-augmented with local observations and land-use patterns-indicated that, contrary to expectations, birds rather than humans or ruminants were the predominant source of fecal contamination to Upper Fountain Creek. This new approach to E. coli allocation, validated by a controlled study and tested by application in a relatively simple setting, represents a widely applicable step forward in the field of microbial source tracking of fecal contamination. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Local adaptation and the potential effects of a contaminant on predator avoidance and antipredator responses under global warming: a space-for-time substitution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh Van, Khuong; Debecker, Sara; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2014-03-01

    The ability to deal with temperature-induced changes in interactions with contaminants and predators under global warming is one of the outstanding, applied evolutionary questions. For this, it is crucial to understand how contaminants will affect activity levels, predator avoidance and antipredator responses under global warming and to what extent gradual thermal evolution may mitigate these effects. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we assessed the potential for gradual thermal evolution shaping activity (mobility and foraging), predator avoidance and antipredator responses when Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae were exposed to zinc in a common-garden warming experiment at the mean summer water temperatures of shallow water bodies at southern and northern latitudes (24 and 20°C, respectively). Zinc reduced mobility and foraging, predator avoidance and escape swimming speed. Importantly, high-latitude populations showed stronger zinc-induced reductions in escape swimming speed at both temperatures, and in activity levels at the high temperature. The latter indicates that local thermal adaptation may strongly change the ecological impact of contaminants under global warming. Our study underscores the critical importance of considering local adaptation along natural gradients when integrating biotic interactions in ecological risk assessment, and the potential of gradual thermal evolution mitigating the effects of warming on the vulnerability to contaminants.

  8. Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Gretchen L; Powell, Cleveland H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse effects on wildlife. Because MeHg is produced by bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, studies of MeHg contamination of food webs historically have focused on aquatic organisms. However, recent studies have shown that terrestrial organisms such as songbirds can be contaminated with MeHg by feeding on MeHg-contaminated spiders. In the present study, the authors examined the risk that MeHg-contaminated terrestrial long-jawed orb weaver spiders (Tetragnatha sp.) pose to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA). Methylmercury concentrations in spiders were significantly different in river, wetland, and open-water habitats. The authors calculated spider-based wildlife values (the minimum spider MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Methylmercury concentrations in spiders exceeded wildlife values for Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) nestlings, with the highest risk in the river habitat. The present study indicates that MeHg concentrations in terrestrial spiders vary with habitat and can pose a threat to small-bodied nestling birds that consume large amounts of spiders at Caddo Lake. This MeHg threat to songbirds may not be unique to Caddo Lake and may extend throughout the southeastern United States. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. Genomics and Comparative Genomic Analyses Provide Insight into the Taxonomy and Pathogenic Potential of Novel Emmonsia Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Ye, Qiang; Li, Kang; Li, Zongwei; Bo, Xiaochen; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yingchun; Wang, Shengqi; Wang, Peng; Chen, Huipeng; Wang, Junzhi

    2017-01-01

    adaptations of new Emmonsia, but this question warrants further investigation. Overall, our analyses provide a framework from which to further study the evolutionary dynamics of Emmonsia strains and identity the underlying molecular mechanisms that determine the infectious and pathogenic potency of these fungal pathogens, and also provide insight into potential targets for therapeutic intervention of emmonsiosis and further research.

  10. Greenhouse study on the phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides L., in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Quispe, Mario A; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this greenhouse study was to assess the capacity of vetiver grass to accumulate arsenic from pesticide-contaminated soils of varying physico-chemical properties. Results indicate that vetiver is capable of tolerating moderate levels of arsenic up to 225 mg/kg. Plant growth and arsenic removal efficiency was strongly influenced by soil properties. Arsenic removal was highest (10.6%) in Millhopper soil contaminated with 45 mg/kg arsenic, which decreased to 4.5 and 0.6% at 225 and 450 mg/kg, respectively. High biomass, widespread root system and environmental tolerance make this plant an attractive choice for the remediation of soils contaminated with moderate levels of arsenic.

  11. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify contaminants in water: an insight on environmental forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiá, Ana; Campo, Julian; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-06-06

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) acquiring full scan MS data for quantification, and automatic data dependent information product ion spectra (IDA-MS/MS) without any predefinition of the ions by the user was checked for identifying organic contaminants in water samples. The use of a database with more than 2000 compounds achieved high confidence results for a wide number of contaminants based upon retention time, accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS library searching. More than 20 contaminants, mostly pharmaceuticals, but also mycotoxins and polyphenols were unambiguously identified. Furthermore, the combination of statistical data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by empirical formula calculation, on-line database searching and MS/MS fragment ion interpretation achieves not only the successful detection of unknown contaminants but also the selection of those relevant to different types of waters. Unknown compounds, such as C₂₀H₃₄O₃, were identified in waste water showing the prospects of this technique. A group of 42 currently used pesticides were selected as target compounds to evaluate the quantitative possibilities. Mean recoveries and percentage relative standard deviation (RSD) were 48-79% (4-20% RSD). The limit of detections ranged from 0.02 to 2 ng L(-1), with a validated limit of quantification of 2 ng L(-1) for water after solid-phase (SPE) isolation and concentration. The quantitative data obtained using UHPLC-QqTOF-MS were compared with those obtained using conventional LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole (QqQ).

  12. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer, composed of a thick sequence of very porous limestone and dolomite, is the principal source of water supply in the Silver Springs ground-water basin of central Marion County, Florida. The karstic nature of the local geology makes the aquifer susceptible to contaminants from the land surface. Contaminants can enter the aquifer by seepage through surficial deposits and through sinkholes and drainage wells. Potential contaminants include agricultural chemicals, landfill leachates and petroleum products from leaking storage tanks and accidental spills. More than 560 sites of potential contamination sources were identified in the basin in 1990. Detailed investigation of four sites were used to define hydrologic conditions at representative sites. Ground-water flow velocities determined from dye trace studies ranged from about 1 foot per hour under natural flow conditions to about 10 feet per hour under pumping conditions, which is considerably higher than velocities estimated using Darcy's equation for steady-state flow in a porous medium. Water entering the aquifer through drainage wells contained bacteria, elevated concentrations of nutrients, manganese and zinc, and in places, low concentrations of organic compounds. On the basis of results from the sampling of 34 wells in 1989 and 1990, and from the sampling of water entering the Upper Floridan aquifer through drainage wells, there has been no widespread degradation of water quality in the study area. In an area of karst, particularly one in which fracture flow is significant, evaluating the effects from contaminants is difficult and special care is required when interpolating hydrogeologic data from regional studies to a specific. (USGS)

  13. Study of the C-14-contamination potential of C-impurities in CuO and Fe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeputte, K; Moens, L; Dams, R; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    The carbon concentration in CuO and iron was determined by isolating C. The values were in agreement with results reported in other studies. Contaminating carbon from CuO and Fe was transformed to AMS targets and measured for C-14. C-traces in CuO were shown to be the major contribution to the C-14

  14. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with MTBE and benzene: the potential of vertical-flow soil filter systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afferden, M. van; Rahman, K.Z.; Mosig, P.; De Biase, C.; Thullner, M.; Oswald, S.E.; Müller, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations on the treatment of MTBE and benzene from contaminated groundwater in pilot or full-scale constructed wetlands are lacking hugely. The aim of this study was to develop a biological treatment technology that can be operated in an economic, reliable and robust mode over a long per

  15. RNA interference (RNAi) as a potential tool for control of mycotoxin contamination in crop plants: concepts and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxin contamination in food and feed crops is a major concern worldwide. Fungal pathogens of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium are a major threat to food and feed crops due to production of mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, 4-deoxynivalenol, patulin, and numerous other toxic seconda...

  16. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried dis...

  17. The health risk of the agricultural production in potentially contaminated sites: an environmental-health risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are often interested by pollution phenomena generated by agricultural activities with a high use of pesticides and/or by anthropic activities, such as industrial plants or illegal waste disposal sites, which may cause even long-range contamination. The risk for human health from the pollutants present in the environment can be quantitatively evaluated by the environmental health risk analysis set out in the Italian Legislative Decree no. 152/2006 (Italian Regulation, 2006. This analysis is the best technical-normative tool to estimate the health risks linked to the pollutants present in the environment but it does not consider the specificity of agricultural soils or the contamination of agricultural products. This study aims to provide this missing technical-normative data by identifying and applying a suitable methodology to evaluate the health risk caused by the ingestion of agricultural products grown in contaminated soils. The risk analysis was applied to two contaminated areas in southern Italy using an innovative methodology based on widely accepted parameters for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs soil-plant bio-transfer factor in the case of horticultural crops. In addition, some concentration limits of PAHs in agricultural soils are proposed that may be of help to the competent authorities (health agencies, local authorities in delineating the areas requiring strict health surveillance of the food products cultivated.

  18. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with MTBE and benzene: the potential of vertical-flow soil filter systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afferden, M. van; Rahman, K.Z.; Mosig, P.; De Biase, C.; Thullner, M.; Oswald, S.E.; Müller, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations on the treatment of MTBE and benzene from contaminated groundwater in pilot or full-scale constructed wetlands are lacking hugely. The aim of this study was to develop a biological treatment technology that can be operated in an economic, reliable and robust mode over a long

  19. Environmental Effects of Dredging. Potential Application of Geosynthetic Fabric Containers for Open-Water Placement of Contaminated Dredged Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to summarize the present state of knowledge on the use of geosynthetic fabric containers (GFCs) for placing...note is to summarize the present state of knowledge on the use of geosynthetic fabric containers (GFCs) for placing contaminated sediments in open

  20. Environmental contamination in an Australian mining community and potential influences on early childhood health and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Zahran, Sammy

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead in aerosols, dusts and surface soils from Australia's oldest continuous lead mining town of Broken Hill were compared to standardised national childhood developmental (year 1) and education performance measures (years 3,5,7,9). Contaminants close to mining operations were elevated with maximum lead levels in soil: 8900 mg/kg; dust wipe: 86,061 μg/m(2); dust deposition: 2950 μg/m(2)/day; aerosols: 0.707 μg/m(3). The proportion of children from Broken Hill central, the area with the highest environmental contamination, presented with vulnerabilities in two or more developmental areas at 2.6 times the national average. Compared with other school catchments of Broken Hill, children in years 3 and 5 from the most contaminated school catchment returned consistently the lowest educational scores. By contrast, children living and attending schools associated with lower environmental contamination levels recorded higher school scores and lower developmental vulnerabilities. Similar results were identified in Australia's two other major lead mining and smelting cities of Port Pirie and Mount Isa.

  1. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study.

  2. Recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in temperature abused milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 hours. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.15 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h. The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case-study.

  3. Potential of Ranunculus acris L. for biomonitoring trace element contamination of riverbank soils: photosystem II activity and phenotypic responses for two soil series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Lilian; Lamy, Pierre; Bert, Valerie; Quintela-Sabaris, Celestino; Mench, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Foliar ionome, photosystem II activity, and leaf growth parameters of Ranunculus acris L., a potential biomonitor of trace element (TE) contamination and phytoavailability, were assessed using two riverbank soil series. R. acris was cultivated on two potted soil series obtained by mixing a TE (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn)-contaminated technosol with either an uncontaminated sandy riverbank soil (A) or a silty clay one slightly contaminated by TE (B). Trace elements concentrations in the soil-pore water and the leaves, leaf dry weight (DW) yield, total leaf area (TLA), specific leaf area (SLA), and photosystem II activity were measured for both soil series after a 50-day growth period. As soil contamination increased, changes in soluble TE concentrations depended on soil texture. Increase in total soil TE did not affect the leaf DW yield, the TLA, the SLA, and the photosystem II activity of R. acris over the 50-day exposure. The foliar ionome did not reflect the total and soluble TE concentrations in both soil series. Foliar ionome of R. acris was only effective to biomonitor total and soluble soil Na concentrations in both soil series and total and soluble soil Mo concentrations in the soil series B.

  4. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    added acetic and/or lactic acids. The stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters and microbial interaction (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, Food Microbiology, submitted for publication). Observed maximum population density (MPD......A new stochastic model for the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was developed and validated on data from naturally contaminated samples of cold-smoked Greenland halibut (CSGH) and cold-smoked salmon (CSS). During industrial processing these samples were......) values of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated samples of CSGH and CSS were accurately predicted by the stochastic model based on measured variability in product characteristics and storage conditions. Results comparable to those from the stochastic model were obtained, when product characteristics...

  5. Contaminant exposure and potential effects on terrestrial vertebrates residing in the National Capital Region network and Mid-Atlantic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Part of the mission of the National Park Service is to preserve the natural resources, processes, systems, and associated values of its units in an unimpaired condition. Environmental contamination and pollution processes are well recognized stressors addressed by its management policies and plans. A recent study indicates that contemporary terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data are lacking for 59 of 126 Park Service units located in coastal watersheds exhibiting serious water quality problems or high vulnerability to pollution. Based upon these findings, a more in-depth evaluation of contaminant threats and ecotoxicological data gaps related to terrestrial vertebrates was undertaken at 23 Inventory and Monitoring National Park units in National Capital Region and Mid-Atlantic Networks.

  6. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  7. Seasonal variation and potential sources of Cryptosporidium contamination in surface waters of Chao Phraya River and Bang Pu Nature Reserve pier, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koompapong, Khuanchai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-07-01

    Using molecular techniques, a longitudinal study was conducted with the aims at identifying the seasonal difference of Cryptosporidium contamination in surface water as well as analyzing the potential sources based on species information. One hundred forty-four water samples were collected, 72 samples from the Chao Phraya River, Thailand, collected in the summer, rainy and cool seasons and 72 samples from sea water at Bang Pu Nature Reserve pier, collected before, during and after the presence of migratory seagulls. Total prevalence of Cryptosporidium contamination in river and sea water locations was 11% and 6%, respectively. The highest prevalence was observed at the end of rainy season continuing into the cool season in river water (29%) and in sea water (12%). During the rainy season, prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 4% in river and sea water samples, but none in summer season. All positive samples from the river was C. parvum, while C. meleagridis (1), and C. serpentis (1) were obtained from sea water. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genetic study in Thailand of Cryptosporidium spp contamination in river and sea water locations and the first report of C. serpentis, suggesting that humans, household pets, farm animals, wildlife and migratory birds may be the potential sources of the parasites. The findings are of use for implementing preventive measures to reduce the transmission of cryptosporidiosis to both humans and animals.

  8. GammaProteobacteria as a potential bioindicator of a multiple contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepceron, Maïté; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Crampon, Marc; Portet-Koltalo, Florence; Akpa-Vinceslas, Marthe; Legras, Marc; Bru, David; Bureau, Fabrice; Bodilis, Josselin

    2013-09-01

    The impact of a multiple contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied on permanent grassland soil, historically presenting low contamination (i.e. less than 1 mg kg(-1)). Soil microcosms were spiked at 300 mg kg(-1) with either single or a mixture of seven PAHs. While total dissipation of the phenanthrene was reached in under 90 days, only 60% of the PAH mixture were dissipated after 90 days. Interestingly, after 30 days, the abundance of the GammaProteobacteria class (assessed by qPCR) become significantly higher in microcosms spiked with the PAH mixture. In addition, the specific abundance of the cultivable Pseudomonas spp., which belong to the GammaProteobacteria class, increased earlier and transiently (after 8 days) in the microcosms spiked with the PAH mixture. Consequently, we propose to use the GammaProteobacteria as a bioindicator to detect the impact on the bacterial community of a multiple contamination by PAHs in agricultural soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesley, Luke, E-mail: luke.beesley@hutton.ac.uk [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Eyles, Jose L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Harris, Eva; Robinson, Brett [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647 (New Zealand); Sizmur, Tom [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Biochars are biological residues combusted under low oxygen conditions, resulting in a porous, low density carbon rich material. Their large surface areas and cation exchange capacities, determined to a large extent by source materials and pyrolysis temperatures, enables enhanced sorption of both organic and inorganic contaminants to their surfaces, reducing pollutant mobility when amending contaminated soils. Liming effects or release of carbon into soil solution may increase arsenic mobility, whilst low capital but enhanced retention of plant nutrients can restrict revegetation on degraded soils amended only with biochars; the combination of composts, manures and other amendments with biochars could be their most effective deployment to soils requiring stabilisation by revegetation. Specific mechanisms of contaminant-biochar retention and release over time and the environmental impact of biochar amendments on soil organisms remain somewhat unclear but must be investigated to ensure that the management of environmental pollution coincides with ecological sustainability. - Highlights: > Biochars can reduce mobilities of some organic and inorganic pollutants in soil. > Source material and production conditions influence pollutant retention. > Highly alkaline pH and water soluble carbon can undesirably mobilise some elements. > Large surface area may be toxic to soil fauna but create microbial niches. > Efficacy of biochar may depend on other organic materials applied in combination. - Biochars can reduce the mobility and impact of some soil pollutants but, if applied alone, may fail to support soil restoration, revegetation and hence ecologically circumspect remediation.

  10. Potential Environment and Public Health Risk Due to Contamination of Heavy Metals from Industrial Waste Water in Lam Thao, Phu Tho, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen C. Vinh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Vietnam, rice cultivation plays an important role in national economic development and food security. However, rice production is facing many problems associated with rapid industrialization and urbanization in the country. Resultant emissions of solid and liquid wastes are often untreated and discharged directly to agricultural land. These practices have potential impacts on the environment and human health. Approach: The research was carried out within the frame of the collaborative research project “Towards the mitigation of environment and public health risks due to heavy metal contamination in irrigated rice-based systems of Vietnam” in 2006-2010. The study was implemented in the Lam Thao district, Phu Tho province with the aim to assess the effects of wastewater and other contamination sources on the environment and public health. Results: Surface water and soil in the field showed signs of significant contamination by wastewater from the industrial zones. Bio-indicators (DO, COD, BOD5 in the surface water were also strongly affected by waste. Paddy fields around the industrial zones had an elevated risk of heavy metal contamination (Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb, with concentrations exceeding Vietnamese Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MACs for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Soil contamination with heavy metals was resulting in elevated concentrations in rice grain. Where consumption of locally-produced food was high, exposure of individuals to heavy metals could present a public health risk. The partial Hazard Quotient (HQ; a ratio derived from comparing estimated exposure to heavy metals, i.e., Cd, (with toxicologically-derived„ safe’ daily doses for rice and vegetables (water spinach and the integrated Hazard Quotient of rice and vegetables (HQi was consistently greater in areas with soil contamination than in the reference area using Red River water for irrigation. The HQi for Cd was particularly high for children below the

  11. Selection of native plants with phytoremediation potential for highly contaminated Mediterranean soil restoration: Tools for a non-destructive and integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Dutoit, Thierry; Torre, Franck; Prudent, Pascale; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an effective and non-destructive method for the selection of native Mediterranean plants with phytoremediation potential based on their spontaneous recovery capacities. The study site consisted in a mixed contaminated soils (As, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn) in the vicinity of a former lead smelting factory abandoned since 1925 in the Calanques National Park (Marseille, southeastern France). We developed an integrated characterization approach that takes into account topsoil metal(loid)s (MM) contamination, plant community composition and structure and mesologic parameters without using destructive methods. From a statistical selection of significant environmental descriptors, plant communities were described and interpreted as the result of spontaneous recovery under multiple stresses and local conditions (both natural and anthropogenic). We collected phytoecological and MM topsoil data using field monitoring and geographic information system (GIS) on a pollution hotspot where natural plant communities occur. The results of the multivariate analysis performed between species and descriptors indicated that a century of MM pollution pressure produced a significant correlation with plant community dynamics in terms of composition, diversity and structure, leading to the co-occurrence of different plant succession stages. Thus, these successions seemed linked to the variability of anthropogenic disturbance regimes within the study site. We recorded high topsoil contamination heterogeneity at the scale both of the plot and of the whole study area that suggested a heterogeneous MM distribution pattern dependent on the source of contaminants and site environmental variability. We identified 4 spontaneous plant communities co-occurring through a MM contamination gradient that could be used later from degraded to reference communities to define ecological restoration target combined to phytoremediation applications with respect to local conditions

  12. Gene-environment interactions: the potential role of contaminants in somatic growth and the development of the reproductive system of the American alligator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C; Roark, Alison M; Kohno, Satomi; Hamlin, Heather J; Guillette, Louis J

    2012-05-06

    Developing organisms interpret and integrate environmental signals to produce adaptive phenotypes that are prospectively suited for probable demands in later life. This plasticity can be disrupted when embryos are impacted by exogenous contaminants, such as environmental pollutants, producing potentially deleterious and long-lasting mismatches between phenotype and the future environment. We investigated the ability for in ovo environmental contaminant exposure to alter the growth trajectory and ovarian function of alligators at five months after hatching. Alligators collected as eggs from polluted Lake Apopka, FL, hatched with smaller body masses but grew faster during the first five months after hatching, as compared to reference-site alligators. Further, ovaries from Lake Apopka alligators displayed lower basal expression levels of inhibin beta A mRNA as well as decreased responsiveness of aromatase and follistatin mRNA expression levels to treatment with follicle stimulating hormone. We posit that these differences predispose these animals to increased risks of disease and reproductive dysfunction at adulthood.

  13. Toxicological benchmark for screening of potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Futrell, M.A.; Kerchner, G.A.

    1992-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment of hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration. This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented here. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. To the extent that toxicity data are available, this report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks, and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility.

  14. Microbial communities in sediments of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria: Elucidation of community structure and potential impacts of contamination by municipal and industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioma C Obi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine sediments are significant repositories of anthropogenic contaminants, and thus understanding the impacts of contamination upon microbial communities in these environments is important to understand potential effects on estuaries as a whole. The Lagos Lagoon (Nigeria is one of Africa’s largest estuarine ecosystems, and is impacted by hydrocarbon pollutants and other industrial and municipal wastes. The goal of this study was to elucidate microbial community structure in Lagos Lagoon sediments to identify groups that may be adversely affected by contamination, and those that may serve as degraders of environmental contaminants, especially polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Sediment samples were collected from sites that ranged in types and levels of anthropogenic impacts. Sediments were characterized for a range of physicochemical properties, and microbial community structure was determined by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Microbial diversity (species richness and evenness in the Apapa and Eledu sediments was reduced compared to that of the Ofin site, and communities of both of the former two were dominated by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU assigned to the family Helicobacteraceae (Epsilonproteobacteria. In the Ofin community, Epsilonproteobacteria were minor constituents, and major groups were Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which were all minor in the Apapa and Eledu sediments. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD, a broad indicator of contamination, was identified by multivariate analyses as strongly correlated with variation in alphadiversity. Environmental variables that explained betadiversity patterns included SOD, as well as levels of naphthalene, acenaphthylene, cobalt, cadmium, total organic matter or nitrate. Of 582 OTU identified, abundance of 167 was significantly correlated (false discovery rate q ≤ 0.05 to environmental variables. The largest group of OTU correlated with PAH levels

  15. Crustal contamination versus an enriched mantle source for intracontinental mafic rocks: Insights from early Paleozoic mafic rocks of the South China Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Xu, Xisheng; Zeng, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Several recent studies have documented that the silicic rocks (SiO2 > 65 wt.%) comprising Silicic Large Igneous Provinces are derived from partial melting of the crust facilitated by underplating/intraplating of ;hidden; large igneous province-scale basaltic magmas. The early Paleozoic intracontinental magmatic rocks in the South China Block (SCB) are dominantly granitoids, which cover a combined area of 22,000 km2. In contrast, exposures of mafic rocks total only 45 km2. These mafic rocks have extremely heterogeneous isotopic signatures that range from depleted to enriched (whole rock initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7041-0.7102; εNd(t) = - 8.4 to + 1.8; weighted mean zircon εHf(t) = - 7.4 to + 5.2), show low Ce/Pb and Nb/U ratios (0.59-13.1 and 3.5-20.9, respectively), and variable Th/La ratios (0.11-0.51). The high-MgO mafic rocks (MgO > 10 wt.%) tend to have lower εNd(t) values (- 4) and Sm/Nd ratios (> 0.255). The differences in geochemistry between the high-MgO and low-MgO mafic rocks indicate greater modification of the compositions of high-MgO mafic magmas by crustal material. In addition, generally good negative correlations between εNd(t) and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, MgO, and K2O, along with the presence of inherited zircons in some plutons, indicate that the geochemical and isotopic compositions of the mafic rocks reflect significant crustal contamination, rather than an enriched mantle source. The results show that high-MgO mafic rocks with fertile isotopic compositions may be indicative of crustal contamination in addition to an enriched mantle source, and it is more likely that the lithospheric mantle beneath the SCB during the early Paleozoic was moderately depleted than enriched by ancient subduction processes.

  16. Microbial and molecular techniques to evaluate and to implement in-situ biodegradation potential and activity at sites contaminated with aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karg, F. [HPC Envirotec / France and HPC AG (Germany); Henkler, Ch. [Planreal (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Intrinsic bio-remediation harnesses the ability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade contaminants that are present in soil and groundwater. Over the past decade many environmental regulatory agencies especially in Europe have come to recognize the importance of these natural processes in contaminant attenuation. In order to use in-situ bio-remediation to clean up a site successfully it is necessary to investigate the indigenous microbial population and its potential activity to degrade the contaminants of concern (COCs). The evaluation of naturally-occurring degradative activity in initial screening of soil and groundwater samples using recently developed molecular and microbial methods may allow for the implementation of a contaminant reduction and management program without the need for fully engineered remediation intervention. Limited engineering approaches (nutrient delivery etc.) can be implemented to support naturally-occurring bio-restoration processes to achieve a controlled, dynamic attenuation of COCs. Techniques for monitoring pollutant-degrading microorganisms were previously limited to standard culturing techniques. More recently, techniques based upon detection of genetic elements and metabolic activities have been developed in collaboration with university partners Europe, especially in France. The modern techniques are more sensitive for monitoring microbial populations, metabolic activity and the genetic potential to degrade the COCs, and avoid the need for cultivation of microbes under artificial conditions in the laboratory. Especially the application of PCR-Tests (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are able to quantify the Genetic Potential of Pollutant Microbiological Degradation on a contaminated site. This enables to use very economic in-situ site rehabilitation strategies as for example (Dynamic Natural Attenuation). For this modern application of these new strategies PLANREAL created with HPC Envirotec and together with a French University

  17. Assessment of hydrocarbon degradation potentials in plant-microbe interaction system with oil sludge contamination: A sustainable solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Anil; Jajoo, Anjana; Juwarkar, Asha

    2017-05-25

    A pot culture experiment was conducted for 90 days for evaluation of oil and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation in vegetated and non-vegetated treatments of real field oil sludge contaminated soil. Five different treatments include, (T1) control, 2% oil sludge contaminated soil; (T2), augmentation of microbial consortium; (T3), Vertiver zizanioide; (T4), bio-augmentation along with Vertiver zizanioide and (T5), bio-augmentation with Vertiver zizanioide and bulking agent. During the study, oil reduction, TPH and degradation of its fractions was determined. Physic-chemical and microbiological parameters of soil were also monitored simultaneously. At the end of the experimental period, oil content (85%) was reduced maximally in bio-augmented rhizospheric treatments (T4 and T5) as compared to control (27%). TPH reduction was observed to be 88% and 89% in bio-augmented rhizospheric soil (T4 and T5 treatments), whereas in non-rhizospheric and control (T2 and T1) TPH reduction was 78% and 37% respectively. Degradation of aromatic fraction after 90 days in bio-augmented rhizosphere of treatment T4 and T5 was found to 91% and 92%. In microbial (T2) and Vertiver treatment (T3) degradation of aromatic fraction was 83% and 68% respectively. A threefold increase in soil dehydrogenase activity and noticeable changes in organic carbon content, water holding capacity were also observed which indicated maximum degradation of oil and its fractions in combined treatment of plants and microbes. It is concluded that plant-microbe-soil system helps to restore soil quality and can be used as an effective tool for remediation of oil sludge contaminated sites.

  18. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Naman, C. Benjamin; Deng, Ye; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2?8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value ...

  19. Bioavailability and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in garden edible vegetables and soils around a highly contaminated former mining area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Shaheen, Sabry M; Boersch, Judith; Frohne, Tina; Du Laing, Gijs; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    Although soil contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Europe has a history of many centuries, related problems are often considered as having been dealt with due to the enforcement of tight legislations. However, there are many unsolved issues. We aimed to assess PTE levels in highly contaminated soils and in garden edible vegetables using human health risk indices in order to evaluate the availability and mobilization of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). In four gardens in Germany, situated on, or in the vicinity of, a mine dump area, we planted beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ssp. nanus), carrots (Daucus sativus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa ssp. capitata). We examined soil-to-plant mobilization of elements using transfer coefficient (TC), as well as soil contamination using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), and bioaccumulation index (Igeo). In addition, we tested two human health risk assessment indices: Soil-induced hazard quotient (HQS) (representing the "direct soil ingestion" pathway), and vegetable-induced hazard quotient (HQV) (representing the "vegetable intake" pathway). The studied elements were highly elevated in the soils. The values in garden 2 were especially high (e.g., Pb: 13789.0 and Hg: 36.8 mg kg(-1)) and largely exceeded the reported regulation limits of 50 (for As), 40 (Cu), 400 (Pb), 150 (Zn), and 5 (Hg) mg kg(-1). Similarly, element concentrations were very high in the grown vegetables. The indices of CF, EF and Igeo were enhanced even to levels that are rarely reported in the literature. Specifically, garden 2 indicated severe contamination due to multi-element deposition. The contribution of each PTE to the total of measured HQS revealed that Pb was the single most important element causing health risk (contributing up to 77% to total HQS). Lead also posed the highest risk concerning vegetable consumption, contributing up to 77% to total HQV. The presence of lead

  20. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A Seabert

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3 than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72 from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs and hair (mercury. We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  1. The evaluation of growth and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita on soil contaminated simultaneously with Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoń, Anna; Jurga, Beata

    2017-02-01

    One of the cheapest, environmentally friendly methods for cleaning an environment polluted by heavy metals is phytoextraction. It builds on the uptake of pollutants from the soil by the plants, which are able to grow under conditions of high concentrations of toxic metals. The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of growing and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita cultivated on two different soils contaminated with five heavy metals simultaneously: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. A 3-year microplot experiment with two perennial energy crops, M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita, was conducted in the experimental station of IUNG-PIB in Poland (5° 25' N, 21° 58 'E), in the years of 2008-2010. Miscanthus was found more tolerant to concomitant soil contamination with heavy metals and produced almost double biomass than Sida in all three tested years, independent of soil type. Miscanthus collected greater amount of heavy metals (except for cadmium) in the biomass than Sida. Both energy crops absorb high levels of zinc, lower levels of lead, copper, and nickel, and absorbed cadmium at least, generally more metals were taken from the sandy soil, where plants also yielded better. Photosynthesis net rate of Miscanthus was on average 40% higher compared to Sida. Obtained results indicate that M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita can successfully be grown on moderately contaminated soil with heavy metals.

  2. Potential food contaminants and associated health risks%潜在的食品污染剂和与之相关的健康危险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharda Shah PESHIN; Shyam Bala LALL; Suresh Kumar GUPTA

    2002-01-01

    The potential toxicants in food are derived fromNatural or industrial sources. Compounds like lectins andglycoalkaloids that are toxic to man are naturally presentin some vegetables like potatoes or legumes. A widevariety of marine toxins mostly produced by dinoflagel-lates occuring secondarily in molluscs and mussels areusually ingested by human beings causing poisoning. Onthe other hand, toxic ~ds find their way into foodduring manufacture, storage, or transportation. Theseinclude largely the industrial contaminants, persistentorganic pollutants (POP), pesticides, heavy metals, andtoxins of fungal and bacterial origin. Further, toxiccompounds like higher alcohols may be produced asbyproducts during processing. Migration of compoundsfrom packaging materials into packaged food likecontamination with lead from solder in certain metal cansis well known. Additives (emulsifiers, preservatives,and antioxidants ) could also influence the quality offoods. Solvent residues may find their way into food asa result of their use in extraction processes like the use oftrichloroethylene and methylene chloride in decaffeinationof coffee. In addition, poor hygiene, storage, andreparafion may also lead to food contamination byvarious microbes and ova or cysts of nematodes. Theproblem of food contamination can be overcome to a greatextent by regular surveillance and monitoring programmesand strict implementation of food and adulteration act.In the present review some of these aspects of foodcontamination have been discussed in detail.``

  3. Mobile organic compounds in biochar - a potential source of contamination - phytotoxic effects on cress seed (Lepidium sativum) germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Mašek, Ondřej

    2014-05-01

    Biochar can be contaminated during pyrolysis by re-condensation of pyrolysis vapours. In this study two biochar samples contaminated by pyrolysis liquids and gases to a high degree, resulting in high volatile organic compound (high-VOC) content, were investigated and compared to a biochar with low volatile organic compound (low-VOC) content. All biochar samples were produced from the same feedstock (softwood pellets) under the same conditions (550 °C, 20 min mean residence time). In experiments where only gaseous compounds could access germinating cress seeds (Lepidium sativum), application amounts ranging from 1 to 30 g of high-VOC biochar led to total inhibition of cress seed germination, while exposure to less than 1 g resulted in only partial reduction. Furthermore, leachates from biochar/sand mixtures (1, 2, 5 wt.% of biochar) induced heavy toxicity to germination and showed that percolating water could dissolve toxic compounds easily. Low-VOC biochar didn't exhibit any toxic effects in either germination test. Toxicity mitigation via blending of a high-VOC biochar with a low-VOC biochar increased germination rate significantly. These results indicate re-condensation of VOCs during pyrolysis can result in biochar containing highly mobile, phytotoxic compounds. However, it remains unclear, which specific compounds are responsible for this toxicity and how significant re-condensation in different pyrolysis units might be.

  4. First-time report of metalloproteinases in fish bile and their potential as bioindicators regarding environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser-Davis, R A; Lima, A A; Ziolli, R L; Campos, R C

    2012-04-01

    Gallbladder bile from 2 fish species, mullet (Mugil liza) and tilapias (Tilapia rendalli), contain substantial matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Extensive purification studies were conducted in order to obtain workable samples for SDS-PAGE and zymography analysis. Proteinase activities were assayed by gelatin substrate zymography. Several protein bands were observed, corresponding to molecular weights of 200, 136, 43, 36, 34, 29, 23 and 14 kDa in mullet bile and 179, 97, 79, 61, 54, 45, 36, 33 and 21 kDa in tilapia bile. Specific inhibitor studies were conducted, in which MMPS were inhibited by EDTA and 1,10 phenanthroline, but not by serine and cysteine protease inhibitors, such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and transepoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-l-guanidino butane (E-64), confirming the proteinase identities as MMPs. Differences in proteinase expression were observed in fish from a contaminated and reference site. Some studies regarding MMPs in different fish tissues exist, however this is the first study conducted in fish bile, and their involvement in detoxification processes and organism protection against the effects of aquatic contaminants may be a possibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of biochar and Arbuscular mycorrhizae on bioavailability of potentially toxic elements in an aged contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuhui; Crowley, David; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Huiqi; Li, Huafen

    2015-11-01

    Biochar pyrolyzed from corn stalks at 300°C/500°C and arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMF) were examined independently and in combination as possible treatments for soil remediation contaminated with Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn after 35 years following land application of sewage sludge in the 1970s. The results showed that biochar significantly decreased the heavy metal concentrations and their bioavailability for plants, and both biochars had similar such effects. AMF inoculation of corn plants had little effect on heavy metal bioavailability in either control or biochar amended soil, and no interaction between biochar and AMF was observed. Changes in DTPA extractable metals following biochar addition to soil were correlated with metal uptake by plants, whereas pore water metal concentrations were not predictive indicators. This research demonstrates positive benefits from biochar application for contaminated soil remediation, but remain ambiguous with regard to the benefits of simultaneous AMF inoculation on reduction of heavy metal bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential application of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for extraction of bacterial genomic DNA from contaminated food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Semanti; Chatterjee, Saptarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Sarkar, Keka

    2013-03-15

    Isolation of high-molecular-weight DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications. Owing to the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors, there is a scarcity of suitable protocols for PCR-ready DNA extraction from food and natural environments. The conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction are time consuming and laborious and the yield is very low. Thus the aim of this research was to develop a simple, rapid, cost-effective method of genomic DNA extraction from food (milk and fruit juice) and environmental (pond water) samples and to detect bacterial contaminants present in those samples. This approach is efficient for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from all the studied samples. Herein super paramagnetic bare iron oxide nanoparticles were implemented for bacterial genomic DNA isolation. The method was also compared to the conventional phenol-chloroform method in the context of quality, quantity and timing process. This method took only half an hour or less to obtain high-molecular-weight purified DNA from minimum bacterial contamination. Additionally, the method was directly compatible to PCR amplification. The problem of availability of suitable generalized methods for DNA isolation from various samples including food and environmental has been solved by a nanobiotechnological approach that may prove to be extremely useful in biotechnological applications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A 3D model for carbon monoxide molecular line emission as a potential cosmic microwave background polarization contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.; Fabbian, G.; Baccigalupi, C.

    2017-08-01

    We present a model for simulating carbon monoxide (CO) rotational line emission in molecular clouds, taking account of their 3D spatial distribution in galaxies with different geometrical properties. The model implemented is based on recent results in the literature and has been designed for performing Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of this emission. We compare the simulations produced with this model and calibrate them, both on the map and the power spectrum levels, using the second release of data from the Planck satellite for the Galactic plane, where the signal-to-noise ratio is highest. We use the calibrated model to extrapolate the CO power spectrum at low Galactic latitudes where no high sensitivity observations are available yet. We then forecast the level of unresolved polarized emission from CO molecular clouds which could contaminate the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background polarization B modes away from the Galactic plane. Assuming realistic levels of the polarization fraction, we show that the level of contamination is equivalent to a cosmological signal with r ≲ 0.02. The MC MOlecular Line Emission (mcmole3d) python package, which implements this model, is being made publicly available.

  8. Potential of Pteris vittata L. for phytoremediation of sites co-contaminated with cadmium and arsenic: The tolerance and accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Field investigation and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the tolerance of Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) to cadmium (Cd) and its feasibility for remediating sites co-contaminated with Cd and arsenic (As). The results showed that P. vittata could survive in pot soils spiked with 80 mg/kg of Cd and tolerated as great as 301 mg/kg of total Cd and 26.8 mg/kg of diethyltriaminepenta acetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd under field conditions. The highest concentration of Cd in fronds was 186 mg/kg under a total soil concentration of 920 mg As/kg and 98.6 mg Cd/kg in the field, whereas just 2.6 mg/kg under greenhouse conditions. Ecotypes of P. vittata were differentiated in tolerance and accumulation of Cd, and some of them could not only tolerate high concentrations of soil Cd, but also accumulated high concentrations of Cd in their fronds. Arsenic uptake and transportation by P. vittata was not inhibited at lower levels (( 20 mg/kg) of Cd addition. Compared to the treatment without addition of Cd, the frond As concentration was increased by 103.8% at 20 mg Cd/kg, with the highest level of 6434 mg/kg. The results suggested that the Cd-tolerant ecotype of P. vittata extracted effectively As and Cd from the site co-contaminated with Cd and As, and might be used to remediate and revegetate this type of site.

  9. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study.

  10. Phytoremediation potential of chromium-containing tannery effluent-contaminated soil by native Indian timber-yielding tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mahalingam, Kanimozhi; Vimala, A; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six native Indian tree species that are used for the enhanced tree cover program of the forest department (Government of Tamilnadu, India) were screened for phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil containing high chromium content. Out of 26 tree species tested, 10 timber-yielding tree species were selected for further phytoremediation monitoring. After a series of treatments with tannery effluent sludge, the chromium content was measured in the plant parts. The saplings of Acacia auriculiformis, Azadirachta indica, Albizzia lebbeck, Dalbergia sisso, and Thespesia populnea were identified as efficient bioaccumulators of chromium from Cr-contaminated soil. Acacia auriculiformis accumulates higher amounts of Cr in both the root and stem. Dalbergia sisso and T. populnea were found to accumulate higher quantity of Cr in the roots, whereas A. indica, A. richardiana, and A. lebbeck accumulate Cr in their stem. The stress response of the plant species was assessed by quantifying the antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and DHAR. Activity of all the enzymes was observed to gradually increase following treatment with tannery effluent sludge.

  11. Geology and ground water in Door County, Wisconsin, with emphasis on contamination potential in the Silurian Dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Marvin G.

    1978-01-01

    is thin or absent. Transmissivity values range from a low of 4.0 feet squared per day in the Niagaran aquifer near Sturgeon Bay to more than 13 000 feet squared per day for the Alexandrian aquifer near Fish Creek. Water from Silurian dolomite is a very hard calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, with objectionable concentrations of iron and nitrate in water from some wells. Sanitary quality, as indicated by tests for total coliform bacteria, has been a chronic problem in certain areas. Concentrations of indicator organisms are greatest during or immediately after rapid ground-water recharge, with concentrations rapidly decreasing after periods of recharge. Wells close to septic systems and in areas underlain by fractured near-surface bedrock have the greatest incidence of contamination. The type and thickness of unconsolidated material has a direct effect on the entry of bacteria into the ground-water system. Bacterial attenuation increases with increasing soil depth and reduction in soil permeability. After bacterial contaminants reach the water table within fractured bedrock, little attenuation occurs, and the contaminants can travel long distances in a short time. Ground water of good sanitary quality but exceeding recommended limits of the U.S. Public Health Service for sulfate and chloride is probably available from the sandstone aquifer by drilling wells 700 to 1300 feet deep. To minimize the possibility of obtaining contaminated ground water, well construction should include properly locating the wells upgradient and as far as practical from contamination sources, setting and pressure grouting well casings to an adequate depth into firm bedrock, and casing the well into the zone of saturation.

  12. Insights of Pb isotopic signature into the historical evolution and sources of Pb contamination in a sediment core of the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vale, Carlos; Brito, Pedro; Naughton, Filipa; Drago, Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Anes, Bárbara; Schmidt, Sabine; Caetano, Miguel

    2017-05-15

    Stable Pb isotopic ratios and concentrations of Al, Cu and Pb were measured in a 5m long sediment core (VC2B) retrieved at 96m water depth in the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf. Five phases during the last 9.5kyrs were identified, two of them (Roman Period and modern mining) marked by a decrease of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios reflecting additional inputs of Pb derived from mining activities. The Roman Period was also characterized by high (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios suggesting the exploitation of the outcropping portion of the orebody intensely weathered when compared with the other formations later mined. The shift of (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios towards linearity took approximately 1.0kyrs, which may mirror the time of environmental recovery from the impact of Roman mining activities. The application of a mixing model allowed the quantification of the contribution associated with anthropogenic mining activities to the shelf sediments. The maximum values of Pb contamination occurred in the 20(th) century. This study gives direct evidence of Pb and Cu exploitation over the last 2000years. The stable Pb isotopic signatures point to legacy of mining activities that are still the prevailing metal source recorded in the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Model optimization of cadmium and accumulation in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.): potential use for ecological phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanzhen; Gu, Muyu; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yafang; Cui, Jian; Gao, Wei; Gui, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Soil pollution with heavy metals is an increasingly serious threat to the environment, food security, and human health. Therefore, it is urgent to develop economic and highly efficient soil restoration technology for environmental improvement; phytoremediation is an option that is safe, has low cost, and is environmentally friendly. However, in selecting hyperaccumulators or tolerant plants, theories and operation technologies for optimal restoration should be satisfied. In this study, the switchgrass growth response and performance of phytoextraction under the coupling effect of Cd and pH were investigated by evaluating seed germination, seedling growth, and the Cd content in the plant to evaluate the potential use of switchgrass as a phytoremediation plant in cadmium contaminated soil. This study conducted three sets of independent experiments with five levels of Cd concentrations, including two orthogonal matrix designs of combining Cd with pH values. The results showed that switchgrass was germinated well under all treatments (Cd concentration of 0-500 μM), but the seedling growth was significantly affected by Cd and pH, as shown by multivariate regression analyses. Hormesis was found during the growth of switchgrass plants exposed to low Cd concentrations under hydroponic conditions, and switchgrass plants were capable of developing with a Cd concentration of 100-175 μM and pH of 4.1-5.9. Mild acidic conditions can enhance the ability of Cd to accumulate in switchgrass. Switchgrass was moderately tolerant to Cd and may be used as a phytoremediation plant for Cd-contaminated soils in the future. Our results also suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils. We discuss the physiological and biochemical mechanisms contributing to the effective application of the plant for the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  14. Final report : results of the 2006-2007 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-28

    The 2006-2007 investigation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination at Barnes, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The overall goal of the investigation was to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The investigation objectives were to (1) determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, (2) delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and (3) design and implement an expanded monitoring network at Barnes (Argonne 2006a).

  15. The level of mercury contamination in mariculture sites at the estuary of Pearl River and the potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, H C; Zhao, K Y; Ding, W Y; Li, J B; Liang, P; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the Hg contamination in mariculture sites located at the estuary of Pearl River was to investigate with an attempt to analyse associated health risks of dietary exposure to both total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) in cultured fish and shellfish. The highest total mercury concentration (7.037 ± 0.556 ng L(-1)) of seawater was observed at Zhuhai Estuary. The Hg concentrations of sediment in Guishan Island were significantly higher (p mercury methylation mostly occurred at the sediment-water interface. Results of health risk assessments showed that fish consumption would impose a higher risk to children but less to adults, while shellfish produced in the studied area was safe for consumption.

  16. Autotransfusion of blood contaminated by enteric contents: a potentially life-saving measure in the massively hemorrhaging trauma patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, G A; McSwain, N E

    1988-06-01

    The role of autotransfusion of shed blood is well established in thoracic, abdominal, vascular, and orthopedic elective surgery. When hollow viscera or infected organs are uninvolved, autotransfusion is also well accepted in trauma surgery. Less clear is whether shed blood from an injury violating hollow organs in the abdomen can be used safely in the trauma patient. We retrospectively identified 11 patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma who had received enteric contaminated shed blood, processed by the Haemonetics Cell Saver, and reviewed their records for infectious morbidity or mortality. All patients received parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotics. Three patients developed infectious wound complications, one probably nosocomial from the intensive care unit. No patient developed intra-abdominal sepsis and no deaths were reported. Based on the results of this preliminary result, it may be appropriate to use autotransfusion of shed blood in trauma patients with gastrointestinal injuries, if banked blood is not readily available and the patients receive perioperative broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  17. Assessment of Phytoextraction Potential of Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. to Remove Heavy Metals (Pb and Ni from Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Kaur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of metal mobilizing agents, ethelynediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and salicylic acid (SA, on the accumulation and translocation of lead (Pb and nickel (Ni by fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecumL. plants in contaminated soil. EDTA and SA were amended at 100 mM and 1.0 mM respectively. Pb and Ni content were estimated using ICP-OES. Plant samples were prepared for scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis to investigate metals distribution in different tissues (root, stem and leaf of plant. The results showed that EDTA increased Pb and Ni uptake as compared to SA. SEM analysis revealed that in the presence of EDTA, the deposition of Pb particles was predominantly in vascular tissues of the stem and leaf.    

  18. The potential of combining ion trap/MS/MS and TOF/MS for identification of emerging contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.; Heine, C.E.; Thurman, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of a method combining ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) for identification of emerging contaminates was discussed. The two tools together complemented each other in sensitivity, fragmentation and accurate mass determination. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS), in positive ion mode of operation, was used to separate and identify specific compounds. Diagnostic fragment ions were obtained for a polyethyleneglycol(PEG) homolog by ion trap MS/MS, and fragments were measured by TOF/MS. It was observed that the combined method gave an exact mass measurement that differed from the calculated mass.

  19. Hollow microsphere with mesoporous shell by Pickering emulsion polymerization as a potential colloidal collector for organic contaminants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yinyan; Meng, Xiaohui; Qiu, Dong

    2014-04-08

    Submicrometer hollow microspheres with mesoporous shells were prepared by a simple one-pot strategy. Colloidal silica particles were used as a particle stabilizer to emulsify the oil phase, which was composed of a polymerizable silicon monomer (TPM) and an inert organic solvent (PEA). The low interfacial tension between colloidal silica particles and TPM helped to form a Pickering emulsion with small droplet sizes. After the polymerization of TPM, the more hydrophobic PEA formed a liquid core, leading to a hollow structure after its removal by evaporation. BET results indicated that the shell of a hollow particle was mesoporous with a specific surface area over 400 m(2)·g(-1). With PEA as the core and silica as the shell, each resultant hollow particle had a hydrophobic cavity and an amphiphilic surface, thus serving as a good colloidal collector for hydrophobic contaminants in water.

  20. The potential of Cycloclasticus and Altererythrobacter strains for use in bioremediation of petroleum-aromatic-contaminated tropical marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Maki; Suzuki, Masahito; Hatmanti, Ariani; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2010-07-01

    Cycloclasticus sp. A5, which has been suggested to be a major degrader of petroleum aromatics spilled in temperate seas, showed higher degrading activities for petroleum aromatics, at both 25 degrees C and tropical sea temperature 30 degrees C, than the novel aromatic-degrading isolates, related to Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans (97.5% similarity in the almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence) and Rhodovulum iodosum (96.3% similarity), obtained after enrichment on crude oil in a continuous supply of Indonesian seawater. Cycloclasticus A5 degraded petroleum aromatics at a similar rate or faster at 30 degrees C as compared to 25 degrees C, but its growth on acetate was severely inhibited at 30 degrees C. These results suggest that, although their abundance would be low in tropical seas not contaminated with aromatics, the Cycloclasticus strains could be major degraders of petroleum aromatics spilled in tropical seas. The 16S rRNA gene of the Cycloclasticus strains has been identified from Indonesian seawater, and the gene fragments showed 96.7-96.8% similarities to that of Cycloclasticus A5. Introducing Cycloclasticus A5 may be an ecologically advantageous bioremediation strategy for petroleum-aromatic-contaminated tropical seas because strain A5 would disappear at 30 degrees C after complete consumption of the aromatics. Altererythrobacter and Rhodovulum-related isolates grew well on pyruvate in 10% strength marine broth at 30 degrees C whereas Cycloclasticus A5 did not grow well on acetate in the broth at 30 degrees C. These growth results, along