WorldWideScience

Sample records for contaminant impact analysis

  1. Assessing potential impacts associated with contamination events in water distribution systems : a sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Taxon, T. N. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); (EPA)

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of the nature of the adverse effects that could be associated with contamination events in water distribution systems is necessary for carrying out vulnerability analyses and designing contamination warning systems. This study examines the adverse effects of contamination events using models for 12 actual water systems that serve populations ranging from about 104 to over 106 persons. The measure of adverse effects that we use is the number of people who are exposed to a contaminant above some dose level due to ingestion of contaminated tap water. For this study the number of such people defines the impact associated with an event. We consider a wide range of dose levels in order to accommodate a wide range of potential contaminants. For a particular contaminant, dose level can be related to a health effects level. For example, a dose level could correspond to the median lethal dose, i.e., the dose that would be fatal to 50% of the exposed population. Highly toxic contaminants may be associated with a particular response at a very low dose level, whereas contaminants with low toxicity may only be associated with the same response at a much higher dose level. This report focuses on the sensitivity of impacts to five factors that either define the nature of a contamination event or involve assumptions that are used in assessing exposure to the contaminant: (1) duration of contaminant injection, (2) time of contaminant injection, (3) quantity or mass of contaminant injected, (4) population distribution in the water distribution system, and (5) the ingestion pattern of the potentially exposed population. For each of these factors, the sensitivities of impacts to injection location and contaminant toxicity are also examined. For all the factors considered, sensitivity tends to increase with dose level (i.e., decreasing toxicity) of the contaminant, with considerable inter-network variability. With the exception of the population distribution (factor 4

  2. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  3. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  4. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, A.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d −1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d −1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d −1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ► A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ► Results of assessment of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ► In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ► Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

  5. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  6. Impact of inorganic contaminants on microalgae productivity and bioremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eric M; Hess, Derek; McNeil, Brian T; Guy, Tessa; Quinn, Jason C

    2017-05-01

    As underdeveloped nations continue to industrialize and world population continues to increase, the need for energy, natural resources, and goods will lead to ever increasing inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals, in various waste streams that can have damaging effects on plant life, wildlife, and human health. This work is focused on the evaluation of the potential of Nannochloropsis salina to be integrated with contaminated water sources for the concurrent production of a biofuel feedstock while providing an environmental service through bioremediation. Individual contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn) at various concentrations ranging from a low concentration (1X) to higher concentrations (10X, and 40X) found in contaminated systems (mine tailings, wastewater treatment plants, produced water) were introduced into growth media. Biological growth experimentation was performed in triplicate at the various contaminant concentrations and at 3 different light intensities. Results show that baseline concentrations of each contaminant slightly decreased biomass growth to between 89% and 99% of the control with the exception of Ni which dramatically reduced growth. Increased contaminant concentrations resulted in progressively lower growth rates for all contaminants tested. Lipid analysis shows most baseline contaminant concentrations slightly decrease or have minimal effects on lipid content at all light levels. Trace contaminant analysis on the biomass showed Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn were sorbed by the microalgae with minimal contaminants remaining in the growth media illustrating the effectiveness of microalgae to bioremediate these contaminants when levels are sufficiently low to not detrimentally impact productivity. The microalgae biomass was less efficient at sorption of As, Cr, Ni, and Se. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Giant Mine, Northern Canada: An Assessment of Impacts Based on Lake Water and Lake Sediment Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J. M.; Korosi, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Giant Mine, which operated between 1948 and 2004 and located near the City of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), has left a legacy of arsenic, antimony, and mercury contamination extending to the present day. Over 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust was released from roaster stack emissions during its first 10 years of operations, leading to a significant contamination of the surrounding landscape. Here we present a summary of impacts by the recent contamination from Giant Mine on the surrounding region. A survey we conducted of 25 lakes of the region in 2010 revealed that most lake water within a 15 km radius of the roaster stack had arsenic concentrations in water > 10 mg/L, the standard for drinking water, with concentrations declining exponentially with increasing distance from the roaster stack. Sediment cores from lakes were collected near the Giant Mine roaster stack and radiometrically dated by 137Cs and excess 210Pb. Arsenic concentrations in these sediments increased by 1700% during the 1950s and 60s, consistent with the history of arsenic releases from roaster emissions. Correspondingly, pelagic diatoms and cladocerans were extirpated from one lake during this period, based on microfossil analysis of lake sediment deposits. Sediment core analysis further showed that this lake ecosystem has not recovered, even ten years after closure of the mine. Likely causes for the lack of recent recovery are explored with the use of sediment toxicity bioassays, using a novel paleo-ecotoxicological approach of using toxicity assessments of radiometrically dated lake sediment horizons.

  8. Nuclear Wastes in the Arctic: An Analysis of Arctic and Other Regional Impacts from Soviet Nuclear Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ..., and from radioactive releases from both past and future nuclear activities in the region. The report presents what is known and unknown about this waste and contamination and how it may affect public health...

  9. Contaminant analysis automation, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Ramos, O. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    To meet the environmental restoration and waste minimization goals of government and industry, several government laboratories, universities, and private companies have formed the Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) team. The goal of this consortium is to design and fabricate robotics systems that standardize and automate the hardware and software of the most common environmental chemical methods. In essence, the CAA team takes conventional, regulatory- approved (EPA Methods) chemical analysis processes and automates them. The automation consists of standard laboratory modules (SLMs) that perform the work in a much more efficient, accurate, and cost- effective manner

  10. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  11. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem

  12. Secondary environmental impacts of remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongju; Thompson, Jay M; Lin, Diana; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ismail, Niveen S; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-03-05

    This study evaluates secondary environmental impacts of various remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants using life cycle assessment (LCA). Three alternatives including two conventional methods, dredge-and-fill and capping, and an innovative sediment treatment technique, in-situ activated carbon (AC) amendment, are compared for secondary environmental impacts by a case study for a site at Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA. The LCA results show that capping generates substantially smaller impacts than dredge-and-fill and in-situ amendment using coal-based virgin AC. The secondary impacts from in-situ AC amendment can be reduced effectively by using recycled or wood-based virgin AC as production of these materials causes much smaller impacts than coal-based virgin AC. The secondary environmental impacts are highly sensitive to the dredged amount and the distance to a disposal site for dredging, the capping thickness and the distance to the cap materials for capping, and the AC dose for in-situ AC amendment. Based on the analysis, this study identifies strategies to minimize secondary impacts caused by different remediation activities: optimize the dredged amount, the capping thickness, or the AC dose by extensive site assessments, obtain source materials from local sites, and use recycled or bio-based AC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  14. Analysis and characterization of contamination in EUV reticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Dittmar, Kornelia; Fahr, Torsten; Wallow, Tom; La Fontaine, Bruno; Wood, Obert; Holfeld, Christian; Bubke, Karsten; Peters, Jan-Hendrik

    2010-04-01

    A host of complementary imaging techniques (Scanning Electron Microscopy), surface analytical technique (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, AES), chemical analytical and speciation techniques (Grazing Incidence Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, GIR-FTIR; and Raman spectroscopy) have been assessed for their sensitivity and effectiveness in analyzing contamination on three EUV reticles that were contaminated to varying degrees. The first reticle was contaminated as a result of its exposure experience on the SEMATECH EUV Micro Exposure Tool (MET) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, where it was exposed to up to 80 hours of EUV radiation. The second reticle was a full-field reticle, specifically designed to monitor molecular contamination, and exposed to greater than 1600J/cm2 of EUV radiation on the ASML Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) in Albany Nanotech in New York. The third reticle was intentionally contaminated with hydrocarbons in the Microscope for Mask Imaging and Contamination Studies (MIMICS) tool at the College of Nanoscale Sciences of State University of New York at Albany. The EUV reflectivities of some of these reticles were measured on the Advanced Light Source EUV Reflectomer at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories and PTB Bessy in Berlin, respectively. Analysis and characterization of thin film contaminants on the two EUV reticles exposed to varying degrees of EUV radiation in both MET and ADT confirm that the two most common contamination types are carbonization and surface oxidation, mostly on the exposed areas of the reticle, and with the MET being significantly more susceptible to carbon contamination than the ADT. While AES in both surface scanning and sputter mode is sensitive and efficient in analyzing thin contaminant films (of a few nanometers), GIRFTIR is sensitive to thick films (of order of a 100 nm or more on non-infra-red reflecting substrates), Raman spectroscopy is not compatible with analyzing such contaminants because of

  15. Impact of contaminants on aquatic systems and inundated sites with respect to flood events - In vitro biotests, chemical target analysis and fractionation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Wölz, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Scope of the present study is the development and application of aquatic in vitro bioassays and methods of effect-directed analysis (EDA). It aims at investigating contamination of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and pollution of inundated sites and riparian aquifer, respectively. In the first part of this study, SPM was sampled during flood events and toxicological activities were determined. The second part of the study dealt with possible conflict of interests between flood management (...

  16. Potential Well Water Contaminants and Their Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first step to protect your health and the health of your family is learning about what may pollute your source of drinking water. Potential contamination may occur naturally, or as a result of human activity.

  17. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  18. Assessment of the radiological impact of contaminated discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeck, L; Zeevaert, T

    1996-09-18

    A biosphere model has been used to calculate the release of radionuclides from contaminated soils and their dose impact on critical individuals in the environment. Normal evolution and accidental scenarios are considered. The objective of the model is to provide an indication of the radiological risk rather than to predict its future impact.

  19. Modelling climate change impacts on mycotoxin contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Liu, C.; Battilani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Projected climate change effects will influence primary agricultural systems and thus food security, directly via impacts on yields, and indirectly via impacts on its safety, with mycotoxins considered as crucial hazards. Mycotoxins are produced by a wide variety of fungal species, each having their

  20. Impact of Laboratory Cross-Contamination on Molecular Epidemiology Studies of Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Miguel; de Viedma, Darío García; Alonso, María; Andrés, Sandra; Bouza, Emilio; Cabezas, Teresa; Cabeza, Isabel; Reyes, Armando; Sánchez-Yebra, Waldo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Sánchez, M. Isabel; Rogado, M. Cruz; Fernández, Rosa; Peñafiel, Teresa; Martínez, Juan; Barroso, Pilar; Lucerna, M. Ángeles; Diez, L. Felipe; Gutiérrez, Carmelo

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory cross-contamination by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to be responsible for the misdiagnosis of tuberculosis, but its impact on other contexts has not been analyzed. We present the findings of a molecular epidemiology analysis in which the recent transmission events identified by a genotyping reference center were overestimated as a result of unnoticed laboratory cross-contamination in the original diagnostic laboratories. PMID:16891518

  1. Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: an assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vandana; Bahman, Sanjivan; Thakur, Lalit K; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Dua, Ajit; Ganguly, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants. Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor's milk) were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed. The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested. Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.

  2. Impact of long-term diesel contamination on soil microbial community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, Nora; Maphosa, Farai; Morillo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity at a diesel-contaminated railway site were investigated by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments to understand the interrelationships among microbial community composition, pollution level, and soil geochemical and physical...... properties. To this end, 26 soil samples from four matrix types with various geochemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations were investigated. The presence of diesel contamination significantly impacted microbial community composition and diversity, regardless of the soil matrix type. Clean...... observed in contaminated samples. Redundancy analysis indicated that increased relative abundances of the phyla Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Euryarchaeota correlated with the presence of contamination. Shifts in the chemical composition of diesel constituents across the site and the abundance of specific...

  3. Two methodologies for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghayan, Hamid; Yang, Jun; Bordatchev, Evgueni

    2012-01-01

    The performance, efficiency and lifetime of modern combustion engines significantly depend on the quality of the engine lubricants. However, contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, coolant and wear particles, reduce the life of engine mechanical components and lubricant quality. Therefore, direct and indirect measurements of engine lubricant properties, such as physical-mechanical, electro-magnetic, chemical and optical properties, are intensively utilized in engine condition monitoring systems and sensors developed within the last decade. Such sensors for the measurement of engine lubricant properties can be used to detect a functional limit of the in-use lubricant, increase drain interval and reduce the environmental impact. This paper proposes two new methodologies for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The methodologies are based on optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium (e.g. engine lubricant). The novelty of the proposed methodologies is in the introduction of an object with a known periodic shape behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant–object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodic structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. In the object shape-based optical analysis, several parameters of an acquired optical image, such as the gray scale intensity of lubricant and object, shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative intensity and width non-uniformity coefficient are newly proposed. Variations in the contaminant concentration and use of different contaminants lead to the changes of these parameters measured on-line. In the statistical optical analysis methodology, statistical auto- and cross-characteristics (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, auto- and cross-spectrums, transfer function

  4. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site-generic...... assessments poorly reflect the fate of frequent soil contaminants such as chloroethenes as they exclude the groundwater compartment and assume that the main part escapes to the atmosphere. Another important limitation of the generic impact assessment models is that they do not include the formation......The environmental impacts from remediation can be divided into primary and secondary impacts. Primary impacts cover the local impacts associated with the on-site contamination, whereas the secondary impacts are impacts on the local, regional and global scale generated by the remediation activities...

  5. Nondestructive analysis of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.E.; Taylor, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil is currently being removed from a covered liquid waste disposal trench near the Pu Processing facility on the Hanford Project. This soil with the plutonium is being mined using remote techniques and equipment. The mined soil is being packaged for placement into retrievable storage, pending possible recovery. To meet the requirements of criticality safety and materials accountability, a nondestructive analysis program has been developed to determine the quantity of plutonium in each packing-storage container. This paper describes the total measurement program: equipment systems, calibration techniques, matrix assumption, instrument control program and a review of laboratory operating experience

  6. An analysis of the impact of native oxide, surface contamination and material density on total electron yield in the absence of surface charging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Susumu, E-mail: susumu.iida@toshiba.co.jp [EUVL Infrastructure Development Center, Inc., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-8569 (Japan); Ohya, Kaoru [Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minamijyousanjima-cho,Tokushima, 770-8506 (Japan); Hirano, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Hidehiro [EUVL Infrastructure Development Center, Inc., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-8569 (Japan)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Total electron yields were assessed in the absence of any surface charging effect. • Experimental and simulation results showed a low native oxide energy barrier. • The yield enhancement effect of a native oxide layer was confirmed. • The yield enhancement effect of a thin surface contamination layer was confirmed. • Deviations in the material density from the theoretical values were evaluated. - Abstract: The effects of the presence of a native oxide film or surface contamination as well as variations in material density on the total electron yield (TEY) of Ru and B{sub 4}C were assessed in the absence of any surface charging effect. The experimental results were analyzed using semi-empirical Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrated that a native oxide film increased the TEY, and that this effect varied with film thickness. These phenomena were explained based on the effect of the backscattered electrons (BSEs) at the interface between Ru and RuO{sub 2}, as well as the lower potential barrier of RuO{sub 2}. Deviations in the material density from the theoretical values were attributed to the film deposition procedure based on fitting simulated TEY curves to experimental results. In the case of B{sub 4}C, the TEY was enhanced by the presence of a 0.8-nm-thick surface contamination film consisting of oxygenated hydrocarbons. The effect of the low potential barrier of the contamination film was found to be significant, as the density of the B{sub 4}C was much lower than that of the Ru. Comparing the simulation parameters generated in the present work with Joy’s database, it was found that the model and the input parameters used in the simulations were sufficiently accurate.

  7. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  8. Analysis of bacterial strains from contaminated and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... A total 18 strains were collected from non-contaminated and contaminated environments, and were purified. All purified strains were characterized for Gram reaction and biochemical analysis. Screening for bioplastic production was done by Sudan black staining. Strains isolated from non-contaminated.

  9. Contamination Impact of Station Brush Fire on Cleanroom Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Phil; Blakkolb, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Brush and forest fires, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic in origin, in proximity to space flight hardware processing facilities raise concerns about the threat of contamination resulting from airborne particulate and molecular components of smoke. Perceptions of the severity of the threat are possibly heightened by the high sensitivity of the human sense of smell to some components present in the smoke of burning vegetation.On August 26th, 2009, a brushfire broke out north of Pasadena, California, two miles from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Station Fire destroyed over 160,000 acres, coming within a few hundred yards of JPL. Smoke concentrations on Lab were very heavy over several days. All Lab operations were halted, and measures were taken to protect personnel, critical hardware, and facilities. Evaluation of real-time cleanroom monitoring data, visualinspection of facilities, filter systems, and analysis of surface cleanliness samples revealed facility environments andhardware were minimally effected.Outside air quality easily exceeded Class Ten Million. Prefilters captured most large ash and soot; multi-stage filtration greatly minimized the impact on the HEPA/ULPA filters. Air quality in HEPA filtered spacecraft assembly cleanrooms remained within Class 10,000 specification throughout. Surface cleanliness was inimally affected, as large particles were effectively removed from the airstream, and sub-micron particles have extremely long settling rates. Approximate particulate fallout within facilities was 0.00011% area coverage/day compared to 0.00038% area coverage/day during normal operations. Deposition of condensable airborne components, as measured in real time, peaked at approximately1.0 ng/cm2/day compared to 0.05 ng/cm2/day nominal.

  10. Stochastic Management of Non-Point Source Contamination: Joint Impact of Aquifer Heterogeneity and Well Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, C. V.; Harter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural activities are recognized as the preeminent origin of non-point source (NPS) contamination of water bodies through the leakage of nitrate, salt and agrochemicals. A large fraction of world agricultural activities and therefore NPS contamination occurs over unconsolidated alluvial deposit basins offering soil composition and topography favorable to productive farming. These basins represent also important groundwater reservoirs. The over-exploitation of aquifers coupled with groundwater pollution by agriculture-related NPS contaminant has led to a rapid deterioration of the quality of these groundwater basins. The management of groundwater contamination from NPS is challenged by the inherent complexity of aquifers systems. Contaminant transport dynamics are highly uncertain due to the heterogeneity of hydraulic parameters controlling groundwater flow. Well characteristics are also key uncertain elements affecting pollutant transport and NPS management but quantifying uncertainty in NPS management under these conditions is not well documented. Our work focuses on better understanding the joint impact of aquifer heterogeneity and pumping well characteristics (extraction rate and depth) on (1) the transport of contaminants from NPS and (2) the spatio-temporal extension of the capture zone. To do so, we generate a series of geostatistically equivalent 3D heterogeneous aquifers and simulate the flow and non-reactive solute transport from NPS to extraction wells within a stochastic framework. The propagation of the uncertainty on the hydraulic conductivity field is systematically analyzed. A sensitivity analysis of the impact of extraction well characteristics (pumping rate and screen depth) is also conducted. Results highlight the significant role that heterogeneity and well characteristics plays on management metrics. We finally show that, in case of NPS contamination, the joint impact of regional longitudinal and transverse vertical hydraulic gradients and

  11. Sedimentological analysis of a contaminated groundwater aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of sedimentological reservoir analysis techniques adapted from standard oilfield practice can improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of the evaluation of groundwater aquifers and the design of restoration programs. An evaluation/restoration program at a site in California drilled over 200 test wells in about 750 ac. All wells were logged lithologically and with wireline. The shallow aquifer is a complex braided alluvial floodplain deposit of Late Quaternary age. Analysis demonstrates depositional and erosional responses to periodic hinterland uplifts and to changing climatic conditions. Channel, overbank, lacustrine, and minor deltaic deposits can be recognized. The aquifer architecture has been interpreted to explain the movement of fuel and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents in the sediments and water. Routine engineering geology techniques and hydrologic tests were used to evaluate contamination and to design experimental restoration processes. As demonstrated here, sedimentological techniques show promise in reducing the costs and time required for this type of study. The abundant detailed data will be used in an attempt to develop a microcomputer-based expert system for rapid preliminary analyses of similar aquifers or reservoirs

  12. Collaborative, Nondestructive Analysis of Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eppich, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parsons-Davis, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sharp, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Turin, H. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaMont, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zidi, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Belamri, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bounatiro, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Benbouzid, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fellouh, A. S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Idir, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Larbah, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moulay, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Noureddine, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rahal, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-12-14

    This report summarizes a joint nondestructive analysis exercise that LLNL, LANL, and COMENA discussed through a collaborative meeting in July 2017. This work was performed as one part of a collaboration with Algeria under Action Sheet 7: “Technical Cooperation and Assistance in Nuclear Forensics”. The primary intent of this exercise was for US and Algerian participants to jointly share results of nondestructive analyses (NDA) of a contaminated soil sample provided by the Algerians and to discuss key observations and analytical approaches. While the two samples were analyzed blind at LLNL and LANL, the soil samples were revealed after the exercise to have a common origin, and to have originated as an IAEA soil sample (IAEA-326, Bojanowski et al., 2001) provided to COMENA as part of a previous exercise. Comparative analysis revealed common findings between the laboratories, and also emphasized the need for standardized operating procedures to improve inter-comparability and confidence in conclusions. Recommended handling practices in the presence of sample heterogeneities were also discussed. This exercise provided an opportunity to demonstrate nuclear forensics analytical capabilities at COMENA, LANL, and LLNL, and identified areas that could benefit from future technical exchanges. Plans were made for a follow-on joint exercise in 2018, involving destructive analyses of the CUP-2 uranium ore concentrate standard.

  13. The impact of steam generator replacement on PWR primary system contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacquait, F.; Marteau, H.; Guinard, L.; Ranchoux, G.; Taunier, S.; Wintergerst, M.; Bretelle, J.L.; Rocher, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) on PWR primary circuit contamination. It presents a comparison of the activities deposited inside the primary system and released during refuelling outages after SGR with three different SG tube alloys (600, 690 and 800) and different SG tube manufacturing processes. A SGR has a great impact on the primary system contamination. After SGR, whatever the SG tube material is, the typical variations are the following: The 58 Co contamination increases for 1 to 3 cycles, and then decreases to very low levels in some cases, mainly depending on the manufacturing process of the replacement SG tubes; The 60 Co Co contamination tends to decrease on the primary coolant pipes and increases by a lower rate on the new SG tubes. This analysis highlights the importance on contamination levels after SGR of both the corrosion product deposits on the primary surfaces before SGR and the surface finish of the SG tubes related to their manufacturing process. (author)

  14. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shay, T.A.; Hoddinott, K.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  15. Fluorocarbon Contamination from the Drill on the Mars Science Laboratory: Potential Science Impact on Detecting Martian Organics by Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrode, J. L.; McAdam, A.; Franz, H.; Freissinet, C.; Bower, H.; Floyd, M.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P.; Feldman, J.; Hurowitz, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or trade name: Teflon by Dupont Co.) has been detected in rocks drilled during terrestrial testing of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) drilling hardware. The PTFE in sediments is a wear product of the seals used in the Drill Bit Assemblies (DBAs). It is expected that the drill assembly on the MSL flight model will also shed Teflon particles into drilled samples. One of the primary goals of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL is to test for the presence of martian organics in samples. Complications introduced by the potential presence of PTFE in drilled samples to the SAM evolved gas analysis (EGA or pyrolysisquadrupole mass spectrometry, pyr-QMS) and pyrolysis- gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Pyr- GCMS) experiments was investigated.

  16. Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L; Wong, M H [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-01-15

    This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings.

  17. Lifting the veil: Impact of contaminants on coastal phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on the planet. Yet, they also suffer from a high contaminant load, resulting in a ‘grey veil’ of contaminants. Exposure of microalgal communities to these contaminants potentially results in shifts in microalgal community composition. As

  18. Contamination problems from glass beaker inner surface in low level Po-210 analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Hölgye, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 2 (2010), s. 493-495 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Po-210 * Low-level analysis * Contamination Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  19. Evaluation of the secondary radiation impact on personnel during the dismantling of contaminated nuclear equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankunas Gediminas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a numerical analysis of the secondary radiation contribution to the total radiation affecting the operational personnel during the dismantling activities of the contaminated equipment at a nuclear power plant. This study considers a widely applicable Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX and real Ignalina nuclear power plant records. A simplified albedo method is investigated in order to analyze the selected geometrical design cases. Additionally, the impact of the secondary radiation on the personnel dose was analyzed. The numerical MCNPX simulation allowed ascertaining the optimal distance between the source and the wall for the working personnel in closed rooms with contaminated equipment. The developed dose rate maps of the secondary radiation showed cross-sectional distribution of the dose rate inside the enclosed area.

  20. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  1. An assessment of the long-term impact of chemically toxic contaminants from the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Garisto, N.C.; Barnard, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential for impact on man of chemically toxic contaminants associated with the Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The elements of concern are determined through a series of screening criteria such as elemental abundances and solubilities. A systems variability analysis approach is then used to predict the possible concentrations of these elements that may arise in the biosphere. These concentrations are compared with environmental guidelines such as permissible levels in drinking water. Conclusions are made regarding the potential for the chemically toxic contaminants to have an impact on man. 54 refs

  2. Proteomic analysis of Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) exposed to metal contamination in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Emma L.; Taylor, Daisy A.; Nair, Sham V.; Birch, Gavin; Hose, Grant C.; Raftos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used proteomics to assess the impacts of metal contamination in the field on Sydney Rock oysters. Oysters were transplanted into Lake Macquarie, NSW, for two weeks in both 2009 and 2010. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified changes in protein expression profiles of oyster haemolymph between control and metal contaminated sites. There were unique protein expression profiles for each field trial. Principal components analysis attributed these differences in oyster proteomes to the different combinations and concentrations of metals and other environmental variables present during the three field trials. Identification of differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins associated with cytoskeletal activity and stress responses were the most commonly affected biological functions in the Sydney Rock oyster. Overall, the data show that proteomics combined with multivariate analysis has the potential to link the effects of contaminants with biological consequences. - Highlights: ► Sydney Rock oyster haemolymph was analysed by proteomics after metal exposure in 3 field trials. ► 2-DE analysis was used to compare protein profiles between control and contaminated sites. ► Different protein expression profiles were revealed per field trial. ► Principal components analysis attributed profiles to different suites of metals and environmental variables per trial. ► The study highlights the need to do multiple field trials and to combine proteomic and enviro. data. - This study used proteomics to analyse impacts of metal contamination on Sydney Rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) haemolymph in multiple field trials.

  3. Impact of heavy metal contamination on oxidative stress of Eisenia andrei and bacterial community structure in Tunisian mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Iteb; Hattab, Sabrine; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohamed; Navarro, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this work were firstly to study the effect of heavy metal-polluted soils from Tunisian mine on earthworm biochemical biomarkers and on bacterial communities and therefore to analyze the interaction between earth worms and bacterial communities in these contaminated soils. For this purpose, we had introduced earthworm Eisenia andrei in six soils: one from mine spoils and five from agricultural soils, establishing a gradient of contamination. The response of worms to the presence of heavy metal was analyzed at the biochemical and transcriptional levels. In a second time, the impact of worm on bacterial community structure was investigated using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting. An impact of heavy metal-contaminated soils on the oxidative status of E. andrei was observed, but this effect was dependent of the level of heavy metal contamination. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the introduction of earthworms E. andrei has an impact on bacterial community; however, the major change was observed in the less contaminated site. Furthermore, a significant correlation between earthworm oxidative status biomarkers and bacterial community structure was observed, mainly in the mine spoils. Therefore, we contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between epigenic earthworms and bacterial communities in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  4. Methods for the analysis and remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, M.; Bemporad, E.; Berardi, S.; Marino, A.; Paglietti, F.

    2008-01-01

    In Italy, in recent years, the number of contaminated sites has multiplied disproportionately. In essence, contamination is caused by accidental spills or intentional discharge of pollutants into the soils or waters from industrial activities, or non-controlled deposits of urban and/or industrial waste, mostly part toxic and harmful. Contaminated sites clearly pose risks to human health and the environment; hence the need to remediate these sites. The remediation of soil and water and the restoration of degraded areas are complex operations requiring specific technical and scientific know-how, including knowledge of the methodologies and tools required to tackle problems arising during the different phases of the remediation process. These include, in particular: - health and environmental risk assessment procedures for the quantification of risks to human health (general population and workers) and the environment from a contaminated site; - remote sensing and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which are a fundamentally important IT support for each phase of planning and management of remediation interventions; - criteria for the management of sites contaminated by asbestos, a highly carcinogenic and therefore hazardous substance that was widely used in the past due to its particular mechanical and thermal characteristics; - analysis of the issues relating to waste management in contaminated sites; - relationship between safety procedures for workers and the general population. Identification of the best available techniques for an efficient, integrated management of contaminated sites, which will also take into account the health protection of workers and of the general population living near such sites

  5. Contamination control - the analysis of things as they should be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.B.

    Contamination can be controlled in chemical analyses by the use of suitable containers, cleanliness, appropriate apparatus design, isolation of the analysis process from air, and in-situ analysis. Examples based on analyses of organic reactor coolant, metals, and underground natural waters are given. (LL)

  6. Insulator Contamination Forecasting Based on Fractal Analysis of Leakage Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Luo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an artificial pollution test is carried out to study the leakage current of porcelain insulators. Fractal theory is adopted to extract the characteristics hidden in leakage current waveforms. Fractal dimensions of the leakage current for the security, forecast and danger zones are analyzed under four types of degrees of contamination. The mean value and the standard deviation of the fractal dimension in the forecast zone are calculated to characterize the differences. The analysis reveals large differences in the fractal dimension of leakage current under different contamination discharge stages and degrees. The experimental and calculation results suggest that the fractal dimension of a leakage current waveform can be used as a new indicator of the discharge process and contamination degree of insulators. The results provide new methods and valid indicators for forecasting contamination flashovers.

  7. Impacts of emerging contaminants on surrounding aquatic environment from a youth festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der; Tu, Bo-Wen; Liang, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-20

    The youth festival as we refer to Spring Scream, a large-scale pop music festival, is notorious for the problems of drug abuse and addiction. The origin, temporal magnitudes, potential risks and mass inputs of emerging contaminants (ECs) were investigated. Thirty targeted ECs were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Sampling strategy was designed to characterize EC behavior in different stages (before and after the youth festival), based on multivariate data analysis to explore the contributions of contaminants from normal condition to the youth festival. Wastewater influents and effluents were collected during the youth festival (approximately 600 000 pop music fans and youth participated). Surrounding river waters are also sampled to illustrate the touristic impacts during peak season and off-season. Seasonal variations were observed, with the highest concentrations in April (Spring Scream) and the lowest in October (off-season). Acetaminophen, diclofenac, codeine, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin-H2O, and gemfibrozil have significant pollution risk quotients (RQs > 1), indicating ecotoxicological concerns. Principal component analysis (PCA) and weekly patterns provide a perspective in assessing the touristic impacts and address the dramatic changes in visitor population and drug consumption. The highest mass loads discharged into the aquatic ecosystem corresponded to illicit drugs/controlled substances such as ketamine and MDMA, indicating the high consumption of ecstasy during Spring Scream.

  8. Analysis of contaminants on electronic components by reflectance FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.W.

    1982-09-01

    The analysis of electronic component contaminants by infrared spectroscopy is often a difficult process. Most of the contaminants are very small, which necessitates the use of microsampling techniques. Beam condensers will provide the required sensitivity but most require that the sample be removed from the substrate before analysis. Since it can be difficult and time consuming, it is usually an undesirable approach. Micro ATR work can also be exasperating, due to the difficulty of positioning the sample at the correct place under the ATR plate in order to record a spectrum. This paper describes a modified reflection beam condensor which has been adapted to a Nicolet 7199 FTIR. The sample beam is directed onto the sample surface and reflected from the substrate back to the detector. A micropositioning XYZ stage and a close-focusing telescope are used to position the contaminant directly under the infrared beam. It is possible to analyze contaminants on 1 mm wide leads surrounded by an epoxy matrix using this device. Typical spectra of contaminants found on small circuit boards are included

  9. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2016-01-01

    data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown...

  10. MAVEN Contamination Venting and Outgassing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Elaine M.; Hughes, David W.; Secunda, Mark S.; Chen, Philip T.; Morrissey, James R.; Riegle, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) is the first mission to focus its study on the Mars upper atmosphere. MAVEN will study the evolution of the Mars atmosphere and climate, by examining the conduit through which the atmosphere has to pass as it is lost to the upper atmosphere. An analysis was performed for the MAVEN mission to address two distinct concerns. The first goal of the analysis was to perform an outgassing study to determine where species outgassed from spacecraft materials would redistribute to and how much of the released material might accumulate on sensitive surfaces. The second portion of the analysis serves to predict what effect, if any, Mars atmospheric gases trapped within the spacecraft could have on instrument measurements when re-released through vents. The re-release of atmospheric gases is of interest to this mission because vented gases from a higher pressure spacecraft interior could bias instrument measurements of the Mars atmosphere depending on the flow rates and directions.

  11. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  12. Do contaminants originating from state-of-the-art treated wastewater impact the ecological quality of surface waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0-100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this

  13. Do Contaminants Originating from State-of-the-Art Treated Wastewater Impact the Ecological Quality of Surface Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0–100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this

  14. Do contaminants originating from state-of-the-art treated wastewater impact the ecological quality of surface waters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stalter

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0-100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in

  15. Decontamination analysis of a radiologically contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a post-exercise analysis of decontamination options for the NUWAX-83 exercise site. Held in May 1983, the purpose of NUWAX-83 was to evaluate the ability of federal, state and local officials to respond to an accident involving nuclear weapons. A computer program, called DECON, was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and used to conduct the decontamination analysis in November 1983. DECON was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are demonstrated in this paper contribute to its potential usefulness as a planning tool for site restoration. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: 1) using a Quick-Vac option, under which exterior surfaces are vacuumed before it rains; 2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; 3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; 4) requiring that specific methods be used on selected surfaces; 5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and 6) varying clean-up standards according to expected human exposure to the surface

  16. Decontamination analysis of a radiologically contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of decontamination options at the NUWAZX-83 exercise site. Held in May 1983, the purpose of the exercise was to evaluate the ability of federal, state and local officials to respond to a radiological accident involving nuclear weapons. A computer program developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory was used to conduct the decontamination analysis. The program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are demonstrated in this paper contribute to its potential usefulness as a planning tool for site restoration. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) using a Quick-Vac option, under which exterior surfaces are vacuumed before it rains; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring that specific methods be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying clean-up standards according to expected human exposure to the surface

  17. Mobile Monitoring System for Nuclear Contamination Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Sheinfeld, M.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, it is essential to have extensive knowledge concerning the nature of the radioactive plume expansion, for further analysis. For this purpose a mobile monitoring system may provide important data about the plume characteristics. An advanced Mobile Monitoring System is under development at the Nuclear Research Center-Negev. The system is composed of a network of mobile stations, typically installed onboard vehicles, which transmit radiation measurements along with position information to a central station. The mobile network's communications infrastructure is based on Motorola Mobile Logic Unit devices, which are state-of-the-art reliable modems with an integrated Global Positioning System module. The radiation measurements received by the central station are transferred to a risk assessment program, which evaluates the expected hazards to the populated areas located in the estimated plume's expansion direction

  18. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Walters, David; Wanty, Richard B.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs.

  19. Contaminants reduce the richness and evenness of marine communities: A review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Emma L.; Roberts, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiversity of marine ecosystems is integral to their stability and function and is threatened by anthropogenic processes. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis of 216 studies to understand the effects of common contaminants upon diversity in various marine communities. The most common diversity measures were species richness, the Shannon-Wiener index (H') and Pielou evenness (J). Largest effect sizes were observed for species richness, which tended to be the most sensitive index. Pollution was associated with marine communities containing fewer species or taxa than their pristine counterparts. Marine habitats did not vary in their susceptibility to contamination, rather a ∼40% reduction in richness occurred across all habitats. No class of contaminant was associated with significantly greater impacts on diversity than any other. Survey studies identified larger effects than laboratory or field experiments. Anthropogenic contamination is strongly associated with reductions in the species richness and evenness of marine habitats. - Contamination substantially reduces the biodiversity of marine communities in all major habitat types and across all major contaminant classes.

  20. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  1. Comparative metagenomics reveals impact of contaminants on groundwater microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Hemme

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand patterns of geochemical cycling in pristine versus contaminated groundwater ecosystems, pristine shallow groundwater (FW301 and contaminated groundwater (FW106 samples from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC were sequenced and compared to each other to determine phylogenetic and metabolic difference between the communities. Proteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Pseudomonas are the most abundant lineages in the pristine community, though a significant proportion (>55% of the community is composed of poorly characterized low abundance (individually <1% lineages. The phylogenetic diversity of the pristine community contributed to a broader diversity of metabolic networks than the contaminated community. In addition, the pristine community encodes redundant and mostly complete geochemical cycles distributed over multiple lineages and appears capable of a wide range of metabolic activities. In contrast, many geochemical cycles in the contaminated community appear truncated or minimized due to decreased biodiversity and dominance by Rhodanobacter populations capable of surviving the combination of stresses at the site. These results indicate that the pristine site contains more robust and encodes more functional redundancy than the stressed community, which contributes to more efficient nutrient cycling and adaptability than the stressed community.

  2. Importance of exposure model in estimating impacts when a water distribution system is contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Environmental Science Division; USEPA

    2008-01-01

    The quantity of a contaminant ingested by individuals using tap water drawn from a water distribution system during a contamination event depends on the concentration of the contaminant in the water and the volume of water ingested. If the concentration varies with time, the actual time of exposure affects the quantity ingested. The influence of the timing of exposure and of individual variability in the volume of water ingested on estimated impacts for a contamination event has received limited attention. We examine the significance of ingestion timing and variability in the volume of water ingested by using a number of models for ingestion timing and volume. Contaminant concentrations were obtained from simulations of an actual distribution system for cases involving contaminant injections lasting from 1 to 24 h. We find that assumptions about exposure can significantly influence estimated impacts, especially when injection durations are short and impact thresholds are high. The influence of ingestion timing and volume should be considered when assessing impacts for contamination events

  3. Alternatives Generation Analysis Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Major pieces of Characterization sampling equipment are currently stored outdoors. This includes the Long Length Contaminated Equipment receiver trailer and transportation trailer. A decision is required to determine the preferred alternative for facilities to store and maintain this equipment. The Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS) consists of many tools, mechanisms, and controllers currently stored in various locations. Much of this equipment should be protected from the elements while being stored. Some of the LLCERS equipment should be protected with some kind of roof cover. This decision analysis is to determine the best alternative for weather protection for the large equipment requiring a cover. Additional details are included in Sections 2.0 and 5.0. Key assumptions used in this analysis are detailed in Section 3.2

  4. Molecular activation analysis for organo-halogen contaminants in yogurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of total halogen (TX), extractable organo-halogen (EOX), extractable persistent organo-halogen (EPOX), organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 18 different yogurt specimens of 14 brands from Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shijiazhuang were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), molecular activation analysis (MAA) and GC-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results indicated that the halogen in yogurt mainly existed as inorganic species and non-extractable organo-halogen compounds. About 1/3 to 1/4 of EOX was EPOX. Further, EOCl and EPOCl were the main organo-halogen species in yogurt. The average concentration of the unknown organo-chlorine was 96% of the EPOCl. HCHs and DDTs were still the main contaminants of OCPs in the yogurt of interest. Also, PCB202, PCB103 and PCB208 were the main contaminants of PCBs. (authors)

  5. Exploring available options in characterising the health impact of industrially contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Roberto; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; Martuzzi, Marco; Iavarone, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Industrially contaminated sites (ICS) are of high concern from an environmental public health perspective, since industrial plants may produce a widespread contamination that can result in several health impacts on the populations living in their neighbourhood. The objective of this contribution is to briefly explore available options in studying the health impact of ICS, mainly referring to information provided by documents and activities developed by the WHO and the WHO Collaborating Center for Environmental Health in Contaminated Sites. In current practice the health impact of ICS is evaluated using studies and assessments falling in two broad types of strategies: one based on epidemiology and the other on risk assessment methods. In recent years, traditional approaches to assess relationships between environmental risks and health has been evolved considering the intricate nature between them and other factors. New developments should be explored in the context of ICS to find common strategies and tools to assess their impacts and to guide public health interventions.

  6. Risk-based economic decision analysis of remediation options at a PCE-contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Friis-Hansen, P.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    by the remediation activities. More attention is increasingly being given to these secondary environmental impacts when evaluating remediation options. This paper presents a methodology for an integrated economic decision analysis which combines assessments of remediation costs, health risk costs and potential...... at a downstream groundwater well. Potential environmental impacts on the local, regional and global scales due to the site remediation activities are evaluated using life cycle assessments (LCA). The potential impacts on health and environment are converted to monetary units using a simplified cost model. A case......Remediation methods for contaminated sites cover a wide range of technical solutions with different remedial efficiencies and costs. Additionally, they may vary in their secondary impacts on the environment i.e. the potential impacts generated due to emissions and resource use caused...

  7. Bioremediation of soil and ground water impacted with organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Two case studies demonstrate the controlled use of micro-organisms to degrade organic contaminants under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The aerobic study illustrates the degradation of hydrocarbons in a soil matrix. Data are presented that show a two-phase degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from about 1,300 ppm TPH to cleanup levels of 100 ppm or less in two months. Total aerobic microorganism and substate-specific degrader counts were tracked throughout the study. Typical total aerobic counts of 10 6 colony forming units (CFU)/g and hydrocarbon degrader counts of 10 4 CFU/g were observed. Hydrocarbon degraders were enumerated on minimal salts media incubated in the presence of hydrocarbon vapors. The anaerobic study documents the successful use of a supplemental carbon source and fertilizers to stimulate indigenous microbe to degrade ketones. A nutrient mix of s polysaccharide, a nitrate electron acceptor and an inorganic orthophosphate was used to augment 100,000 yd 3 of soil contaminated with ketones at about 1,000 ppm. The key elements of a biotreatment project are discussed (i.e., site characterization, treatability studies, biotreatment design, site construction, system maintenance, final disposal and site closure). Lastly, the benefits of bioremediation vs. other remediation alternatives such as landfill disposal, incineration, and stabilization/fixation are discussed in terms of cost and liability

  8. THE EVALUATION OF VORONEZH REGION RADIATION CONTAMINATION IMPACT OVER THIRTY YEARS’ PERIOD FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Stepkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at radiation contamination impact assessment due to the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Voronezh Region territory more than 600 kilometers away from the ground zero. The major Chernobyl accident impact assessment indicators were the characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides’ soil surface contamination (Ci/km2 as well as the average annual effective dose of critical population group ( mSv/year over 1986–2014. The Population oncological morbidity indicators were analyzed (all malignant neoplasms, including those in thyroid gland, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in the territories contrastingly differing on the levels of radiation factor impact. The study covered the period of 2010–2014.It was established that for Voronezh Region territories referred to as the post- Chernobyl radioactively contaminated zone over 29 years period the maximum soil surface contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides reduced by 1.90 and 1.91 times (from 3,15 Ci/km2 to 1,66 Ci/km2 and from 0,063 Ci/km2 to 0,0033 Ci/km2, respectively.Currently the relationship was not found between the radioactive contamination density in Voronezh Region and the levels of malignant neoplasms for the local residents.The present situation related to radiation factor impact on Voronezh Region territories remains stable and safe. Mindful of the indicators results the assessment of ionizing sources impact did not identify any exceeding the normative values.

  9. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 m 3 of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 m 3 was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the pathway analysis for the onsite and near-site resident scenarios, the radiation dose rates and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater would be below the regulatory requirements for both the short-term and long-term scenarios. Hence, the potential health risks to maximally exposed individuals due to radioactive releases from the Middlesex landfill would be insignificant

  10. Community Level Stressors and Their Impacts on Food Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is needed to understand a community’s food resources, utilization of those resources, and how the built and natural environment impact access to resources and potential chemical exposures. This research will identify stressors, relationships between those stressors...

  11. Environmental contamination and its impact on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornescu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chernobyl, site of the worst accident in the history of peaceful use of atomic energy, remain, a huge danger for Europe in the overall levels of exposure to ionizing radiation continues to increase, which is demonstrated by recording new information on biological effects of exposure to radiation (Regional and global aspects of Radiation Protection, IRPA 2007). Criteria fundamental radiation, which is necessary today as result of various practical applications of nuclear energy, obliges us to carefully analyze environmental issue as a result of the presence of radioactive isotopes into the environment. This is due to the fact that the study of correlated environmental contamination and transmission vectors of radionuclides to humans is a primary means to protect public health. (authors)

  12. Patterns of cross-contamination in a multispecies population genomic project: detection, quantification, impact, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenghien, Marion; Faivre, Nicolas; Galtier, Nicolas

    2017-03-29

    Contamination is a well-known but often neglected problem in molecular biology. Here, we investigated the prevalence of cross-contamination among 446 samples from 116 distinct species of animals, which were processed in the same laboratory and subjected to subcontracted transcriptome sequencing. Using cytochrome oxidase 1 as a barcode, we identified a minimum of 782 events of between-species contamination, with approximately 80% of our samples being affected. An analysis of laboratory metadata revealed a strong effect of the sequencing center: nearly all the detected events of between-species contamination involved species that were sent the same day to the same company. We introduce new methods to address the amount of within-species, between-individual contamination, and to correct for this problem when calling genotypes from base read counts. We report evidence for pervasive within-species contamination in this data set, and show that classical population genomic statistics, such as synonymous diversity, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous diversity, inbreeding coefficient F IT , and Tajima's D, are sensitive to this problem to various extents. Control analyses suggest that our published results are probably robust to the problem of contamination. Recommendations on how to prevent or avoid contamination in large-scale population genomics/molecular ecology are provided based on this analysis.

  13. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  14. Geophysical Responses of Hydrocarbon-impacted Zones at the Various Contamination Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Ko, K.; Son, J.; Kim, J.

    2008-12-01

    One controlled experiment and two field surveys were conducted to investigate the geoelectrical responses of hydrocarbon-contaminated zones, so called smeared zone, on the geophysical data at the hydrocarbon- contaminated sites with various conditions. One controlled physical model experiment with GPR using fresh gasoline and two different 3-D electrical resistivity investigations at the aged sites. One field site (former military facilities for arms maintenance) was mainly contaminated with lubricating oils and the other (former gas station) was contaminated with gasoline and diesel, respectively. The results from the physical model experiment show that GPR signals were enhanced when LNAPL was present as a residual saturation in the water-saturated system due to less attenuation of the electromagnetic energy through the soil medium of the hydrocarbon-impacted zone (no biodegradation), compared to when the medium was saturated with only water (no hydrocarbon impaction). In the former gas station site, 3-D resistivity results demonstrate that the highly contaminated zones were imaged with low resistivity anomalies since the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons has been undergone for many years, causing the drastic increase in the TDS at the hydrocarbon-impacted zones. Finally, 3-D resistivity data obtained from the former military maintenance site show that the hydrocarbon-contaminated zones show high resistivity anomalies since the hydrocarbons such as lubricating oils at the contaminated soils were not greatly influenced by microbial degradation and has relatively well kept their original physical properties of high electrical resistivity. The results of the study illustrated that the hydrocarbon-impacted zones under various contamination conditions yielded various geophysical responses which include (1) enhanced GPR amplitudes at the fresh LNAPL (Gasoline to middle distillates) spill sites, (2) low electrical resistivity anomalies due to biodegradation at the

  15. Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair Flight Experiment Induced Contamination Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A.; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ron; Schmidl, Danny; Campbell, Colin; Koontz, Steven; Engle, Michael; McCroskey, Doug; Garrett, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    NASA s activities to prepare for Flight LF1 (STS-114) included development of a method to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Orbiter s leading edge should it be damaged during ascent by impacts from foam, ice, etc . Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edge TPS. The repair material that was developed is named Non- Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX). NOAX is an uncured adhesive material that acts as an ablative repair material. NOAX completes curing during the Orbiter s descent. The Thermal Protection System (TPS) Detailed Test Objective 848 (DTO 848) performed on Flight LF1 (STS-114) characterized the working life, porosity void size in a micro-gravity environment, and the on-orbit performance of the repairs to pre-damaged samples. DTO 848 is also scheduled for Flight ULF1.1 (STS-121) for further characterization of NOAX on-orbit performance. Due to the high material outgassing rates of the NOAX material and concerns with contamination impacts to optically sensitive surfaces, ASTM E 1559 outgassing tests were performed to determine NOAX condensable outgassing rates as a function of time and temperature. Sensitive surfaces of concern include the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) visor, cameras, and other sensors in proximity to the experiment during the initial time after application. This paper discusses NOAX outgassing characteristics, how the amount of deposition on optically sensitive surfaces while the NOAX is being manipulated on the pre-damaged RCC samples was determined by analysis, and how flight rules were developed to protect those optically sensitive surfaces from excessive contamination where necessary.

  16. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) contaminated well cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In support of past operations, railcars were used to ship irradiated fuel from the 100 Area fuel storage basins to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility. There are two configurations for the packaging systems that transported the fuel: the Three-Well Cask Car, which is outfitted with three casks, and the taller, single well, New Production Reactor (NPR) Cask Car. In this document, these cask cars are referred to collectively as well cars. The purpose of this document is to evaluate and authorize the onsite transportation of well cars that contain significant levels of contamination. No irradiated fuel will be transported in the well cars. Neutron detection data confirmed that the well cars do not contain fuel. The intention is to move 14 retired well cars from their current locations in the 100 Area to a suitable storage location in the 200 Area. Each well car contains Type B quantities of radioactivity; so that the hazard of the transport operation is relatively low. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the contaminated well cars meet the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for Hazardous Material Shipments for an onsite packaging. The scope of this document addresses the preparation and transportation of the contaminated well cars

  17. Impact Assessment and Bioremediation of oil Contaminated Soil: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted in two notable oil producing communities in. Niger Delta, South – South geopolitical zones of Nigeria with aim of assessing the impact and recommending a remediation technique for reclaiming the land for agricultural industrial, and residential purposes. The communities are; Ajoki Community ...

  18. Contribution of the surface contamination of uranium-materials on the quantitative analysis results by electron probe microbeam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, O.; Fournier, C.; Fucili, C.; Dugne, O.; Merlet, C.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical testing of uranium materials is necessary for quality research and development in nuclear industry applications (enrichment, safety studies, fuel, etc). Electron Probe Microbeam Analysis Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry (EPMA-WDS) is a dependable non-destructive analytical technology. The characteristic X-ray signal is measured to identify and quantify the sample components, and the analyzed volume is about one micron cube. The surface contamination of uranium materials modifies and contributes to the quantitative analysis results of EPMA-WDS. This contribution is not representative of the bulk. A thin oxidized layer appears in the first instants after preparation (burnishing, cleaning) as well as a carbon contamination layer, due to metallographic preparation and carbon cracking under the impact of the electron probe. Several analytical difficulties subsequently arise, including an overlapping line between the carbon Ka ray and the Uranium U NIVOVI ray. Sensitivity and accuracy of the quantification of light elements like carbon and oxygen are also reduced by the presence of uranium. The aim of this study was to improve the accuracy of quantitative analysis on uranium materials by EPMA-WDS by taking account of the contribution of surface contamination. The first part of this paper is devoted to the study of the contaminated surface of the uranium materials U, UFe 2 and U 6 Fe a few hours after preparation. These oxidation conditions are selected so as to reproduce the same contamination surfaces occurring in microprobe analytical conditions. Surface characterization techniques were SIMS and Auger spectroscopy. The contaminated surfaces are shown. They consist of successive layers: a carbon layer, an oxidized iron layer, followed by an iron depletion layer (only in UFe 2 and U 6 Fe), and a ternary oxide layer (U-Fe-O for UFe 2 et U 6 Fe and UO 2+x for uranium). The second part of the paper addresses the estimation of the errors in quantitative

  19. Using tree swallows to monitor impacts of aquatic contamination in Great Lakes areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnode, K.A.; Bodenstein, B.; Hetzel, R.; Pearson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Tree swallows were used to evaluate movement and potential impacts of contaminants from sediments in Newton Creek (diesel range organics: DROs) and Sheboygan River (PCBs), tributaries to Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, respectively. Contaminated sites occurred along the course of each river, while reference sites were located upstream or on a nearby river. Productivity was monitored and eggs, day 1 nestlings, and day 12 nestlings were collected from each nest. Whole body or egg homogenates were analyzed for PCBs or DROs. EROD activity in livers from day 12 nestlings is being determined for both PCB and DRO exposures. In the Newton Creek study, hatching success was similar for DRO and reference sites. DROs were detected in gastrointestinal tracts of 1 nestling from the reference and 1 from the contaminated site. DROs were not detected in any egg samples. In the Sheboygan River study, hatching success rates differed between 1 reference and 1 contaminated river segment. PCB daily accumulation rates from day 1 to day 12 nestlings were computed for Sheboygan River. All nestlings at reference nests had negative rates due to growth dilution effects. Preliminary analyses indicate the average rate for nestlings from contaminated segments of the river was 220.3 ng/g/day. These 1995 findings will be combined with 1996 data to evaluate the effectiveness of tree swallows for monitoring ecosystem impacts of aquatic contaminants in Wisconsin

  20. Sodium citrate blood contamination by K2 -ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): impact on routine coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, G; Salvagno, G L; Danese, E; Favaloro, E J; Guidi, G C; Lippi, G

    2015-06-01

    The potential cross-contamination of additives between primary blood tubes is a well-known problem during sample collection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of citrated blood contamination with different amounts of dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic (K2 EDTA blood) on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen. Blood was collected from 15 ostensibly healthy volunteers into four 0.109 m citrate blood tubes followed by one K2 EDTA blood tube. The citrate tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in five aliquots. The whole blood of the K2 EDTA tube was then added in scalar amounts to autologous citrated blood aliquots, to obtain K2 EDTA contamination ranging from 0% to 43%, and thus mimic potential pre-analytical contamination. A statistically and clinically significant prolongation was observed for both APTT and PT between 29% and 43% K2 EDTA contamination, whereas the decrease of fibrinogen values became statistically and clinically significant at 43% K2 EDTA contamination. The results of this investigation show that contamination of citrated blood with as much as 29% of K2 EDTA blood generates a significant bias in results of routine clotting assays. This has serious implications for patient safety and management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Blood Contamination in Saliva: Impact on the Measurement of Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Kamodyová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary oxidative stress markers represent a promising tool for monitoring of oral diseases. Saliva can often be contaminated by blood, especially in patients with periodontitis. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of blood contamination on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and were artificially contaminated with blood (final concentration 0.001–10%. Next, saliva was collected from 12 gingivitis and 10 control patients before and after dental hygiene treatment. Markers of oxidative stress were measured in all collected saliva samples. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, and antioxidant status were changed in 1% blood-contaminated saliva. Salivary AOPP were increased in control and patients after dental treatment (by 45.7% and 34.1%, p<0.01. Salivary AGEs were decreased in patients after microinjury (by 69.3%, p<0.001. Salivary antioxidant status markers were decreased in both control and patients after dental treatment (p<0.05 and p<0.01. One % blood contamination biased concentrations of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples with 1% blood contamination are visibly discolored and can be excluded from analyses without any specific biochemic detection of blood constituents. Salivary markers of oxidative stress were significantly altered in blood-contaminated saliva in control and patients with gingivitis after dental hygiene treatment.

  2. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector

  3. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector. (author)

  4. Re-thinking stressor interactions: The role of groundwater contamination impacting stream ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo; Rønde, Vinni Kampman

    ) to quantify the contaminant discharges, and potentially link the chemical impact and stream water quality. Potential pollution sources include two contaminated sites (Grindstedfactory/landfill), aquaculture, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Datafor xenobiotic...... chronic stress level, so even small perturbations on top of changes in water flow or additional chemical stressors may be detrimental to the stream health. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors along a 16-km groundwater-fedstream stretch (Grindsted, Denmark...... organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow from three campaigns in 2012 and 2014 were assessed. The measured chemicalconcentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on 48-h acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna...

  5. Impact of urine preservation methods and duration of storage on measured levels of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, Jane A; Ulmer, Ross; Calafat, Antonia M; Barr, Dana B; Baker, Susan V; Meltzer, Helle M; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2006-01-01

    Collection of urine samples in human studies involves choices regarding shipping, sample preservation, and storage that may ultimately influence future analysis. As more studies collect and archive urine samples to evaluate environmental exposures in the future, we were interested in assessing the impact of urine preservative, storage temperature, and time since collection on nonpersistent contaminants in urine samples. In spiked urine samples stored in three types of urine vacutainers (no preservative, boric acid, and chlorhexidine), we measured five groups of contaminants to assess the levels of these analytes at five time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h, and 1 week) and at two temperatures (room temperature and 4 degrees C). The target chemicals were bisphenol A (BPA), metabolites of organophosphate (OP), carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, chlorinated phenols, and phthalate monoesters, and were measured using five different mass spectrometry-based methods. Three samples were analyzed at each time point, with the exception of BPA. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate effects of storage time, temperature, and preservative. Stability was summarized with percent change in mean concentration from time 0. In general, most analytes were stable under all conditions with changes in mean concentration over time, temperature, and preservative being generally less than 20%, with the exception of the OP metabolites in the presence of boric acid. The effect of storage temperature was less important than time since collection. The precision of the laboratory measurements was high allowing us to observe small differences, which may not be important when categorizing individuals into broader exposure groups.

  6. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  7. Sediment contaminants and biological effects in southern California: Use of a multivariate statistical approach to assess biological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, C.L.; Barnett, A.M.; Diener, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This study attempts to predict biological toxicity and benthic community impact in sediments collected from two southern California sites. Contaminant concentrations and grain size were evaluated as predictors using a two-step multivariate approach. The first step used principal component analysis (PCA) to describe contamination type and magnitude present at each site. Four dominant PC vectors, explaining 88% of the total variance, each corresponded to a unique physical and/or chemical signature. The four PC vectors, in decreasing order of importance, were: (1) high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), most likely from combusted or weathered petroleum; (2) low molecular weight alkylated PAH, primarily from weathered fuel product; (3) low molecular weight nonalkylated PAH, indicating a fresh petroleum-related origin; and (4) fine-grained sediments and metals. The second step used stepwise regression analysis to predict individual biological effects (dependent) variables using the four PC vectors as independent variables. Results showed that sediment grain size alone was the best predictor of amphipod mortality. Contaminant vectors showed discrete depositional areas independent of grain size. Neither contaminant concentrations nor PCA vectors were good predictors of biological effects, most likely due to the low concentrations in sediments

  8. Microarray technology for major chemical contaminants analysis in food: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  9. Deterministic sensitivity analysis for the numerical simulation of contaminants transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, E.

    2007-12-01

    The questions of safety and uncertainty are central to feasibility studies for an underground nuclear waste storage site, in particular the evaluation of uncertainties about safety indicators which are due to uncertainties concerning properties of the subsoil or of the contaminants. The global approach through probabilistic Monte Carlo methods gives good results, but it requires a large number of simulations. The deterministic method investigated here is complementary. Based on the Singular Value Decomposition of the derivative of the model, it gives only local information, but it is much less demanding in computing time. The flow model follows Darcy's law and the transport of radionuclides around the storage site follows a linear convection-diffusion equation. Manual and automatic differentiation are compared for these models using direct and adjoint modes. A comparative study of both probabilistic and deterministic approaches for the sensitivity analysis of fluxes of contaminants through outlet channels with respect to variations of input parameters is carried out with realistic data provided by ANDRA. Generic tools for sensitivity analysis and code coupling are developed in the Caml language. The user of these generic platforms has only to provide the specific part of the application in any language of his choice. We also present a study about two-phase air/water partially saturated flows in hydrogeology concerning the limitations of the Richards approximation and of the global pressure formulation used in petroleum engineering. (author)

  10. Impact of metal-ion contaminated silica particles on gate oxide integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Ingrid; Wali, F.; Knotter, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of metal-ion contamination (present on wafer surface before oxidation) on gate oxide integrity (GOI) is well known in literature, which is not the case for clean silica particles [1, 2]. However, it is known that particles present in ultra-pure water (UPW) decrease the random yield in

  11. Developing Conceptual Models for Assessing Climate Change Impacts to Contaminant Availability in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Greenberg 2005), effects of dredged material (PIANC 2006), and ecosystem restoration (Fischenich 2008) among others. The process of developing a conceptual...Impacts to Contaminant Availability in Terrestrial Ecosystems by Burton C. Suedel, Nathan R. Beane, Eric R. Britzke, Cheryl R. Montgomery, and...are generally project or problem specific. Building a CM includes determining the components of the ecosystem , identifying relationships linking these

  12. The assessment of traffic emissions impacts on crops pollution and contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Phytosanitary and Environment

    2009-01-01

    Impact of traffic emissions on contamination of soils and consequently of crops is usualy mentioned, but not many studies providing real and valid data were published in the CR. This is a pilot study for specific area. The aim of it is to assess potential influence of the Prague Airport on fruits and crops pollution grown around it.

  13. HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

  14. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  15. Emerging contaminants in the environment: Risk-based analysis for better management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Ravi; Arias Espana, Victor Andres; Liu, Yanju; Jit, Joytishna

    2016-07-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) are chemicals of a synthetic origin or deriving from a natural source that has recently been discovered and for which environmental or public health risks are yet to be established. This is due to limited available information on their interaction and toxicological impacts on receptors. Several types of ECs exist such as antibiotics, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, effluents, certain naturally occurring contaminants and more recently nanomaterials. ECs may derive from a known source, for example released directly to the aquatic environment from direct discharges such as those from wastewater treatment plants. Although in most instances the direct source cannot be identified, ECs have been detected in virtually every country's natural environment and as a consequence they represent a global problem. There is very limited information on the fate and transport of ECs in the environment and their toxicological impact. This lack of information can be attributed to limited financial resources and the lack of analytical techniques for detecting their effects on ecosystems and human health on their own or as mixture. We do not know how ECs interact with each other or various contaminants. This paper presents an overview of existing knowledge on ECs, their fate and transport and a risk-based analysis for ECs management and complementary strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of radioactive contaminations and radiological hazard in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnowiecki, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is a report on radiological impact in Poland following the Chernobyl reactor accident prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The results of measurement and its analysis are presented. Isotopic composition of the contamined air and the concentration of radionuclides are determined. The trajectories of the airborne radioactive material movement from Chernobyl to Poland at the last days of April 1986 are presented. Assessment of the radiological risk of the population is done. 38 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs. (M.F.W.)

  17. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed 137 Cs concentrations [> 10 6 Bq/kg dry wt (> 10 4 pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of 137 Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h 1 1 m above the soil surface

  18. Analysis of heat transfer and contaminant transport in fume hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of three-dimensional flow patterns and the associated heat and mass transfer mechanisms in a fume hood enclosure. The flow enters the hood through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leaves the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow pattern around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its training surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. Both temperature and concentration were found to be maximum near the source and gradually decreased as the heated air or gaseous contaminant entrained with incoming air. The local concentration decreased with increase in sash opening area. The results will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air inside the room

  19. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  20. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'')

  1. A review on heavy metal contamination in the soil worldwide: Situation, impact and remediation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in the soil refers to some significant heavy metals of biological toxicity, including mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and arsenic (As, etc. With the development of the global economy, both type and content of heavy metals in the soil caused by human activities have gradually increased in recent years, which have resulted in serious environment deterioration. In present study we compared and analyzed soil contamination of heavy metals in various cities/countries, and reviewed background, impact and remediation methods of soil heavy metal contamination worldwide.

  2. An overview of the contaminant analysis automation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.M.; Erkkila, T.; Beugelsdijk, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has significant amounts of radioactive and hazardous wastes stored, buried, and still being generated at many sites within the United States. These wastes must be characterized to determine the elemental, isotopic, and compound content before remediation can begin. In this paper, the authors project that sampling requirements will necessitate generating more than 10 million samples by 1995, which will far exceed the capabilities of our current manual chemical analysis laboratories. The Contaminant Analysis Automation effort (CAA), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as to the coordinating Laboratory, is designing and fabricating robotic systems that will standardize and automate both the hardware and the software of the most common environmental chemical methods. This will be accomplished by designing and producing several unique analysis systems called Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). Each SAM will automate a specific chemical method, including sample preparation, the analytical analysis, and the data interpretation, by using a building block known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). This concept allows the chemist to assemble an automated environmental method using standardized SLMs easily and without the worry of hardware compatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs

  3. Impact of Climate Change Effects on Contamination of Cereal Grains with Deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; van Asselt, E D; Madsen, M S

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to aggravate feed and food safety problems of crops; however, quantitative estimates are scarce. This study aimed to estimate impacts of climate change effects on deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat and maize grown in the Netherlands by 2040. Quantitative modelling...... the impacts of climate change effects on food safety, and of considering both direct and indirect effects when assessing climate change impacts on crops and related food safety hazards....... two different global and regional climate model combinations were used. A weather generator was applied for downscaling climate data to local conditions. Crop phenology models and prediction models for DON contamination used, each for winter wheat and grain maize. Results showed that flowering...

  4. Differential impacts of willow and mineral fertilizer on bacterial communities and biodegradation in diesel fuel oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Cathrine C.E. Leewis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research there is limited understanding of how vegetation impacts the ability of microbial communities to process organic contaminants in soil. Using a combination of traditional and molecular assays, we examined how phytoremediation with willow and/or fertilization affected the microbial community present and active in the transformation of diesel contaminants. In a pot study, willow had a significant role in structuring the total bacterial community and resulted in significant decreases in diesel range organics (DRO. However, stable isotope probing (SIP indicated that fertilizer drove the differences seen in community structure and function. Finally, analysis of the total variance in both pot and SIP experiments indicated an interactive effect between willow and fertilizer on the bacterial communities. This study clearly demonstrates that a willow native to Alaska accelerates DRO degradation, and together with fertilizer, increased aromatic degradation by shifting microbial community structure and the identity of active naphthalene degraders.

  5. Global occurrence of anti-infectives in contaminated surface waters: Impact of income inequality between countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Pedro A; Takada, Hideshige; Correa, José A; El Saadi, Karim; Koike, Tatsuya; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Wasonga, Oliver V; Mghalu, Joseph M; dos Santos Junior, Antonio Manuel; Newman, Brent; Weerts, Steven; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    The presence anti-infectives in environmental waters is of interest because of their potential role in the dissemination of anti-infective resistance in bacteria and other harmful effects on non-target species such as algae and shellfish. Since no information on global trends regarding the contamination caused by these bioactive substances is yet available, we decided to investigate the impact of income inequality between countries on the occurrence of anti-infectives in surface waters. In order to perform such study, we gathered concentration values reported in the peer-reviewed literature between 1998 and 2014 and built a database. To fill the gap of knowledge on occurrence of anti-infectives in African countries, we also collected 61 surface water samples from Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa, and measured concentrations of 19 anti-infectives. A mixed one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model, followed by Turkey-Kramer post hoc tests was used to identify potential differences in anti-infective occurrence between countries grouped by income level (high, upper-middle and lower-middle and low income) according to the classification by the World Bank. Comparison of occurrence of anti-infectives according to income level revealed that concentrations of these substances in contaminated surface waters were significantly higher in low and lower-middle income countries (p=0.0001) but not in upper-middle income countries (p=0.0515) compared to high-income countries. We explained these results as the consequence of the absence of or limited sewage treatment performed in lower income countries. Furthermore, comparison of concentrations of low cost anti-infectives (sulfonamides and trimethoprim) and the more expensive macrolides between income groups suggest that the cost of these substances may have an impact on their environmental occurrence in lower income countries. Since wastewaters are the most important source of contamination of anti-infectives and other

  6. Impact of contamination and pre-treatment on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of charred plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiglova, Petra; Snoeck, Christophe; Nitsch, Erika; Bogaard, Amy; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2014-12-15

    Stable isotope analysis of archaeological charred plants has become a useful tool for interpreting past agricultural practices and refining ancient dietary reconstruction. Charred material that lay buried in soil for millennia, however, is susceptible to various kinds of contamination, whose impact on the grain/seed isotopic composition is poorly understood. Pre-treatment protocols have been adapted in distinct forms from radiocarbon dating, but insufficient research has been carried out on evaluating their effectiveness and necessity for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. The effects of previously used pre-treatment protocols on the isotopic composition of archaeological and modern sets of samples were investigated. An archaeological sample was also artificially contaminated with carbonates, nitrates and humic acid and subjected to treatment aimed at removing the introduced contamination. The presence and removal of the contamination were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. The results show a ca 1‰ decrease in the δ(15)N values of archaeological charred plant material caused by harsh acid treatments and ultra-sonication. This change is interpreted as being caused by mechanical distortion of the grains/seeds rather than by the removal of contamination. Furthermore, specific infrared peaks have been identified that can be used to detect the three types of contaminants studied. We argue that it is not necessary to try to remove humic acid contamination for stable isotope analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of crushing the grains/seeds before pre-treatment are discussed. We recommend the use of an acid-only procedure (0.5 M HCl for 30 min at 80 °C followed by three rinses in distilled water) for cleaning charred plant remains. This study fills an important gap in plant stable isotope research that will enable future researchers to evaluate potential sources of isotopic change and pre

  7. Transuranium contamination in BWRs after fuel accidents and its impact on decommissioning exposures and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, K.

    1996-12-01

    The theme of the present study is to quantify the amount of transuranium activity in different parts of the plant after various fuel accidents, and which impact such contamination has on radiation exposure and costs for decommissioning the plant. The consequences of four different accident degrees have been treated: Common fuel failures, e.g. in line with recent experiences from Swedish BWRs; Fuel channel obstruction resulting in partial melting of one fuel assembly; Total loss of electric power resulting in partial meltdown of the core, but with primary circuit intact preventing a massive contamination of the containment; A LOCA followed by a core meltdown and melting and penetration of the reactor pressure vessel. The amount of transuranium activity distributed, the form of this activity and the plant contamination are evaluated for these accidents. The costs and exposures have been split up on cleanup activities after the accident and decommissioning. 75 refs.

  8. Transuranium contamination in BWRs after fuel accidents and its impact on decommissioning exposures and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.

    1996-12-01

    The theme of the present study is to quantify the amount of transuranium activity in different parts of the plant after various fuel accidents, and which impact such contamination has on radiation exposure and costs for decommissioning the plant. The consequences of four different accident degrees have been treated: Common fuel failures, e.g. in line with recent experiences from Swedish BWRs; Fuel channel obstruction resulting in partial melting of one fuel assembly; Total loss of electric power resulting in partial meltdown of the core, but with primary circuit intact preventing a massive contamination of the containment; A LOCA followed by a core meltdown and melting and penetration of the reactor pressure vessel. The amount of transuranium activity distributed, the form of this activity and the plant contamination are evaluated for these accidents. The costs and exposures have been split up on cleanup activities after the accident and decommissioning. 75 refs

  9. Concentration-Discharge Behavior of Contaminants in a Stream Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M. E.; Klein, M.; Herndon, E.

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has severely degraded streams throughout the Appalachian coal region of the United States. AMD occurs when pyrite contained in coal is exposed to water and air during mining activities and oxidized to release high concentrations of sulfate, metals, and acidity into water bodies. Little is known about the concentration-discharge (CQ) relationships of solutes in AMD-impacted streams due to the complicated nature of acid mine drainage systems. For example, streams may receive inputs from multiple sources that include runoff, constructed treatment systems, and abandoned mines that bypass these systems to continue to contaminate the streams. It is important to understand the CQ relationships of contaminants in AMD-impacted streams in order to elucidate contaminant sources and to predict effects on aquatic ecosystems. Here, we study the CQ behaviors of acid and metals in a contaminated watershed in northeastern Ohio where limestone channels have been installed to remediate water draining from a mine pool into the stream. Stream chemistry was measured in samples collected once per day or once per hour during storm events, and stream flow was measured continuously at the watershed outlet. Increases in stream velocity during storm events resulted in an increase in pH (from 3 to 6) that subsequently decreased back to 3 as flow decreased. Additionally, Fe and Mn concentrations in the stream were high during baseflow (7 and 15 mg/L, respectively) and decreased with increasing discharge during storm events. These results indicate that the treatment system is only effective at neutralizing stream acidity and removing metals when water flow through the limestone channel is continuous. We infer that the acidic and metal-rich baseflow derives from upwelling of contaminated groundwater or subsurface flow from a mine pool. Ongoing studies aim to isolate the source of this baseflow contamination and evaluate the geochemical transformations that occur as it

  10. [A cohort study of longer-term impact of melamine contaminated formula on infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-xin; Li, Hong-tian; Wang, Lin-lin; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Yu-bo; Liu, Jian-meng

    2013-10-15

    To prospectively evaluate the health status of infants with exposure to melamine-contaminated milk formula prior to September 2008. The cohort study was conducted in an area close to the manufacturer of Sanlu dairy products. There were three groups (n = 47 each). In September 2008, the exposure group I included infants with exposure to melamine and a diagnosis of renal abnormalities, the exposure group IIhad exposure to melamine but there was no diagnosis of renal abnormalities and the non-exposure group had no exposure to melamine. The exposure II and non-exposure groups were matched with those of exposure group I by birthplaces, gender and date of birth ( ± 3 months). Kidney function tests (urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, uric acid, serum albumin, β2-microglobulin and cystatin C), liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), growth and development assessment and urinary system ultrasonography were implemented between November 2011 and June 2012. The analysis of covariance (least significant difference method) was performed to compare the differences of relevant variables among three groups. The urinary system ultrasonography showed that all abnormalities disappeared in exposure group I and all infants of another two groups had normal ultrasonography. There were statistically significant differences in serum uric acid and albumin of kidney function in exposure group I, exposure group II and non-exposure group ((344 ± 75) and (338 ± 98) and (282 ± 69) µmol/L , (47 ± 5) and (47 ± 6) and (43 ± 5) g/L, all P groups. However the differences in the remaining markers of kidney function, markers of liver function and Z scores of weight-for-age and height-for age were all statistically insignificant (all P > 0.05). Further pair-wise comparisons showed that the levels of serum uric acid and albumin in exposure group I were higher than those in non-exposure group (P = 0.001 and 0.010). And the levels of serum uric acid and albumin

  11. Dissemination of drinking water contamination data to consumers: a systematic review of impact on consumer behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Lucas

    Full Text Available Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes.A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination. Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72% among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment.Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to improve water management is currently

  12. Dissemination of Drinking Water Contamination Data to Consumers: A Systematic Review of Impact on Consumer Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Patricia J.; Cabral, Christie; Colford, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities) to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. Methods/Principal Findings A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination). Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26–72%) among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0–0.46] 6–12 months post intervention) suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. Conclusion Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to

  13. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  14. XRF analysis of soils contaminated by dust falls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Katsumi; Onoki, Yuka; Wada, Nobuhiko; Okano, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Dust falls from the chimneys of waste incineration plants, coal-fired power plants, and refineries may contaminate soil over vast areas. Using an auger machine at 72 sites around a refinery in the Kanto area, Japan, we obtained 216 soil samples for a screening survey of potentially contaminated land. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of zinc, lead, and cadmium were performed using a transmission X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (TXRF). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chemical analytical data suggested that contaminated soil extends up to 3 km away from the chimneys of the refinery. Using calibration curves for the intensity ratios of Zn Kα X-ray to Mo Kβ Compton scatter X-ray [(Zn Kα)/(Mo-Kβ-Compton)], Pb Lβ X-ray to Mo-Kβ-Compton scatter X-ray [(Pb Lβ)/(Mo-Kβ-Compton)], and Cd Kα X-ray to Mo-Kβ Compton scatter X-ray [(Cd Kβ)/(Mo-Kβ-Compton)] of 30 reference materials, we obtained the Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations of these 216 soil samples. The Pb and Cd concentrations from the XRF chemical analytical data were very similar to the Pb and Cd leachabilities determined by 1 M HC1 leaching test (MOE-approved method No. 19), suggesting that the chemical forms in which Pb and Cd occur are an adsorbed phase and a carbonate phase, which can be easily dissolved by 1 M HC1. XRF spectra of individual soil particles, obtained by spot-sized X-ray beams passed through a 1.5-mm-diameter and a 0.5-mm-diameter collimators, suggested that most of the soil fractions contained Zn and Pb. The levels of brightness of the X-ray images of these Zn- and Pb-bearing fractions were monitored with an X-ray CCD camera attached to the TXRF. Most of the soil fractions were transparent at the maximum X-ray tube voltage (50 kV), suggesting that the soil samples are suitable for the quantitative XRF chemical analysis of Zn and Pb. (author)

  15. Analysis of East Tank Farms Contamination Survey Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELDER, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the justification for the change in survey frequency in East Tank Farms occupied contamination areas from weekly to monthly. The Tank Farms Radiological Control Organization has performed radiological surveys of its Contamination Area (CA) Double Shell Tank (DST) farms in 200 East Area on a weekly basis for several years. The task package (DST-W012) controlling these routines designates specific components, at a minimum, that must be surveyed whenever the task is performed. This document documents the evaluation of these survey requirements and provides the recommendation and basis for moving DST tank farms in the 200 East Area from a weekly to monthly contamination survey. The contamination surveys for occupied contamination areas in West Tank Farms (WTF) were changed from a weekly frequency to a monthly frequency in 1997. Review of contamination survey data in WTF indicates a monthly interval remains satisfactory

  16. Impact of electrokinetic remediation on microbial communities within PCP contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.; Harbottle, M.J.; Sills, G.; Knowles, C.J.; Semple, K.T.; Thompson, I.P.

    2007-01-01

    Electrokinetic techniques have been used to stimulate the removal of organic pollutants within soil, by directing contaminant migration to where remediation may be more easily achieved. The effect of this and other physical remediation techniques on the health of soil microbial communities has been poorly studied and indeed, largely ignored. This study reports the impact on soil microbial communities during the application of an electric field within ex situ laboratory soil microcosms contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP; 100 mg kg -1 oven dry soil). Electrokinetics reduced counts of culturable bacteria and fungi, soil microbial respiration and carbon substrate utilisation, especially close to the acidic anode where PCP accumulated (36 d), perhaps exacerbated by the greater toxicity of PCP at lower soil pH. There is little doubt that a better awareness of the interactions between soil electrokinetic processes and microbial communities is key to improving the efficacy and sustainability of this remediation strategy. - Electrokinetics negatively impacted soil

  17. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1987-06-01

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined

  18. Evaluation of Contamination Inspection and Analysis Methods through Modeling System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine; Dever, Jason; Stuban, Steven M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination is usually identified as a risk on the risk register for sensitive space systems hardware. Despite detailed, time-consuming, and costly contamination control efforts during assembly, integration, and test of space systems, contaminants are still found during visual inspections of hardware. Improved methods are needed to gather information during systems integration to catch potential contamination issues earlier and manage contamination risks better. This research explores evaluation of contamination inspection and analysis methods to determine optical system sensitivity to minimum detectable molecular contamination levels based on IEST-STD-CC1246E non-volatile residue (NVR) cleanliness levels. Potential future degradation of the system is modeled given chosen modules representative of optical elements in an optical system, minimum detectable molecular contamination levels for a chosen inspection and analysis method, and determining the effect of contamination on the system. By modeling system performance based on when molecular contamination is detected during systems integration and at what cleanliness level, the decision maker can perform trades amongst different inspection and analysis methods and determine if a planned method is adequate to meet system requirements and manage contamination risk.

  19. Organic Contaminants Library for the Sample Analysis at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P.; Garcia-Sanchez, R.; Canham, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    A library containing mass spectra for Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) materials has been developed with the purpose of contamination identification and control. Based on analysis of the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric (GCMS) data through thermal desorption, organic compounds were successfully identified from material samples, such as polymers, paints and adhesives. The library contains the spectra for all the compounds found in each of these analyzed files and is supplemented by a file information spreadsheet, a spreadsheet-formatted library for easy searching, and a Perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) based normalization protocol to make corrections to SAM data in order to meet the standard set by commercial libraries. An example of the library in use can be seen in Figure 1, where the abundances match closely, the spectral shape is retained, and the library picks up on it with an 88% identification probability. Of course, there are also compounds that have not been identified and are retained as unknowns. The library we have developed, along with its supplemental materials, is useful from both organizational and practical viewpoints. Through them we are able to organize large volumes of GCMS data, while at the same time breaking down the components that each material sample is made of. This approach in turn allows us straightforward and fast access to information that will be critical while performing analysis on the data recorded by the SAM instrumentation. In addition, the normalization protocol dramatically increased the identification probability. In SAM GCMS, PFTBA signals were obfuscated, resulting in library matches far away from PFTBA; by using the normalization protocol we were able to transform it into a 92% probable spectral match for PFTBA. The project has demonstrated conclusively that the library is successful in identifying unknown compounds utilizing both the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution & Identification System (AMDIS) and the Ion

  20. Finite element analysis of a model scale footing on clean and oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evgin, E.; Boulon, M.; Das, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of oil contamination on the behavior of a model scale footing is determined. Tests are carried out with both clean and oil contaminated sand. The data show that the bearing capacity of the footing is reduced significantly as a result of oil contamination. A finite element analysis is performed to calculate the bearing capacity of the footing and the results are compared with the experimental data. The significance of using an interface element in the analysis is discussed

  1. Impact of water management practice scenarios on wastewater flow and contaminant concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marleni, N; Gray, S; Sharma, A; Burn, S; Muttil, N

    2015-03-15

    Due to frequent droughts and rapid population growth in urban areas, the adoption of practices to reduce the usage of fresh water is on the rise. Reduction in usage of fresh water can be achieved through various local water management practices (WMP) such as Water Demand Management (WDM) and use of alternative water sources such as Greywater Recycling (GR) and Rainwater Harvesting (RH). While the positive effects of WMPs have been widely acknowledged, the implementation of WMPs is also likely to lower the wastewater flow and increase the concentration of contaminants in sewage. These in turn can lead to increases in sewer problems such as odour and corrosion. This paper analyses impacts of various WMP scenarios on wastewater flow and contaminant load. The Urban Volume and Quality (UVQ) model was used to simulate wastewater flow and the associated wastewater contaminants from different WMP scenarios. The wastewater parameters investigated were those which influence odour and corrosion problems in sewerage networks due to the formation of hydrogen sulphide. These parameters are: chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate (NO3(-)), sulphate (SO4(2-)), sulphide (S(2-)) and iron (Fe) that were contributed by the households (not including the biochemical process in sewer pipe). The results will help to quantify the impact of WMP scenarios on odour and corrosion in sewerage pipe networks. Results show that the implementation of a combination of WDM and GR had highly increased the concentration of all selected contaminant that triggered the formation of hydrogen sulphide, namely COD, sulphate and sulphide. On the other hand, the RH scenario had the least increase in the concentration of the contaminants, except iron concentrations. The increase in iron concentrations is actually beneficial because it inhibits the formation of hydrogen sulphide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycological analysis and aflatoxin B 1 contaminant estimation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study explores the fungal contamination of important herbal drug raw materials (HDRM), which are widely used in the preparation of many herbal drugs. Understanding of the microbial contamination status of HDRM is one of the important steps to ensure the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs.

  3. Potential impact of soil microbial heterogeneity on the persistence of hydrocarbons in contaminated subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleer, Sam; Adetutu, Eric M; Weber, John; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2014-04-01

    In situ bioremediation is potentially a cost effective treatment strategy for subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, however, limited information is available regarding the impact of soil spatial heterogeneity on bioremediation efficacy. In this study, we assessed issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation and soil spatial heterogeneity (samples designated as FTF 1, 5 and 8) from a site in which in situ bioremediation was proposed for hydrocarbon removal. Test pit activities showed similarities in FTF soil profiles with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations detected in all soils at 2 m below ground surface. However, PCR-DGGE-based cluster analysis showed that the bacterial community in FTF 5 (at 2 m) was substantially different (53% dissimilar) and 2-3 fold more diverse than communities in FTF 1 and 8 (with 80% similarity). When hydrocarbon degrading potential was assessed, differences were observed in the extent of (14)C-benzene mineralisation under aerobic conditions with FTF 5 exhibiting the highest hydrocarbon removal potential compared to FTF 1 and 8. Further analysis indicated that the FTF 5 microbial community was substantially different from other FTF samples and dominated by putative hydrocarbon degraders belonging to Pseudomonads, Xanthomonads and Enterobacteria. However, hydrocarbon removal in FTF 5 under anaerobic conditions with nitrate and sulphate electron acceptors was limited suggesting that aerobic conditions were crucial for hydrocarbon removal. This study highlights the importance of assessing available microbial capacity prior to bioremediation and shows that the site's spatial heterogeneity can adversely affect the success of in situ bioremediation unless area-specific optimizations are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interferences in Prompt {gamma} Analysis of corrosive contaminants in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-12-21

    An accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed to measure the concentration of corrosive chloride and sulfate contaminants in concrete. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) limit of chlorine and sulfur in the concrete depends upon the {gamma}-ray used for elemental analysis. For more interfering {gamma}-rays, the MDC limit is higher than that for less interfering {gamma}-rays. The MDC limit of sulfur in concrete measured for the KFUPM PGNAA setup was calculated to be 0.60{+-}0.19 wt%. The MDC limit is equal to the upper limit of sulfur concentration in concrete set by the British Standards. The MDC limit of chlorine in concrete for the KFUPM PGNAA setup, which was calculated for less interfering 1.165 MeV {gamma}-rays, was found to be 0.075{+-}0.025 wt%. The lower limits of the MDC of chlorine in concrete was 73% higher than the limit set by American Concrete Institute. The limit of the MDC can be improved to the desired standard by increasing the intensity of neutron source. For moreinterfering 5.715 and 6.110 MeV chlorine {gamma}-rays the MDC limit was found to be 2-3 times larger than that of 1.165 MeV {gamma}-rays. When normalized to the same intensity of the neutron source, the MDC limits of chlorine and sulfur in concrete from the KFUPM PGNAA setup are better than MDC limits of chlorine in concrete obtained with the {sup 241}Am-Be source-based PGNAA setup. This study has shown that an accelerator-based PGNAA setup can be used in chlorine and sulfur analysis of concrete samples.

  5. The contaminant analysis automation robot implementation for the automated laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, J.R.; Igou, R.E.; Urenda, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) project defines the automated laboratory as a series of standard laboratory modules (SLM) serviced by a robotic standard support module (SSM). These SLMs are designed to allow plug-and-play integration into automated systems that perform standard analysis methods (SAM). While the SLMs are autonomous in the execution of their particular chemical processing task, the SAM concept relies on a high-level task sequence controller (TSC) to coordinate the robotic delivery of materials requisite for SLM operations, initiate an SLM operation with the chemical method dependent operating parameters, and coordinate the robotic removal of materials from the SLM when its commands and events has been established to allow ready them for transport operations as well as performing the Supervisor and Subsystems (GENISAS) software governs events from the SLMs and robot. The Intelligent System Operating Environment (ISOE) enables the inter-process communications used by GENISAS. CAA selected the Hewlett-Packard Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis (ORCA) and its associated Windows based Methods Development Software (MDS) as the robot SSM. The MDS software is used to teach the robot each SLM position and required material port motions. To allow the TSC to command these SLM motions, a hardware and software implementation was required that allowed message passing between different operating systems. This implementation involved the use of a Virtual Memory Extended (VME) rack with a Force CPU-30 computer running VxWorks; a real-time multitasking operating system, and a Radiuses PC compatible VME computer running MDS. A GENISAS server on The Force computer accepts a transport command from the TSC, a GENISAS supervisor, over Ethernet and notifies software on the RadiSys PC of the pending command through VMEbus shared memory. The command is then delivered to the MDS robot control software using a Windows Dynamic Data Exchange conversation

  6. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water in the Weldon Spring quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1989-01-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for management of contaminated water in the Weldon Spring quarry, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The water became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of contact with various wastes that were disposed of in the quarry between 1942 and 1968. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which includes the quarry, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of the EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of radioactive or chemical contaminant for the quarry water into the nearby environment, and to address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. Pursuant to the evaluation alternatives in this report, it is proposed that the water be pumped from the quarry pond to a newly constructed treatment plant for removal of the contaminants of concern. This removal action is necessary for and consistent with the overall response action being planned to minimize potential threats to the public and the environment associated with the current contamination at the quarry. 66 refs., 15 figs., 32 tabs

  7. Bacterial community analysis of contaminant soils from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Chapon, V.; Berthomieu, C.; Piette, L.; Le Marrec, C.; Coppin, F.; Fevrier, L.; Martin-Garin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Shortly after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, vegetation, contaminated soil and other radioactive debris were buried in situ in trenches. The aims of this work are to analyse the structure of bacterial communities evolving in this environment since 20 years, and to evaluate the potential role of microorganisms in radionuclide migration in soils. Therefore, soil samples exhibiting contrasted radionuclides content were collected in and around the trench number 22. Bacterial communities were examined using a genetic fingerprinting method that allowed a comparative profiling of the samples (DGGE), with universal and group-specific PCR primers. Our results indicate that Chernobyl soil samples host a wide diversity of Bacteria, with stable patterns for Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and more variable for Proteobacteria. A collection of 650 aerobic and anaerobic culturable isolates was also constructed. A phylogenetic analysis of 250 heterotrophic aerobic isolates revealed that 5 phyla are represented: Beta-, Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and spore-forming Firmicutes, which is largely dominant. These collection will be screened for the presence of radionuclide-accumulating species in order to estimate the potential influence of microorganisms in radionuclides migration in soils

  8. The weeping cow: impact of countermeasures on daily life in Chernobyl contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.; Avetova, E.; Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve years after the Chernobyl catastrophe, what is the daily life of rural dwellers in contaminated regions of Belarus and the Ukraine? Over the years, protective countermeasures have been applied or withdrawn, and radiation protection advice is still in effect concerning e.g. the consumption of milk or of forest food products. How is that advice regarded by villagers? To what extent do they comply or not comply, and what is their reasoning? How are countermeasures woven into the fabric of social life? In the goal of optimisation, radiation protection countermeasures may be evaluated as the sum of individual dose averted, cost, and distress. A detailed formula exists for calculating dose, but social and economic costs, and individual distress, are in need of modelling.. Twelve focus groups (10 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine; six groups each of men or of women) were consulted in an effort to develop a convincing and workable definition of distress experienced by members of the rural communities affected by Chernobyl. Stresses introduced by countermeasures, or linked to other aspects of the post-accidental situation, were identified. A systematic content analysis was carried out, bearing on the benefits or satisfactions linked to focus behaviours (e.g, milk consumption, forest visits...), distress experienced, attitudes towards countermeasures, impacts and management of information, etc. The focus group transcripts contain telling, humorous or poignant representations of how people carry on living in the face of threat, uncertainty, and absurdity. This presentation explores social representations of milk, and some of the reported impacts in the Belarus settlements of the post-accident restrictions on milk production and consumption. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission part-funded project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey European Institute of Health an Medical Science, Symlog, and UK National

  9. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The 228 Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for 226 Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested the

  10. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioproteccion e Dosimetria- IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro- RJ (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The {sup 228} Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for {sup 226} Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested

  11. Management of radiation contaminated sites: public policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.; Brenot, J.; Hubert, P.

    1999-01-01

    The present document is interested in the management of radio-contaminated sites whom pollution comes essentially from some leftover old controlled practices and more precisely from mining activities relative to uranium and radium and thorium industries. The contaminations coming from atmospheric nuclear explosions and post accidental situations do not come into the field of this document. The management of contaminated sites is tackled in the aspect of radiation protection of populations living near or that could be there in the future. (N.C.)

  12. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernot, Audrey [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Université de Lorraine, LIEC, UMR 7360, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506 (France); CNRS, LIEC, UMR 7360, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506 (France); Ouvrard, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.ouvrard@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Leglize, Pierre [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Watteau, Françoise [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); CNRS, UMS 3562, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54501 (France); Derrien, Delphine [INRA, BEF, UR 1138, Centre Nancy-Lorraine, Champenoux, F-54280 (France); and others

    2014-11-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ{sup 13}C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM.

  13. Electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and its impact on soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Shufa; Liu, Yana; Xu, Jingming

    2015-11-01

    Compared to soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants, soil pollution by fluorides is usually ignored in China. Actually, fluorine-contaminated soil has an unfavorable influence on human, animals, plants, and surrounding environment. This study reports on electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and the effects of this remediation technology on soil fertility. Experimental results showed that electrokinetic remediation using NaOH as the anolyte was a considerable choice to eliminate fluorine in contaminated soils. Under the experimental conditions, the removal efficiency of fluorine by the electrokinetic remediation method was 70.35%. However, the electrokinetic remediation had a significant impact on the distribution and concentrations of soil native compounds. After the electrokinetic experiment, in the treated soil, the average value of available nitrogen was raised from 69.53 to 74.23 mg/kg, the average value of available phosphorus and potassium were reduced from 20.05 to 10.39 mg/kg and from 61.31 to 51.58 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the contents of soil available nitrogen and phosphorus in the anode regions were higher than those in the cathode regions, but the distribution of soil available potassium was just the opposite. In soil organic matter, there was no significant change. These experiment results suggested that some steps should be taken to offset the impacts, after electrokinetic treatment.

  14. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, Audrey; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Watteau, Françoise; Derrien, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ 13 C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM

  15. The impact of the territory contamination on the epizootic process of cattle infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinovich, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with specifying the influence of natural, geographic and ecological conditions on the epizootic process of cattle infection. The tests were conducted in northern districts with no territorial contamination and in the two contaminated southern farms in Vetka and Narovlya districts, having 15-40 curie/sq.km. The results on the intensity of cattle infections, clinic-morphological and immunological properties of the infection proved that the epizootic process of cattle infection in Chernobyl affected areas differ from clean districts. Last years the veterinary science and practice pay significant attention to studying of ecological factors influence on the development of infectious and noncontagious pathology at animals. For Belarus studying features and laws of development and cattle infection display under the consequences of Chernobyl atomic power station disaster is actual. The stimulating affection of radioactive radiation on hemablastosis development at animals and people is known. As a consequence of Chernobyl disaster, 2/3 of radionuclides emissions were scattered on the territory of Belarus. At the same time, according to the available data, in post Chernobyl period on contaminated territories people diseases have considerably increased, especially children and liquidators, including oncological diseases. For the definition of natural-geographical zones and ecological conditions influence 5 collective farms in northern areas without contamination and one collective farm in the south of republic with contamination were picked up. Originally researches on the definition of correlation factor between intensity of cows infecting by leukemia virus in clean and contaminated areas with approximately equal initial epizootic situation of the infection both in spontaneous conditions, and at realization anti leukemia actions. By the analysis of epizootic data it is established, that the rates of this parameter reduction are caused by work on leukemia

  16. Peace programme for evaluating the impact of accidents contaminating the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Vallejo, R.; Sauras, T.; Casadesus, J.; Thiry, Y.; Waegeneers, N.; Forsberg, S.; Shaw, G.; Madoz-Escande, C.; Gonze, M.A. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which led to substantial release of radioactive materials in the atmosphere, demonstrated that large environmental areas may be contaminated by fall-out deposition of radioactivity. In particular, contamination by Cs and Sr of agro-ecosystems where food production is taking place is most susceptible to contribute to population radiation dose. Nuclear safety analysis shows that, although very small, the probability of an accident occurring on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) cannot be completely set aside. In such a situation, decision making and management of the contaminated agricultural surfaces largely depend on our ability to predict how, and to which extent, the initial contamination may lead to polluted foodstuffs. Furthermore, the efficiency of the prediction models relies on our level of understanding of the mechanisms governing the transfer of radionuclides in the soil-plant system. Unraveling these mechanisms from in situ observations of environmental areas contaminated by past events is difficult due to the lack of control on both, the contamination itself, which happened in a critical situation, and the natural environment, which is highly variable, temporally and spatially. Such conditions prevent a clear identification of the most relevant parameters influencing the radionuclides transfer and thereby the prediction goal. In particular, current transfer factors introduced in prediction models suffer from unresolved and poorly documented variabilities. This is why IPSN developed a unique research facility capable of generating, in closed and controlled environmental conditions, a mini-accident with release of radioactive aerosols on small-scale, but realistic, samples of crops. These crops are conducted on undisturbed soil monoliths, featuring several soil types from various European countries, managed in lysimeters with advanced water movement control, and placed in greenhouses where three typical climates can be reproduced

  17. Peace programme for evaluating the impact of accidents contaminating the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Vallejo, R.; Sauras, T.; Casadesus, J.; Thiry, Y.; Waegeneers, N.; Forsberg, S.; Shaw, G.; Madoz-Escande, C.; Gonze, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which led to substantial release of radioactive materials in the atmosphere, demonstrated that large environmental areas may be contaminated by fall-out deposition of radioactivity. In particular, contamination by Cs and Sr of agro-ecosystems where food production is taking place is most susceptible to contribute to population radiation dose. Nuclear safety analysis shows that, although very small, the probability of an accident occurring on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) cannot be completely set aside. In such a situation, decision making and management of the contaminated agricultural surfaces largely depend on our ability to predict how, and to which extent, the initial contamination may lead to polluted foodstuffs. Furthermore, the efficiency of the prediction models relies on our level of understanding of the mechanisms governing the transfer of radionuclides in the soil-plant system. Unraveling these mechanisms from in situ observations of environmental areas contaminated by past events is difficult due to the lack of control on both, the contamination itself, which happened in a critical situation, and the natural environment, which is highly variable, temporally and spatially. Such conditions prevent a clear identification of the most relevant parameters influencing the radionuclides transfer and thereby the prediction goal. In particular, current transfer factors introduced in prediction models suffer from unresolved and poorly documented variabilities. This is why IPSN developed a unique research facility capable of generating, in closed and controlled environmental conditions, a mini-accident with release of radioactive aerosols on small-scale, but realistic, samples of crops. These crops are conducted on undisturbed soil monoliths, featuring several soil types from various European countries, managed in lysimeters with advanced water movement control, and placed in greenhouses where three typical climates can be reproduced

  18. THE IMPACT OF CONTAMINATED RR LYRAE/GLOBULAR CLUSTER PHOTOMETRY ON THE DISTANCE SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Lane, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada); Gieren, W., E-mail: dmajaess@ap.smu.ca [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, CL Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-06-10

    RR Lyrae variables and the stellar constituents of globular clusters are employed to establish the cosmic distance scale and age of the universe. However, photometry for RR Lyrae variables in the globular clusters M3, M15, M54, M92, NGC 2419, and NGC 6441 exhibit a dependence on the clustercentric distance. For example, variables and stars positioned near the crowded high-surface brightness cores of the clusters may suffer from photometric contamination, which invariably affects a suite of inferred parameters (e.g., distance, color excess, absolute magnitude, etc.). The impetus for this study is to mitigate the propagation of systematic uncertainties by increasing awareness of the pernicious impact of contaminated and radial-dependent photometry.

  19. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1990-07-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  20. The Etiology, Incidence, and Impact of Preservation Fluid Contamination during Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Lladó, Laura; Vila, Marina; Baliellas, Carme; Tubau, Fe; Sabé, Núria; Fabregat, Joan; Carratalà, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The role of contaminated preservation fluid in the development of infection after liver transplantation has not been fully elucidated. To assess the incidence and etiology of contaminated preservation fluid and determine its impact on the subsequent development of infection after liver transplantation, we prospectively studied 50 consecutive liver transplants, and cultured the following samples in each instance: preservation fluid (immediately before and at the end of the back-table procedure, and just before implantation), blood, and bile from the donor, and ascitic fluid from the recipient. When any culture was positive, blood cultures were obtained and targeted antimicrobial therapy was started. We found that the incidence of contaminated preservation fluid was 92% (46 of 50 cases of liver transplantation per year), but only 28% (14/50) were contaminated by recognized pathogens. Blood and bile cultures from the donor were positive in 28% and 6% respectively, whereas ascitic fluid was positive in 22%. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci. In nine cases, the microorganisms isolated from the preservation fluid concurred with those grown from the donor blood cultures, and in one case, the isolate matched with the one obtained from bile culture. No liver transplant recipient developed an infection due to the transmission of an organism isolated from the preservation fluid. Our findings indicate that contamination of the preservation fluid is frequent in liver transplantation, and it is mainly caused by saprophytic skin flora. Transmission of infection is low, particularly among those recipients given targeted antimicrobial treatment for organisms isolated in the preservation fluid.

  1. Impacts of soil petroleum contamination on nutrient release during litter decomposition of Hippophae rhamnoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Zengwen; Luc, Nhu Trung; Yu, Qi; Liu, Xiaobo; Liang, Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Petroleum exploitation causes contamination of shrub lands close to oil wells. Soil petroleum contamination affects nutrient release during the litter decomposition of shrubs, which influences nutrient recycling and the maintenance of soil fertility. Hence, this contamination may reduce the long-term growth and stability of shrub communities and consequently, the effects of phytoremediation. Fresh foliar litter of Hippophae rhamnoides, a potential phytoremediating species, was collected for this study. The litter was placed in litterbags and then buried in different petroleum-polluted soil media (the petroleum concentrations were 15, 30, and 45 g kg(-1) dry soil, which were considered as slightly, moderately and seriously polluted soil, respectively) for a decomposition test. The impacts of petroleum contamination on the release of nutrients (including N, P, K, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg) were assessed. The results showed that (1) after one year of decomposition, the release of all nutrients was accelerated in the slightly polluted soil. In the moderately polluted soil, P release was accelerated, while Cu, Zn and Mn release was inhibited. In the seriously polluted soil, Cu and Zn release was accelerated, while the release of the other nutrients was inhibited. (2) The effect of petroleum on nutrient release from litter differed in different periods during decomposition; this was mainly due to changes in soil microorganisms and enzymes under the stress of petroleum contamination. (3) To maintain the nutrient cycling and the soil fertility of shrub lands, H. rhamnoides is only suitable for phytoremediation of soils containing less than 30 g kg(-1) of petroleum.

  2. Evaluation of the Impact of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Contamination on the Thermal Stability of Jet A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    discernible negative impact on thermal stability due to FAME contamination. 15. SUBJECT TERMS FAME, biodiesel , Jet A, contamination, FAME...in diesel fuel as world governments mandate use of sustainable sources in transportation fuels to mitigate CO2 impact and reduce dependency on crude...components has been and will continue to be through trucks and pipelines – the same transportation methods used to transport other transportation

  3. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The Middlesex Municipal Landfill is located in Middlesex, New Jersey, about 29 km southwest of Newark, New Jersey. It is one of several properties in the Borrough of Middlesex and Township of Piscataway that have been identified as being radioactively contaminated as a result of work that was carried out on various uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores at the Middlesex Sampling Plant. Most of the contaminated properties have been cleaned up and the contaminated materials are being stored in a large interim storage pile at the sampling plant site. In 1948, during some renovations at the sampling plant, about 4,600 m/sup 3/ of excess soil contaminated with uranium ore was apparently transported and disposed in the landfill gully area next to Bound Brook. In 1961, the Atomic Energy Commission removed about 500 m/sup 3/ of near-surface radioactively contaminated material from the landfill and covered the area with 0.6 m of clean soil. From 1961 to 1974 (when the landfill was closed), an additional 2.4 to 3.0 m of fill material was placed in the landfill. Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the U.S. Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 m/sup 3/ of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 m/sup 3/ was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage

  5. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule; Impact de l'environnement sur l'endommagement laser des optiques de silice du Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-15

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm{sup 2}, a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  6. CyanoHAB occurrence and water irrigation cyanotoxin contamination: ecological impacts and potential health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim

    2009-12-01

    The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms "CyanoHAB" in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water.

  7. Environmental impacts of the release of a transuranic actinide, americium-241, from a contaminated facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, J.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-10-29

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body because of its high dose conversion factor. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. In Ohio, a gemologist's laboratory was contaminated with americium-241. Prior to decontamination of the laboratory, potential radiological impacts to the surrounding environment were assessed. A hypothetical fire accident resulting in a unit release (1 curie) was assumed. Potential radiological impacts were simulated using an atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry model with local meteorological data, population census data, and detailed information regarding the neighborhood. The results indicate that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion if a major catastrophic release had occurred prior to contamination and decommissioning of the laboratory. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim

    2009-01-01

    The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms “CyanoHAB” in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water. PMID:22069535

  9. Analysis of predictors related to soil contamination in recreational areas of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagiu, C; Pica, E M; Querol, X; Botezan, C S

    2015-12-01

    Soil contamination in recreational areas can considerably affect children's health, as they are the segment of the population most sensitive to anthropogenic contamination. Soil contamination in recreational areas is influenced by a number of factors such as type and age of the recreational area, nearby traffic intensity, proximity to industrial areas, presence of vegetation, level of usage, treated wood structures, and the extent of maintenance operations carried out in the area. These can most often be observed during a simple site visit. The purpose of the present research is to analyze to which extent the presence of these factors can trigger an alarm signal, highlighting soil contamination in urban recreational areas. In this regard, soil contamination was scaled using the integrated pollution index applied on nine distinctive contaminants (As, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Hg, Co, Ni, Mg) identified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed in order to assess predictors of soil contamination. The research was carried out in a number of 88 recreational areas, parks, and playgrounds from 19 Romanian cities, revealing the fact that proximity to industrial areas and intensive traffic had statistically significant effects on soil contamination. Furthermore, it was observed that in 78 out of the 88 analyzed locations, the concentrations of contaminants exceeded the guidelines established through national legislation, thus confirming the presumption that high concentrations of contaminants exist in the parks and playgrounds of Romania.

  10. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments in China studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dingyong; Qing Changle; Shi Xiaojun; Zheng Yonghua; Li Bo; Yang Xuechun

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic non-essential element. The mercury cycling in natural environments is a complex process. In recent years, the stable mercury isotope tracer and related analytical techniques have been developed. They offer unique possibility to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in various environmental conditions. So a new co-ordinated research project (CRP) on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques has been supported by the IAEA. This paper introduces the research project whose IAEA research contract number is CPR-10874. It includes the scientific background, scope of the project, methods, some results related to this CRP and the plans for future work. (author)

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE ELEVATOR GUIDES CONTAMINATION ON THE BRAKING PROCESS DELAY FOR SELECTED PROGRESSIVE GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Longwic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ tests results on the impact of the guiding system (the guides contamination in the friction lift on the delay of progressive gears braking process are presented in this article. The tests were conducted using a free fall method and a test bench built for that purpose. In order to render all working conditions the guiding system of tested gears was lubricated with the most commonly used lubricating agents. Solid grease (SM, mineral oil (OL, the mixture of solid grease and quartz sand (S50 as well as the mixture of mineral oil and quartz sand (O50 were used.

  12. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments in China studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dingyong; Shi Xiaojun; Wei Shiqiang; Zheng Yonghua; Qing Changle

    2002-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic non-essential element. The mercury cycling in natural environments is a complex process. In recent years, the stable mercury isotope tracer and related analytical techniques have been developed. They offer unique possibility to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in various environmental conditions. So a new coordinated research project (CRP), on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques, has been supported by the IAEA. This paper introduces the research project which is IAEA research contract number CPR-10874. It includes the scientific background, scope of the project, methods, some results related to this CRP and the plans for future work. (author)

  13. Analysis of contamination in liquids hydrocarbons transport for pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Ricardo Zárate Neira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline contamination is usually understood to mean both the mixing effect produced when two different products transported by the same pipeline come into contact qith each other and often product of such mixing as well. This product os often referred to as "contamination" or as "interface" Cleary such intermixing is generally less serious in crude carrying, pipelines where each batch can become somewhat polluted by the batches inmediately preceding and immediately following without significant damage. However, the situation is different in a finished products pipeline, which may carry products as different as aircraft gasoline and light fuel oils. This article presents a brief description of the main factors influencing contamination with the objective of optimize conditions operating and to drive the more important respects about them.

  14. Assessing the Risk of Secondary Transfer Via Fingerprint Brush Contamination Using Enhanced Sensitivity DNA Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, Paula-Andrea; Tracey, Martin; McCord, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the extent of cross-contamination of DNA resulting from secondary transfer due to fingerprint brushes used on multiple items of evidence. Analysis of both standard and low copy number (LCN) STR was performed. Two different procedures were used to enhance sensitivity, post-PCR cleanup and increased cycle number. Under standard STR typing procedures, some additional alleles were produced that were not present in the controls or blanks; however, there was insufficient data to include the contaminant donor as a contributor. Inclusion of the contaminant donor did occur for one sample using post-PCR cleanup. Detection of the contaminant donor occurred for every replicate of the 31 cycle amplifications; however, using LCN interpretation recommendations for consensus profiles, only one sample would include the contaminant donor. Our results indicate that detection of secondary transfer of DNA can occur through fingerprint brush contamination and is enhanced using LCN-DNA methods. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. The unintended energy impacts of increased nitrate contamination from biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Kelly M; Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Increases in corn cultivation for biofuels production, due to the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, are likely to lead to increases in nitrate concentrations in both surface and groundwater resources in the United States. These increases might trigger the requirement for additional energy consumption for water treatment to remove the nitrates. While these increasing concentrations of nitrate might pose a human health concern, most water resources were found to be within current maximum contaminant level (MCL) limits of 10 mg L(-1) NO(3)-N. When water resources exceed this MCL, energy-intensive drinking water treatment is required to reduce nitrate levels below 10 mg L(-1). Based on prior estimates of water supplies currently exceeding the nitrate MCL, we calculate that advanced drinking water treatment might require an additional 2360 million kWh annually (for nitrate affected areas only)--a 2100% increase in energy requirements for water treatment in those same areas--to mitigate nitrate contamination and meet the MCL requirement. We predict that projected increases in nitrate contamination in water may impact the energy consumed in the water treatment sector, because of the convergence of several related trends: (1) increasing cornstarch-based ethanol production, (2) increasing nutrient loading in surface water and groundwater resources as a consequence of increased corn-based ethanol production, (3) additional drinking water sources that exceed the MCL for nitrate, and (4) potentially more stringent drinking water standards for nitrate.

  16. 78 FR 37463 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act... page 32570, with the table entitled ``ALTERNATIVE TESTING METHODS FOR CONTAMINANTS LISTED AT 40 CFR 141... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.25(a) SM 21st Edition SM 22nd Edition Contaminant Methodology \\1\\ \\28\\ ASTM...

  17. Analysis of Zinc 65 Contamination after Vacuum Thermal Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinko, Paul S.; Tosten, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive contamination with a gamma energy emission consistent with 65 Zn was detected in a glovebox following a vacuum thermal process. The contaminated components were removed from the glovebox and subjected to examination. Selected analytical techniques were used to determine the nature of the precursor material, i.e., oxide or metallic, the relative transferability of the deposit and its nature. The deposit was determined to be borne from natural zinc and was further determined to be deposited as a metallic material from vapor

  18. Behavioral Observation and Microbiological Analysis of Older Adult Consumers' Cross-Contamination Practices in a Model Domestic Kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness is higher in older adults because of their increased susceptibility; therefore, food safety practices are important. However, inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward food safety have been reported, which may increase use of unsafe food handling practices. Data on the actual food safety behaviors of older adults are lacking. In this study, food safety practices of older adults were observed and linked to microbiological analysis of kitchen surfaces to identify suspected routes of contamination. Older adults (≥60 years, n = 100) prepared a set meal in a model domestic kitchen sanitized according to a validated protocol to ensure minimal and consistent microbiological loads. Food safety behaviors were observed using ceiling-mounted cameras and recorded using a predetermined behavioral checklist. Surface microbiological contamination also was determined after food preparation. Overall, older adults frequently implemented unsafe food handling practices; 90% failed to implement adequate hand decontamination immediately after handling raw chicken. For older adults who used a larger number of adequate hand decontamination attempts, microbiological contamination levels in the kitchen following the food preparation session were significantly lower ( P food handling practices as suspected routes of microbiological cross-contamination in a model domestic kitchen. Findings indicate the potential impact on domestic food safety of unsafe food handling practices used by older adult consumers. This innovative approach revealed that a large proportion of older adults implement behaviors resulting in microbiological cross-contamination that may increase the risk of foodborne illness in the home.

  19. Impacts of biochar and oyster shells waste on the immobilization of arsenic in highly contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongshan; Xu, Jinghua; Lv, Zhengyong; Xie, Ruijia; Huang, Liumei; Jiang, Jinping

    2018-07-01

    Soil contamination is a serious problem with deleterious impacts on global sustainability. Readily available, economic, and highly effective technologies are therefore urgently needed for the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. In this study, two readily available materials prepared from bio-wastes, namely biochar and oyster shell waste, were evaluated as soil amendments to immobilize arsenic in a highly As-contaminated soil (up to 15,000 mgAs/kg). Both biochar and oyster shell waste can effectively reduce arsenic leachability in acid soils. After application of the amendments (2-4% addition, w/w), the exchangeable arsenic fraction decreased from 105.8 to 54.0 mg/kg. The application of 2%biochar +2% oyster shell waste most effectively reduced As levels in the column leaching test by reducing the arsenic concentration in the porewater by 62.3% compared with the treatment without amendments. Biochar and oyster shell waste also reduced soluble As(III) from 374.9 ± 18.8 μg/L to 185.9 ± 16.8 μg/L and As(V) from 119.8 ± 13.0 μg/L to 56.4 ± 2.6 μg/L at a pH value of 4-5. The treatment using 4% (w/w) amendments did not result in sufficient As immobilization in highly contaminated soils; high soluble arsenic concentrations (upto193.0 μg/L)were found in the soil leachate, particularly in the form of As(III), indicating a significant potential to pollute shallow groundwater aquifers. This study provides valuable insights into the use of cost-effective and readily available materials for soil remediation and investigates the mechanisms underlying arsenic immobilization in acidic soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular analysis of cross-bacterial contamination detected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the isolate Delftia acidovorans BP(R2) and it is also coupled to protein with molecular weight 25-26 KDa. As well as, this bacterial contamination was the reason for the false positive results observed during the detection of HCV infections. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 9(1) 2005: 5-10.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aflatoxicosis resulting from consumption of contaminated maize poses a significant public health problem in many countries including Kenya, and many people living in developing countries could be chronically exposed to aflatoxin through their diet. It is caused by Aflatoxins produced by fungus of species ...

  2. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis of potassium bicarbonate contaminated cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Broido

    1966-01-01

    When samples undergo a complicated set of simultaneous and sequential reactions, as cellulose does on heating, results of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses are difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, careful comparison of pure and contaminated samples, pyrolyzed under identical conditions, can yield useful information. In these experiments TGA and DTA...

  3. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  4. Effect of Wetting and Contamination of Granular Beds During Sphere Impact

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia

    2013-03-01

    This thesis presents results from an experimental study of the impact of dense solid spheres onto granular beds. The overall aim is to further our understanding of the dynamical response of granular materials to impact. In order to do this, we will study both the initial penetration stages and peak acceleration exerted on the sphere by using high-speed imaging. Another critical part is to measure the penetration depth of the sphere and calculate the corresponding depth-averaged stopping force. Both of these main focal points will be assessed for not only dry, but wet and “contaminated” grains, whereby the granular bed will be comprised of two distinct size ranges of base grains. In doing so, we aim to broadly determine whether contaminated grains or wet grains are more effective at increasing the tensile strength of granular materials.

  5. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION AT THE HANFORD SITE SX TANK FARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHALEEL R

    2007-01-01

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr -1 , is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted, groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 10 6 pCi L -1 . The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr -1 , and compared to the basecase(100 mm yr -1 ) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary

  6. Impact Assessment of Existing Vadose Zone Contamination at the Hanford Site SX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel, Raziuddin; White, Mark D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wood, Marcus I.; Mann, Frederick M.; Kristofzski, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr -1 , is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 106 pCi L-1. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr -1 , and compared to the base case (100 mm yr -1 ) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  7. Exploring Surface Analysis Techniques for the Detection of Molecular Contaminants on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Gugu N.; Seasly, Elaine; Thornblom, Mark; Baughman, James

    2016-01-01

    Molecular contamination is a known area of concern for spacecraft. To mitigate this risk, projects involving space flight hardware set requirements in a contamination control plan that establishes an allocation budget for the exposure of non-volatile residues (NVR) onto critical surfaces. The purpose of this work will focus on non-contact surface analysis and in situ monitoring to mitigate molecular contamination on space flight hardware. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) with Raman Spectroscopy, an unlikely contaminant was identified on space flight hardware. Using traditional and surface analysis methods provided the broader view of the contamination sources allowing for best fit solutions to prevent any future exposure.

  8. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  9. Environmental impact assessment: Classification of ecosystems with respect to vulnerability for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blytt, Line Diana

    1999-01-01

    This presentation recommends that an environmental impact assessment should be made ahead of any major action plan in the environment. The final document should point out to the authorities and public that expertise has been systematised in order to predict the effects of an action plan on the environment. This should be done for different scenarios and time scales. A useful tool for an environmental impact assessment is GIS, Geographic Information Systems. It can be used to identify areas and ecosystems that are vulnerable to radioactive contamination. To predict the radiation dose to humans and biota, a vulnerability assessment considers population density, land use, economic resources and the chemical and biological pathways of radionuclides in different ecosystems. Supplemented with knowledge of consumption and dietary habits a vulnerability assessment can be used to identify critical groups and to calculate doses to these groups. For ecosystems, vulnerability can be quantified by using critical loads for radioactive contamination or flux of radionuclides from an area. One criterion for critical load can be that intervention limits for food products should not be exceeded. If the critical load is low, this indicates a high vulnerability. The flux from an area can also identify vulnerability and it can be used to calculate collective dose. The vulnerability approach is a methodology that can be used to select areas that are suitable for treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive waste

  10. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are incr...

  11. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...

  12. Chemometric Analysis of Selected Organic Contaminants in Surface Water of Langat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rafaie Mohamed Zubir; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim

    2016-01-01

    Chemometric techniques namely hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were applied to the distribution of selected organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sterols, pesticides (chloropyrifos), and phenol) to assess the potential of using these organic contaminants as chemical markers in Langat River Basin. Water samples were collected from February 2012 to January 2013 on a monthly basis for nine monitoring sites along Langat River Basin. HACA was able to classify the sampling sites into three clusters which can be correlated to the level of contamination (low, moderate and high contamination sites). DA was used to discriminate the sources of contamination using the selected organic contaminants and relate to the existing DOE local activities groupings. Forward and backward stepwise DA was able to discriminate two and five organic contaminants variables, respectively, from the original 13 selected variables. The five significant variables identified using backward stepwise DA were fluorene, pyrene, stigmastanol, stigmasterol and phenol. PCA and FA (varimax functionality) were used to identify the possible sources of each organic contaminant based on the inventory of local activities. Five principal components were obtained with 66.5 % of the total variation. Result from FA indicated that PAHs (pyrene, fluorene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene) originated from industrial activity and socio-economic activities; while sterols (coprostanol, stigmastanol and stigmasterol) were associated to domestic sewage and local socio-economic activities. The occurrence of chloropyrifos was correlated to agricultural activities, urban and domestic discharges. This study showed that the application of chemometrics on the distribution of selected organic contaminants was able to trace the sources of contamination in surface water. (author)

  13. Mortality risk factor analysis in colonic perforation: would retroperitoneal contamination increase mortality in colonic perforation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ri Na; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Gun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2017-10-01

    Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014. Patient characteristics were analyzed to find risk factors correlated with increased postoperative mortality. Using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) audit system, the mortality and morbidity rates were estimated to verify the surgical outcomes. Patients with retroperitoneal contamination, defined by the presence of retroperitoneal air in the preoperative abdominopelvic CT, were compared to those without retroperitoneal contamination. Eight out of 30 patients (26.7%) with colonic perforation had died after urgent surgical treatment. Factors associated with mortality included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and the ischemic cause of colonic perforation. Three out of 6 patients (50%) who presented retroperitoneal contamination were deceased. Although the patients with retroperitoneal contamination did not show significant increase in the mortality rate, they showed significantly higher ASA physical status classification than those without retroperitoneal contamination. The mortality rate predicted from Portsmouth POSSUM was higher in the patients with retroperitoneal contamination. Patients presenting colonic perforation along with retroperitoneal contamination demonstrated severe comorbidity. However, retroperitoneal contamination was not found to be correlated with the mortality rate.

  14. Investigation of elements contamination and analysis of electrical effect of this contamination in silicon on the neutron transmutation doping in the RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjadi, U.

    1998-01-01

    The elements of the contamination on the Neutron Transmutation Doping Process (NTD) have investigated by Multi Channel Analyser (MCA). This Investigation is important to know the quality of silicon doping in NTD. We have found that Mn-45, Ga-72 and Au-198 are elements of contamination in silicon after NTD process. Analysis of electrical effect of this elements contamination on semiconductor silicon is described also in this paper

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Contaminant Dilution and Biodegradation in Uncertainty Quantification of Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Antonio; de Barros, Felipe; Fiori, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    covariance shape, reaction parameters pertaining to aerobic and anaerobic degradation processes respectively as well as the dose response parameters. Even though the final result assumes a relatively simple form, few numerical quadratures are required in order to evaluate the trajectory moments of the solute plume. In order to perform a sensitivity analysis we apply the methodology to a hypothetical case study. The scenario investigated is made by an aquifer which constitutes a water supply for a population where a continuous source of NAPL contaminant feeds a steady plume. The risk analysis is limited to carcinogenic compounds for which the well-known linear relation for human risk is assumed. Analysis performed shows few interesting findings: the risk distribution is strictly dependent on the pore scale dynamics that trigger dilution and mixing; biodegradation may involve a significant reduction of the risk.

  16. The use of radiochemical analysis for detecting biotracers of food radioactive contamination in Cherkasy Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvyijenko, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Stable biotracers of radioactive contamination according to the findings of analytical control of the foodstuffs was determined. The use of radiochemical analysis for determining the activity of the foodstuffs and water (Sr-90, Cs-137) was evaluated

  17. Soil, climate and the environment - an indissociable threesome. Soil carbon and global changes: reciprocal impacts; Carbon in all its forms; Echomicadas, a new tool to analyse carbon 14; Biotransformation of metallic trace elements by soil micro-organisms; Absorption and distribution of metallic elements in plants; Dynamics of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems; Is photo-remediation for tomorrow? Hyper-accumulator plants; Sediments, tell me the Seine history... The complex history of plant feeding by the soil; The environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatte, Christine; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Ayrault, Sophie; Balesdent, Jerome; Chapon, Virginie; Bourguignon, Jacques; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stephane; Denaix, Laurence; Nguyen, Christophe; Vavasseur, Alain; Sarrobert, Catherine; Gasperi, Johnny; Latrille, Christelle; Savoye, Sebastien; Augusto, Laurent; Conan Labbe, Annie; Bernard Michel, Bruno; Douysset, Guilhem; Toqnelli, Antoine; Vailhen, Dominique; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The articles of this file on the relationships between soils, climate and the environment discuss the reciprocal impacts of soil carbon and global changes with the objective of reduction of greenhouse effect and of increase of carbon sequestration; the various forms of carbon are presented and their properties commented ; a compact radiocarbon system (ECHoMiCADAS) is presented, developed by the Laboratory of sciences of climate and environment (LSCE) and designed for the analysis of carbon 14; an article describes how micro-organisms can play a crucial role in the transformation of soil pollutants by modifying their chemical speciation and thus their toxicity; strategies based on the absorption of metallic trace elements present in the soil to control physiological processes in plants are discussed, with applications to agriculture, food supply and to the environment; researches related to the study of effects of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems are evoked, and the reasons for a slow development of phyto-technologies, notably phyto-remediation, for pollution control and decontamination of soils and liquid media, are explained. Other themes are presented : hyper-accumulator plants which present very high contents of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) or essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni) elements, are slowly growing, and display a limited biomass, but could be used for a phyto-extraction of metals from contaminated soils; how analysis and dating of sediments can reveal the presence of contaminants, and therefore give an insight into human activities and regulations, and into their impact on the river; how plants are able to develop strategies in their search for nutrients in different types of soils, even poor ones, and presentation of the various disciplines, methods and techniques used for environmental analysis with their applications to installation and site control, or to the study of pollutant migration

  18. Olivine on Vesta as exogenous contaminants brought by impacts: Constraints from modeling Vesta's collisional history and from impact simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, D.; Svetsov, V.; Consolmagno, G.; Sirono, S.; Pirani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The survival of asteroid Vesta during the violent early history of the Solar System is a pivotal constraint on theories of planetary formation. Particularly important from this perspective is the amount of olivine excavated from the vestan mantle by impacts, as this constrains both the interior structure of Vesta and the number of major impacts the asteroid suffered during its life. The NASA Dawn mission revealed that olivine is present on Vesta's surface in limited quantities, concentrated in small patches at a handful of sites not associated with the two large impact basins Rheasilvia and Veneneia. The first detections were interpreted as the result of the excavation of endogenous olivine, even if the depth at which the detected olivine originated was a matter of debate. Later works raised instead the possibility that the olivine had an exogenous origin, based on the geologic and spectral features of the deposits. In this work, we quantitatively explore the proposed scenario of a exogenous origin for the detected vestan olivine to investigate whether its presence on Vesta can be explained as a natural outcome of the collisional history of the asteroid over the last one or more billion years. To perform this study we took advantage of the impact contamination model previously developed to study the origin and amount of dark and hydrated materials observed by Dawn on Vesta, a model we updated by performing dedicated hydrocode impact simulations. We show that the exogenous delivery of olivine by the same impacts that shaped the vestan surface can offer a viable explanation for the currently identified olivine-rich sites without violating the constraint posed by the lack of global olivine signatures on Vesta. Our results indicate that no mantle excavation is in principle required to explain the observations of the Dawn mission and support the idea that the vestan crust could be thicker than indicated by simple geochemical models based on the Howardite

  19. Analysis of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on Vannamei Shrimp using binary logit model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviana, P. P.; Fithriasari, K.

    2018-04-01

    Mostly Indonesian citizen consume vannamei shrimp as their food. Vannamei shrimp also is one of Indonesian exports comodities mainstay. Vannamei shrimp in the ponds and markets could be contaminated by Salmonella sp bacteria. This bacteria will endanger human health. Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp could be affected by many factors. This study is intended to identify what factors that supposedly influence the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp. The researchers used the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp as response variable. This response variable has two categories: 0 = if testing result indicate that there is no Salmonella sp on vannamei shrimp; 1 = if testing result indicate that there is Salmonella sp on vannamei shrimp. There are four factors that supposedly influence the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp, which are the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on farmer hand swab; the subdistrict of vannamei shrimp ponds; the fish processing unit supplied by; and the pond are in hectare. This four factors used as predictor variables. The analysis used is Binary Logit Model Approach according to the response variable that has two categories. The analysis result indicates that the factors or predictor variables which is significantly affect the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp are the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on farmer hand swab and the subdistrict of vannamei shrimp ponds.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POLYELEMENT CONTAMINATION SOIL OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T. F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern conditions, anthropogenic impact to the soil urban ecosystems is fairly stable over time and space, is manifested in various forms, as the transformation of the soil profile, the change in direction of the soil-forming processes, contamination of the various pollutants, and, above all, heavy metals (HM – elements of the first class of the danger. Their sources of the income to the urban environment are industrial enterprises, transport, housing and communal services. Determination of the anthropogenic pressure to the urban soil is carried out by the environmental assessment of the HM polyelement contamination, which allows to establish not only the fact of pollution, but also limits of the possible load with considering regional background or sanitary standards – MPC. However, until now discussions arise regarding the index which will be carried out the valuation – the cornerstone of any methodological approach to the environmental assessment of the soil polyelement contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems, which allows to establish not only the fact of contamination, but also limits the possible load, taking into account the regional background or sanitary norm – MPC. Purpose. Lies in the grounded selection of the environmental assessment indexes of the soil contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems through a comparative analysis of the existing approaches, such as the determination of the summary contamination index (SCI, the index of the soil contamination (ISC, factor imbalance (Sd, taking into account environmental safety standards and binding to the specific conditions territory. Conclusion. In summary it should be noted that it is necessary to use a set of integrated indexes, including the SCI to determine the violation of the metals content with respect to the geochemical background of zonal soil, ISC – link the contamination level with health indexes of the environmental safety

  1. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  2. Preliminary Experimental Analysis of Soil Stabilizers for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, L.; Varona, J.; Zidan, A.; Gudavalli, R.; Wu, Kuang-His

    2006-01-01

    A major focus of Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental management mission at the Hanford site involves characterizing and remediating contaminated soil and groundwater; stabilizing contaminated soil; remediating disposal sites; decontaminating and decommissioning structures, and demolishing former plutonium production process buildings, nuclear reactors, and separation plants; maintaining inactive waste sites; transitioning facilities into the surveillance and maintenance program; and mitigating effects to biological and cultural resources from site development and environmental cleanup and restoration activities. For example, a total of 470,914 metric tons of contaminated soil from 100 Areas remediation activities were disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) during 2004. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) is supporting the Hanford's site remediation program by analyzing the effectiveness of several soil stabilizers (fixatives) for contamination control during excavation activities. The study is focusing on determining the effects of varying soil conditions, temperature, humidity and wind velocity on the effectiveness of the candidate stabilizers. The test matrix consists of a soil penetration-depth study, wind tunnel experiments for determination of threshold velocity, and temperature and moisture-controlled drying/curing experiments. These three set of experiments are designed to verify performance metrics, as well as provide insight into what fundamental forces are altered by the use of the stabilizer. This paper only presents the preliminary results obtained during wind tunnel experiments using dry Hanford soil samples (with 2.7% moisture by weight). These dry soil samples were exposed to varying wind speeds from 2.22 m/sec to 8.88 m/sec. Furthermore, airborne particulate data was collected for the dry Hanford soil experiments using an aerosol analyzer instrument. (authors)

  3. Analysis of contamination conditions of the Joyo Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, S.; Ishijima, N.; Tanimoto, K.

    1999-08-01

    Decontamination methods have been studied for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility whose operation has been stopped in 1994. In this study, we analyzed samples of its system piping, whose dose rate was relatively low, to determine conditions of contamination. We also study appropriate decontamination methods for them. Results are as follows. 1. The inner surfaces of piping were covered with a very thin clad that was less than 1 micrometer in thickness and had many vacancies, looked like particle detachment, which were about 20 micrometers in depth. Something like corrosion product was observed near the surface and it was 440 micrometers in depth. 2. Radioactive contamination was considered to settle on a lower part of the piping and to be buried in the clad. A kind of dominant contamination nuclide was 60 Co. 3. Hot nitric acid process will be suitable for system decontamination to reduce dose rate before dismantling. But its feasibility tests are indispensable using samples of main system components that have high dose rate. Rubber lining tanks requires another methods because of its difficulty of decontamination. 4. Analyses and decontamination tests using main system are required to decide through decontamination methods according to the clearance level. (author)

  4. Modeling emissions and dispersion of contaminants from cleanup activities at a mixed waste site to estimate air impacts and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.; Menlove, S.

    1993-09-01

    The transport and dispersion of contaminants via the air pathway is a major concern during cleanup of contaminated sites. Impacts to air quality and human health during cleanup were evaluated for the Weldon Spring site by using site-specific information for source areas, activities, and receptor locations. In order to ensure protection of human health and the environment, results are being used to focus on those cleanup activities for which release controls should be emphasized

  5. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination using river sediment cores of Nankan River, northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, An-Sheng; Lu, Wei-Li; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Chang, Queenie; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Lin, Chin-Jung; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Through the geology and climate characteristic in Taiwan, generally rivers carry a lot of suspended particles. After these particles settled, they become sediments which are good sorbent for heavy metals in river system. Consequently, sediments can be found recording contamination footprint at low flow energy region, such as estuary. Seven sediment cores were collected along Nankan River, northern Taiwan, which is seriously contaminated by factory, household and agriculture input. Physico-chemical properties of these cores were derived from Itrax-XRF Core Scanner and grain size analysis. In order to interpret these complex data matrices, the multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis) were introduced to this study. Through the statistical determination, the result indicates four types of sediment. One of them represents contamination event which shows high concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe, and low concentration of Si and Zr. Furthermore, three possible contamination sources of this type of sediment were revealed by Factor Analysis. The combination of sediment analysis and multivariate statistical techniques used provides new insights into the contamination depositional history of Nankan River and could be similarly applied to other river systems to determine the scale of anthropogenic contamination.

  6. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  7. Arsenic transfer and impacts on snails exposed to stabilized and untreated As-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeurdassier, M.; Scheifler, R.; Mench, M.; Crini, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2010-01-01

    An As-contaminated soil (Unt) was amended with either iron grit (Z), a coal fly ash (beringite, B) or B + Z (BZ) and placed in lysimeters in 1997. An uncontaminated soil (R) was also studied. In summer and autumn 2003, lettuces were cultivated in the lysimeters and snails were caged for one month. Lettuce As concentrations were higher during the summer, while no differences occurred in snails between seasons. Snail As concentrations (μg g -1 DW) ranged from 2.5 to 7.0 in B, Z and BZ, and peaked at 17.5 in Unt. In summer, snail survival was affected in Unt and Z compared to R and B while no mortality was noticed in autumn. Snail growth decreased only in B, BZ and Unt in autumn. Snail As concentrations suggest a risk for their predators even on the remediated soils. - The addition of beringite along with iron grit into an As-contaminated soil decreases As transfer to and impacts on snails.

  8. Impact of clay mineral on air oxidation of PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Kouadio, Olivier; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Faure, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    This work investigated the impact of a clay mineral (bentonite) on the air oxidation of the solvent extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the PAHs from contaminated soils. EOMs were isolated from two coking plant soils and mixed with silica sand or bentonite. These samples, as well as raw soils and bentonite/soil mixtures, were oxidized in air at 60 and 100 °C for 160 days. Mineralization was followed by measuring the CO2 produced over the experiments. EOM, polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC), including PAH, contents were also determined. Oxidation led to a decrease in EOM contents and PAH concentrations, these diminutions were enhanced by the presence of bentonite. Transfer of carbon from EOM to insoluble organic matter pointed out a condensation phenomenon leading to a stabilization of the contamination. Higher mineralization rates, observed during the oxidation of the soil/bentonite mixtures, seem to indicate that this clay mineral had a positive influence on the transformation of PAC into CO2.

  9. Metal impacts on microbial biomass in the anoxic sediments of a contaminated lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Nolan, Melissa A.; Gaillard, Jean-Francois; Stahl, David A.

    2008-04-26

    Little is known about the long-term impacts of metal contamination on the microbiota of anoxic lake sediments. In this study, we examined microbial biomass and metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc) in the sediments of Lake DePue, a backwater lake located near a former zinc smelter. Sediment core samples were examined using two independent measures for microbial biomass (total microscopic counts and total phospholipid-phosphate concentrations), and for various fractions of each metal (pore water extracts, sequential extractions, and total extracts of all studied metals and zinc speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Zinc concentrations were up to 1000 times higher than reported for sediments in the adjacent Illinois River, and ranged from 21,400 mg/kg near the source to 1,680 mg/kg near the river. However, solid metal fractions were not well correlated with pore water concentrations, and were not good predictors of biomass concentrations. Instead, biomass, which varied among sites by as much as two-times, was inversely correlated with concentrations of pore water zinc and arsenic as established by multiple linear regression. Monitoring of other parameters known to naturally influence biomass in sediments (e.g., organic carbon concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, pH, sediment texture, and macrophytes) revealed no differences that could explain observed biomass trends. This study provides strong support for control of microbial abundance by pore water metal concentrations in contaminated freshwater sediments.

  10. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  11. Uranium-contaminated soils: Ultramicrotomy and electron beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium contaminated soils from the Fernald Operation Site, Ohio, have been examined by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). A method is described for preparing of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin sections by ultramicrotomy. By using these thin sections, SEM and TEM images can be compared directly. Uranium was found in iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite. Little uranium was associated with clays. The distribution of uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level

  12. MOLFLUX analysis of the SSF electrical power system contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognion, Rita L.

    1991-01-01

    The external induced contamination of Space Station Freedom's electrical power system surfaces is assessed using a molecular flow evaluation code, MOLFLUX. Outgassing rates are compared to available experimental data, and deposition to the midregion of both the solar array and the photovoltaic power module thermal control system radiator is calculated using a constant sticking coefficient. An estimate of annual deposition to the solar array due to outgassing is found to be 10 percent of the Space Station Freedom program requirement for maximum allowable deposition, while annual deposition to the radiator is approximately equal to the requirement.

  13. Inorganic Contaminants Associated with the Extraction of Unconventional Gas.Initial Analysis and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.; Hurtado, A.; Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are driving a commercial scale extraction of unconventional fossil fuels in various regions of the world. Europe's position in relation to the exploitation of unconventional fossil fuels is this has to be made under a paradigm of coherence between the technical and economic-financial aspects and environments and public trust, which are essential and which will eventually would enable the viability of exploiting these resources.This requires, by those decision makers, both industry and regulators, a comprehensive management of the risks associated with these exploitations, which implies the need to develop tools of analysis and assessment to environmental impact and risk. The exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbons in formations of shale requires the creation of a network of artificial fractures to connect with production well Horizontal wells are drilled for this purpose and go on for several km into the shale formation. During drilling, a mixture of oil, gas and formation water is pumped to the surface. The water is separated from oil and gas in tanks or pools. The flowback and produced water contains different kinds of chemicals in varying concentrations: salt, oil and other organic compounds, suspended solids, bacteria, naturally occurring radioactive elements (NORM), and any element injected with the fracturing fluid. The concentration of these elements in the water may be increased due to the treatments suffered by flowback and produced water for disposal. Due to the large variability of contaminants in the flowback and produced water and the potentially large volumes involved, the determination of the its composition is essential for proper management of them and to prevent health, safety and environmental risks. This report covers the risk analysis of an unconventional gas extraction project, the initial assessment of the risks associated with the use and management of

  14. Impact of Saw Dust Application on the Distribution of Potentially Toxic Metals in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awokunmi, Emmmanuel E

    2017-12-01

    The need to develop an approach for the reclamation of contaminated site using locally available agricultural waste has been considered. The present study investigated the application of sawdust as an effective amendment in the immobilization of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) by conducting a greenhouse experiment on soil collected from an automobile dumpsite. The amended and non-amended soil samples were analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and sequential extraction of PTMs. The results revealed that application of amendment had positive impact on the physicochemical parameters as organic matter content and cation exchange capacity increased from 12.1% to 12.8% and 16.4 to 16.8 meq/100 g respectively. However, the mobility and bioavalability of these metals was reduced as they were found to be distributed mostly in the non-exchangeable phase of soil. Therefore, application of sawdust successfully immobilized PTMs and could be applied for future studies in agricultural soil reclamation.

  15. Feasibility study of X-ray K-edge analysis of RCRA heavy metal contamination of sludge packaged in drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, T.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been completed to assess the capabilities of X-ray K-edge analysis in the measurement of RCRA metal contamination of sludge packaged in drums. Results were obtained for mercury and lead contamination. It was not possible to measure cadmium contamination using this technique. No false positive signals were observed. In cases where uniformity of the sludge can be assumed, this analysis can provide a quick, accurate measurement of heavy-metal contamination

  16. Advancements and application of immunosensors in the analysis of food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. SHOFIUL AZAM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Azam MS, Rahman MRT, Lou Z, Tang Y, Raqib SM, Jothi JS. 2014. Advancements and application of immunosensors in the analysis of food contaminants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 186-195. Immunosensors are affinity ligand-based biosensor solid-state devices in which the immunochemical reaction is coupled to a transducer. The fundamental basis of all immunosensors is the specificity of the molecular recognition of antigens by antibodies to form a stable complex. This is similar to the immunoassay methodology. Immunosensors can be categorized based on the detection principle applied. The main developments are electrochemical, optical, and microgravimetric immunosensors. In contrast to immunoassay, modern transducer technology enables the label-free detection and quantification of the immune complex. The analysis of trace substances in environmental science, pharmaceutical and food industries is a challenge since many of these applications demand a continuous monitoring mode. The use of immunosensors in these applications is most appropriate. Food chemists should take advantage of immunosensors in food and clinical diagnostics. There are many recent developments in the immunosensor field which have potential impacts. The future role of this technique in intra-laboratory, as well as bedside testing, will become even more important as the food laboratory is faced with increasing pressure to contain costs. Objective of this paper is to give a general overview of the possible application of immunosensors to the food analysis field.

  17. Monitoring of Urban Soil Contamination under Various Technogenic Impact: Comparison of the Two Seaside Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Mykola; Krivitska, Ivetta; Hladkikh, Yevgenia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the research was to show how the environmental policy of city can affect the quality of soils. Studies were carried out simultaneously in the two cities of Ukrainian coast of the Azov Sea, which are significantly different in terms of technogenic impact. Berdyansk is a well known resort and wellness center, but until recently around 30 petrochemical, machine-building and other enterprises were located there. The largest industrial center Mariupol, where emissions from enterprises to the atmosphere exceed 300 thousand tons per year, is located about 60 km from Berdyansk in similar natural conditions. Observations of soil contamination was performed on 60 monitoring sites not less than 2500 m2, located in industrial, administrative, cultural, residential and recreational zones of each city. The time series of observations: the first stage in 2002-2003, the second in 2007-2008, third in 2012-2014. The available forms of heavy metals in the soils were determined by atomic-absorption method after extraction of buffer solution with pH 4.8 as well as 1 N HCl. The content of mineral salts in a water extract was measured titrimetrically. The content of heavy metals in grass vegetation and phytotoxicity of soil was determined in 50% of monitoring sites. Since 2002-2003, the level of soil contamination in the industrial zones of Berdyansk gradually decreased, but heavy metals began accumulate in soils of residential, cultural and administrative areas, and especially, in recreation objects. Probably, this is related to the reduction of the industrial sector and the increase of resort and tourist business. Consequently, the content of cadmium, chromium, and nickel in soils is reduced, but the content of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) increases. Currently the contamination of plants becomes less so the quality of local agricultural products is improved. In contrast to this, due to the intensive activity of the enterprises of iron and steel industry in Mariupol the level

  18. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Drew R; Keteles, Kristen; Beihoffer, Jon; Cavallin, Jenna E; Dahlin, Kenneth; Davis, John M; Jastrow, Aaron; Lazorchak, James M; Mills, Marc A; Murphy, Mark; Nguyen, David; Vajda, Alan M; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Winkelman, Dana L; Collette, Timothy W

    2018-08-01

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are increasingly being used to complement routine chemical monitoring. This study was initiated to assess the ability of both targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring tools to discriminate impacts of two adjacent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Colorado's South Platte River. A cell-based estrogen assay (in vitro, targeted) determined that water samples collected downstream of the larger of the two WWTPs displayed considerable estrogenic activity in its two separate effluent streams. Hepatic vitellogenin mRNA expression (in vivo, targeted) and NMR-based metabolomic analyses (in vivo, untargeted) from caged male fathead minnows also suggested estrogenic activity downstream of the larger WWTP, but detected significant differences in responses from its two effluent streams. The metabolomic results suggested that these differences were associated with oxidative stress levels. Finally, partial least squares regression was used to explore linkages between the metabolomics responses and the chemical contaminants that were detected at the sites. This analysis, along with univariate statistical approaches, identified significant covariance between the biological endpoints and estrone concentrations, suggesting the importance of this contaminant and recommending increased focus on its presence in the environment. These results underscore the benefits of a combined targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring strategy when used alongside contaminant monitoring to more effectively assess ecological impacts of exposures to complex mixtures in surface waters. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Gravity models to classify commuting vs. resident workers. An application to the analysis of residential risk in a contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The analysis of risk for the population residing and/or working in contaminated areas raises the topic of commuting. In fact, especially in contaminated areas, commuting groups are likely to be subject to lower exposure than residents. Only very recently environmental epidemiology has started considering the role of commuting as a differential source of exposure in contaminated areas. In order to improve the categorization of groups, this paper applies a gravitational model to the analysis of residential risk for workers in the Gela petrochemical complex, which began life in the early 60s in the municipality of Gela (Sicily, Italy) and is the main source of industrial pollution in the local area. Results A logistic regression model is implemented to measure the capacity of Gela "central location" to attract commuting flows from other sites. Drawing from gravity models, the proposed methodology: a) defines the probability of finding commuters from municipalities outside Gela as a function of the origin's "economic mass" and of its distance from each destination; b) establishes "commuting thresholds" relative to the origin's mass. The analysis includes 367 out of the 390 Sicilian municipalities. Results are applied to define "commuters" and "residents" within the cohort of petrochemical workers. The study population is composed of 5,627 workers. Different categories of residence in Gela are compared calculating Mortality Rate Ratios for lung cancer through a Poisson regression model, controlling for age and calendar period. The mobility model correctly classifies almost 90% of observations. Its application to the mortality analysis confirms a major risk for lung cancer associated with residence in Gela. Conclusions Commuting is a critical aspect of the health-environment relationship in contaminated areas. The proposed methodology can be replicated to different contexts when residential information is lacking or unreliable; however, a careful consideration

  20. Gravity models to classify commuting vs. resident workers. An application to the analysis of residential risk in a contaminated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rocca Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of risk for the population residing and/or working in contaminated areas raises the topic of commuting. In fact, especially in contaminated areas, commuting groups are likely to be subject to lower exposure than residents. Only very recently environmental epidemiology has started considering the role of commuting as a differential source of exposure in contaminated areas. In order to improve the categorization of groups, this paper applies a gravitational model to the analysis of residential risk for workers in the Gela petrochemical complex, which began life in the early 60s in the municipality of Gela (Sicily, Italy and is the main source of industrial pollution in the local area. Results A logistic regression model is implemented to measure the capacity of Gela "central location" to attract commuting flows from other sites. Drawing from gravity models, the proposed methodology: a defines the probability of finding commuters from municipalities outside Gela as a function of the origin's "economic mass" and of its distance from each destination; b establishes "commuting thresholds" relative to the origin's mass. The analysis includes 367 out of the 390 Sicilian municipalities. Results are applied to define "commuters" and "residents" within the cohort of petrochemical workers. The study population is composed of 5,627 workers. Different categories of residence in Gela are compared calculating Mortality Rate Ratios for lung cancer through a Poisson regression model, controlling for age and calendar period. The mobility model correctly classifies almost 90% of observations. Its application to the mortality analysis confirms a major risk for lung cancer associated with residence in Gela. Conclusions Commuting is a critical aspect of the health-environment relationship in contaminated areas. The proposed methodology can be replicated to different contexts when residential information is lacking or unreliable

  1. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  2. Uranium-contaminated soils: Ultramicrotomy and electron beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Site, Ohio, have been examined by a combination of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging (SEM/BSE) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The inhomogeneous distribution of particulate uranium phases in the soil required the development of a method for using ultramicrotomy to prepare transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin sections of the SEM mounts. A water-miscible resin was selected that allowed comparison between SEM and TEM images, permitting representative sampling of the soil. Uranium was found in iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite (UO 2 ). No uranium was detected in association with phyllosilicates in the soil

  3. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a hypothetical dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Working Group of BIOMOVS II was initiated in Vienna in 1991 with the primary objective of comparing models which can be used to assess the long term impact of radioactive releases from uranium mill tailings, involving multiple pathways, multiple contaminants and multiple environmental receptors. A secondary objective was to examine how these models can be used to assess the fate of stable toxic elements. This is an interim report of the Working Group describing: development of a basic scenario describing a tailings system; application of models in deterministic calculations of contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks; comparison of model results and review of the modelling. A hypothetical scenario has been developed for contaminant releases from a uranium mill tailings facility. The assumptions for the tailings facility and its environs have been chosen to facilitate the evaluation of potentially important processes incorporated into models. The site description is therefore idealised and does not represent any particular facility or type of facility. Atmospheric and groundwater release source terms have been chosen to facilitate comparison of models and should not be considered realistic. The time and effort taken over derivation of the scenario description and the associated preliminary modelling has been an important and valuable learning exercise. It also reflects the importance of gaining a clear picture of what is being modelled so that comparisons of model results are meaningful. Work within the exercise has contributed to new model development and to improvements and extensions to existing models. The scenario is a simplified description of a real facility and the releases which might occur. No allowance has been made for engineered features on the tailings disposal system which might reduce releases. The source terms have been chosen so as to test the models

  4. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a hypothetical dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, H [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; and others

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Working Group of BIOMOVS II was initiated in Vienna in 1991 with the primary objective of comparing models which can be used to assess the long term impact of radioactive releases from uranium mill tailings, involving multiple pathways, multiple contaminants and multiple environmental receptors. A secondary objective was to examine how these models can be used to assess the fate of stable toxic elements. This is an interim report of the Working Group describing: development of a basic scenario describing a tailings system; application of models in deterministic calculations of contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks; comparison of model results and review of the modelling. A hypothetical scenario has been developed for contaminant releases from a uranium mill tailings facility. The assumptions for the tailings facility and its environs have been chosen to facilitate the evaluation of potentially important processes incorporated into models. The site description is therefore idealised and does not represent any particular facility or type of facility. Atmospheric and groundwater release source terms have been chosen to facilitate comparison of models and should not be considered realistic. The time and effort taken over derivation of the scenario description and the associated preliminary modelling has been an important and valuable learning exercise. It also reflects the importance of gaining a clear picture of what is being modelled so that comparisons of model results are meaningful. Work within the exercise has contributed to new model development and to improvements and extensions to existing models. The scenario is a simplified description of a real facility and the releases which might occur. No allowance has been made for engineered features on the tailings disposal system which might reduce releases. The source terms have been chosen so as to test the models

  5. Intrinsic bacterial biodegradation of petroleum contamination demonstrated in situ using natural abundance, molecular-level 14C analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.F.; Nelson, R.K.; Kile, B.M.; Reddy, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural abundance, molecular-level C 14 analysis was combined with comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) to investigate, in situ, the role of intrinsic biodegradation in the loss of petroleum hydrocarbons from the rocky, inter-tidal zone impacted by the Bouchard 120 oil spill. GC x GC analysis indicated accelerated losses of n-alkane components of the residual petroleum hydrocarbons between day 40 and day 50 after the spill. 14 C analysis of bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) from the impacted zone on day 44 showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids attributed to the photoautotrophic component of the microbial community had the same ( 14 C as the local dissolved inorganic carbon (DIG), indicating that this DIG was their carbon source. In contrast there was significant (C depletion in the saturated and mono-unsaturated PLFA indicating incorporation of petroleum carbon. This correlation between the observed accelerated n-alkane losses and microbial incorporation of (C-depleted carbon directly demonstrated, in situ, that intrinsic biodegradation was affecting the petroleum. Since the majority of organic contaminants originate from petroleum feed-stocks, in situ molecular-level 14 C analysis of microbial PLFA can provide insights into the occurrence and pathways of biodegradation of a wide range of organic contaminants. (Author)

  6. Improved removal of blood contamination from ThinPrep cervical cytology samples for Raman spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Damien; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Martin, Cara M; O'Leary, John J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2018-05-01

    There is an unmet need for methods to help in the early detection of cervical precancer. Optical spectroscopy-based techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, have shown great potential for diagnosis of different cancers, including cervical cancer. However, relatively few studies have been carried out on liquid-based cytology (LBC) pap test specimens and confounding factors, such as blood contamination, have been identified. Previous work reported a method to remove blood contamination before Raman spectroscopy by pretreatment of the slides with hydrogen peroxide. The aim of the present study was to extend this work to excessively bloody samples to see if these could be rendered suitable for Raman spectroscopy. LBC ThinPrep specimens were treated by adding hydrogen peroxide directly to the vial before slide preparation. Good quality Raman spectra were recorded from negative and high grade (HG) cytology samples with no blood contamination and with heavy blood contamination. Good classification between negative and HG cytology could be achieved for samples with no blood contamination (sensitivity 92%, specificity 93%) and heavy blood contamination (sensitivity 89%, specificity 88%) with poorer classification when samples were combined (sensitivity 82%, specificity 87%). This study demonstrates for the first time the improved potential of Raman spectroscopy for analysis of ThinPrep specimens regardless of blood contamination. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  7. First comparative analysis concerning the plasma platelet contamination during MNC collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Hella; Achenbach, Susanne; Strobel, Julian; Zimmermann, Robert; Eckstein, Reinhold; Strasser, Erwin F

    2017-08-01

    Monocytes can be cultured into dendritic cells with addition of autologous plasma, which is highly prone to platelet contamination due to the apheresis process. Since platelets affect the maturation process of monocytes into dendritic cells and might even lead to a diminished harvest of dendritic cells, it is very important to reduce the platelet contamination. A new collection device (Spectra Optia) was analyzed, compared to two established devices (COM.TEC, Cobe Spectra) and evaluated regarding the potential generation of source plasma. Concurrent plasma collected during leukapheresis was analyzed for residual cell contamination in a prospective study with the new Spectra Optia apheresis device (n=24) and was compared with COM.TEC and Cobe Spectra data (retrospective analysis, n=72). Donor pre-donation counts of platelets were analyzed for their predictive value of contaminating PLTs in plasma harvests. The newest apheresis device showed the lowest residual platelet count of the collected concurrent plasma (median 3.50×10 9 /l) independent of pre-donation counts. The other two devices and sets had a higher platelet contamination. The contamination of the plasma with leukocytes was very low (only 2.0% were higher than 0.5×10 9 /l). This study showed a significant reduction of platelet contamination of the concurrent plasma collected with the new Spectra Optia device. This plasma product with low residual platelets and leukocytes might also be used as plasma for fractionation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  9. Image Analysis in the Field of Oil Contamination Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ceco, Ema

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring wear particles in lubricating oils allows specialists to evaluate thehealth and functionality of a mechanical system. The main analysis techniquesavailable today are manual particle analysis and automatic optical analysis. Man-ual particle analysis is effective and reliable since the analyst continuously seeswhat is being counted . The drawback is that the technique is quite time demand-ing and dependent of the skills of the analyst. Automatic optical particle countingconstitutes o...

  10. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  11. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg -1 and 362 mgCu kg -1 ) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg -1 and 908 mgZn kg -1 ) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. → Compost increased the mobility of As. → Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. → These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  12. 75 FR 32295 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act... methods for use in measuring the levels of contaminants in drinking water and determining compliance with... required to measure contaminants in drinking water samples. In addition, EPA Regions as well as States and...

  13. Analysis of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Cover Glass Samples Before and After Treatment with Advanced Satellite Contamination Removal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    surface analysis, 40 contamination control, ANCC ( Aerogel Mesh Contamination Collector) iPRICECODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 1 & SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...operational parameter space (temperature, vibration, radiation, vacuum and micrometorite environments). One embodiment of this device, the Aerogel Mesh...Lippey and Dan Demeo of Hughes Aircraft Corporation for their kind hospitality and research collaboration on the contamination removal phase of this work

  14. Decision making support of the management of technogenically contaminated territories basing on risk analysis with use of geographic information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Overall questions of decision making support of the contaminated territories management on a basis of risk assessment were considered. Characteristics and possibilities of the applied geoinformation system of decision making support PRANA developed for the risk control and rehabilitation of contaminated territories are demonstrated. The PRANA system involves estimations of all fundamental characteristics of risk during analysis of results and contaminated territories management [ru

  15. Material Cycles and Chemicals: Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of Contaminants in Paper Recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    material source-segregation and collection was the least effective strategy for reducing chemical contamination, if the overall recycling rates should be maintained at the current level (approximately 70% for Europe). The study provides a consistent approach for evaluating contaminant levels in material......This study provides a systematic approach for assessment of contaminants in materials for recycling. Paper recycling is used as an illustrative example. Three selected chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), are evaluated within the paper...... cycle. The approach combines static material flow analysis (MFA) with dynamic material and substance flow modeling. The results indicate that phasing out of chemicals is the most effective measure for reducing chemical contamination. However, this scenario was also associated with a considerable lag...

  16. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging coupled with multivariate image analysis techniques for contaminant screening of leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Colm D.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoyoung

    2014-05-01

    The production of contaminant free fresh fruit and vegetables is needed to reduce foodborne illnesses and related costs. Leafy greens grown in the field can be susceptible to fecal matter contamination from uncontrolled livestock and wild animals entering the field. Pathogenic bacteria can be transferred via fecal matter and several outbreaks of E.coli O157:H7 have been associated with the consumption of leafy greens. This study examines the use of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging coupled with multivariate image analysis to detect fecal contamination on Spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea). Hyperspectral fluorescence images from 464 to 800 nm were captured; ultraviolet excitation was supplied by two LED-based line light sources at 370 nm. Key wavelengths and algorithms useful for a contaminant screening optical imaging device were identified and developed, respectively. A non-invasive screening device has the potential to reduce the harmful consequences of foodborne illnesses.

  17. Chelating impact assessment of biological ad chemical chelates on metal extraction from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manwar, S.; Iram, S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination is the result of uncontrolled waste dumping and poor practices by humans. Of all the pollutants heavy metals are of particular concern due to their atmospheric deposition, leaching capacity and non-biodegradability. Heavy metal containing effluent is discharged into the agricultural fields and water bodies. This results in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and the crops grown on that soil. Studies have revealed detrimental impacts on soil fertility and the poor health of animals and humans. Phytoextraction is widely researched for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of phytoextraction heavy metals have to be available to the plants in soluble form. In this study the potential of different chelating agents was assessed in solubilizing the heavy metals making easy for plants to uptake them. For this purpose efficient chemical and biological chelating agent had to be identified. Along with that an optimum dose and application time for chemical chelating agent was determined. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Nitriloacetic acid (NTA) were applied to the soil, containing Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd, at different concentrations and application time. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were incubated in soil for different time periods. In correspondence with findings of the study, Pb and Cr were best solubilized by 5mM EDTA. For Cd and Cu 5mM DTPA carried out efficient chelation. NTA showed relatively inadequate solubilisation, although for Cr it performed equal to EDTA. A. niger and A. flavus instead of solubilizing adsorbed the metals in their biomass. Adsorption was mainly carried out by A. niger. (author)

  18. Perched aquifers - their potential impact on contaminant transport in the southern High Plains, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullican, W.F. III; Fryar, A.E.; Johns, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of perched aquifers at potential and known contaminated waste sites has become increasingly important because of the impact these aquifers may have on contaminant transport independent of regional aquifer processes. Investigations of a perched aquifer above the Ogallala aquifer are being conducted in the region of the U.S. Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, a proposed Superfund site, located approximately 20 mi northeast of Amarillo, Texas. Since the early 1950s, a small playa basin located on the Pantex Plant has been used as a waste-water discharge pond with daily discharge rates ranging from 400,000 to 1 million gal. The focus of this investigation is an unconfined, perched aquifer that overlies a thick silty clay sequence within the upper, mostly unsaturated part of the Ogallala Formation (Neogene). In the area of the Pantex Plant, measured depths to the perched aquifer range from 200 to 300 ft below land surface, whereas depth to the regional Ogallala aquifer ranges from 375 to 500 ft. The potentiometric surface of the perched aquifer typically represents groundwater mounds proximal to the playas and thins into trough in the interplaya areas. Hydrologic gradients of the primary mound under investigation are relatively high, ranging from 28 to 45 ft/mi. Calculated transmissivities have a geometric mean of 54 ft 2 /day, with saturated thicknesses ranging from 4 to 1000 ft. Modeling of the perched aquifer was designed to determine how much, if any, discharge to the small playa basin has enhanced recharge to the perched aquifers and increased the vertical and lateral extent of the perched aquifer. Preliminary results indicate that measurements of vertical conductance through the perching silty-clay sequence and recharge rates through playas are critical for calibrating the model. Accurate delineation of rates and flow directions in the perched aquifer is critical to any successful remediation effort

  19. Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

  20. Temporal variations in natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in eutrophic river sediments impacted by a contaminated groundwater plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Kuhn, T.; Vos, J.; Maesen, M.; Kalka, H.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Meckenstock, R.U.; Dejonghe, W.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater base flow. Biotrans formation, sorption and dilution of CAHs in the impacted river sediments have been reported to reduce discharge, but the effect of temporal variations in environmental conditions on

  1. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton’s

  2. Soil contamination in the impact zone of mining enterprises in the Bashkir Transural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekunova, M. G.; Somov, V. V.; Papyan, E. E.

    2017-06-01

    The results of long-term studies of the contents of bulk forms of metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, and Cd) and their mobile compounds in soils of background and human-disturbed areas within the Krasnoural'sk-Sibai-Gai copper-zinc and Baimak-Buribai mixed copper mineralization zones in the Bashkir Transural region are discussed. It is shown that soils of the region are characterized by abnormally high natural total contents of heavy metals (HMs) typomorphic for ore mineralization: Cu, Zn, and Fe for the Sibai province and Cu, Zn, and Ni for the Baimak province. In the case of a shallow depth of the ores, the concentrations of HMs in the soils are close to or higher than the tentative permissible concentration values. The concentrations of mobile HM compounds in soils of background areas and their percentage in the total HM content strongly vary from year to year in dependence on weather conditions, position in the soil catenas, species composition of vegetation, and distance from the source of technogenic contamination. The high natural variability in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils complicates the reliable determination of the regional geochemical background and necessitates annual estimation of background parameters for the purposes of the ecological monitoring of soils. The bulk content of Cu and Zn content in soils near mining enterprises exceeds the regional geochemical background values by 2-12 times and the tentative permissible concentrations of these metals by 2-4 times. Anthropogenic contamination results in a sharp rise in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils. Their highest concentrations exceed the maximum permissible concentrations by 26 times for Cu, 18 times for Zn, and 2 times for Pb. Soil contamination in the impact zone of mining enterprises is extremely dangerous or dangerous. However, because of the high temporal variability in the migration and accumulation of HMs in the soils, the recent decline in the ore mining

  3. Analysis of contaminating elements in tree rings in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romo-Kroeger, C.M.; Avila, M.J.; Eaton, L.C.; Lopez, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using the 22'' isochronous cyclotron at the University of Chile, we have performed PIXE analyses on a group of samples collected from trees of metropolitan parks in Santiago. Dendrochronology was performed on each sample, which was then sectioned for the PIXE and other analyses, neutron activation and electro-chemistry. Available samples are trunk sections or cores obtained by the use of a 4.0 mm stainless steel incremental corer. We took three cores from each tree with permission of the municipalities. For the PIXE we use infinitely thick targets, as wood slabs taken along the trunk radius, and thin targets obtained by acid digestion of wood pieces and deposition on Kapton foils. Self supporting thick targets were placed directly in the PIXE chamber in a position so as to allow the irradiation of a specific annual ring. Potassium and Calcium appear as the most abundant elements in wood. Other elements such as S, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb were detected in amounts above the natural background in wood, and can be attributed to environmental contamination. The K/Ca ratios appear to be different for each species of tree, and seem to be related to the physico-chemical properties of wood. Preliminary results show important amounts of As and Cu (supposedly from mining origin) with increasing presence in the recent years. Pb and Zn (supposedly from vehicle origin) are also higher in recent years. (author)

  4. Analysis of contaminating elements in tree rings in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo-Kroeger, C.M.; Avila, M.J.; Eaton, L.C.; Lopez, L.A. [Faculty of Sciences. Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    Using the 22`` isochronous cyclotron at the University of Chile, we have performed PIXE analyses on a group of samples collected from trees of metropolitan parks in Santiago. Dendrochronology was performed on each sample, which was then sectioned for the PIXE and other analyses, neutron activation and electro-chemistry. Available samples are trunk sections or cores obtained by the use of a 4.0 mm stainless steel incremental corer. We took three cores from each tree with permission of the municipalities. For the PIXE we use infinitely thick targets, as wood slabs taken along the trunk radius, and thin targets obtained by acid digestion of wood pieces and deposition on Kapton foils. Self supporting thick targets were placed directly in the PIXE chamber in a position so as to allow the irradiation of a specific annual ring. Potassium and Calcium appear as the most abundant elements in wood. Other elements such as S, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb were detected in amounts above the natural background in wood, and can be attributed to environmental contamination. The K/Ca ratios appear to be different for each species of tree, and seem to be related to the physico-chemical properties of wood. Preliminary results show important amounts of As and Cu (supposedly from mining origin) with increasing presence in the recent years. Pb and Zn (supposedly from vehicle origin) are also higher in recent years. (author)

  5. Flow cytometric analysis of microbial contamination in food industry technological lines--initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józwa, Wojciech; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-04-02

    Flow cytometry constitutes an alternative for traditional methods of microorganisms identification and analysis, including methods requiring cultivation step. It enables the detection of pathogens and other microorganisms contaminants without the need to culture microbial cells meaning that the sample (water, waste or food e.g. milk, wine, beer) may be analysed directly. This leads to a significant reduction of time required for analysis allowing monitoring of production processes and immediate reaction in case of contamination or any disruption occurs. Apart from the analysis of raw materials or products on different stages of manufacturing process, the flow cytometry seems to constitute an ideal tool for the assessment of microbial contamination on the surface of technological lines. In the present work samples comprising smears from 3 different surfaces of technological lines from fruit and vegetable processing company from Greater Poland were analysed directly with flow cytometer. The measured parameters were forward and side scatter of laser light signals allowing the estimation of microbial cell contents in each sample. Flow cytometric analysis of the surface of food industry production lines enable the preliminary evaluation of microbial contamination within few minutes from the moment of sample arrival without the need of sample pretreatment. The presented method of fl ow cytometric initial evaluation of microbial state of food industry technological lines demonstrated its potential for developing a robust, routine method for the rapid and labor-saving detection of microbial contamination in food industry.

  6. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Predrag R.; Čalenić Aleksandar I.; Polomčić Dušan M.; Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric bor...

  7. Assessment of the potential radiological impact of residual contamination in the Maralinga and Emu areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.; Smith, J.

    1990-10-01

    The report presents an assessment of potential doses to future inhabitants of the Maralinga and Emu areas of Southern Australia, where nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s resulted in widespread residual radioactive contamination. Annual effective doses of several millisieverts would be expected to result from continual occupancy within contours enclosing areas of several hundred square kilometres. Larger predicted annual effective doses - of the order of 0.5 Sv -would be expected to occur from 100% occupancy in small regions immediately surrounding the test sites, but continual occupancy of such areas is highly unlikely because of their small size. The most significant dose pathways are inhalation of resuspended activity and ingestion of soil by infants. An analysis of the effects of uncertainties in the dose calculation indicated the uncertainty distribution on predicted doses from the inhalation pathway. (author)

  8. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenvall, Erik, E-mail: erik.stenvall@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Tostar, Sandra [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Boldizar, Antal [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Foreman, Mark R.StJ. [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Möller, Kenneth [Chemistry and Materials Technology, SP, 50115 Borås (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  9. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R.StJ.; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive

  10. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences between the

  12. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  13. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative

  14. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  15. Value-impact analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, M.; Dracup, J.A.; Erdmann, R.C.; Hughes, E.; vonHerrmann, J.

    1979-11-01

    This document represents a first step in the process of developing comprehensive value-impact methodology for the nuclear industry. It describes the development of the methodology and includes a discussion of the uses of cost-benefit or value-impact by other industries. This background is provided as a guide to the development of the methodology for the specific problems confronted by the nuclear industry. The use of benefit-cost analysis, or value-impact analysis, within the nuclear power industry has grown in recent years and is relied upon by both the regulatory community and the regulated industry. This report summarizes the state of the art of value-impact analysis as it affects these users. Relevant past experience in such fields as water resource development, transportation, environmental concerns, and health and medicine is reviewed. A critique of the applicability of existing value-impact analysis methods to nuclear safety decision problems is presented

  16. Impact analysis of a water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhung, Myung Jo; Jo, Jong Chull; Jeong, Sang Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamic response characteristics of a structure impacted by a high speed projectile. The impact of a 300 kg projectile on a water storage tank is simulated by the general purpose computer codes ANSYS and LS-DYNA. Several methods to simulate the impact are considered and their results are compared. Based upon this, an alternative impact analysis method that equivalent to an explicit dynamic analysis is proposed. The effect of fluid on the responses of the tank is also addressed

  17. Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR

  18. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III

    1987-01-01

    The Remedial Action Program (RAP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will include well drilling, facility upgrades, and other waste management operations likely to involve soils contaminated with radionuclides. A preliminary protocol and generalized criteria for handling contaminated soils is needed to coordinate and plan RAP activities, but there exists only limited information on contaminate nature and distribution at ORNL RAP sites. Furthermore, projections of long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites are preliminary. They have adapted a pathway analysis model, DECOM, to quantify risks to human health from radionuclides in soil and used it to outline preliminary criteria for determining the fate of contaminated soil produced during RAP activities. They assumed that the site could be available for unrestricted use immediately upon decontamination. The pathways considered are consumption of food grown on the contaminated soil, including direct ingestion of soil from poorly washed vegetables, direct radiation from the ground surface, inhalation of resuspended radioactive soil, and drinking water from a well drilled through or near the contaminated soil. We will discuss the assumptions and simplifications implicit in DECOM, the site-specific data required, and the results of initial calculations for the Oak Ridge Reservation

  19. Color image analysis of contaminants and bacteria transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mehdi; Dehmeshki, Jamshid; Daemi, Mohammad F.; Cole, Larry; Dickenson, Eric

    1997-10-01

    Transport of contaminants and bacteria in aqueous heterogeneous saturated porous systems have been studied experimentally using a novel fluorescent microscopic imaging technique. The approach involves color visualization and quantification of bacterium and contaminant distributions within a transparent porous column. By introducing stained bacteria and an organic dye as a contaminant into the column and illuminating the porous regions with a planar sheet of laser beam, contaminant and bacterial transport processes through the porous medium can be observed and measured microscopically. A computer controlled color CCD camera is used to record the fluorescent images as a function of time. These images are recorded by a frame accurate high resolution VCR and are then analyzed using a color image analysis code written in our laboratories. The color images are digitized this way and simultaneous concentration and velocity distributions of both contaminant and bacterium are evaluated as a function of time and pore characteristics. The approach provides a unique dynamic probe to observe these transport processes microscopically. These results are extremely valuable in in-situ bioremediation problems since microscopic particle-contaminant- bacterium interactions are the key to understanding and optimization of these processes.

  20. Petroleum contamination impact on macrobenthic communities under the influence of an oil refinery: Integrating chemical and biological multivariate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Natalia; Muniz, Pablo; Bícego, Márcia C.; Martins, César C.; Tommasi, Luiz Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum contamination impact on macrobenthic communities in the northeast portion of Todos os Santos Bay was assessed combining in multivariate analyses, chemical parameters such as aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon indices and concentration ratios with benthic ecological parameters. Sediment samples were taken in August 2000 with a 0.05 m 2 van Veen grab at 28 sampling locations. The predominance of n-alkanes with more than 24 carbons, together with CPI values close to one, and the fact that most of the stations showed UCM/resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons ratios (UCM:R) higher than two, indicated a high degree of anthropogenic contribution, the presence of terrestrial plant detritus, petroleum products and evidence of chronic oil pollution. The indices used to determine the origin of PAH indicated the occurrence of a petrogenic contribution. A pyrolytic contribution constituted mainly by fossil fuel combustion derived PAH was also observed. The results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis performed with chemical data and benthic ecological descriptors demonstrated that not only total PAH concentrations but also specific concentration ratios or indices such as ≥C24:petroleum related variables seemed to have a main influence on macrofauna community structure. The PCA ordination performed with the chemical data resulted in the formation of three groups of stations. The decrease in macrofauna density, number of species and diversity from groups III to I seemed to be related to the occurrence of high aliphatic hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations associated with fine sediments. Our results showed that macrobenthic communities in the northeast portion of Todos os Santos Bay are subjected to the impact of chronic oil pollution as was reflected by the reduction in the number of species and diversity. These results emphasise the importance to combine in multivariate approaches not only total hydrocarbon concentrations but also indices, isomer pair

  1. Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrutia, O.; Garbisu, C.; Epelde, L.; Sampedro, M.C.; Goicolea, M.A.; Becerril, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000 mg diesel kg -1 DW soil. Thirty days after diesel addition, T. repens (white clover) and L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were sown in the pots and grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature 25/18 o C day/night, relative humidity 60/80% day/night and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 400 μmol photon m -2 s -1 ) for 5 months. A parallel set of unplanted pots was also included. Concentrations of n-alkanes in soil were determined as an indicator of diesel degradation. Seedling germination, plant growth, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ), pigment composition and lipophylic antioxidant content were determined to assess the impacts of diesel on the studied plants. Soil microbial community characteristics, such as enzyme and community-level physiological profiles, were also determined and used to calculate the soil quality index (SQI). The presence of plants had a stimulatory effect on soil microbial activity. L. perenne was far more tolerant to diesel contamination than T. repens. Diesel contamination affected soil microbial characteristics, although its impact was less pronounced in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. Rhizoremediation with T. repens and L. perenne resulted in a similar reduction of total n-alkanes concentration. However, values of the soil microbial parameters and the SQI showed that the more tolerant species (L. perenne) was able to better maintain its rhizosphere characteristics when growing in diesel-contaminated soil, suggesting a better soil health. We concluded that plant tolerance is of crucial importance for the

  2. Contamination of estuaries from failing septic tank systems: difficulties in scaling up from monitored individual systems to cumulative impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Phillip; Lucas, Steven

    2018-02-03

    Aquaculture in many coastal estuaries is threatened by diffuse sources of runoff from different land use activities. The poor performance of septic tank systems (STS), as well as runoff from agriculture, may contribute to the movement of contaminants through ground and surface waters to estuaries resulting in oyster contamination, and following their consumption, impacts to human health. In monitoring individual STS in sensitive locations, it is possible to show that nutrients and faecal contaminants are transported through the subsurface in sandy soils off-site with little attenuation. At the catchment scale however, there are always difficulties in discerning direct linkages between failing STS and water contamination due to processes such as effluent dilution, adsorption, precipitation and vegetative uptake. There is often substantial complexity in detecting and tracing effluent pathways from diffuse sources to water bodies in field studies. While source tracking as well as monitoring using tracers may assist in identifying potential pathways from STS to surface waters and estuaries, there are difficulties in scaling up from monitored individual systems to identify their contribution to the cumulative impact which may be apparent at the catchment scale. The processes which may be obvious through monitoring and dominate at the individual scale may be masked and not readily discernible at the catchment scale due to impacts from other land use activities.

  3. Pathway analysis and exposure assessment: MEPAS modeling for nonradiological chemical contaminants at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Dirkes, R.; Buck, J.; Cooper, A.; Castieton, K.; Glantz, C.

    1995-01-01

    A Chemical Pathway Analysis and Exposure Assessment was performed by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The SESP monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife in order to assess onsite of offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health risk at the Hanford Site. The objectives of this study are (1) determine if a nonradiological chemical monitoring program is warranted for the Hanford Site, (2) ensure that the selection of surveillance parameters such as media, sampling location, and analytes are chosen in a manner that is scientifically sound and cost-efficient, and (3) identify specific nonradiological chemicals of concern (COC) for the Hanford Site. The basis for identification of COC for the Hanford Site was an extensive literature review. The model was also used to predict COC concentrations required onsite to achieve an offsite cancer incidence of 1 E-6 and a hazard quotient of 1.0. This study indicated that nonradiological chemical contamination occurring onsite does not pose a significant offsite human health risk. The highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual from COC was from arsenic (1.76E-1 0); the highest hazard quotient was chromium VI (1.48E-04)

  4. Evaluating soil contamination risk impact on land vulnerability and climate change in east Azerbaijan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Farzin; Anaya-Romero, Maria; de La Rosa, Diego

    2010-05-01

    spring, while will increase 32 and 52 percent in summer and autumn. As most of the arable land that is suitable for cultivation in the study area is already in use, chemical fertilizers application will widely obvious to increase crop production. According to 88 study points identified by grid survey method (44 consecutively profiles and augers), Typic Calcixerepts are the most dominant subgroups in the studied area. Altitude varies from 1300 to 1600m with a mean of about 1450m, and slope gradients vary from flat to more than 10%. The attainable contamination risk for two hypothetical scenarios was estimated for the natural conditions of selected soils, under current Ahar climate conditions and calculated amount according to IPCC report by application of the Pantanal model. Results showed that 32%, 25%, 4% and 27% of total studied area were classified as V1, V2, V3, and V4 vulnerable land due to phosphorous while it will not be changed by climate change. Also, attainable vulnerability classes because of heavy metals will be constant too, but the whole area subdivided as: V1 and V3 in a total of 57% and 31%, respectively. Nitrate is the major nitrogen derived pollutant and the main source of groundwater contamination because of its high mobility. According to the obtained results, nitrogen risk impact on land vulnerability will decrease by climate change while in the future scenario more than 55% of total area will classify as none vulnerable area. Assessing pesticide and climate change impact presents those four vulnerable classes: V1, V2, V3, and V4 in a total of 1%, 2%, 28% and 57% studied are while they will change to 1%, 2%, 49%, and 36%. In other words, 19% of total area will be improved by climate change.

  5. Understanding the Impacts of Land Uses on the Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Contamination By Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons throughout a Small State in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous contaminants that enter the environment through combustion processes and are often found in higher concentration of urban areas. However, once released, these compounds can travel long distances via transport through the atmosphere and can be deposited on the landscape far away from their original source. This PAH deposition pattern can slowly lead to the diffuse contamination of whole landscapes. Since most of the air masses entering the northeastern United States originate from the Midwest where coal burning power plants are plentiful, several atmospheric pollutants are introduced to the region in addition to local sources. Here, atmospheric deposition of PAHs in six different locations throughout Rhode Island was measured using passive bulk-deposition samplers for 3 years. The data were analyzed statistically by principal component analysis and factor analysis to identify the source of contamination and respective apportionment. The data clearly show that an urban-to- rural gradient exists where deposition rates are significantly higher in urban areas (up to 12325 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) compared to rural areas (as low as 11 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) and also follow seasonal trends that show higher deposition rates in the fall and winter compared to the summer and spring time. Further, based on PAH source apportionment ratios, contamination origins differ spatially. For example, fossil fuel, coal, and vehicle combustion is present in all samples; however fossil fuel combustion is dominant in urban samples. In Rural areas biomass combustion is much more prevalent and is not as greatly represented in urban or suburban areas. Therefore, even in a small state such as Rhode Island airborne PAH contamination can be fingerprinted readily for different sampling areas, indicating that distant emission sources have a widespread impact on regional air quality.

  6. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculation. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: a thirty foot axial drop on either end, a thirty foot oblique angel drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on one of the lifting trunnions and the bottom end. Prevention of damage hinges on the strength of the various components that comprises the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask are used to assess the potential damage level

  7. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  8. Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) to medically fungi: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, H

    2017-12-01

    Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  10. GEOELECTRICAL STRATIGRAPHY AND ANALYSIS OF A HYDROCARBON IMPACTED AQUIFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently proposed geoelectrical model for hydrocarbon impacted sites predicts anomalously high conductivities coincident with aged contaminated zones. These high conductivities are attributed to an enhancement of mineral weathering resulting from byproducts of microbial redox p...

  11. Emerging organic contaminants in sludges. Analysis, fate and biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicent, Teresa [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Eljarrat, Ethel [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Caminal, Gloria [IQAC-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Grupo de biocatalisis Aplicada y biodegradacion; Barcelo, Damia (eds.) [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Girona Univ. (Spain). Catalan Inst. for Water Research

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive review. Written by experts. Richly illustrated. There are a growing number of new chemicals in the environment that represent an ascertained or potential risk. Many of them can be found in sewage sludge and are the subject of this volume. Experts in the field highlight their occurrence and fate, risks of biosolid use, advanced chemical analysis methods, and degradation techniques with a special focus on biodegradation using fungi. In the final chapter conclusions and trends are offered as a point of departure for future studies. The double-disciplinary approach combining environmental analysis and engineering makes the book a valuable and comprehensive source of information for a broad audience, such as environmental chemists and engineers, biotechnologists, ecotoxicologists and professionals responsible for waste and water management.

  12. Newly developed standard reference materials for organic contaminant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poster, D.; Kucklick, J.; Schantz, M.; Porter, B.; Wise, S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (USA). Center for Anal. Chem.

    2004-09-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued a number of Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for specified analytes. The SRMs are biota and biological related materials, sediments and particle related SRMs. The certified compounds for analysis are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-analogues, chlorinated pesticides, methylmercury, organic tin compounds, fatty acids, polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDE). The authors report on origin of materials and analytic methods. (uke)

  13. Stochastic analysis of contaminant transport in porous media: analysis of a two-member radionuclide chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Shipers, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the authors extend previous stochastic analyses of contaminant transport in geologic media for a single species to a chain of two species. The authors particular application is the quantification of uncertainties due to lack of characterization of the spatial variability of hydrologic parameters on transport of radionuclides from a high-level waste repository to the biosphere. Radionuclide chains can have a significant impact on demonstrating compliance (or violation) of standards regulating the release to the environment accessible to humans. Two approaches for determining the cross-covariance terms in the mean concentration equations are presented. One uses a Taylor expansion to obtain the cross-covariance between the velocity and concentration fluctuations, while the other is based on a Fourier-Laplace double transform method. For the conditions of interest here, the difference between these two approaches are expected to be small. In addition, the variances are calculated in a unique way by solving another associated partial differential equation. A parametric study is carried out to examine the sensitivity of the mean concentration of the two species and their corresponding variances and cross-covariance on the parameters associated with the structure of the stochastic velocity field. It is found that the dependent variables are most sensitive to the intensity and correlation length of the velocity fluctuations. The magnitude of the variances and cross-covariance of the concentrations are proportional to the magnitude of the mean concentrations which depend on inlet concentration boundary conditions

  14. Vadose Zone Contaminant Fate and Transport Analysis for the 216-B-26 Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2004-10-14

    The BC Cribs and Trenches, part of the 200 TW 1 OU waste sites, received about 30 Mgal of scavenged tank waste, with possibly the largest inventory of 99Tc ever disposed to the soil at Hanford and site remediation is being accelerated. The purpose of this work was to develop a conceptual model for contaminant fate and transport at the 216-B-26 Trench site to support identification and development and evaluation of remediation alternatives. Large concentrations of 99Tc high above the water table implicated stratigraphy in the control of the downward migration. The current conceptual model accounts for small-scale stratigraphy; site-specific changes soil properties; tilted layers; and lateral spreading. It assumes the layers are spatially continuous causing water and solutes to move laterally across the boundary if conditions permit. Water influx at the surface is assumed to be steady. Model parameters were generated with pedotransfer functions; these were coupled high resolution neutron moisture logs that provided information on the underlying heterogeneity on a scale of 3 inches. Two approaches were used to evaluate the impact of remedial options on transport. In the first, a 1-D convolution solution to the convective-dispersive equation was used, assuming steady flow. This model was used to predict future movement of the existing plume using the mean and depth dependent moisture content. In the second approach, the STOMP model was used to first predict the current plume distribution followed by its future migration. Redistribution of the 99Tc plume was simulated for the no-action alternative and on-site capping. Hypothetical caps limiting recharge to 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mm yr-1 were considered and assumed not to degrade in the long term. Results show that arrival time of the MCLs, the peak arrival time, and the arrival time of the center of mass increased with decreasing recharge rate. The 1-D convolution model is easy to apply and can easily accommodate initial

  15. Estimation of the collective sanitary impact of the land contamination by the radioactivity found at Gif sur Yvette; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire collectif de la contamination des terrains par la radioactivite presente a Gif sur Yvette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The company 'Societe Nouvelle du Radium' extracted radium and produced radium needles in Gif-sur-Yvette (Essonne) from 1904 to 1957. In 1959, this site was converted into a habitable zone. Since then, this district called the 'Petite Coudraie' has been going through several radioactivity measurements and decontamination works. In 2000, the detection of very high levels of radon above sanitary recommendations in one house encouraged the local authorities to launch a systematic investigation and risk analysis in order to take the necessary measures against radiological risks for the whole concerned district. The 'Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales' (D.D.A.S.S.), the French Institute of Public Health (InVS) and the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Security (I.P.S.N.) conducted a health impact assessment of the pollution in this area. The Office for the Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.) and the I.P.S.N. first measured the radioactivity found on the surface area. The I.P.S.N. then conducted a dosimetric study based on the measurement results and realistic exposure scenarios of adults and children present in the area. Finally, on the base of these results, the InVs did a quantitative risk assessment of cancer due to exposure to the radioactive residuals from the past industrial activities which is the subject of this report. This assessment allows to estimate the extent of this potential health impact due to the contamination of the area with the current scientific knowledge. It assesses the contribution of the various sources ways of exposure to risk and therefore directs the measures of management priority. Finally, it also allows to appreciate the relevance of an epidemiological study on the population who was present in this area. (author)

  16. A Homotopy-Perturbation analysis of the non-linear contaminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work, a Homotopy-perturbation analysis of a non –linear contaminant flow equation with an initial continuous point source is provided. The equation is characterized by advection, diffusion and adsorption. We assume that the adsorption term is modeled by Freudlich Isotherm. We provide an approximation of ...

  17. RAMAN SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF PERCHLORATE CONTAMINATION IN COMMONLY-USED FERTILIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of perchlorate (ClO4-1) in 30+ commonly-used fertilizers. Perchlorate contamination is emerging as an important environmental issue since its discovery in water resources that are widely used for drinking...

  18. Mass Balance Model, A study of contamination effects in AMS 14C sample analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopiou, Markella

    2010-01-01

    In this training thesis a background correction analysis, also known as mass balance model, was implemented to study the contamination effects in AMS 14C sample processing. A variety of backgrounds and standards with sizes ranging from 50 μg C to 1500 μg

  19. ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an analysis of the cost of using permeable reactive barriers to remediate contaminated ground water. When possible, these costs are compared with the cost of pump-and-treat technology for similar situations. Permeable reactive barriers are no longer perceiv...

  20. Removing external DNA contamination from arthropod predators destined for molecular gut-content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular gut-content analysis enables detection of arthropod predation with minimal disruption of ecosystem processes. Field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that mass-collection methods, such as sweep-netting, vacuum sampling, and foliage beating, can lead to contamination of fed pred...

  1. An Application of Discriminant Analysis to Pattern Recognition of Selected Contaminated Soil Features in Thin Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1997-01-01

    qualitative microprobe results: present elements Al, Si, Cr, Fe, As (associated with others). Selected groups of calibrated images (same light conditions and magnification) submitted to discriminant analysis, in order to find a pattern of recognition in the soil features corresponding to contamination already...

  2. Final Report: Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Day, Peggy A.; Chorover, J.; Mueller, K.T.; Serne, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The principal goal of this project was to assess the molecular nature and stability of radionuclide (137-Cs, 90-Sr, and 129-I) immobilization during weathering reactions in bulk Hanford sediments and their high surface area clay mineral constituents. We focused on the unique aqueous geochemical conditions that are representative of waste-impacted locations in the Hanford site vadose zone: high ionic strength, high pH and high Al concentrations. The specific objectives of the work were to (i) measure the coupling of clay mineral weathering and contaminant uptake kinetics of Cs+, Sr2+ and I-; (ii) determine the molecular structure of contaminant binding sites and their change with weathering time during and after exposure to synthetic tank waste leachate (STWL); (iii) establish the stability of neoformed weathering products and their sequestered contaminants upon exposure of the solids to more ''natural'' soil solutions (i.e., after removal of the caustic waste source); and (iv) integrate macroscopic, microscopic and spectroscopic data to distinguish labile from non-labile contaminant binding environments, including their dependence on system composition and weathering time. During this funding period, we completed a large set of bench-scale collaborative experiments and product characterization aimed at elucidating the coupling between mineral transformation reactions and contaminant sequestration/stabilization. Our experiments included three representative Hanford sediments: course and fine sediments collected from the Hanford Formation and Ringold Silt, in addition to investigations with specimen clay minerals illite, vermiculite, smectite and kaolinite. These experiments combined macroscopic measurements of element release, contaminant uptake and subsequent neoformed mineral dissolution behavior, with detailed studies of solid phase products using SEM and TEM microscopy, NMR, XAS and FTIR spectroscopy. Our studies have shown direct coupling between mineral

  3. Description of source term data on contaminated sites and buildings compiled for the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (WMPEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Smith, D.E.; Hill, J.G.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have historically had responsibility for carrying out various national missions primarily related to nuclear weapons development and energy research. Recently, these missions have been expanded to include remediation of sites and facilities contaminated as a result of past activities. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy announced that DOE would prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on the DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program; the primary focus was the evaluation of (1) strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE contaminated sites and facilities and (2) potential configurations for waste management capabilities. Several different environmental restoration strategies were identified for evaluation, ranging from doing no remediation to strategies where the level of remediation was driven by such factors as final land use and health effects. A quantitative assessment of the costs and health effects of remediation activities and residual contamination levels associated with each remediation strategy was made. These analyses required that information be compiled on each individual contaminated site and structure located at each DOE installation and that the information compiled include quantitative measurements and/or estimates of contamination levels and extent of contamination. This document provides a description of the types of information and data compiled for use in the analyses. Also provided is a description of the database used to manage the data, a detailed discussion of the methodology and assumptions used in compiling the data, and a summary of the data compiled into the database as of March 1995. As of this date, over 10,000 contaminated sites and structures and over 8,000 uncontaminated structures had been identified across the DOE complex of installations

  4. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon

  5. Approaches to mitigate the impact of dissolved organic matter on the adsorption of synthetic organic contaminants by porous carbonaceous sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanping Guo; Abhishek Yadav; Tanju Karanfil [Clemson University, Anderson, SC (United States). Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences

    2007-11-15

    Adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and atrazine, two synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs) having different optimum adsorption pore regions, by four activated carbons and an activated carbon fiber (ACF) was examined. Adsorbents included two coconut-shell based granular activated carbons (GACs), two coal-based GACs (F400 and HD4000) and a phenol formaldehyde-based activated carbon fiber. The selected adsorbents had a wide range of pore size distributions but similar surface acidity and hydrophobicity. Single solute and preloading (with a dissolved organic matter (DOM)) isotherms were performed. Single solute adsorption results showed that (i) the adsorbents having higher amounts of pores with sizes about the dimensions of the adsorbate molecules exhibited higher uptakes, (ii) there were some pore structure characteristics, which were not completely captured by pore size distribution analysis, that also affected the adsorption, and (iii) the BET surface area and total pore volume were not the primary factors controlling the adsorption of SOCs. The preloading isotherm results showed that for TCE adsorbing primarily in pores <10 {angstrom}, the highly microporous ACF and GACs, acting like molecular sieves, exhibited the highest uptakes. For atrazine with an optimum adsorption pore region of 10-20 {angstrom}, which overlaps with the adsorption region of some DOM components, the GACs with a broad pore size distribution and high pore volumes in the 10-20 {angstrom} region had the least impact of DOM on the adsorption. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Energy level alignment and molecular conformation at rubrene/Ag interfaces: Impact of contact contaminations on the interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Sumona, E-mail: sumona.net.09@gmail.com [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Wang, C.-H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Mukherjee, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Impact of contact contaminations on the energy level alignment and molecular conformation at rubrene/Ag interfaces. • Adventitious contamination layer was acted as a spacer layer between Ag substrate surface and rubrene molecular layer. • Hole injection barrier height and interface dipole at rubrene/Ag interfaces depend on the cleanliness of Ag substrate. • Molecular conformation as well as orientation controlled by the cleanliness of Ag surface. • Resulted different surface morphology of rubrene thin films on unclean and clean Ag substrate. - Abstract: This paper addresses the impact of electrode contaminations on the interfacial energy level alignment, the molecular conformation, orientation and surface morphology deposited organic film at organic semiconductor/noble metal interfaces by varying of film thickness from sub-monolayer to multilayer, which currently draws significant attention with regard to its application in organic electronics. The UHV clean Ag and unclean Ag were employed as substrate whereas rubrene was used as an organic semiconducting material. The photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) was engaged to investigate the evolution of interfacial energetics; polarization dependent near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) was employed to understand the molecular conformation as well as orientation whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the films. The adventitious contamination layer was acted as a spacer layer between clean Ag substrate surface and rubrene molecular layer. As a consequence, hole injection barrier height, interface dipole as well as molecular-conformation, molecular-orientation and surface morphology of rubrene thin films were found to depend on the cleanliness of Ag substrate. The results have important inferences about the understanding of the impact of substrate contamination on the energy level alignment, the molecular conformation

  7. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzic, Senka; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: → UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. → Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. → Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  8. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzic, Senka, E-mail: terzic@irb.h [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Ahel, Marijan [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-02-15

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  9. ANÁLISIS DISCRIMINANTE DE ALGUNAS VARIABLES QUE INFLUYEN EN LA CONTAMINACIÓN ACÚSTICA DEBIDA AL TRÁFICO URBANO EN UNA GRAN CIUDAD DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS OF SOME VARIABLES THAT IMPACT ACOUSTIC CONTAMINATION CAUSED BY URBAN TRAFFIC IN A BIG CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El ruido producido por el tráfico es función de un gran número de variables, unas propias de las características de la calzada y del entorno por el que discurre, y otras propias de los vehículos. De todas las variables que pueden influir, solo unas pocas están estudiadas en profundidad para ver su relación real con la contaminación acústica. El nivel de presión sonora, Leq, es el índice utilizado para evaluar la contaminación acústica, y la unidad de medida es el decibelio. Esta investigación consiste en la medición de todas las variables presentes en una gran ciudad que pudieran tener alguna influencia en la contaminación acústica, así como el nivel de ruido en la ciudad de Madrid. Todo ello mediante un trabajo de campo en el que se han medido 519 puntos de forma aleatoria, en los que se iban registrando todos estos datos.Noise caused by traffic is the result of several variables; ones inherent to features of roads and the environment it crosses, and some others inherent to vehicles. From all variables which could cause this kind of noise, only few of them have been studied in depth intended to understand its real relationship to acoustic contamination. The level of sound pressure (Leq. is the index used for evaluating acoustic contamination and the unit of measure is the decibel. This research involves measurement of all variables present in a big city which could have an impact on acoustic contamination, as well as the level of noise in Madrid City. All this conducted through a field work where 519 places were randomly measured and all this data were recorded

  10. Distribution and geology accumulation contamination analysis of heavy metal cadmium in agricultural soil of Zunyi county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongliang; Long Qian; Ke Yang

    2011-01-01

    The pollution of heavy metal Cd in agricultural soils of Zunyi County, Guizhou Province, was investigated and assessed by using geology accumulation indices (igeo) and pollution index method in this study. Results showed that the average content of Cd is 0.356 mg/kg, and the geochemistry baseline content of Cd was 0.147 mg/kg. The I geo s of Cd was 0.691, which suggested that non-contaminated soil accounts for 13.84%, 59.17% of tested soils was between non-polluted and mid-level polluted, 21.37% with mid-level polluted and 5.17% was between mid-level polluted and severely polluted, 0.45% of which was severely polluted. Contamination degree analysis indicated that non-contaminated soil was only 10.57%, 54.44% was influenced by Cd and 34.98% was seriously influenced by Cd. (authors)

  11. Management of radio-contaminated sites analysis of various public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.; Brenot, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing public implemented in several countries in the field of the management of site contaminated by radionuclides. An analysis of decision-aiding tools will be made with an emphasis on the making of diagnostic, the choice of the radiation protection principles, the possible recommendations on optimization, the quantitative criteria and levels of action set up and the setting-up of long term monitoring. The management of sites contaminated by radionuclides also requires to express qualitatively and quantitatively the two notions of residual health risk and acceptable risk. This comes ahead of the definition of levels and modes of action. The adequacy between the principles announced and their concrete implementation will be studied in depth for some countries. The following questions will be dealt with. Who are the responsibles for such policies? Who are the different actors and operators of the public policy? Is the public involved in the decision making process? How assessment and decision go off? What are the gaps between the expected results and those obtained? What are the hindering points? Are the principles put forward implemented? Presently decision-aiding tools must fit with the reality of any system of risk management in which officials, public representatives and individuals participate in order to define and implement the solutions. This paper will focus on radioactive contamination but it will also address other types of contamination, such as chemical ones, as some countries make no distinction according to the nature of the contamination. (author)

  12. Estimation of the collective sanitary impact of the land contamination by the radioactivity found at Gif sur Yvette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The company 'Societe Nouvelle du Radium' extracted radium and produced radium needles in Gif-sur-Yvette (Essonne) from 1904 to 1957. In 1959, this site was converted into a habitable zone. Since then, this district called the 'Petite Coudraie' has been going through several radioactivity measurements and decontamination works. In 2000, the detection of very high levels of radon above sanitary recommendations in one house encouraged the local authorities to launch a systematic investigation and risk analysis in order to take the necessary measures against radiological risks for the whole concerned district. The 'Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales' (D.D.A.S.S.), the French Institute of Public Health (InVS) and the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Security (I.P.S.N.) conducted a health impact assessment of the pollution in this area. The Office for the Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.) and the I.P.S.N. first measured the radioactivity found on the surface area. The I.P.S.N. then conducted a dosimetric study based on the measurement results and realistic exposure scenarios of adults and children present in the area. Finally, on the base of these results, the InVs did a quantitative risk assessment of cancer due to exposure to the radioactive residuals from the past industrial activities which is the subject of this report. This assessment allows to estimate the extent of this potential health impact due to the contamination of the area with the current scientific knowledge. It assesses the contribution of the various sources ways of exposure to risk and therefore directs the measures of management priority. Finally, it also allows to appreciate the relevance of an epidemiological study on the population who was present in this area. (author)

  13. Flow cytometric analysis of microbial contamination in food industry technological lines – initial study

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Czaczyk; Wojciech Juzwa

    2012-01-01

    Background. Flow cytometry constitutes an alternative for traditional methods of microorganisms identifi cation and analysis, including methods requiring cultivation step. It enables the detection of pathogens and other microorganisms contaminants without the need to culture microbial cells meaning that the sample (water, waste or food e.g. milk, wine, beer) may be analysed directly. This leads to a signifi cant reduction of time required for analysis allowing monitoring of production process...

  14. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  15. School of Socrates 3, Roxboro : the impact of soil contaminated with heating oil on the health of occupants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beausoleil, M.; Brodeur, J.

    2004-04-01

    In 2001, a heating oil leak was discovered in the underground reservoir at the School of Socrates III, in Roxboro, Quebec. In response to concerns regarding the strong odour that was noticed by the school occupants, part of the soil was decontaminated. However, in 2002, while excavating the soil for the construction of a cafeteria, some remaining contaminated soil was noticed. The Quebec Ministry of Environment requested a study to clarify the extent of the soil contamination, and to study the air quality in order to be assured that soil contamination did not impact the indoor air quality or the health of the occupants of the school. Heating oil is comprised of hydrocarbons that are not as volatile as natural gas, but its presence is quickly noticed because of its very strong odour. Exposure by occupants to strong concentrations to heating oil vapours could cause irritations to eyes, respiratory airways, skin, and central nervous system. The study revealed a non-negligible contamination of soils at the school by contaminants specific to heating oil (petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylnaphtalenes). The soil contamination did not extend beyond one metre deep and was not in contact with soil at the surface or with the concrete foundation. As such, the heating oil vapours did not migrate into the indoor air. In 2002, 2003 and 2004 concentrations of total volatile organic compounds were sampled inside the school to verify that the heating oils did not infiltrate the indoor air. The measurements proved that there were no high concentrations of volatile organic compounds inside the school. In addition, all parameters measured in the school's drinking water respected regulations regarding potable water quality. 16 refs., 5 figs., 5 appendices

  16. Sources, interactions, and ecological impacts of organic contaminants in water, soil, and sediment: an introduction to the special series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, Joseph J; Katz, Brian G; Li, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and urban activities result in the release of a large number of organic compounds that are suspected of impacting human health and ecosystems: herbicides, insecticides, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, natural and synthetic hormones, personal care products, surfactants, plasticizers, fire retardants, and others. Sorbed reservoirs of these compounds in soil represent a potentially chronic source of water contamination. This article is an introduction to a series of technical papers stemming from a symposium at the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America 2008 Annual Meeting, which was held jointly with The Geological Society of America, The Gulf Coast Association of Geological Scientists, and the Houston Geological Society, under one of the Joint Meeting's overarching themes: Emerging Trace Contaminants in Surface and Ground Water Generated from Waste Water and Solid Waste Application. The symposium emphasized the role of soils as sources, sinks, and reaction catalysts for these contaminants and the occurrence and fate of these contaminants in surface and underground water supplies. Topics covered included novel advances in analytical techniques, transport of infectious agents, occurrence and fate of veterinary pharmaceuticals, characterization of sorption mechanism, biotic and abiotic transformation reactions, the role of soil components, occurrence and fate in wastewater treatment systems, transport of engineered nanoparticles, groundwater contamination resulting from urban runoff, and issues in water reuse. Overviews of the reports, trends, gaps in our knowledge, and topics for further research are presented in this special series of papers. The technical papers in this special series reflect current gains in knowledge and simultaneously underscore how poorly we are able to predict the fate and, hence, the associated risk to ecological and human receptors of these contaminants.

  17. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  18. Redox oscillation impact on natural and engineered biogeochemical systems: chemical resilience and implications for contaminant mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlet, Laurent [ISTerre, University of Grenoble, B.P. 53X, 38041 Grenoble (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Markelova, Ekaterina [ISTerre, University of Grenoble, B.P. 53X, 38041 Grenoble (France); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1 4 (Canada); Parsons, Chris; Couture, Raoul-Marie [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1 4 (Canada); Made, Benoit [Andra / DRD-TR, Direction Recherche et Developpement, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    Many geochemical systems fluctuate regularly from oxic to anoxic conditions (flooded soils and nuclear waste surface repositories, for instance). In these conditions many inorganic contaminants including Sb, Se, Cr, As, and U are highly sensitive to changes in redox conditions. These oscillations may result in changes to their speciation, toxicity, and mobility. We demonstrate through the combination of redox-stat batch-reactor experiments that periodic and cumulative changes to matrix mineralogy, contaminant speciation, and mineral surface properties occur following periodic cycles of reduction and oxidation. These changes result in both short-term (intra-cycle) and long-term (inter-cycle) changes to K{sub d} values for a range of redox sensitive contaminants. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring redox oscillations may result in long-term immobilization of contaminants in the solid phase in addition to short-term variations in mobility. (authors)

  19. Contaminated site risk and uncertainty assessment for impacts on surface and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak

    available between sites and choosing between the need for further investigation or remediation. This is a question of prioritizing the sites that pose the greatest risk, and it is a matter of making decisions under uncertainty. Both tasks require a structured assessment of the risk posed by the contaminated...... sites. In a conventional risk assessment of a contaminated site, risk is evaluated by assessing whether a concentration guideline is exceeded at a specific point of compliance in the water resource of interest. If the guideline is exceeded, it is concluded that the site poses a risk. However......, a contaminated site may pose a threat to multiple water resources, or multiple contaminated sites may threaten a single water resource. For more advanced risk assessments, it is therefore relevant to develop methods that can handle this challenge. In this thesis, four contributions are made to the field...

  20. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D.; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J.

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and

  1. The cleaning of burned and contaminated archaeological maize prior to 87Sr/86Sr analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Larry V.; Taylor, Howard E.; Plowman, Terry I.; Roth, David A.; Antweiler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate trace-metal and strontium-isotope analyses of archaeological corn cobs require that metal contaminants be removed prior to chemical analysis. Archaeological cobs are often coated with construction debris, dust, or soil which contains mineral particles. In addition, most archaeological cobs are partially or completely burned and the burned parts incorporate mineral debris in their hardened residual structures. Unburned cobs are weak ion exchangers and most metals within a cob are not firmly bound to cob organic matter; therefore, immersing cobs in acids and rinsing them in deionized water to remove mineral contaminants may result in the undesirable loss of metals, including strontium, from the cob.In this paper we show that some cob metal-pair ratios are not substantially changed when the cob is “cleaned” with deionized water, if the water-cob contact time does not exceed five minutes. Additionally, we introduce a method for eliminating mineral contaminants in both burned and unburned cobs, thus rendering them acceptable for strontium-isotope analysis. However, the decontamination procedure results in the rapid non-stoichiometric leaching of trace metals from the unburned cobs and it is possible that most metals will be extracted from the cobs during the lengthy decontamination process. Trace metals, in particular Al and Ca, should be analyzed in order to determine the presence and level of mineral contamination after cleaning.

  2. Sorption ability of the soil and its impact on environmental contamination

    OpenAIRE

    H?ibov?, ??rka; Gargo?ov?, Helena Zl?malov?; V?vrov?, Milada

    2015-01-01

    From the physical point of view, soil is a heterogenic polydisperse system. It often becomes a place of a secondary contamination during extinguishing uncontrolled areal fires in nature. Foam extinguishing agents (FEAs), used at these events, basically contain surface active substances and perfluorinated compounds. These tend to be captured in the soil matrix due to their specific properties. Contaminants could be partly flushed out with rainwater, which causes several times dilution of conta...

  3. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-criteria decision analysis with probabilistic risk assessment for the management of contaminated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadam, Ibrahim M.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, environmental decision analysis in subsurface contamination scenarios is performed using cost-benefit analysis. In this paper, we discuss some of the limitations associated with cost-benefit analysis, especially its definition of risk, its definition of cost of risk, and its poor ability to communicate risk-related information. This paper presents an integrated approach for management of contaminated ground water resources using health risk assessment and economic analysis through a multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The methodology introduces several important concepts and definitions in decision analysis related to subsurface contamination. These are the trade-off between population risk and individual risk, the trade-off between the residual risk and the cost of risk reduction, and cost-effectiveness as a justification for remediation. The proposed decision analysis framework integrates probabilistic health risk assessment into a comprehensive, yet simple, cost-based multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The methodology focuses on developing decision criteria that provide insight into the common questions of the decision-maker that involve a number of remedial alternatives. The paper then explores three potential approaches for alternative ranking, a structured explicit decision analysis, a heuristic approach of importance of the order of criteria, and a fuzzy logic approach based on fuzzy dominance and similarity analysis. Using formal alternative ranking procedures, the methodology seeks to present a structured decision analysis framework that can be applied consistently across many different and complex remediation settings. A simple numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results showed the importance of using an integrated approach for decision-making considering both costs and risks. Future work should focus on the application of the methodology to a variety of complex field conditions to

  5. Elastic analysis of beam support impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.A.; Verma, V.K.; Youtsos, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gaps present in the seismic supports of nuclear piping systems has been studied with the use of such large general purpose analysis codes as ANSYS. Exact analytical solutions to two simple beam impact problems are obtained to serve as benchmarks for the evaluation of the ability of such codes to model impact between beam elements and their supports. Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and modal analysis are used to obtain analytical solutions for the motion of simply supported and fixed ended beams after impact with a spring support at midspan. The solutions are valid up to the time the beam loses contact with the spring support. Numerical results are obtained which show that convergence for both contact force and bending moment at the point of impact is slower as spring stiffness is increased. Finite element solutions obtained with ANSYS are compared to analytical results and good agreement is obtained

  6. Impact Analysis for Risks in Informatics Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baicu, Floarea; Baches, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    In this paper are presented methods of impact analysis on informatics system security accidents, qualitative and quantitative methods, starting with risk and informational system security definitions. It is presented the relationship between the risks of exploiting vulnerabilities of security system, security level of these informatics systems, probability of exploiting the weak points subject to financial losses of a company, respectively impact of a security accident on the company. Herewit...

  7. Update of Part 61 impacts analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is expanding the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of costs and impacts of disposal of waste that exceeds Class C concentrations. The project includes updating the computer codes that comprise the methodology, reviewing and updating data assumptions on waste streams and disposal technologies, and calculation of costs for small as well as large disposal facilities. This paper outlines work done to date on this project

  8. Update of Part 61 impacts analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.; US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555)

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is expanding the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 regulation to allow improved consideration of costs and impacts of disposal of waste that exceeds Class C concentrations. The project includes updating the computer codes that comprise the methodology, reviewing and updating data assumptions on waste streams and disposal technologies, and calculation of costs for small as well as large disposal facilities. This paper outlines work done to date on this project

  9. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  10. Impact parameter analysis and soft QCD dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, P.A.S.; Martini, A.F.; Menon, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In a recent paper, based on the hypothesis of light-cone dipole representation for gluon Bremsstrahlung, Kopeliovich et al. developed a dynamical model for the elastic hadronic amplitude. The model has been applied to pp and p (bar) p scattering and the effects of unitarity and peripheral interactions have been investigated in the impact parameter representation. In this communication, making use of a model independent extraction of the scattering amplitude in the impact parameter space (early developed), we represent a comparative study between the predictions from the dynamical model and the impact parameter analysis. (author)

  11. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia, E-mail: anna.knox@srn.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Paller, Michael H., E-mail: michael.paller@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Milliken, Charles E., E-mail: charles.milliken@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Redder, Todd M., E-mail: tredder@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Wolfe, John R., E-mail: jwolfe@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Seaman, John, E-mail: seaman@srel.uga.edu [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  12. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-01-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  13. Impact of S fertilizers on pore-water Cu dynamics and transformation in a contaminated paddy soil with various flooding periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Zhu, Shenhai; Zheng, Cuiqing; Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Jin; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-09

    Impact of S fertilization on Cu mobility and transformation in contaminated paddy soils has been little reported. In this study, we investigated the dynamics and transformation of dissolved and colloidal Cu in the pore water of a contaminated paddy soil after applying ammonium sulphate (AS) and sulfur coated urea (SCU) with various flooding periods (1, 7 and 60 days). Compared to the control soil, the AS-treated soil released more colloidal and dissolved Cu over the entire flooding period, while the SCU-treated soil had lower colloidal Cu after 7-day flooding but higher colloidal and dissolved Cu after 60-day flooding. Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis found a close relationship between Fe and Cu distribution on soil colloids after 60-day flooding, implying the formation of colloidal Fe/Cu sulphide coprecipitates. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy directly revealed the transformation of outer-sphere complexed Cu(II) species to Cu(II) sulphide and reduced Cu2O in the colloids of S-treated soils after 60-day flooding. These results demonstrated the great influence of S fertilization on pore-water Cu mobility by forming Cu sulphide under flooding conditions, which facilitated our understanding and control of Cu loss in contaminated paddy soils under S fertilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of public health impact of Listeria monocytogenes product-to-product and environment-to-product contamination of deli meats at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the relative public health impact in deli meats at retail contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes by either (i) other products or (ii) the retail environment. Modeling was performed using the risk of listeriosis-associated deaths as a public health outcome of interest and using two deli meat products (i.e., ham and turkey, both formulated without growth inhibitors) as model systems. Based on reported data, deli meats coming to retail were assumed to be contaminated at a frequency of 0.4%. Three contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) a baseline scenario, in which no additional cross-contamination occurred at retail, (ii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were cross-contaminated at retail due to transfer of L. monocytogenes cells from already contaminated ready-to-eat deli meats, and (iii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were contaminated as a result of cross-contamination from a contaminated retail environment. By using a previously reported L. monocytogenes risk assessment model that uses product-specific growth kinetic parameters, cross-contamination of deli ham and turkey was estimated to increase the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths by 5.9- and 6.1-fold, respectively, for contamination from other products and by 4.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, for contamination from the retail environment. Sensitivity and scenario analyses indicated that the frequency of cross-contamination at retail from any source (other food products or environment) was the most important factor affecting the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths. Overall, our data indicate that retail-level cross-contamination of ready-to-eat deli meats with L. monocytogenes has the potential to considerably increase the risk of human listeriosis cases and deaths, and thus precise estimates of cross-contamination frequency are critical for accurate risk assessments.

  15. Non-targeted analysis of unexpected food contaminants using LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzelmann, Marco; Winter, Martin; Åberg, Magnus; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Rosén, Johan

    2018-03-29

    A non-target analysis method for unexpected contaminants in food is described. Many current methods referred to as "non-target" are capable of detecting hundreds or even thousands of contaminants. However, they will typically still miss all other possible contaminants. Instead, a metabolomics approach might be used to obtain "true non-target" analysis. In the present work, such a method was optimized for improved detection capability at low concentrations. The method was evaluated using 19 chemically diverse model compounds spiked into milk samples to mimic unknown contamination. Other milk samples were used as reference samples. All samples were analyzed with UHPLC-TOF-MS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry), using reversed-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in positive mode. Data evaluation was performed by the software TracMass 2. No target lists of specific compounds were used to search for the contaminants. Instead, the software was used to sort out all features only occurring in the spiked sample data, i.e., the workflow resembled a metabolomics approach. Procedures for chemical identification of peaks were outside the scope of the study. Method, study design, and settings in the software were optimized to minimize manual evaluation and faulty or irrelevant hits and to maximize hit rate of the spiked compounds. A practical detection limit was established at 25 μg/kg. At this concentration, most compounds (17 out of 19) were detected as intact precursor ions, as fragments or as adducts. Only 2 irrelevant hits, probably natural compounds, were obtained. Limitations and possible practical use of the approach are discussed.

  16. Safeguarding food and food products from radiological contamination through gammametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Bautista, Angel T.VII; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Cuyco, Danilo A.; Jimenez, Gloria R.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.; Morco, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate gammametric analysis in safeguarding food and food products from radioactive contamination caused by a nuclear accident. Different food and food products submitted for analysis from March 2011 to September 2011 were analyzed for Cesium-137, Cesium 134, and Iodine-131 radioactivity levels using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma spectrometer system. Radioactivity levels of the said samples were found to be less than 1-4 Bq/Kg for both Cs-137 and Cs-134, and less than 0.2 - 2 Bq/Kg for I-131, and were found to below the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade limits of 1,000 Bq/Kg for the sum of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in feeding stuffs, and that of 100 Bq/Kg for the sum of all isotopes of iodine notably I-131 in feeding stuff. (author)

  17. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  18. Radionuclide contaminated soil: Laboratory study and economic analysis of soil washing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Zhou, H.; Patel, B.; Bowerman, B.; Brower, J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the work discussed in this report is to determine if soil washing is a feasible method to remediate contaminated soils from the Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The contaminants are predominantly Cs-137 and Sr-90. The authors have assumed that the target activity for Cs-137 is 50 pCi/g and that remediation is required for soils having greater activities. Cs-137 is the limiting contaminant because it is present in much greater quantities than Sr-90. This work was done in three parts, in which they: estimated the volume of contaminated soil as a function of Cs-137 content, determined if simple removal of the fine grained fraction of the soil (the material that is less than 0.063 mm) would effectively reduce the activity of the remaining soil to levels below the 50 pCi/g target, assessed the effectiveness of chemical and mechanical (as well as combinations of the two) methods of soil decontamination. From this analysis the authors were then able to develop a cost estimate for soil washing and for a baseline against which soil washing was compared

  19. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging onsite long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks

  1. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  2. Rates of BTEX Biodegradation under Nitrate Reducing Conditions in Wetland Sediments Impacted by Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, L. K.; McGuire, J. T.; Cozzarelli, I.; Smith, E. W.; Kneeshaw, T.

    2010-12-01

    Biodegradation rates are often controlled by dynamic interactions that occur at mixing interfaces between water masses of differing redox state. This study seeks to understand the controls on rates of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m,p,o-xylenes) degradation at a mixing interface by using in-situ experiments to simulate contaminated aquifer water containing nitrate discharging to a methanogenic wetland. BTEX biodegradation was evaluated during “dry” conditions (2009) and “wet” conditions (2010) in a shallow wetland near Bemidji, MN using innovative in-situ microcosms (ISMs) to measure rates of change over 8 weeks (2009) and 9 weeks (2010). ISM samplers contained an inner chamber filled with wetland sediments that were allowed to incubate for 2 weeks. This chamber was then closed to the surrounding environment and amended with test solution composed of contaminated groundwater augmented with tracer (bromide), nitrate and BTEX spike. Analysis of ISM sediments suggests that nitrate reduction and biodegradation rates are a function of both mineralogical and microbiological controls. Loss of nitrate, interpreted as nitrate reduction, was observed in both the dry and wet years with reduction slightly faster in the dry year (2.21mg/L/day versus 1.59 mg/L/day). Nitrate reduction was likely coupled to oxidation of various electron donors present in the system, including not only BTEX but also naturally occurring labile organic matter (ex. acetate) and inorganic electron donors (ex. Fe2+). BTEX degradation rates were considerably higher during the “wet” year than the “dry” year, with the fastest rates occurring immediately following test solution additions. For example, in the first 2 days of the “wet” ISM experiments degradation rates were 57.97ug/L/day for Benzene, 73.24ug/L/day for Toluene, 12.37ug/L/day for Ethyl Benzene and 85.61ug/L/day for Xylene compared to an ISM from the dry year which had slower degradation rates of 2.83ug/L/day for

  3. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. © The Author 2015

  4. Impact of lens case hygiene guidelines on contact lens case contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne T; Teng, Yuu Juan; Nicholas, Mary; Harmis, Najat; Zhu, Hua; Willcox, Mark D P; Stapleton, Fiona

    2011-10-01

    Lens case contamination is a risk factor for microbial keratitis. The effectiveness of manufacturers' lens case cleaning guidelines in limiting microbial contamination has not been evaluated in vivo. This study compared the effectiveness of manufacturers' guidelines and an alternative cleaning regimen. A randomized cross-over clinical trial with two phases (n = 40) was performed. Participants used the lens types of their choice in conjunction with the provided multipurpose solution (containing polyhexamethylene biguanide) for daily wear. In the manufacturers' guideline phase, cases were rinsed with multipurpose solution and air dried. In the alternative regimen phase, cases were rubbed, rinsed with solution, tissue wiped, and air-dried face down. The duration of each phase was 1 month. Lens cases were collected at the end of each phase for microbiological investigation. The levels of microbial contamination were compared, and compliance to both regimens was assessed. The case contamination rate was 82% (32/39) in the manufacturers' guideline group, compared with 72% (28/39) in the alternative regimen group. There were significantly fewer (p = 0.004) colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria from cases used by following the alternative regimen (CFU range of 0 to 10, and median of 12 CFU per well) compared with that of the manufacturer's guidelines (CFU range of 0 to 10, and median of 28 CFU per well). The compliance level between both guidelines was not significantly different (p > 0.05). The alternative guidelines are more effective in eliminating microbial contamination from lens cases than that of the current manufacturer's guideline. Simply incorporating rubbing and tissue-wiping steps in daily case hygiene reduces viable organism contamination.

  5. Quantification of pressure sensitive adhesive, residual ink, and other colored process contaminants using dye and color image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy R. Rosenberger; Carl J. Houtman

    2000-01-01

    The USPS Image Analysis (IA) protocol recommends the use of hydrophobic dyes to develop contrast between pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) particles and cellulosic fibers before using a dirt counter to detect all contaminants that have contrast with the handsheet background. Unless the sample contains no contaminants other than those of interest, two measurement steps...

  6. Monitoring of Soil Contamination by Heavy Metals in the Impact Zone of Copper-Nickel Smelter on the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The results of landscape monitoring of the concentrations of acid-extractable Ni, Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn in soils of the local impact zone of the Severonikel industrial complex on the Kola Peninsula are discussed. The aim of monitoring studies was to reveal the spatial and temporal regularities of variation in the degree of soil contamination by heavy metals. In 2001-2011, the concentrations of acid-extractable compounds of the elements in the upper part of organic soil horizons around this plant exceeded their background concentrations by two orders of magnitude for Cu and Co and by three orders of magnitude for Ni. The degree of topsoil contamination with Ni, Cu, and Co generally corresponded to the distance of the plots from the contamination source and to the modern technogenic load. However, because of the long period of the emissions, their extreme amounts, and complex composition, indirect factors—the degree of technogenic soil degradation, the loss of soil organic matter, saturation of the surface soil layers by the contaminating metals, and competitive relationships between the elements—also affect soil contamination level. The concentrations of all the studied metals in the topsoil are characterized by considerable (1.5 to 7 times) variability in their long-term dynamics. The most important factors of this variability for Ni, Cu, and Co are the organic matter content of the samples and the amount of atmospheric precipitation in the year preceding the sampling. An inverse relationship between element concentrations in the soils and the amount of atmospheric precipitation attests to the dynamic nature and reversible character of the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils.

  7. Hand soap contamination by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary care hospital: no evidence of impact on patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, D S; Gomes Magalhaes, B; Abdelbary, M; Prod'hom, G; Greub, G; Wasserfallen, J B; Genoud, P; Zanetti, G; Senn, L

    2016-05-01

    During an environmental investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care units, the liquid hand soap was found to be highly contaminated (up to 8 × 10(5)cfu/g) with this pathogen. It had been used over the previous five months and was probably contaminated during manufacturing. To evaluate the burden of this contamination on patients by conducting an epidemiological investigation using molecular typing combined with whole genome sequencing (WGS). P. aeruginosa isolates from clinical specimens were analysed by double locus sequence typing (DLST) and compared with isolates recovered from the soap. Medical charts of patients infected with a genotype identical to those found in the soap were reviewed. WGS was performed on soap and patient isolates sharing the same genotype. P. aeruginosa isolates (N = 776) were available in 358/382 patients (93.7%). Only three patients (0.8%) were infected with a genotype found in the soap. Epidemiological investigations showed that the first patient was not exposed to the soap, the second could have been exposed, and the third was indeed exposed. WGS showed a high number of core single nucleotide polymorphism differences between patients and soap isolates. No close genetic association was observed between soap and patient isolates, ruling out the hypothesis of transmission. Despite a highly contaminated soap, the combined investigation with DLST and WGS ruled out any impact on patients. Hand hygiene performed with alcohol-based solution for >15 years was probably the main reason. However, such contamination represents a putative reservoir of pathogens that should be avoided in the hospital setting. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population. PMID:24634721

  9. Impact of irrigation-practices on nitrate-leaching to contaminate groundwater and its risk to rural community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate contamination of shallow groundwater by nitrogen fertilizers. Results of the study show that the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen varies from 0.03 to 3.25 mg/l in the water samples collected from the tile-drainage areas, which is much below the maximum permissible limit of 10 mg/l. The nitrate-nitrogen concentration exceeded the permissible limit in about 15% of the samples collected from outside the tile-drainage areas. In general, it is found that there is no danger of shallow groundwater pollution by nitrate if the agricultural drainage system (tile drains) is functioning well. In contrast to this, there are chances of groundwater pollution where there is no such drainage-system. Further, the analysis of the water-samples collected from hand pumps and tube wells indicates that nitrates accumulate in the top surface of groundwater, after their leaching with downward percolating water. For this reason, the concentration of nitrate was found a maximum in the shallower groundwater. It decreases rather sharply with increase in groundwater depth. Thus, it is safer to tap deeper groundwater to lesson the danger of pollution by nitrates for human health. Soil-samples were also collected from selected points, along with water samples. These results indicate that soil-texture has a significant impact on production of nitrates, as well as their leaching and subsequent pollution of groundwater. There is more risk of groundwater-pollution in areas occupied by coarse-textured material, containing more than 50 percent sand particles. (author)

  10. Characterization of contaminated soil and groundwater surrounding an illegal landfill (S. Giuliano, Venice, Italy) by principal component analysis and kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critto, Andrea; Carlon, Claudio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Information on soil and groundwater contamination was used to develop a site conceptual model and to identify exposure scenarios. - The characterization of a hydrologically complex contaminated site bordering the lagoon of Venice (Italy) was undertaken by investigating soils and groundwaters affected by the chemical contaminants originated by the wastes dumped into an illegal landfill. Statistical tools such as principal components analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to obtain the spatial distribution of chemical contaminants. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO 4 2- and Cl - were used to trace the migration of the contaminants from the top soil to the underlying groundwaters. The chemical and hydrogeological available information was assembled to obtain the schematic of the conceptual model of the contaminated site capable to support the formulation of major exposure scenarios, which are also provided

  11. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Lyons, Brett P.; Thain, John E.; Law, Robin J.

    2013-01-01

    important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology

  12. Impact of dietary exposure to food contaminants on the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Bech, Sára

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a community with increased exposure levels. A total of 79 clinically verified idiopathic PD cases and 154 controls matched by sex and a...... in adult life was significantly associated with PD, thus suggesting a positive association between previous exposure to marine food contaminants and development of PD......., pesticides and metals also suggested an increased risk for PD. Current serum concentrations of summation operator PCB and related contaminants suggested slightly increased ORs, although only beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) was statistically significant. Increased intake of whale meat and blubber...

  13. The effect of contaminated groundwater on tree growth: A tree-ring analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, D.C.; Loehle, C.

    1990-10-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of contaminated groundwater seepage on tree growth downslope from F- and H-Area seepage basins of the Savannah River Site. Trees in wetlands along Four Mile Creek began to show localized stress and mortality in the late 1970s. Extreme winter temperatures and high rainfall were ruled out as potential causal factors of tree stress. Drought was shown to affect trees in both contaminated and uncontaminated zones, but trees in uncontaminated areas exhibit better recovery after drought than trees in contaminated areas. Pollution-mediated alteration of soil acidity and aluminum, sodium, and heavy metal concentrations likely acted to predispose trees to decline, with severe drought acting as the trigger for decline initiation and tree death. Thus, a moderate pollution loading, not sufficient to cause visible damage of itself, may create conditions in which sudden, severe decline could result from natural stresses. This mechanism of forest decline is common, and should be considered in evaluations of the impact of pollution on wetland forest systems. 28 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Spectroscopic analysis of soil metal contamination around a derelict mine site in the Blue Mountains, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Raval, S.; Taplin, R.

    2014-09-01

    Abandoned mine sites pose the potential threat of the heavy metal pollution spread through streams and via runoff leading to contamination of soil and water in their surrounding areas. Regular monitoring of these areas is critical to minimise impacts on water resources, flora and fauna. Conventional ground based monitoring is expensive and sometimes impractical; spectroscopic methods have been emerged as a reliable alternative for this purpose. In this study, the capabilities of the spectroscopy method were examined for modelling soil contamination from around the abandoned silver-zinc mine located at Yerranderie, NSW Australia. The diagnostic characteristics of the original reflectance data were compared with models derived from first and second derivatives of the reflectance data. The results indicate that the models derived from the first derivative of the reflectance data estimate heavy metals significantly more accurately than model derived from the original reflectance. It was also found in this study that there is no need to use second derivative for modelling heavy metal soil contamination. Finally, the results indicate that estimates were of greater accuracy for arsenic and lead compared to other heavy metals, while the estimation for silver was found to be the most erroneous.

  15. Integrated risk analysis of a heavy-metal-contaminated site in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching-Tsan Tsai [China Medical College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang, J.H.C. [National Science Council, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-31

    The Love Canal episode began the long battle on hazardous wastes in the United States. Obviously, the potential danger of hazardous wastes is one of the hottest issues among environmental professionals as well as the public. The problems of hazardous wastes in economically booming Taiwan are also alarming. Several farmlands in northern Taiwan were contaminated heavily by industrial effluents containing heavy metals (cadmium and lead) in the early 1980s. Regardless of the many studies that have been conducted about these polluted farmlands, there has not been any remediation - just a passive abandonment of farming activities with minimal compensation. This paper addresses a heavy-metal-contaminated fanning area. A pollution profile across time is delineated using information from the abundance of reports, and the contamination is modeled mathematically. The past, the present, and future exposures are also modeled. The results are presented in terms of societal impacts and health effects. Reasonable soil guidelines for cleanup are estimated, and recommendations for rational mitigation solutions are presented. The current strategies for cleanup actions are also described. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. An evaluation paradigm for cumulative impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1988-09-01

    Cumulative impact analysis is examined from a conceptual decision-making perspective, focusing on its implicit and explicit purposes as suggested within the policy and procedures for environmental impact analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and its implementing regulations. In this article it is also linked to different evaluation and decision-making conventions, contrasting a regulatory context with a comprehensive planning framework. The specific problems that make the application of cumulative impact analysis a virtually intractable evaluation requirement are discussed in connection with the federal regulation of wetlands uses. The relatively familiar US Army Corps of Engineers' (the Corps) permit program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) responsibilities in managing its share of the Section 404 regulatory program requirements, is used throughout as the realistic context for highlighting certain pragmatic evaluation aspects of cumulative impact assessment. To understand the purposes of cumulative impact analysis (CIA), a key distinction must be made between the implied comprehensive and multiobjective evaluation purposes of CIA, promoted through the principles and policies contained in NEPA, and the more commonly conducted and limited assessment of cumulative effects (ACE), which focuses largely on the ecological effects of human actions. Based on current evaluation practices within the Corps' and EPA's permit programs, it is shown that the commonly used screening approach to regulating wetlands uses is not compatible with the purposes of CIA, nor is the environmental impact statement (EIS) an appropriate vehicle for evaluating the variety of objectives and trade-offs needed as part of CIA. A heuristic model that incorporates the basic elements of CIA is developed, including the idea of trade-offs among social, economic, and environmental protection goals carried out within the context of environmental

  17. Impact of long-term Diesel Contamination on Soil Microbial Community Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Maphosa, F.; Morillo, J.A.; Abu Al-Soud, W.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Smidt, H.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity at a diesel-contaminated railway site were investigated by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments to understand the interrelationships among microbial community composition, pollution level, and soil geochemical and physical

  18. Assessing The Impact Of Mercury Contamination To Lake Balkyldak In Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjacent to Lake Balkyldak in Kazakhstan, there is a large wastewater holding pond from a former mercury cell chloralkali plant which contains high levels of mercury-contamination. The holding pond capacity is 74 million m3 with a water-surface area of 18 km2

  19. Impact of oil contamination and biostimulation on the diversity of indigenous bacterial communities in soil microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, FF; Rosado, AS; Sebastian, GV; Casella, R; Machado, PLOA; Holmstrom, C; Kjelleberg, S; van Elsas, JD; Seldin, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of oil contamination and biostimulation (soil pH raise, and nitrogen, phosphate and sulphur addition) on the diversity of a bacterial community of an acidic Cambisol under Atlantic Forest. The experiment was based on the enumeration of bacterial

  20. Biomonitors and the assessment of ecological impacts: Distribution of herbivorous epifauna in contaminated macroalgal beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, David A.; Johnston, Emma L.; Poore, Alistair G.B.

    2008-01-01

    We determined metal contents of co-occurring algae Padina crassa and Sargassum sp. in Port Jackson (Australia), and relationships between metal levels and the abundance of epifaunal amphipods. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations were amongst the highest yet recorded in these algae. Copper, manganese and lead concentrations were far greater in P. crassa than Sargassum sp., possibly due to the low growth of P. crassa in proximity to contaminated sediments. However, in manipulative experiments the proximity of algae to sediments did not explain these differences. The abundance of herbivorous amphipods correlated negatively with the copper content of P. crassa, but not with the lower concentrations in Sargassum sp. The greater contamination of P. crassa led to patchy distributions of metals in algal beds and recolonisation experiments showed Sargassum sp. acts as a refuge from contaminants for epifauna. The contamination of macroalgae may pose threats to epifauna in harbours around the world. - The accumulation of metals by macroalgae may pose ecological threats to herbivorous epifauna in ports and harbours worldwide

  1. Hobi emergent pestivirus: Its impact in animal health and importance as a contaminant in biotechnological products

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Hobi-like” viruses are a group of emerging Pestiviruses which affect cattle and water buffaloes and are common contaminants of biological products. After the first detection from Brazilian samples in Germany in 2004, several Hobi-like isolates have been reported in Italy and some countries of Asia....

  2. Impact of sensor detection limits on protecting water distribution systems from contamination events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Sean Andrew; Hart, David Blaine; Yarrington, Lane

    2006-01-01

    Real-time water quality sensors are becoming commonplace in water distribution systems. However, field deployable, contaminant-specific sensors are still in the development stage. As development proceeds, the necessary operating parameters of these sensors must be determined to protect consumers from accidental and malevolent contamination events. This objective can be quantified in several different ways including minimization of: the time necessary to detect a contamination event, the population exposed to contaminated water, the extent of the contamination within the network, and others. We examine the ability of a sensor set to meet these objectives as a function of both the detection limit of the sensors and the number of sensors in the network. A moderately sized distribution network is used as an example and different sized sets of randomly placed sensors are considered. For each combination of a certain number of sensors and a detection limit, the mean values of the different objectives across multiple random sensor placements are calculated. The tradeoff between the necessary detection limit in a sensor and the number of sensors is evaluated. Results show that for the example problem examined here, a sensor detection limit of 0.01 of the average source concentration is adequate for maximum protection. Detection of events is dependent on the detection limit of the sensors, but for those events that are detected, the values of the performance measures are not a function of the sensor detection limit. The results of replacing a single sensor in a network with a sensor having a much lower detection limit show that while this replacement can improve results, the majority of the additional events detected had performance measures of relatively low consequence.

  3. Analysis of aircraft impact to concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arros, Jorma; Doumbalski, Nikolay

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of aircraft impact to nuclear power plant structures is discussed utilizing a simplified model of a 'fictitious nuclear building' to perform analyses using LS-DYNA software, representing the loading: (i) by the Riera force history method and (ii) by modeling the crash by impacting a model of a plane similar to Boeing 747-400 to the structure (i.e., 'missile-target interaction method'). Points discussed include: (1) comparison of shock loading within the building as obtained from the Riera force history analysis versus from the missile-target interaction analysis, (2) sensitivity of the results on the assumed Riera force loading area, (3) linear versus nonlinear modeling and (4) on failure criteria

  4. Analysis of Radioactivity Contamination Level of Kartini Reactor Efluen Gas to the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Purwanto; Aminjoyo, S

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of radioactivity contamination level of Kartini reactor efluen gas to the environment has been done from 13-10-'95 until 8-2-'96. The aim of this research is to determine the radioactivity contamination level on the environment resulted from the release of Kartini reactor efluen gas and other facilities at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre through stack. The analysis methods is the student t-test, the first count factor test and the gamma spectrometry. The gas sampling were carried out in the stack reactor, reactor room, environment and in other room for comparison. Efluen gas was sucked through a filter by a high volume vacuum pump. The filter was counted for beta, gamma and alpha activities. The radioactivity contamination level of the efluen gas passing through the stack to the environment was measured between 0.57 - 1.34 Bq/m3, which was equal to the airborne radioactivity in environment between 0.69 - 1.12 Bq/m3. This radioactivity comes from radon daughter, decay products result from the natural uranium and thorium series of the materials of the building

  5. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in contaminated soil--sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik

    2015-11-01

    We present a sensitivity analysis of a reactive transport model of mercury (Hg) fate in contaminated soil systems. The one-dimensional model, presented in Leterme et al. (2014), couples water flow in variably saturated conditions with Hg physico-chemical reactions. The sensitivity of Hg leaching and volatilisation to parameter uncertainty is examined using the elementary effect method. A test case is built using a hypothetical 1-m depth sandy soil and a 50-year time series of daily precipitation and evapotranspiration. Hg anthropogenic contamination is simulated in the topsoil by separately considering three different sources: cinnabar, non-aqueous phase liquid and aqueous mercuric chloride. The model sensitivity to a set of 13 input parameters is assessed, using three different model outputs (volatilized Hg, leached Hg, Hg still present in the contaminated soil horizon). Results show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration in soil solution and the binding constant to DOM thiol groups are critical parameters, as well as parameters related to Hg sorption to humic and fulvic acids in solid organic matter. Initial Hg concentration is also identified as a sensitive parameter. The sensitivity analysis also brings out non-monotonic model behaviour for certain parameters.

  6. [Phytoremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils with Iris pseudacorus L. and the Metabolic Analysis in Roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-nan; Cheng, Li-juan; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we performed a greenhouse pot-culture experiment to investigate the potential of a wild ornamental plant Iris pseudacorus L. in remediating petroleum contaminated soils from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results suggested that Iris pseudacorus L. had great resistance to ≤ 40,000 mg · kg(⁻¹ of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). The removal rate of TPHs with concentrations of 10,000 mg · kg⁻¹, 20,000 mg · kg⁻¹ and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹ in soils by Iris pseudacorus L. was 42.1%, 33.1% 31.2%, respectively, much higher than those in the corresponding controls (31.8%, 21.3% 11.9%, respectively) (P 1.2) with the root specific surface area from the PLS-DA model analysis, including ethanedioic acid, lactic acid, 2-butenedioic acid, phosphate and propanedioic acid, were positively correlated with the root specific surface area, but the others, gluconic acid, uridine, butanoic acid, maltose, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, phenylalanine, were negatively correlated with it. In conclusion, using Iris pseudacorus L. to remediate petroleum contaminated soils is feasible, and the metabolic analysis in roots is useful to better understand the metabolic response of plants exposure to petroleum contaminated soils, and then reveals its remediated mechanisms.

  7. Impact of contamination on hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerdenweber, Jan

    2011-09-26

    This thesis deals with atmospheric contamination and cross-contamination of boron (single-chamber process) of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer) of p-i-n thin film solar cells based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The atmospheric contaminations were introduced by means of intentional leaks. Hereby, the focus is on the influence of contamination species (oxygen and nitrogen), quantity of contamination (leak flow), source of contamination (leaks at chamber wall or in the process gas pipe), and plasma power on the properties of solar cells. Thereby, the minimum requirements for the purity of vacuum and process gas as well as leak conditions of the recipient and gas pipe system have been determined. Additionally, deposition regimes were developed, where the incorporation of impurities is significantly suppressed. For standard processes critical levels of nitrogen and oxygen contamination are determined to be {proportional_to} 4 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, respectively, for a leak situated at the chamber wall. Above these concentrations the solar cell efficiency deteriorates. In literature, incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen in doping configuration is assumed to be the reason for the cell deterioration. This assumption is supported by additional material studies of contaminated absorber layers done in this work. The difference in critical concentration is due to the higher doping efficiency of nitrogen compared to that for oxygen. Nevertheless, applying an air leak the critical concentrations of O and N are reached almost simultaneously since the incorporation probability of oxygen is about one order of magnitude higher compared to that for nitrogen. Applying a leak in the process gas pipe the critical oxygen contamination level increases to {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} whereas the critical nitrogen level remains unchanged compared to a chamber wall leak. Applying a deposition regime with a very high

  8. Analysis of the regulation on protective and remedial measures on the radioactive contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.; Demin, V.F.; Vasiliev, A.; Ivanov, E.; Tsyb, A.

    2002-01-01

    The current regulation and decisions on the radiation and social protection and rehabilitation of the radioactive contaminated territories are analyzed with purpose to learn all lessons needed for improvement of the regulation and activity in restoration phase and in the preparedness to possible future radiological accidents. Necessity to go beyond the simple radiation protection approach in the decision making and to use risk analysis considering both radiological and non-radiological factors is one of the lessons. The conceptual aspects of risk analysis together with dose assessment in decision making are considered. (author)

  9. Geostatistical methods for radiological evaluation and risk analysis of contaminated premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, Y.; Jeannee, N.; Chiles, J.P.; Dubot, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: At the end of process equipment dismantling, the complete decontamination of nuclear facilities requires the radiological assessment of residual activity levels of building structures. As stated by the IAEA, 'Segregation and characterization of contaminated materials are the key elements of waste minimization'. From this point of view, the set up of an appropriate evaluation methodology is of primordial importance. The radiological characterization of contaminated premises can be divided into three steps. First, the most exhaustive facility analysis provides historical, functional and qualitative information. Then, a systematic (exhaustive or not) control of the emergent signal is performed by means of in situ measurement methods such as surface control device combined with in situ gamma spectrometry. Besides, in order to assess the contamination depth, samples can be collected from boreholes at several locations within the premises and analyzed. Combined with historical information and emergent signal maps, such data improve and reinforce the preliminary waste zoning. In order to provide reliable estimates while avoiding supplementary investigation costs, there is therefore a crucial need for sampling optimization methods together with appropriate data processing techniques. The relevance of the geostatistical methodology relies on the presence of a spatial continuity for radiological contamination. In this case, geostatistics provides reliable methods for activity estimation, uncertainty quantification and risk analysis, which are essential decision-making tools for decommissioning and dismantling projects of nuclear installations. Besides, the ability of this geostatistical framework to provide answers to several key issues that generally occur during the clean-up preparation phase is discussed: How to optimise the investigation costs? How to deal with data quality issues? How to consistently take into account auxiliary information such as historical

  10. Analysis on decontamination of contaminated soil with strontium using electrorestoration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The electrokinetic apparatus for remediation of the soil contaminated with Sr 2+ was designed. After kaolin clay compulsorily contaminated by Sr 2+ solution, the remediation characteristics by electrokinetic method were analyzed. Meanwhile, the numerical code for analysis of electrokinetic migration was developed for modelling of the soil remediation. And the input parameters needed for modelling were measured by laboratory experiment, or taken from literature. Experimental results are as follows : After 6 day remediation under 40 V, the front part of experimental cell was almost decontaminated, but the back part didn't almost be decontaminated. Consequently, the total remediation ratio of Sr 2+ from cell soil was about 84.8 %. The values calculated by the developed code almost agreed with experimental values. When voltages of electrode were increased by 10, 20, 40V, the total Sr 2+ remediation ratios were about 21.9%. 43.3%, 84.8 % , respectively, after 6 days

  11. Analytical analysis of soil-moisture and trace-contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.; Reeves, M.

    1976-03-01

    A transport model is presented which predicts the coupled movement of both water and trace contaminants through a layered and unsaturated soil-moisture zone. In order to achieve computation speeds suitable for watershed implementations, moisture properties are approximated as exponential functions of pressure head, and lateral flows are treated as sinks in a basically vertical one-dimensional analysis. In addition, only advection by the Darcy-flow velocities and linear adsorption by the soil matrix are considered in depicting movement of the trace contaminant. Formal solution of the resulting transport equations is obtained through use of both eigenfunction-expansion and coordinate-transformation methods. Numerical solution is effected by means of a program written in FORTRAN IV and implemented on an IBM 360/91 computer. Two example calculations illustrate both strengths and weaknesses of our model

  12. Determination of the potential implementation impact of 2016 ministry of environmental protection generic assessment criteria for potentially contaminated sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Yu-Ting; Nathanail, C Paul

    2017-04-12

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection of China issued a 3rd draft edition of risk-based Generic Assessment Criteria (the MEP-GAC) in March 2016. Since these will be the first authoritative GAC in China, their implementation is likely to have a significant impact on China's growing contaminated land management sector. This study aims to determine the potential implementation impact of the MEP-GAC through an in-depth analysis of the management context, land use scenarios, health criteria values adopted and exposure pathways considered. The MEP-GAC have been proposed for two broad categories of land use scenarios for contaminated land risk assessment, and these two categories of land use scenarios need to be further delved, and a MEP-GAC for Chinese cultivated land scenario ought to be developed, to ensure human health protection of Chinese farmers. The MEP-GAC have adopted 10 -6 as the acceptable lifetime cancer risk, given the widespread extent and severe level of land contamination in China, consideration should be given to the decision on excess lifetime cancer risk of 10 -5 . During risk assessment process in practice, it is better to review the 20% TDI against local circumstances to determine their suitability before adopting it. The MEP-GAC are based on a SOM value of 1%, for regions with particularly high SOM, it might be necessary to develop regional GAC, due to SOM's significant impact on the GAC developed. An authoritative risk assessment model developed based on HJ25.3-2014 would help facilitate the DQRA process in practice. The MEP-GAC could better reflect the likely exposures of China's citizens due to vapour inhalation by using characteristics of Chinese exposure scenarios, including China-generic building stock, as inputs into the Johnson and Ettinger model as opposed to adoption of the US EPA parameters. The MEP-GAC once implemented will set the trajectory for the development of the investigation, assessment and remediation of land contamination

  13. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2009-06-15

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  14. GeoChip-based analysis of microbial functional gene diversity in a landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Parisi, Victoria A.; Kang, Sanghoon; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-01-01

    The functional gene diversity and structure of microbial communities in a shallow landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer were assessed using a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0). Water samples were obtained from eight wells at the same aquifer depth immediately below a municipal landfill or along the predominant downgradient groundwater flowpath. Functional gene richness and diversity immediately below the landfill and the closest well were considerably lower than those in downgradient wells. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that various geochemical parameters had a significant impact on the subsurface microbial community structure. That is, leachate from the unlined landfill impacted the diversity, composition, structure, and functional potential of groundwater microbial communities as a function of groundwater pH, and concentrations of sulfate, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Historical geochemical records indicate that all sampled wells chronically received leachate, and the increase in microbial diversity as a function of distance from the landfill is consistent with mitigation of the impact of leachate on the groundwater system by natural attenuation mechanisms.

  15. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: → Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. → We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. → Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. → The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  16. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: > Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. > We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. > Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. > The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  17. Long-term ongoing impact of arsenic contamination on the environmental compartments of a former mining-metallurgy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, B; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Boente, C; Menéndez-Casares, E; Fernández-Braña, A; Gallego, J R

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are potentially toxic elements of concern for soil, surficial and ground waters, and sediments. In this work various geochemical and hydrogeological tools were used to study a paradigmatic case of the combined effects of the abandonment of Hg- and As-rich waste on these environmental compartments. Continuous weathering of over 40years has promoted As and Hg soil pollution (thousands of ppm) in the surroundings of a former Hg mining-metallurgy site and affected the water quality of a nearby river and shallow groundwater. In particular, the high availability of As both in soils and waste was identified as one of the main determinants of contaminant distribution, whereas the impact of Hg was found to be minor, which is explained by lower mobility. Furthermore, potential additional sources of pollution (coal mining, high natural backgrounds, etc.) discharging into the study river were revealed less significant than the contaminants generated in the Hg-mining area. The transport and deposition of pollutants within the water cycle has also affected several kilometres downstream of the release areas and the chemistry of stream sediments. Overall, the environmental compartments studies held considerable concentrations of Hg and As, as remarkably revealed by the average contaminant load released in the river (several tons of As per year) and the accumulation of toxic elements in sediments (enrichment factors of As and Hg above 35). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration: Analysis of Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration at Three Contaminated Sites Remediated and Revitalized with Soil Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper provides EPA's analysis of the data to determine carbon sequestration rates at three diverse sites that differ in geography/location, weather, soil properties, type of contamination, and age.

  19. Human impact on fluvial sediments: distinguishing regional and local sources of heavy metals contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, T.; Matys Grygar, T.; Bábek, O.; Faměra, M.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.

    2012-04-01

    Industrial pollution can provide a useful tool to study spatiotemporal distribution of modern floodplain sediments, trace their provenance, and allow their dating. Regional contamination of southern Moravia (the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic) by heavy metals during the 20th century was determined in fluvial sediments of the Morava River by means of enrichment factors. The influence of local sources and sampling sites heterogeneity were studied in overbank fines with different lithology and facies. For this purpose, samples were obtained from hand-drilled cores from regulated channel banks, with well-defined local sources of contamination (factories in Zlín and Otrokovice) and also from near naturally inundated floodplains in two nature protected areas (at 30 km distance). The analyses were performed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED XRF), ICP MS (EDXRF samples calibration, 206Pb/207Pb ratio), magnetic susceptibility, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and 137Cs and 210Pb activities. Enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) and magnetic susceptibility of overbank fines in near-naturally (near annually) inundated areas allowed us to reconstruct historical contamination by heavy metals in the entire study area independently on lithofacies. Measured lithological background values were then used for calculation of EFs in the channel sediments and in floodplain sediments deposited within narrow part of a former floodplain which is now reduced to about one quarter of its original width by flood defences. Sediments from regulated channel banks were found stratigraphically and lithologically "erratic", unreliable for quantification of regional contamination due to a high variability of sedimentary environment. On the other hand, these sediments are very sensitive to the nearby local sources of heavy metals. For a practical work one must first choose whether large scale, i.e. a really averaged regional contamination should be reconstructed

  20. A review on heavy metal contamination in the soil worldwide: Situation, impact and remediation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Su; LiQin Jiang; WenJun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in the soil refers to some significant heavy metals of biological toxicity, including mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As), etc. With the development of the global economy, both type and content of heavy metals in the soil caused by human activities have gradually increased in recent years, which have resulted in serious environment deterioration. In present study we compared and analyzed soil contamination of heavy metals in various cities/count...

  1. Impact of haylage harvest and storage technologies on forage microbial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Artemyeva, O.; Duborezov, V.; Pavlyuchenkova, O.; Kotkovskaya, E.; Ralkova, V.; Peresyolkova, D.

    2014-01-01

    To develop bacteriological regulations for harvesting and storing haylage, microbial contamination of feeds has been studied using different technologies for harvesting haylage and laying fodder in trench and concrete ring silos, and rolls. It was noted that the analyzed forage samples had no pathogenic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella. There was a lack of toxicity in all analyzed silage samples. The values for the number of mesophilic aerobic and elective anaerobic...

  2. Impact of contamination with long-lived radionuclides on PET kinetics modelling in multitracer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard; Jensen, Svend B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An important issue in multitracer studies is the separation of signals from the different radiotracers. This is especially the case when an early tracer has a long physical half-life and kinetic modelling has to be performed, because the early tracer can confer a long-lived contamin......Introduction: An important issue in multitracer studies is the separation of signals from the different radiotracers. This is especially the case when an early tracer has a long physical half-life and kinetic modelling has to be performed, because the early tracer can confer a long...... of subsequent PET tracers. Blood sample counts were corrected by recounting the samples a few days later. A more optimal choice of energy window was also explored. The effect of correction versus noncorrection was investigated using a two-tissue kinetic model with irreversible uptake (K1, k2, k3). Results: K1...... counting of blood samples can lead to a contaminating background not observed in PET imaging and this background can affect kinetic modelling. If the contaminating tracer has a much longer half-life than the foreground tracer, then the problem can be solved by late recounting of the samples....

  3. Sorption ability of the soil and its impact on environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargošová, Helena Zlámalová; Vávrová, Milada

    2014-01-01

    From the physical point of view, soil is a heterogenic polydisperse system. It often becomes a place of a secondary contamination during extinguishing uncontrolled areal fires in nature. Foam extinguishing agents (FEAs), used at these events, basically contain surface active substances and perfluorinated compounds. These tend to be captured in the soil matrix due to their specific properties. Contaminants could be partly flushed out with rainwater, which causes several times dilution of contamination and lower ecotoxic activity. However in the dry season, foam solution infiltrates into the bed soil without any dilution. This study deals with the direct influence of soil the sorption complex on ecotoxicity of five selected FEAs, i.e. Expyrol F 15, Finiflam F 15, Moussol APS F 15, Pyrocool B and Sthamex F 15. The substances tested were prepared in concentration of work solution and then applied on standard soil matrix LUFA 2.3. For experimental purposes, a column infiltration apparatus was designed and compiled. Filtrates were collected and then tested using the plant organisms Sinapis alba and Allium cepa L. The study compared ecotoxicologic effects of filtrates with an original work solution. Moussol APS F 15 seems to be the least ecotoxic of the FEAs tested. A direct influence of soil sorption complex onto ecotoxicity reduction was also established. This finding demonstrates the sorption ability of soil particles and ion exchange activity of the soil matrix. It is a positive finding for biota of aquatic environment, yet at the expense of those in soil. PMID:26109897

  4. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakia D. Parrish; M. Katherine Banks; A. Paul Schwab [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States). Department of Soil and Water

    2005-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil.

  5. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Zakia D. [Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Banks, M. Katherine [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States)]. E-mail: kbanks@ecn.purdue.edu; Schwab, A. Paul [Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, 915 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. - The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil.

  6. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, Zakia D.; Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. - The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil

  7. Exposure Through Runoff and Ground Water Contamination Differentially Impact Behavior and Physiology of Crustaceans in Fluvial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Alexandra N; Belanger, Rachelle M; Moore, Paul A

    2018-06-19

    Chemical pollutants enter aquatic systems through numerous pathways (e.g., surface runoff and ground water contamination), thus associating these contaminant sources with varying hydrodynamic environments. The hydrodynamic environment shapes the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants through turbulent mixing. The differential dispersal of contaminants is not commonly addressed in ecotoxicological studies and may have varying implications for organism health. The purpose of this study is to understand how differing routes of exposure to atrazine alter social behaviors and physiological responses of aquatic organisms. This study used agonistic encounters in crayfish Orconectes virilis as a behavioral assay to investigate impact of sublethal concentrations of atrazine (0, 40, 80, and 160 µg/L) delivered by methods mimicking ground water and surface runoff influx into flow-through exposure arenas for a total of 23 h. Each experimental animal participated in a dyadic fight trial with an unexposed opponent. Fight duration and intensity were analyzed. Experimental crayfish hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle tissue samples were analyzed for cytochrome P450 and acetylcholinesterase levels to discern mechanism of detoxification and mode of action of atrazine. Atrazine delivered via runoff decreased crayfish overall fight intensity and contrastingly ground water delivery increased overall fight intensity. The behavioral differences were mirrored by increases in cytochrome P450 activity, whereas no differences were found in acetylcholinesterase activity. This study demonstrates that method of delivery into fluvial systems has differential effects on both behavior and physiology of organisms and emphasizes the need for the consideration of delivery pathway in ecotoxicological studies and water-impairment standards.

  8. Impact analysis on a massively parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharia, T.; Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in evaluating and enhancing the design of beverage cans, industrial, and transportation containers for improved performance. Numerical models are used to evaluate the impact requirements of containers used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for transporting radioactive materials. Many of these models are highly compute-intensive. An analysis may require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, massively parallel computers have become important tools. Massively parallel computational research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its application to the impact analysis of shipping containers is briefly described in this paper

  9. Gas Bubbles Investigation in Contaminated Water Using Optical Tomography Based on Independent Component Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Taufiq Mohd Khairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concentration profiles for gas bubble flow in a vertical pipeline containing contaminated water using an optical tomography system. The concentration profiles for the bubble flow quantities are investigated under five different flows conditions, a single bubble, double bubbles, 25% of air opening, 50% of air opening, and 100% of air opening flow rates where a valve is used to control the gas flow in the vertical pipeline. The system is aided by the independent component analysis (ICA algorithm to reconstruct the concentration profiles of the liquid-gas flow. The behaviour of the gas bubbles was investigated in contaminated water in which the water sample was prepared by adding 25 mL of colour ingredients to 3 liters of pure water. The result shows that the application of ICA has enabled the system to detect the presence of gas bubbles in contaminated water. This information provides vital information on the flow inside the pipe and hence could be very significant in increasing the efficiency of the process industries.

  10. A possibilistic analysis approach for environmental risk assessment of petroleum-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, G.H.; Fuller, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A possibilistic approach for assessing risks associated with petroleum-contaminated sites is provided. The approach is applied to an illustrative case study in order to show its applicability and implementation for decision making in effective site remediation and management. The approach consists of three main parts: (1) the determination of fuzzy steady state contaminant concentrations in a aquifer based on an analytical solute transport model; (2) possibilistic analysis of fuzzy criteria for different risk levels; and (3) environmental risk assessment based on the Euclidian method. Based on results from an illustrative case study, environmental risks at a petroleum-contaminated site can be effectively evaluated using the developed methodology. The risk assessment framework can effectively handle uncertainities presented as fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy nature of water quality and risk level criteria were seen in the related simulation and evaluation models, and the framework is especially useful for situations in which probabilistic information is not available. This use of this approach is new in the area of petroleum waste management under uncertainty, and its results are useful for the related site remediation and management decisions. 36 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF TREE SPECIES IN CONTAMINATED SUBSTRATE BY LEACHABLE HERBICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca de Araújo Fiore

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ecosystems contamination by residues of pesticides requires special attention to the herbicides subject to leaching. The objective was to select tree species to rhizodegradation contaminated by residues of 2,4-D and atrazine and to recompose riparian areas to agricultural fields, then reducing the risk of contamination of water courses. A total of 36 treatments consisted of the combinations of forest species were evaluated [Inga marginata (Inga, Schizolobium parahyba (guapuruvu, Handroanthus serratifolius (ipê amarelo, Jacaranda puberula (carobinha, Cedrela fissilis (cedro, Calophyllum brasiliensis (landin, Psidium mirsinoides (goiabinha, Tibouchina glandulosa (quaresmeira, Caesalpinia férrea (pau-ferro, Caesalpinia pluviosa (sibipiruna, Terminalia argêntea (capitão and Schinopsis brasiliensis (braúna] and three solutions simulating leachate compound (atrazine, 2,4-D and water - control, with four replicates each. The characteristics measured were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and dry biomass, and foliar nutrition. Forest species survived the herbicide application, and most showed an increase in macronutrients even under an herbicide application, and the Inga had the highest tolerance regarding growth analysis. It is recommended to use species that are more tolerant to Atrazine and 2,4-D in field experiments to confirm previous results of this simulation.

  12. [Observation of topography and analysis of surface contamination of titanium implant after roughness treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongdan; Yang, Xiaodong; Wu, Dayi; Zhang, Xingdong

    2007-04-01

    The roughness treatment of dental implant surface could improve the bone bonding and increase the success rate of implant, but the difference of diverse treatments is still unknown. In this study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectrometer (EDS) and the test of contact angle, we studied the microstructure, surface contamination and surface energy, and hence conducted a comparative analysis of the following surface roughness treatments: Polished Treatment (PT), Sandblasting with Alumina(SA), Sandblasting with Aluminia and Acid-etched (SAA), Sandblasting with Titanium Acid-etched (STA), Electro-erosion Treatment(ET). The result of SEM showed that the surface displayed irregularities after roughness treatments and that the surface properties of different roughness treatments had some distinctions. SAA and SA had some sharp edges and protrutions; the STA showed a regular pattern like honeycomb, but the ET sample treated by electric erosion exhibited the deeper pores of different sizes and the pores with a perforated secondary structure. The EDS indicated that the surface was contaminated after the treatment with foreign materials; the SA surface had some embedded contaminations even after acid etching. The measurement of water contact angle indicated that the morphology correlated with the surface treatments. These findings suggest that the distinction of surface structure and composition caused by different treatments may result in the disparity in biological behavior of dental implant.

  13. Risk analysis on heavy metal contamination in sediments of rivers flowing into Nansi Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Song, Ying; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand the risk of heavy metals in sediments of the rivers flowing into Nansi Lake, 36 surface sediments were sampled from six rivers and seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, and Cd) were determined. Potential ecological risk index (RI) of the six rivers showed significant differences: Xinxue River, Jiehe River, and Guangfu River were at medium potential risk, whereas the risk of Chengguo River was the lowest. Jiehe River, Xuesha River, and Jiangji River were meeting the medium potential risk at river mouths. Geo-accumulation index (I geo ) of the seven heavy metals revealed that the contamination of Cu and Cd was more serious than most other metals in the studied areas, whereas Cr in most sites of our study was not polluted. Moreover, correlation cluster analysis demonstrated that the contamination of Cu, Ni, and Zn in six rivers was mainly caused by local emissions, whereas that of As, Pb, and Cd might come from the external inputs in different forms. Consequently, the contamination of Cu and Cd and the potential risk in Xinxue River, Jiehe River, and Guangfu River as well as the local emissions should be given more attention to safeguard the water quality of Nansi Lake and the East Route Project of South to North Water Transfer.

  14. Comparative analysis of decision tree algorithms on quality of water contaminated with soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andrea Dota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture, roads, animal farms and other land uses may modify the water quality from rivers, dams and other surface freshwaters. In the control of the ecological process and for environmental management, it is necessary to quickly and accurately identify surface water contamination (in areas such as rivers and dams with contaminated runoff waters coming, for example, from cultivation and urban areas. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different classification algorithms applied to the data collected from a sample of soil-contaminated water aiming to identify if the water quality classification proposed in this research agrees with reality. The sample was part of a laboratory experiment, which began with a sample of treated water added with increasing fractions of soil. The results show that the proposed classification for water quality in this scenario is coherent, because different algorithms indicated a strong statistic relationship between the classes and their instances, that is, in the classes that qualify the water sample and the values which describe each class. The proposed water classification varies from excelling to very awful (12 classes

  15. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments of Central India studied by NAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Khageshwar Singh

    2002-01-01

    The environmental and atmospheric samples i.e. surface water, ground water, surface soil, sediment, rain and fog from various sites of contaminated environments of central India were collected in year, 2000-2001. The concentration levels of total-Hg in these samples were analyzed by using techniques i.e. cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS), X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer XFS). Further, the data base of total Hg in the environmental samples would be validated in other laboratories i.e. Prof Dr. Klaus Heumann (Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany), David Amouroux (University of Pau, France) and Dr Joerg Feldmann (University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK) for exploration of the Hg-contaminated environments by using techniques i.e. ICP-MS/GC, gas chromatography-induced couple atomic emission spectrophotometer (GC-ICP-AES), neutron activation analysis (NAA). (author)

  16. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  17. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents.We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137 of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for

  18. The prevalence of Listeria spp. food contamination in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidiyan, Negar; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Rezaei, Zeynab; Dehghani-Tafti, Roohollah; Akrami-Mohajeri, Fateme

    2018-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause circling disease, encephalitis, meningitis, septicemia, and mastitis in dairy cattle. Contamination from the environment can contaminate foods with Listeria spp. Consumption of foods containing L. monocytogenes can lead to listeriosis in susceptible people (adults with a compromised immune system), pregnant women, and infants. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in various foods in Iran. We searched PubMed, Science direct, Scopus, Google scholar, and Iranian local databases including Iranian scientific information database and Magiran for relevant studies up to May 2015 using related keywords. In our preliminary search, we retrieved 1344 articles. After removing duplicates and reviewing titles/abstracts, 117 articles were considered, out of which, 75 articles had sufficient quality for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of Listeria spp. contamination was about 18.3% in poultry, 8.5% in raw meat, 14.6% in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, 10% in sea foods, 7.3% in traditional dairy, 3.2% in commercial dairy, and 0.1% in eggs. The findings showed that L. monocytogenes was most prevalent in ready to eat (9.2%), seafood (5.1%), poultry (5%), traditional dairy (4%), raw meat (2.6%), commercial dairy (1.4%), and egg (0.2%), respectively. Furthermore, the presence of L. monocytogenes particularly in RTE foods (that are consumed without further heat processing) and under-cooked products could be a potential risk for public health. So, contamination should be controlled at all levels of the food chain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Low-temperature impact crushing, leaching and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, G.; Vigreux, B.; Caillol, A.; Koehly, G.

    1987-01-01

    Reprocessing plants, hot laboratories and fuel fabrication plants produce solid wastes containing residual amounts of plutonium and uranium in nitrate and oxide form at concentrations up to several tens of grams per m/sup 3/. Dismantling of nuclear facilities having handled these radioelements also generates large volumes of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha emitters. It is desirable to process these alpha wastes to recover valuable fissile materials and/or permit surface storage. Solid waste treatment by low-temperature impact crushing and then leaching, after minimal sorting and classifying at the sites of production, meets the corresponding requirements for high volume reduction plus fissile material recovery or waste decontamination. Additional volume reduction of crushed wastes containing mainly combustible materials can be obtained by incineration. This is facilitated by the low fissile material content after low-temperature impact crushing and leaching. Sorted wastes can also be leached or incinerated directly after, in most cases, crushing by more conventional techniques

  20. Potential urban runoff impacts and contaminant distributions in shoreline and reservoir environments of Lake Havasu, southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Doyle C

    2018-04-15

    Heavy metal, nutrient, and hydrocarbon levels in and adjacent to Lake Havasu, a regionally significant water supply reservoir with a highly controlled, dynamic flow regime, are assessed in relation to possible stormwater runoff impacts from an arid urban center. Shallow groundwater and sediment analyses from ephemeral drainage (wash) mouths that convey stormwater runoff from Lake Havasu City, Arizona to the reservoir, provided contaminant control points and correlation ties with the reservoir environment. Fine-grain sediments tend to contain higher heavy metal concentrations whereas nutrients are more evenly distributed, except low total organic carbon levels from young wash mouth surfaces devoid of vegetation. Heavy metal and total phosphate sediment concentrations in transects from wash mouths into the reservoir have mixed and decreasing trends, respectively. Both series may indicate chemical depositional influences from urban runoff, yet no statistically significant concentration differences occur between specific wash mouths and corresponding offshore transects. Heavy metal pollution indices of all sediments indicate no discernible to minor contamination, indicating that runoff impacts are minimal. Nevertheless, several heavy metal concentrations from mid-reservoir sediment sites increase southward through the length of the reservoir. Continual significant water flow through the reservoir may help to disperse locally derived runoff particulates, which could mix and settle down gradient with chemical loads from upriver sources and local atmospheric deposition. Incorporating the shoreline environment with the reservoir investigation provides spatial continuity in assessing contaminant sources and distribution patterns. This is particularly acute in the investigation of energetic, flow-through reservoirs in which sources may be overlooked if solely analyzing the reservoir environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability analysis of pipe whip impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzbutas, R.; Dundulis, G.; Kulak, R.F.; Marchertas, P.V.

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis of a group distribution header (GDH) guillotine break and the damage resulting from the failed GDH impacting against a neighbouring wall was carried out for the Ignalita RBMK-1500 reactor. The NEPTUNE software system was used for the deterministic transient analysis of a GDH guillotine break. Many deterministic analyses were performed using different values of the random variables that were specified by ProFES software. All the deterministic results were transferred to the ProFES system, which then performed probabilistic analyses of piping failure and wall damage. The Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method was used to study the sensitivity of the response variables and the effect of uncertainties of material properties and geometry parameters to the probability of limit states. The First Order Reliability Method (FORM) was used to study the probability of failure of the impacted-wall and the support-wall. The Response Surface (RS/MCS) method was used in order to express failure probability as function and to investigate the dependence between impact load and failure probability. The results of the probability analyses for a whipping GDH impacting onto an adjacent wall show that: (i) there is a 0.982 probability that after a GDH guillotine break contact between GDH and wall will occur; (ii) there is a probability of 0.013 that the ultimate tensile strength of concrete at the impact location will be reached, and a through-crack may open; (iii) there is a probability of 0.0126 that the ultimate compressive strength of concrete at the GDH support location will be reached, and the concrete may fail; (iv) at the impact location in the adjacent wall, there is a probability of 0.327 that the ultimate tensile strength of the rebars in the first layer will be reached and the rebars will fail; (v) at the GDH support location, there is a probability of 0.11 that the ultimate stress of the rebars in the first layer will be reached and the rebars will fail

  2. Datura contamination of hay as the suspected cause of an extensive outbreak of impaction colic in horses : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Naudé

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available atura poisoning of horses is extensively reviewed. An outbreak of intractable impaction colic affecting 18 of 83 horses was stopped by withdrawing dried tef hay contaminated with young Datura plants. The dried, botanically identified Datura stramonium and D. ferox contained respectively 0.15 % mass/mass (m/m hyoscyamine as well as 0.16 % m/m hyoscine (scopolamine and only hyoscine at a concentration of 0.11 % m/m. Immature, unidentifiable plants resembling D. stramonium, contained 0.14 % m/m and 0.12 % m/m of the 2 respective tropane alkaloids. The outbreak was characterised by protracted and repeated colic attacks due to impaction of the large colon and/or caecum without any other anti-muscarinic signs. Comparative analyses of single specimens of dried seed of the 2 species collected from both fertilised and waste areas revealed that young South African Datura spp. had levels of tropane alkaloids comparable to those in the well-known toxic seed and were, consequently, equally toxic. The inherent danger of tef hay being contaminated with Datura is emphasised. To our knowledge this is the 1st field case of poisoning in horses ascribed to the vegetative parts of Datura spp.

  3. Essential application of depositional analysis and interpretation in hydrogeologic assessments of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, J.

    1991-01-01

    In most hydrogeologic studies of contaminated sites, little attention is given to analysis of depositional environments and associated depositional patterns. This analysis is essential for sedimentary deposits present at a majority of these sites. The depositional processes associated with alluvial, fluvial and deltaic environments yield heterogeneity ranging from large to small scale. These processes also yield preferential grain orientations in coarse grained units which result in preferential directions of increased permeability. Studies conducted in fluvial and deltaic petroleum reservoirs have shown varying permeabilities resulting from deposition that strongly control the flow of fluids. The marked heterogeneity evident in the sandy portion of a single 3 to 30-foot thick fluvial point bar deposit can exert significant differences in porous flow. Preferential permeability has been shown parallel to the long axis of fluvial channel sand units while barrier beach sands exhibit preferential permeability perpendicular to the long axis of the sand body. Such controls influence natural flow and transport of contaminants in groundwater. Hydrogeologic studies should: determine the depositional environment and facies present at the site; determine the propensity for heterogeneity within the entire vertical sequence investigated and within the different facies present; assess the potential for preferential permeability within sand bodies; and provide a predictive depositional model to assess potential connections between major high permeability units. Sand unit connections are commonly forced during cross section generation and subsequent aquifer analysis. Failure to incorporate the above objectives in hydrogeologic investigations ignores the basic precept that process controls the distribution of permeability and will result in poor prediction of natural and remedial transport of contaminants in groundwater

  4. Determination of contaminants in rare earth materials by prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2005-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions - such as the rare earth ions themselves - in bulk material matrices. (author)

  5. Impact of a risk management plan on Legionella contamination of dental unit water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Erica; Dallolio, Laura; Stagni, Francesca; Sanna, Tiziana; D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Piana, Gabriela

    2015-02-23

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines of a dental clinic and to verify whether the microbiological parameters used as indicators of water quality were correlated with Legionella contamination. A risk management plan was subsequently implemented in the dental health care setting, in order to verify whether the adopted disinfection protocols were effective in preventing Legionella colonization. The water delivered from syringes and turbines of 63 dental units operating in a dental clinic, was monitored for counts of the heterotrophic bacteria P. aeruginosa and Legionella spp. (22 °C and 37 °C). At baseline, output water from dental units continuously treated with disinfection products was more compliant with the recommended standards than untreated and periodically treated water. However, continuous disinfection was still not able to prevent contamination by Legionella and P. aeruginosa. Legionella was isolated from 36.4%, 24.3% and 53.3% of samples from untreated, periodically and continuously treated waterlines, respectively. The standard microbiological parameters used as indicators of water quality proved to be unreliable as predictors of the presence of Legionella, whose source was identified as the tap water used to supply the dental units. The adoption of control measures, including the use of deionized water in supplying the dental unit waterlines and the application of a combined protocol of continuous and periodic disinfection, with different active products for the different devices, resulted in good control of Legionella contamination. The efficacy of the measures adopted was mainly linked to the strict adherence to the planned protocols, which placed particular stress on staff training and ongoing environmental monitoring.

  6. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: hosono@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Ikawa, Reo, E-mail: r_ikawa@es.sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Jun, E-mail: jshimada@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nakano, Takanori, E-mail: nakanot@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Saito, Mitsuyo, E-mail: misaito@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Onodera, Shin-ichi, E-mail: sonodera@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Lee, Kang-Kun, E-mail: kklee@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinrim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Taniguchi, Makoto, E-mail: makoto@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes ({delta}D, T, {delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 34}S, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 15}N of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (> 30 ppm as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (> 20 ppm as NO{sub 3}{sup -}) of groundwater. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  7. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Ikawa, Reo; Shimada, Jun; Nakano, Takanori; Saito, Mitsuyo; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Lee, Kang-Kun; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes (δD, T, δ 15 N, δ 18 O, δ 34 S, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes (δD and δ 18 O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The δ 34 S and δ 15 N of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO 4 2- (> 30 ppm as SO 4 2- ) and NO 3 - (> 20 ppm as NO 3 - ) of groundwater. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  8. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  9. Analysis of a sewage sludge for inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1984-01-01

    This study forms part of the NIWR's series of interlaboratory comparison studies involving southern African laboratories engaged in water and wastewater analysis, and is concerned with the analysis by 29 laboratories of a sample of dried sewage sludge for various inorganic contaminants and nutrients by means of methods provided by the originating laboratory, the aim being to test these methods for their suitability for use in a proposed manual of methods for sewage sludge analysis. The results obtained are evaluated and discussed. From the results obtained, the suggested methods for the determination of pH, Kjeldahl, nitrogen, total phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc, mercury, and arsenic were considered to be sufficiently reliable for inclusion in the manual. It was recommended that further investigation be carried out on finding suitable methods for the determination of selenium, molybdenum, boron, and fluoride

  10. Effect of Wetting and Contamination of Granular Beds During Sphere Impact

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents results from an experimental study of the impact of dense solid spheres onto granular beds. The overall aim is to further our understanding of the dynamical response of granular materials to impact. In order to do this, we

  11. Impact of pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection on surface contamination in a hospital facility's expressed human milk feed preparation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippenaar, Ricky; Smith, Johan

    2018-02-23

    Expressed human milk (EHM) feed preparation areas represent a potential source of unintentional nosocomial infection. Daily disinfection of environmental surfaces remains an essential intervention to mitigate nosocomial infections. The inefficiency of conventional cleaning and disinfection contributes to an increased risk for the acquisition of multi-drug resistant pathogens. "Non touch" technologies such as the pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UVD) light device have documented sustained reduction in surface bacterial colonization and reduced cross contamination. The impact of a PX-UVD on surface colony forming units per square centimeter (cfu/cm 2 ) in feed preparation areas was evaluated following its implementation as standard care. A quasi-experimental study was performed documenting bacterial colonization from 6 high risk feed preparation areas in a community care hospital in South Africa. Pre and post conventional cleaning neutralizing rinse swabs were collected fortnightly over a 16 week control period prior to the introduction of the PX-UVD and compared to a matching set of samples for the PX-UVD period. A 90% reduction in total surface bioburden was noted from the control period (544 cfu/cm 2 ) compared to the corresponding PX-UVD period (50 cfu/cm 2 ). Sub -analysis of both the Pre-clean Control: Pre-clean PX-UVD counts as well as the Post-clean Control: Post-clean PX-UVD counts noted significant improvements (p cleaning total surface bioburden following exposure to the PX-UVD (p = 0.0004). The introduction of the PX-UVD was associated with a sustained reduction in the pre clean bioburden counts with a risk trend (per week) 0.19, (95% CI [0.056, 0.67], p = 0.01). The use of a PX-UVD as adjunct to standard cleaning protocols was associated with a significant decrease in surface bioburden. The study demonstrated the inefficiency of conventional cleaning. Persistence of potentially pathological species in both periods highlights current health

  12. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yokoduka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ( 137 Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and 137 Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ( 137 Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of 137 Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • 137 Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • 137 Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of 137 Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat

  13. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi, E-mail: yoshi887@ffpri.affrc.go.jp [Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagaikyuutaro 68, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855 (Japan); Yokoduka, Tetsuya [Tochigi Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, Sarado 2599, Ohtawara, Tochigi 324-0404 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ({sup 137}Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat.

  14. Reservoir and contaminated sediments impacts in high-Andean environments: Morphodynamic interactions with biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escauriaza, C. R.; Contreras, M. T.; Müllendorff, D. A.; Pasten, P.; Pizarro, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid changes due to anthropic interventions in high-altitude environments, such as the Altiplano region in South America, require new approaches to understand the connections between physical and biogeochemical processes. Alterations of the water quality linked to the river morphology can affect the ecosystems and human development in the long-term. The future construction of a reservoir in the Lluta river, located in northern Chile, will change the spatial distribution of arsenic-rich sediments, which can have significant effects on the lower parts of the watershed. In this investigation we develop a coupled numerical model to predict and evaluate the interactions between morphodynamic changes in the Lluta reservoir, and conditions that can potentially desorb arsenic from the sediments. Assuming that contaminants are mobilized under anaerobic conditions, we calculate the oxygen concentration within the sediments to study the interactions of the delta progradation with the potential arsenic release. This work provides a framework for future studies aimed to analyze the complex connections between morphodynamics and water quality, when contaminant-rich sediments accumulate in a reservoir. The tool can also help to design effective risk management and remediation strategies in these extreme environments. Research has been supported by Fondecyt grant 1130940 and CONICYT/FONDAP Grant 15110017

  15. The impact of oscillating redox conditions: Arsenic immobilisation in contaminated calcareous floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Christopher T.; Couture, Raoul-Marie; Omoregie, Enoma O.; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of floodplain soils is extensive and additional fresh arsenic inputs to the pedosphere from human activities are ongoing. We investigate the cumulative effects of repetitive soil redox cycles, which occur naturally during flooding and draining, on a calcareous fluvisol, the native microbial community and arsenic mobility following a simulated contamination event. We show through bioreactor experiments, spectroscopic techniques and modelling that repetitive redox cycling can decrease arsenic mobility during reducing conditions by up to 45%. Phylogenetic and functional analyses of the microbial community indicate that iron cycling is a key driver of observed changes to solution chemistry. We discuss probable mechanisms responsible for the arsenic immobilisation observed in-situ. The proposed mechanisms include, decreased heterotrophic iron reduction due to the depletion of labile particulate organic matter (POM), increases to the proportion of co-precipitated vs. aqueous or sorbed arsenic with α-FeOOH/Fe(OH) 3 and potential precipitation of amorphous ferric arsenate. Highlights: •Oscillating redox conditions and heterotrophic metabolism are implemented in PHREEQC. •Depletion of labile organic matter limits iron reduction and arsenic release. •Amorphous FeAsO 4 ∙2H 2 O precipitation potentially limits arsenic mobility during redox cycling. •Water fluctuating zones may naturally attenuate arsenic liberation during flooding. -- We demonstrate through batch experiments, spectroscopy and modelling that repetitive cycles of oxidation and reduction decrease arsenic mobility in soils during subsequent reducing conditions

  16. Semi-automated relative quantification of cell culture contamination with mycoplasma by Photoshop-based image analysis on immunofluorescence preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Yerneni, Lakshmana K

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination in cell culture is a serious setback for the cell-culturist. The experiments undertaken using contaminated cell cultures are known to yield unreliable or false results due to various morphological, biochemical and genetic effects. Earlier surveys revealed incidences of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures to range from 15 to 80%. Out of a vast array of methods for detecting mycoplasma in cell culture, the cytological methods directly demonstrate the contaminating organism present in association with the cultured cells. In this investigation, we report the adoption of a cytological immunofluorescence assay (IFA), in an attempt to obtain a semi-automated relative quantification of contamination by employing the user-friendly Photoshop-based image analysis. The study performed on 77 cell cultures randomly collected from various laboratories revealed mycoplasma contamination in 18 cell cultures simultaneously by IFA and Hoechst DNA fluorochrome staining methods. It was observed that the Photoshop-based image analysis on IFA stained slides was very valuable as a sensitive tool in providing quantitative assessment on the extent of contamination both per se and in comparison to cellularity of cell cultures. The technique could be useful in estimating the efficacy of anti-mycoplasma agents during decontaminating measures.

  17. Potential external contamination with bisphenol A and other ubiquitous organic environmental chemicals during biomonitoring analysis: an elusive laboratory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-03-01

    Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid-even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices-the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples.

  18. Impact of the Fenton-like treatment on the microbial community of a diesel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Flavia; Zingaretti, Daniela; Crognale, Silvia; Pesciaroli, Lorena; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Baciocchi, Renato

    2018-01-01

    Fenton-like treatment (FLT) is an ISCO technique relying on the iron-induced H 2 O 2 activation in the presence of additives aimed at increasing the oxidant lifetime and maximizing iron solubility under natural soil pH conditions. The efficacy of FLT in the clean-up of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is well established at the field-scale. However, a better assessment of the impact of the FLT on density, diversity and activity of the indigenous soil microbiota, might provide further insights into an optimal combination between FLT and in-situ bioremediation (ISB). The aim of this work was to assess the impacts of FLT on the microbial community of a diesel-contaminated soil collected nearby a gasoline station. Different FLT conditions were tested by varying either the H 2 O 2 concentrations (2 and 6%) or the oxidant application mode (single or double dosage). The impact of these treatments on the indigenous microbial community was assessed immediately after the Fenton-like treatment and after 30, 60 and 90 d and compared with enhanced natural attenuation (ENA). After FLT, a dramatic decrease in bacterial density, diversity and functionality was evident. Although in microcosms with double dosing at 2% H 2 O 2 a delayed recovery of the indigenous microbiota was observed as compared to those subjected to single oxidant dose, after 60 d incubation the respiration rate increased from 0.036 to 0.256 μg CCO 2 g -1 soil h -1 . Irrespective of the oxidant dose, best degradation results after 90 d incubation (around 80%) were observed with combined FLT, relying on double oxidant addition, and bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  20. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K., E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H. [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173 (Japan); Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T. [Sasaki Taro memorial PIXE Center, Asano-cho 5, Hakodate 040-0076 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K. We also measured {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of {sup 40}K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of {sup 137}Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with {sup 137}Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  1. UNCERT: geostatistics, uncertainty analysis and visualization software applied to groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingle, W.L.; Poeter, E.P.; McKenna, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    UNCERT is a 2D and 3D geostatistics, uncertainty analysis and visualization software package applied to ground water flow and contaminant transport modeling. It is a collection of modules that provides tools for linear regression, univariate statistics, semivariogram analysis, inverse-distance gridding, trend-surface analysis, simple and ordinary kriging and discrete conditional indicator simulation. Graphical user interfaces for MODFLOW and MT3D, ground water flow and contaminant transport models, are provided for streamlined data input and result analysis. Visualization tools are included for displaying data input and output. These include, but are not limited to, 2D and 3D scatter plots, histograms, box and whisker plots, 2D contour maps, surface renderings of 2D gridded data and 3D views of gridded data. By design, UNCERT's graphical user interface and visualization tools facilitate model design and analysis. There are few built in restrictions on data set sizes and each module (with two exceptions) can be run in either graphical or batch mode. UNCERT is in the public domain and is available from the World Wide Web with complete on-line and printable (PDF) documentation. UNCERT is written in ANSI-C with a small amount of FORTRAN77, for UNIX workstations running X-Windows and Motif (or Lesstif). This article discusses the features of each module and demonstrates how they can be used individually and in combination. The tools are applicable to a wide range of fields and are currently used by researchers in the ground water, mining, mathematics, chemistry and geophysics, to name a few disciplines. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Meta-analysis of biochar potential for pollutant immobilization and stabilization in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Marsz, Aleksandra; Fristak, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is the pyrolysis product of biomass, preferably from agricultural and forestry residues and waste materials. Characterized by a polyaromatic structure rich in carbon, it offers a microporous structure with a high specific surface area and active functional groups as binding sites. Because of the high sorption capacity for organic and inorganic soil pollutants biochar is an interesting tool for in-situ soil remediation. Especially if the reduction of contaminant bioavailability and the protection of groundwater from pollutants in the vadose zone are the most relevant issues for remediating a polluted site without excavation and removal of the soil, an in-situ application of biochar may offer a promising remediation strategy. The resulting interest of deploying biochar as sorbent for soil contaminants has stimulated a wealth of studies to develop successful applications for environmental technology. However, the existing studies do not always agree on the efficacy for different pollutants and on the most relevant char and soil characteristics that determine the rate of success when using biochar as sorbent. This makes it necessary to apply advanced literature assessment techniques to allow for the recognition of the extent and the significance of the efficacy of a given pollutant treatment technique. A meta-analysis is a study assessment technique that allows extracting a harmonized answer to a specific research question that has been studied more often than one time, even if the results are partially conflicting. Such a technique also allows getting an overview about the degree of consensus or contradiction in the answers to the question if biochar can be applied successfully for immobilizing certain soil contaminants. The meta-analysis results can also be used to quantify the average extent of effects of a certain treatment, depending on the characteristics of the sorbent and on the application rate. By checking 104 published papers in the peer

  3. Arsenic transfer and impacts on snails exposed to stabilized and untreated As-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeurdassier, M.; Scheifler, R.; Mench, M.; Crini, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; de Vaufleury, A. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2010-06-15

    An As-contaminated soil (Unt) was amended with either iron grit (Z), a coal fly ash (beringite, B) or B + Z (BZ) and placed in lysimeters in 1997. An uncontaminated soil (R) was also studied. In summer and autumn 2003, lettuces were cultivated in the lysimeters and snails were caged for one month. Lettuce As concentrations were higher during the summer, while no differences occurred in snails between seasons. Snail As concentrations ({mu} g g{sup -1} DW) ranged from 2.5 to 7.0 in B, Z and BZ, and peaked at 17.5 in Unt. In summer, snail survival was affected in Unt and Z compared to R and B while no mortality was noticed in autumn. Snail growth decreased only in B, BZ and Unt in autumn. Snail As concentrations suggest a risk for their predators even on the remediated soils.

  4. Impact of ventilation/pressurization on indoor air contaminants in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, R.J.; Levetin, E.; Fisher, E.J.; Ligman, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a continuing technology development effort to control radon in schools, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) School Evaluation Program (SEP) team in cooperation with U.S. EPA's Region 6 office has performed radon mitigation in two Southwestern United States schools utilizing the method of ventilation/pressurization control technology. Schools were inspected and IAQ measurements made with respect to carbon dioxide, bioaerosols, volatile organic compounds, and respirable particles. Premitigation results indicated poor ventilation conditions existed throughout the school buildings. Elevated levels of respirable particles were measured, yet no conclusions with respect to health could be implied. Post-mitigation results support, but do not prove the hypothesis that improved ventilation to control radon will also reduce other indicator indoor air contaminants. (orig.). (9 refs., 4 tabs.)

  5. Economic impact analysis of load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, D.K.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Short term load forecasting is an essential function in electric power system operations and planning. Forecasts are needed for a variety of utility activities such as generation scheduling, scheduling of fuel purchases, maintenance scheduling and security analysis. Depending on power system characteristics, significant forecasting errors can lead to either excessively conservative scheduling or very marginal scheduling. Either can induce heavy economic penalties. This paper examines the economic impact of inaccurate load forecasts. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the effect of different load forecasting accuracy. Investigations into the effect of improving the daily peak load forecasts, effect of different seasons of the year and effect of utilization factors are presented

  6. Environmental hazard analysis - contamination of nutrients, mercury and cesium-137 in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanson, L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from some ongoing Swedish research projects on different types of contamination of limnic as well as marine areas are summarized. A brief theoretical outline on the central concepts of the 'meso-scale-type' of environmental hazard analysis, utilizing examples on eutrophication of coastal waters is given. The concepts are further substantiated in two subsequent parts dealing with radioactive cesium and mercury. The idea is to illustrate that the basic concepts for ('real' world/'meso scale') environmental hazard analysis can be used for different substances and different aquatic environments. It is important to give clear, quantifiable definitions of the effect, dose and environmental sensitivity parameters, which should be valid for a defined area and for a defined span of time. All other parameters should be compatible and have the same area and time resolution. (author)

  7. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford's past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation

  8. Analysis of microbiological contamination in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Su; Wang, Jun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Forghani, Fereidoun; Moon, Jin-San; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial contamination levels (aerobic bacteria plate count [APC], coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage. A total of 180 samples were collected from factories with and without hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems at four steps: after chopping (AC), after mixing (AM), cooling after the first heating process, and cooling after the second heating process. For ham, APCs and coliform and E. coli counts increased when ingredients were added to the meat at the AC step. Final product APC was 1.63 to 1.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in nine (15.0%) and six (10.0%) samples, respectively, but only at the AC and AM steps and not in the final product. Sausage results were similar to those for ham. The final product APC was 1.52 to 3.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in 29 (24.2%) and 25 (20.8%) samples at the AC and AM steps, respectively, but not in the final product. These results indicate that the temperature and time of the first and second heating are of extreme importance to ensure the microbiological safety of the final product regardless of whether a HACCP system is in place. Microorganism contamination must be monitored regularly and regulations regarding sanitization during processing should be improved. Education regarding employee personal hygiene, environmental hygiene, prevention of cross-contamination, ingredient control, and step-by-step process control is needed to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

  9. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods

  10. Identifying sources of emerging organic contaminants in a mixed use watershed using principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Fairbairn, David; Arnold, William A; Barber, Brian L; Kaufenberg, Elizabeth; Koskinen, William C; Novak, Paige J; Rice, Pamela J; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify sources of emerging organic contaminants in the Zumbro River watershed in Southeastern Minnesota. Two main principal components (PCs) were identified, which together explained more than 50% of the variance in the data. Principal Component 1 (PC1) was attributed to urban wastewater-derived sources, including municipal wastewater and residential septic tank effluents, while Principal Component 2 (PC2) was attributed to agricultural sources. The variances of the concentrations of cotinine, DEET and the prescription drugs carbamazepine, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole were best explained by PC1, while the variances of the concentrations of the agricultural pesticides atrazine, metolachlor and acetochlor were best explained by PC2. Mixed use compounds carbaryl, iprodione and daidzein did not specifically group with either PC1 or PC2. Furthermore, despite the fact that caffeine and acetaminophen have been historically associated with human use, they could not be attributed to a single dominant land use category (e.g., urban/residential or agricultural). Contributions from septic systems did not clarify the source for these two compounds, suggesting that additional sources, such as runoff from biosolid-amended soils, may exist. Based on these results, PCA may be a useful way to broadly categorize the sources of new and previously uncharacterized emerging contaminants or may help to clarify transport pathways in a given area. Acetaminophen and caffeine were not ideal markers for urban/residential contamination sources in the study area and may need to be reconsidered as such in other areas as well.

  11. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabukhin, Yu S [ed.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods.

  12. Analysis of the potential contamination risk of groundwater resources circulating in areas with anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spizzico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The area investigated is located in the province of Brindisi (Italy. It is a generally flat area separated from the nearby carbonatic plateau of the Murgia by quite indistinct and high fault scarps. As regards the geological features, carbonatic basement rocks and post-cretaceous terrains made up of calabrian calcarenites and middle-upper Pleistocenic marine terraced deposits can be distinguished. In the examined area there are two different hydrogeological environments. The first is represented by deep groundwater, the main groundwater resource in Apulia. The second hydrogeological environment, now of lesser importance than the deep aquifer in terms of size and use, is made up of some small shallow groundwater systems situated in post-calabrian sands and located in the eastern area. During some sampling cycles carried out in the studied area, water was withdrawn from both the deep aquifer and from the shallow groundwater. For every sample, the necessary parameters were determined for the physical and chemical characterisation of two different hydrogeological environments. Moreover, some chemical parameters indicating anthropogenic activities were determined. Analysis of the aerial distribution of the measured parameters has shown some main areas subject to different conditions of contamination risk, in accordance with the hydrogeological and geological features of the investigated area. In the south-eastern part of the investigated area, the important action performed by the surface aquifer for protecting the deep groundwater from contamination of anthropogenic origin is clear. On the other hand, in the shallow groundwater, areas of nitrate and nitrite contamination have been identified, which result from the extensive use of fertilizers.

  13. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  14. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactive and chemically contaminated soil at the Elza Gate site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This property became contaminated as a result of storage of ore residues, equipment, and other materials for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup of portions of the site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In December 1990 an area known as Pad 1 was abrasively scoured to remove surface contamination, and in March 1991 removal of Pad 1 contamination was begun under a separate EE/CA. This EE/CA is intended to cover the remaining portions of the site for which the Department of Energy has responsibility. It has been determined that an EE/CA report is appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action. This EE/CA covers removal of contaminated soils and contaminated concrete rubble from the Elza Gate site. The primary objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify and describe the preferred removal action, and to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and that will minimize the associated threats to human health or welfare and the environment. The preferred alternative is disposition on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Medical impact analysis for the space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B D; Gardner, R M; Ostler, D V; Schulz, J M; Logan, J S

    1990-02-01

    Since the Space Station Health Maintenance Facility can house only a relatively limited quantity of supplies and equipment, the decisions about what should be included must be based on documented research. In this study, Space Station medical care priorities were determined by a medical impact analysis of two analog populations, U.S. Army and U.S. Navy personnel. Diseases and injuries in the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) were ranked, using a Medical Impact Score (MIS) combining modified incidence rate and a function of disease outcome. The validity of the analysis method was tested by measuring rank order correlation between the two analog populations. Despite virtually identical age and sex distributions, Army and Navy incidence rates differed significantly for half of the ICD-9-CM categories, p less than 0.05. Disability rates differed for 76%, p less than 0.05. Nevertheless, Army and Navy MIS rank orders for categories and sections were not significantly different, p less than 0.001. In critical ways, the Space Station will be a safer environment than Earth. Cardiac events, musculoskeletal injuries, affective psychoses, and renal calculi were among the highest scoring categories.

  16. Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim; Kovar, O.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement...... quality with personalized and mixing ventilation was higher or at least similar compared to mixing ventilation alone. In the case of PV combined with displacement ventilation, the interaction caused mixing of the room air, an increase in the transport of bioeffluents and exhaled air between occupants and...... ventilation. In total, 80 L/s of clean air supplied at 20°C was distributed between the ventilation systems at different combinations of personalized airflow rate. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants in a full-scale test room. Regardless of the airflow interaction, the inhaled air...

  17. Radiation measurement and inverse analysis techniques applied on the determination of the apparent mass diffusion coefficient for diverse contaminants and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey Silva, D.V.F.M.; Oliveira, A.P.; Macacini, J.F.; Da Silva, N.C.; Cipriani, M.; Quinelato, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    situation found on the study of environmental impact assessment and risk analysis of nuclear waste repositories. In this context, the goal of this work was to make available a number of estimated values for the apparent mass diffusion coefficient varying the contaminant and the porous media. [1] Estimation of the Apparent Mass Diffusion Coefficient by Using Inverse Analysis and Radiation Measurement Techniques. L.M. Pereira, R.de Souza, H.R.B. Orlande and R.M. Cotta, Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice, 1999, ASME. (authors)

  18. Monitoring the Behavior of Emerging Contaminants in Wastewater-Impacted Rivers Based on the Use of Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrixes (EEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, Massimiliano; Roccaro, Paolo; Korshin, Gregory V; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

    2017-04-18

    This study investigated the applicability of fluorescence indexes based on the interpretation of excitation emission matrices (EEMs) by PARAFAC analysis and by selecting fluorescence intensities at a priori defined excitation/emission pairs as surrogates for monitoring the behavior of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in two catchment basins impacted by wastewater discharges. Relevant EOC and EEM data were obtained for a 90 km stretch of the Simeto River, the main river in Sicily, and the smaller San Leonardo River, which was investigated for a 17 km stretch. The use of fluorescence indexes developed by these two different approaches resulted in similar observations. Changes of the fluorescence indexes that correspond to a group of humic-like fluorescing species were determined to be highly correlated with the concentrations of recalcitrant contaminants such as sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine, which are typical wastewater markers in river water. Changes of the fluorescence indexes related to tyrosine-like substances were well correlated with the concentrations of ibuprofen and caffeine, anthropogenic indicators of untreated wastewater discharges. Chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were correlated with humic-like fluorescence indexes. The observed correlations were site-specific and characterized by different regression parameters for every collection event. Caffeine and carbamazepine showed correlations with florescence indexes in the San Leonardo River and in the alluvial plain stretch of the Simeto River, whereas sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and ibuprofen have always been well correlated in all the investigated river stretches. However, when data of different collection events from river stretches where correlations were observed were combined, good linear correlations were obtained for data sets generated via the normalization of the measured concentrations by the average value for the corresponding collection event

  19. Release of drinking water contaminants and odor impacts caused by green building cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2014-12-15

    Green buildings are increasingly being plumbed with crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) potable water pipe. Tap water quality was investigated at a six month old plumbing system and chemical and odor quality impacts of six PEX pipe brands were examined. Eleven PEX related contaminants were found in the plumbing system; one regulated (toluene) and several unregulated: Antioxidant degradation products, resin solvents, initiator degradation products, or manufacturing aides. Water chemical and odor quality was monitored for new PEX-a, -b and -c pipes with (2 mg/L free chlorine) and without disinfectant over 30 days. Odor and total organic carbon (TOC) levels decreased for all pipes, but odor remained greater than the USA's Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level. Odors were not attributed to known odorants ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Free chlorine caused odor levels for PEX-a1 pipe to increase from 26 to 75 threshold odor number (TON) on day 3 and affected the rate at which TOC changed for each brand over 30 days. As TOC decreased, the ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm increased. Pipes consumed as much as 0.5 mg/L as Cl2 during each 3 day stagnation period. Sixteen organic chemicals were identified, including toluene, pyridine, methylene trichloroacetate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Some were also detected during the plumbing system field investigation. Six brands of PEX pipes sold in the USA and a PEX-a green building plumbing system impacted chemical and drinking water odor quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and Stack concentration of Hg were less than 0.4 microg/Nm(3). Since Hg emissions were at low concentrations, Hg in soil from atmospheric fallout near this incinerator including uptake by local weeds were very low ranging from non detectable to 399 micro g/kg. However, low but elevated levels of Hg (76-275 micro g/kg) were observed in surface soil and deeper layers (0-40 cm) in the predominant downwind direction of incinerator over a distance of between 0.5-5 km. Soil Hg concentrations measured from a reference/background track opposite of the prevailing wind direction were lower ranging between 7-46 micro g/kg. Nevertheless, the trend of Hg build up in soil was clearly seen in the wet season only, suggesting that wet deposition process is a major Hg pollution source. Hg concentrations in the sea bottom sediment collected next to the last station track was small with values between 35-67 micro g/kg. Based upon the overall findings, in terms of current potential environmental risk

  1. Climate change - An uncertainty factor in risk analysis of contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustsson, Anna; Filipsson, Monika; Oberg, Tomas; Bergbaeck, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Metals frequently occur at contaminated sites, where their potential toxicity and persistence require risk assessments that consider possible long-term changes. Changes in climate are likely to affect the speciation, mobility, and risks associated with metals. This paper provides an example of how the climate effect can be inserted in a commonly used exposure model, and how the exposure then changes compared to present conditions. The comparison was made for cadmium (Cd) exposure to 4-year-old children at a highly contaminated iron and steel works site in southeastern Sweden. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches (through probability bounds analysis, PBA) were used in the exposure assessment. Potential climate-sensitive variables were determined by a literature review. Although only six of the total 39 model variables were assumed to be sensitive to a change in climate (groundwater infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, soil:water distribution, and two bioconcentration factors), the total exposure was clearly affected. For example, by altering the climate-sensitive variables in the order of 15% to 20%, the deterministic estimate of exposure increased by 27%. Similarly, the PBA estimate of the reasonable maximum exposure (RME, defined as the upper bound of the 95th percentile) increased by almost 20%. This means that sites where the exposure in present conditions is determined to be slightly below guideline values may in the future exceed these guidelines, and risk management decisions could thus be affected. The PBA, however, showed that there is also a possibility of lower exposure levels, which means that the changes assumed for the climate-sensitive variables increase the total uncertainty in the probabilistic calculations. This highlights the importance of considering climate as a factor in the characterization of input data to exposure assessments at contaminated sites. The variable with the strongest influence on the result was the

  2. Assessment of gold exposure and contamination in galvanizing workplace by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Amaral, A.M.; Maia, E.C.P.; Albinati, C.C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Gold is not included in the current list of elements considered essential to humans and there are many controversies related to its toxicity. According to the chemical characteristics of the element, Au 1+ is favored for binding at sites with S donor, such as sulfhydryl group (-SH) in proteins in biological systems. This tendency raises the possibility of health-related risk, mainly linked to a long-term exposure to high and low levels of gold. This paper highlights the determination of gold by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) during the assessment of exposure levels to metals and possible workers' contamination in three galvanizing factories applying the same processes. This assessment is aimed at giving support to Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. INAA, mix of k 0 and monostandard methods was applied to air filter, hair and toenail samples, and to urine samples. Solvent extraction of gold was carried out followed by comparative INAA. The results revealed that gold was present in all matrixes, indicating the exposure in the workplace and suggesting endogenous contamination. Is gold playing a role as a toxic element? (author)

  3. Determination of protection zones for Dutch groundwater wells against virus contamination--uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, J F; Mülschlegel, J H C; Hassanizadeh, S M; Teunis, P F M; de Roda Husman, A M

    2006-09-01

    Protection zones of shallow unconfined aquifers in The Netherlands were calculated that allow protection against virus contamination to the level that the infection risk of 10(-4) per person per year is not exceeded with a 95% certainty. An uncertainty and a sensitivity analysis of the calculated protection zones were included. It was concluded that protection zones of 1 to 2 years travel time (206-418 m) are needed (6 to 12 times the currently applied travel time of 60 days). This will lead to enlargement of protection zones, encompassing 110 unconfined groundwater well systems that produce 3 x 10(8) m3 y(-1) of drinking water (38% of total Dutch production from groundwater). A smaller protection zone is possible if it can be shown that an aquifer has properties that lead to greater reduction of virus contamination, like more attachment. Deeper aquifers beneath aquitards of at least 2 years of vertical travel time are adequately protected because vertical flow in the aquitards is only 0.7 m per year. The most sensitive parameters are virus attachment and inactivation. The next most sensitive parameters are grain size of the sand, abstraction rate of groundwater, virus concentrations in raw sewage and consumption of unboiled drinking water. Research is recommended on additional protection by attachment and under unsaturated conditions.

  4. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III.

    1987-01-01

    The uncertainty regarding radionuclide distributions among Remedial Action Program (RAP) sites and long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites requires a flexible approach capable of handling different levels of contamination, dose limits, and closure scenarios. We identified a commercially available pathway analysis model, DECOM, which had been used previously in support of remedial activities involving contaminated soil at the Savannah River Plant. The DECOM computer code, which estimates concentrations of radionuclides uniformly distributed in soil that correspond to an annual effective dose equivalent, is written in BASIC and runs on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. We obtained the latest version of DECOM and modified it to make it more user friendly and applicable to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RAP. Some modifications involved changes in default parameters or changes in models based on approaches used by the EPA in regulating remedial actions for hazardous substances. We created a version of DECOM as a LOTUS spreadsheet, using the same models as the BASIC version of DECOM. We discuss the specific modeling approaches taken, the regulatory framework that guided our efforts, the strengths and limitations of each approach, and areas for improvement. We also demonstrate how the LOTUS version of DECOM can be applied to specific problems that may be encountered during ORNL RAP activities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Distributed Channel Estimation and Pilot Contamination Analysis for Massive MIMO-OFDM Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaib, Alam

    2016-07-22

    By virtue of large antenna arrays, massive MIMO systems have a potential to yield higher spectral and energy efficiency in comparison with the conventional MIMO systems. This paper addresses uplink channel estimation in massive MIMO-OFDM systems with frequency selective channels. We propose an efficient distributed minimum mean square error (MMSE) algorithm that can achieve near optimal channel estimates at low complexity by exploiting the strong spatial correlation among antenna array elements. The proposed method involves solving a reduced dimensional MMSE problem at each antenna followed by a repetitive sharing of information through collaboration among neighboring array elements. To further enhance the channel estimates and/or reduce the number of reserved pilot tones, we propose a data-aided estimation technique that relies on finding a set of most reliable data carriers. Furthermore, we use stochastic geometry to quantify the pilot contamination, and in turn use this information to analyze the effect of pilot contamination on channel MSE. The simulation results validate our analysis and show near optimal performance of the proposed estimation algorithms.

  6. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a realistic dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.

    1996-08-01

    This is the final report of the Working Group describing: the enhancement of the previously devised V1 scenario to produce a V2 scenario which includes more detailed source term and other site specific data; the application of models in deterministic and probabilistic mode to calculate contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks, including estimates of uncertainties; the comparison and analysis of the resulting calculations. A series of scenarios was developed based on data provided by Working Group members from a range of actual tailings disposal sites, culminating in the V2.2 and V2.3 scenarios. The V2.2 and V2.3 scenarios are identical in all respects, except that the V2.2 considers radioactive (U-238 chain) contaminants, whilst the V2.3 considers stable elements (As, Ni, Pb). Since the scenarios are based on data obtained from a range of actual sites, they should be considered to be generically realistic rather than representative of a particular single site. In both scenarios, the contaminants of interest are assumed to be released in leachate from a tailings pile into an underlying aquifer. They are transported in groundwater through the aquifer to a well. Water is abstracted from the well and used for: watering beef cattle; human consumption; and irrigating leafy vegetables. The beef and leafy vegetables are consumed by humans living in the area. The same contaminants are also released into the atmosphere due to the wind erosion of the pile and then deposited upon the soil, pasture and leafy vegetables. In addition, for the V2.2 scenario, Rn-222 is assumed to be released to atmosphere from the pile. Unlike the V1 scenario, no consideration is given to surface water exposure pathways. Results show that there is exceedingly good agreement between participants' deterministic and probabilistic estimates of total dose or intake. They agree within a factor of two to three for both scenarios. Even

  7. Methods for evaluating potential impacts to aquatic receptors at a metal-contaminated superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Quinlan, R.E.; Krieger, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted for a metals mining site in the midwestern United States. Chemicals of potential concern were shown to be heavy metals associated with mine wastes and with base metal ore deposits that are characteristic of this area. Environmental receptors were identified by considering the relevant exposure pathways and the potential or known occurrence of species exposed via those pathways. Selection of key receptor species was designed to minimize the possibility that other species would be more exposed than the key species themselves and to include representation of sensitive organisms present at the subsites. In addition, an EPA-approved method was use to developed site-specific ambient water quality criteria. Ecological impacts were assessed using two complimentary approaches. First, potential chronic impacts were assessed by applying the toxicity quotient approach (i.e., a comparison of the measured concentration of site-related metals in surface water with available health-based criteria). Secondly, semi-quantitative comparative ecology data were used to obtain to provide a direct measure of impacts to key species. Results from these two approaches were used to provide a direct measure of impacts to key species. Results from these two approaches were used to obtain a realistic picture of actual and potential risks associated with exposure by key species to mining-related metals. This paper discusses the uncertainties associated with both methods and presents a method for interpreting disparate and sometimes confusing ecological data using the results from a case study

  8. Recent climate change in the Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, R.W.; Harner, T.; Fyfe, J.

    2005-01-01

    possibility, presently difficult to predict, is combination of immune suppression together with expanding ranges of disease vectors. Finally, biotransport through migratory species is exceptionally vulnerable to changes in migration strength or in migration pathway-in the Arctic, change in the distribution of ice and temperature may already have caused such changes. Hydrocarbons, which tend to impact surfaces, will be mostly affected by change in the ice climate (distribution and drift tracks). Perhaps the most dramatic changes will occur because our view of the Arctic Ocean will change as it becomes more amenable to transport, tourism and mineral exploration on the shelves. Radionuclides have tended not to produce a radiological problem in the Arctic; nevertheless one pathway, the ice, remains a risk because it can accrue, concentrate and transport radio-contaminated sediments. This pathway is sensitive to where ice is produced, what the transport pathways of ice are, and where ice is finally melted-all strong candidates for change during the coming century. The changes that have already occurred in the Arctic and those that are projected to occur have an effect on contaminant time series including direct measurements (air, water, biota) or proxies (sediment cores, ice cores, archive material). Although these 'system' changes can alter the flux and concentrations at given sites in a number of obvious ways, they have been all but ignored in the interpretation of such time series. To understand properly what trends mean, especially in complex 'recorders' such as seals, walrus and polar bears, demands a more thorough approach to time series by collecting data in a number of media coherently. Presently, a major reservoir for contaminants and the one most directly connected to biological uptake in species at greatest risk-the ocean-practically lacks such time series

  9. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples.

  10. Impact of Potentially Contaminated River Water on Agricultural Irrigated Soils in an Equatorial Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Trujillo-González

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, it is estimated that 20 million hectares of arable land are irrigated with water that contains residual contributions from domestic liquids. This potentially poses risks to public health and ecosystems, especially due to heavy metals, which are considered dangerous because of their potential toxicity and persistence in the environment. The Villavicencio region (Colombia is an equatorial area where rainfall (near 3000 mm/year and temperature (average 25.6 °C are high. Soil processes in tropical conditions are fast and react quickly to changing conditions. Soil properties from agricultural fields irrigated with river water polluted by a variety of sources were analysed and compared to non-irrigated control soils. In this study, no physico-chemical alterations were found that gave evidence of a change due to the constant use of river water that contained wastes. This fact may be associated with the climatic factors (temperature and precipitation, which contribute to fast degradation of organic matter and nutrient and contaminants (such as heavy metals leaching, or to dilution of wastes by the river.

  11. Emerging organic contaminants in coastal waters: anthropogenic impact, environmental release and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der

    2014-08-30

    This study provides a first estimate of the sources, distribution, and risk presented by emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in coastal waters off southwestern Taiwan. Ten illicit drugs, seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), five antibiotics, two blood lipid regulators, two antiepileptic drugs, two UV filters, caffeine, atenolol, and omeprazole were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Thirteen EOCs were detected in coastal waters, including four NSAIDs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and codeine), three antibiotics (ampicillin, erythromycin, and cefalexin), three illicit drugs (ketamine, pseudoephedrine, and MDMA), caffeine, carbamazepine, and gemfibrozil. The median concentrations for the 13 EOCs ranged from 1.47 ng/L to 156 ng/L. Spatial variation in concentration of the 13 EOCs suggests discharge into coastal waters via ocean outfall pipes and rivers. Codeine and ampicillin have significant pollution risk quotients (RQ>1), indicating potentially high risk to aquatic organisms in coastal waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metal contamination in harbours impacts life-history traits and metallothionein levels in snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bighiu

    Full Text Available Harbours with limited water exchange are hotspots of contaminant accumulation. Antifouling paints (AF contribute to this accumulation by leaching biocides that may affect non-target species. In several leisure boat harbours and reference areas in the Baltic Sea, chronic exposure effects were evaluated using caging experiments with the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis. We analysed variations in ecologically relevant endpoints (mortality, growth and reproduction in concert with variation in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP levels. The latter is a biomarker of exposure to metals, such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, which are used in AF paints as active ingredient and stabilizer, respectively. In addition, environmental samples (water, sediment were analysed for metal (Cu and Zn and nutrient (total phosphorous and nitrogen concentrations. All life-history endpoints were negatively affected by the exposure, with higher mortality, reduced growth and lower fecundity in the harbours compared to the reference sites. Metal concentrations were the key explanatory variables for all observed adverse effects, suggesting that metal-driven toxicity, which is likely to stem from AF paints, is a source of anthropogenic stress for biota in the harbours.

  13. Modelling and assessment of the impact of radiocesium and radiostrontium contamination in the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleftheriou, G.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Tsabaris, C.

    2015-01-01

    A radiological model for 137 Cs and 90 Sr dispersion in the marine environment of the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, and the river catchments draining into the Gulf, is presented. The model, developed and implemented within the MOIRA-PLUS decision support system, integrates appropriate site-specific information. The model's performance has been tested using the available empirical 137 Cs activity concentration data in abiotic and biotic components of the gulf since the Chernobyl accident. Further, this paper describes the results of a modelling exercise performed within the IAEA's EMRAS II international modelling programme to estimate the environmental sensitivity of this characteristic Mediterranean coastal marine environment following radioactive contamination. The radiation doses to humans after a single hypothetical instantaneous deposition of 1000 Bq m −2 , assuming that all of their food intake from the marine pathway comes from the local environment, were calculated. The obtained results are consistent with estimates from other models for different coastal marine environments in the frame of the above-mentioned EMRAS exercise. - Highlights: • The Decision Support System (DSS) MOIRA-PLUS was customised to Thermaikos Gulf. • Model results were compared with empirical data to adjust parameter values. • The environmental sensitivity of the Gulf to 90 Sr and 137 Cs pollution was assessed. • Radiation doses from marine and fresh water pathways were compared. • The dose from fresh water pathways is notably higher than that from marine pathways

  14. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.

  15. Impact of donor arm cleaning with different aseptic solutions for prevention of contamination in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tanvi G; Shukla, Rinku V; Gupte, Snehalata C

    2013-03-01

    Transfusion associated sepsis cases are encountered occasionally and bacterial transmission remains the major cause. The goal of our study was to compare the efficacy of disinfectants in phlebotomy site preparation. After selection of donor the antecubital fossa area of the arm was disinfected with different types of disinfectants namely sprit (70% isopropyl alcohol), povidone iodine (0.5% w/v available iodine in distilled water), savlon (1.5% v/v chlorhexidine gluconate solution and 3.0% cetrimide solution) and combination of sprit and povidone iodine. Swabs were collected from 20 donors using a sterile forceps, after cleaning with different antiseptic solutions. Swab was streaked on blood agar plate aseptically and the plate was incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Colonies were counted and a single colony was re-cultured by growing on nutrient and Mac-Conkey agar. The biochemical characteristics were determined by performing Gram staining, Motility, Catalase and Oxidase tests. The mean values of colonies were significantly higher with savlon compared to other three solutions. The difference was statistically significant by "t" test (t values 1.7-3.0; P bag were aseptically inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles to be tested on BacT/Alert system. The bag containing donor's blood did not show any contamination when three cleanings were carried out using sprit, povidone iodine and spirit respectively.

  16. Modelling and assessment of the impact of radiocesium and radiostrontium contamination in the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleftheriou, G., E-mail: gelefthe@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (Greece); Monte, L., E-mail: monte.luigi@fastwebnet.it [ENEA, Roma (Italy); Brittain, J.E. [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo (Norway); Tsabaris, C. [Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (Greece)

    2015-11-15

    A radiological model for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr dispersion in the marine environment of the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, and the river catchments draining into the Gulf, is presented. The model, developed and implemented within the MOIRA-PLUS decision support system, integrates appropriate site-specific information. The model's performance has been tested using the available empirical {sup 137}Cs activity concentration data in abiotic and biotic components of the gulf since the Chernobyl accident. Further, this paper describes the results of a modelling exercise performed within the IAEA's EMRAS II international modelling programme to estimate the environmental sensitivity of this characteristic Mediterranean coastal marine environment following radioactive contamination. The radiation doses to humans after a single hypothetical instantaneous deposition of 1000 Bq m{sup −2}, assuming that all of their food intake from the marine pathway comes from the local environment, were calculated. The obtained results are consistent with estimates from other models for different coastal marine environments in the frame of the above-mentioned EMRAS exercise. - Highlights: • The Decision Support System (DSS) MOIRA-PLUS was customised to Thermaikos Gulf. • Model results were compared with empirical data to adjust parameter values. • The environmental sensitivity of the Gulf to {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs pollution was assessed. • Radiation doses from marine and fresh water pathways were compared. • The dose from fresh water pathways is notably higher than that from marine pathways.

  17. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  18. Accuracy Analysis of a Robotic Radionuclide Inspection and Mapping System for Surface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauer, Georg F.; Kawa, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The mapping of localized regions of radionuclide contamination in a building can be a time consuming and costly task. Humans moving hand-held radiation detectors over the target areas are subject to fatigue. A contamination map based on manual surveys can contain significant operator-induced inaccuracies. A Fanuc M16i light industrial robot has been configured for installation on a mobile aerial work platform, such as a tall forklift. When positioned in front of a wall or floor surface, the robot can map the radiation levels over a surface area of up to 3 m by 3 m. The robot's end effector is a commercial alpha-beta radiation sensor, augmented with range and collision avoidance sensors to ensure operational safety as well as to maintain a constant gap between surface and radiation sensors. The accuracy and repeatability of the robotically conducted contamination surveys is directly influenced by the sensors and other hardware employed. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of various non-contact sensors for gap measurement, and the means to compensate for predicted systematic errors that arise during the area survey scans. The range sensor should maintain a constant gap between the radiation counter and the surface being inspected. The inspection robot scans the wall surface horizontally, moving down at predefined vertical intervals after each scan in a meandering pattern. A number of non-contact range sensors can be employed for the measurement of the gap between the robot end effector and the wall. The nominal gap width was specified as 10 mm, with variations during a single scan not to exceed ± 2 mm. Unfinished masonry or concrete walls typically exhibit irregularities, such as holes, gaps, or indentations in mortar joints. These irregularities can be sufficiently large to indicate a change of the wall contour. The responses of different sensor types to the wall irregularities vary, depending on their underlying principles of operation. We explored

  19. The characterization of petroleum and creosote-contaminated soils: Class component analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Alex, R.F.; Holloway, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The assessment and reclamation of coal tar, creosote and petroleum-contaminated sites is emerging as a major challenge to industry and the federal and provincial Canadian governments. Contaminants frequently include polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), several high molecular weight analogues of which are documented carcinogens. Adaptation of thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection for the analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is described. The method is directly applicable to the analysis of oily waste extracts from petroleum and creosote wood preservative site soils and is capable of distinguishing between the saturate, aromatic and polar components of waste residues. The method provides a rapid, low cost class component analysis of heavy hydrocarbon waste extracts and is particularly useful for estimating the extent of weathering experienced by chronically exposed hydrocarbon wastes in the soil environment. As such, it is useful as a screening tool for a preliminary assessment of the biotreatability or inherent recalcitrance of hydrocarbon waste mixtures. 11 refs., 5 figs

  20. SIFT-MS Analysis of Nose-Exhaled Breath; Mouth Contamination and the Influence of Exercise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Španěl, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2013 (2013), s. 565-575 ISSN 1573-4110 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry * breath analysis * nose exhalation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  1. A preliminary investigation of the environmental impact of a thermal power plant in relation to PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2011-07-01

    The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.

  2. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.

    2006-01-01

    serotypes isolated from animal feed and/or food-producing animals based on their detection in humans; a semiquantitative ranking of serotypes by the apparent differences in their public health impact; and an estimate of the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis that can be attributed...... through the consumption of Danish pork and beef. We concluded that more than 90% of serotypes have the potential, if they occur in feedstuffs, for infecting humans via production animals or foods of animal origin....

  3. Assessment of metal contamination in the biota of four rivers experiencing varying degrees of human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Waters, Matthew Neal; Duckworth, Christina G; Patel, Pratik P; Webster, Benjamin Cole; Blocker, Amber; Crummey, Cliff Hunter; Duncan, Aundrea Nicole; Nwokike, Somuayiro Nadia; Picariello, Codie Richard; Ragan, James T; Schumacher, Erika L; Tucker, Rebecca Lea; Tuttle, Elizabeth Ann; Wiggins, Charlie Rufus

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization, agriculture, and other land transformations can affect water quality, decrease species biodiversity, and increase metal and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems. Metal pollution, in particular, is a reported consequence of elevated anthropogenic inputs, especially from urbanized areas. The objectives of this study were to quantify metal (Cu, Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb) concentrations in the waters and biota of four streams in South Georgia, USA, and relate metal concentrations to land use and abiotic and biotic stream processes. Additionally, macrophytes, invertebrates, and fish were identified to assess biodiversity at each site. Metal concentrations in the three trophic levels differed among sites and species, correlating to differences in land use surrounding the rivers. The highest metal concentrations (except Al) were found in the streams most impacted by urbanization and development. Al concentrations were highest in streams surrounded by land dominated by forested areas. Metal content in macrophytes reflected metal concentrations in the water and was at least three orders of magnitude higher than any other trophic level. Despite metal concentration differences, all four streams contained similar water quality and were healthy based on macroinvertebrate community structure. This study provides insight into the impact of urbanization and the fate and effects of metals in river ecosystems with varying degrees of anthropogenic impact.

  4. Evaluation of endogenous contamination using hair as biomonitor by K0 parametric neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Neves, Otaviano F.; Batista, Jose R.; Maia, Elene Cristina P.

    2000-01-01

    The environment of the work is an important source of pollutant exposition to human beings. The main goal of this paper is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases. The hair samples as biomonitors were donated by galvanising factory workers in Belo Horizonte. The samples for a Comparative Group were collected from individuals not exposed to a specific environment. The k 0 -neutron activation analysis was applied on the elemental determination. The Comparative Group presented no significant difference compared to literature. Therefore the very high values exhibited by the Workers' Group suggest endogenous contamination. The GBW09101 'Human Hair' Shangai Institute of Nuclear Research, China, Reference Material was also evaluated presenting good agreement to certified and information values. The elements Ag, Al, As Au, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V and Zn were determined. (author)

  5. Applications and mechanisms of laser ablation for elemental analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Survey methods for compositional analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils are under development to support characterization prior to treatment and continued monitoring during remediation. Laser ablation in conjunction with optical spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy are attractive because of the safety and convenience of minimal sample handling and very small sampling volume. However, the signal intensities in analytic applications depend sensitively on the physical state of the sample (e.g., particle morphology, defect concentration, impurities, and presence of liquids). In this work, the authors examine how solid and condensed state properties of the sample affect the laser-substrate interaction, and the dynamic electronic, physical, and chemical processes which ultimately generate the signals that are detected for analytic purposes

  6. Groundwater Contamination in Agbowo Community, Ibadan Nigeria: Impact of Septic Tanks Distances to Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odetokun, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, inadequate supply of pipe borne water is a major concern; hence many homes have wells as a source of water for household uses. The groundwater of forty wells in Agbowo community was assessed for Total Aerobic Bacteria Counts (TABC and Total Coliform Counts (TCC. The location and distances of wells from septic tanks were determined using the Global Positioning System (GPS device and a tape rule respectively. All the wells sampled had high TABC (4.76 ± 1.41 log CFU/mL and TCC (2.2 9± 0.67 log CFU/mL counts which exceeded the international standard of 0 per 100 mL of potable water. There were no significant differences in the bacterial counts between covered and uncovered wells (p>0.05. The mean distance (8.93±3.61m of wells from the septic tanks was below the limit (15.24 m or 50 ft set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. TABC increased with a decrease in distance between the wells and septic tanks though not significant (p<0.05. A very weak positive correlation (r2 =0.021 ensued between the distance from septic tank and CC, while a weak negative correlation (r2 = ‒0.261 was obtained between the TCC and TABC. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from septic tanks while considering all possible sources of well contamination as well as treatment of ground water before use.

  7. Diurnal cycles control the fate of contaminants at an Andean river confluence impacted by legacy mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, P.; Guerra, P. A.; Simonson, K.; Bonilla, C.; Pizarro, G. E.; Escauriaza, C. R.; González, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of hydrologic-geochemical interactions in arid environments is a controlling factor in quality and quantity of water available for human consumption and agriculture. When acid drainage affects these watersheds, water quality is gravely degraded. Despite its effect on watersheds, the relationship between time changes in hydrological variables and water quality in arid regions has not been studied thoroughly. Temporal variations in acid drainage can control when the transport of toxic elements is increased. We performed field work at the Azufre River (pH 2, E.C~10.9 mS/cm) and Caracarani River (pH 8.7, E.C~1.2 mS/cm) confluence, located in the Northern Chilean Altiplano (at 4000 m asl). We registered stream flowrates (total flowrate~430 L/s), temperature and electric conductivity (E.C) hourly using in-stream data loggers during one year. We also measured turbidity and pH during one field survey at different distances from the junction, as a proxy of the formation of iron-aluminum particles that cycle trace elements in these environments. We found turbidity-pH diurnal cycles were caused by upstream hourly changes in upstream flowrate: when the Caracarani River flowrate reached its daily peak, particle formation occurred, while the dissolution of particles occurred when the Azufre River reached its maximum value. This last process occurred due to upstream freeze-thaw cycles. This study shows how the dynamics of natural confluences determines chemical transport. The formation of particles enriched in toxic elements can promote settling as a natural attenuation process, while their dissolution will produce their release and transport long distances downstream. It is important to consider time as an important variable in water quality monitoring and in water management infrastructure where pulses of contamination can have potentially negative effects in its use. Acknowledgements: Funding was provided by "Proyecto Fondecyt 1130936" and "CONICYT

  8. Negative environmental impacts of antibiotic-contaminated effluents from pharmaceutical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Ana; Šimatović, Ana; Kosić-Vukšić, Josipa; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Babić, Sanja; Jurina, Tamara; González Plaza, Juan José; Milaković, Milena; Udiković-Kolić, Nikolina

    2017-12-01

    Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10.5 mg/L) than during the other two seasons (up to 638 μg/L). Accordingly, the highest total concentrations (up to 30 μg/L) in the recipient river were measured in winter and spring. Effluents from second company formulating veterinary antibiotics contained fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, sulfonamides and tetracyclines ranging from low μg/L to approx. 200 μg/L. Low concentrations of these antibiotics, from below the limit of quantification to approx. few μg/L, have also been measured in the recipient stream. High frequency of culturable bacteria resistant to AZI (up to 83%) or sulfamethazine (up to 90%) and oxytetracycline (up to 50%) were also found in studied effluents. Finally, we demonstrated that toxicity to algae and water fleas often exceeded the permitted values. Most highly contaminated effluents induced multiple abnormalities in zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, using a wide array of analyses we have demonstrated that discharges from pharmaceutical industries can pose a significant ecological and public health concern due to their toxicity to aquatic organisms and risks for promoting development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the impact of safeguards criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Reardon, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to assist in developing and demonstrating a model for assessing the impact of setting criteria for the application of IAEA safeguards. This report presents the results of PNL's work on the task. The report is in three parts. The first explains the technical approach and methodology. The second contains an example application of the methodology. The third presents the conclusions of the study. PNL used the model and computer programs developed as part of Task C.5 (Estimation of Inspection Efforts) of the Program of Technical Assistance. The example application of the methodology involves low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facilities. The effects of variations in seven parameters are considered: false alarm probability, goal probability of detection, detection goal quantity, the plant operator's measurement capability, the inspector's variables measurement capability, the inspector's attributes measurement capability, and annual plant throughput. Among the key results and conclusions of the analysis are the following: the variables with the greatest impact on the probability of detection are the inspector's measurement capability, the goal quantity, and the throughput; the variables with the greatest impact on inspection costs are the throughput, the goal quantity, and the goal probability of detection; there are important interactions between variables. That is, the effects of a given variable often depends on the level or value of some other variable. With the methodology used in this study, these interactions can be quantitatively analyzed; reasonably good approximate prediction equations can be developed using the methodology described here

  10. Effects of anthropogenic heavy metal contamination on litter decomposition in streams – A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Verónica; Koricheva, Julia; Duarte, Sofia; Niyogi, Dev K.; Guérold, François

    2016-01-01

    Many streams worldwide are affected by heavy metal contamination, mostly due to past and present mining activities. Here we present a meta-analysis of 38 studies (reporting 133 cases) published between 1978 and 2014 that reported the effects of heavy metal contamination on the decomposition of terrestrial litter in running waters. Overall, heavy metal contamination significantly inhibited litter decomposition. The effect was stronger for laboratory than for field studies, likely due to better control of confounding variables in the former, antagonistic interactions between metals and other environmental variables in the latter or differences in metal identity and concentration between studies. For laboratory studies, only copper + zinc mixtures significantly inhibited litter decomposition, while no significant effects were found for silver, aluminum, cadmium or zinc considered individually. For field studies, coal and metal mine drainage strongly inhibited litter decomposition, while drainage from motorways had no significant effects. The effect of coal mine drainage did not depend on drainage pH. Coal mine drainage negatively affected leaf litter decomposition independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for wood decomposition, but sample size was low. Considering metal mine drainage, arsenic mines had a stronger negative effect on leaf litter decomposition than gold or pyrite mines. Metal mine drainage significantly inhibited leaf litter decomposition driven by both microbes and invertebrates, independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for microbially driven decomposition, but sample size was low. Overall, mine drainage negatively affects leaf litter decomposition, likely through negative effects on invertebrates. - Highlights: • A meta-analysis was done to assess the effects of heavy metals on litter decomposition. • Heavy metals significantly and strongly inhibited litter decomposition in streams.

  11. Use of technical and economic analysis for optimizing technology selection and remedial design for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardisty, P.E.; Brown, A.

    1996-01-01

    The decision to remediate a contaminated site can be seen from the macroeconomic and microeconomic viewpoints. Macroeconomics can be used to plan and account for the overall cost of pollution as part of a firm's production, and thus make overall decisions on the real cost of pollution and the level of clean-up which may be called for. Valuation of damaged resources, option values and intrinsic worth is an important part of this process. Once the decision to remediate has been taken, the question becomes how best to remediate. Microeconomic analysis deals with providing efficient allocative decisions for reaching specified goals. it is safe to say that cost is one of the single most important factors in site clean-up decision making. A basic rule of remediation is often taken to be the maximization of contaminant mass removed per dollar spent. However, remediation may also be governed by other objectives and constraints. In some situations, minimization of time, rather than cost, could be the constraint. Or perhaps the objective could be to achieve a set level of clean-up for the lowest possible cost, even if a large program would result in unit-cost reductions. Evaluation of the economics of a clean-up project is directly linked to the objectives of the site owner, and the constraints within which the remediation is to be performed. Economic analysis of remedial options for containment of a 350,000 L hydrocarbon spill migrating through fractured rock into a river in Alberta, Canada, clear direction to the site owner

  12. Free drop impact analysis of shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The WHAMS-2D and WHAMS-3D codes were used to analyze the dynamic response of the RAS/TREAT shielded shipping cask subjected to transient leadings for the purpose of assessing potential damage to the various components that comprise the the cask. The paper describes how these codes can be used to provide and intermediate level of detail between full three-dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations which are cost effective for design purposes. Three free drops were adressed: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end; (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the cask corner; and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the lifting trunnion and the bottom end. Results are presented for two models of the side and oblique angle drops; one model includes only the mass of the lapped sleeves of depleted uranium (DU) while the other includes the mass and stiffness of the DU. The results of the end drop analyses are given for models with and without imperfections in the cask. Comparison of the analysis to hand calculations and simplified analyses are given. (orig.)

  13. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose...... while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding...... the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession...

  14. Contamination by hazardous substances in the Gulf of Naples and nearby coastal areas: a review of sources, environmental levels and potential impacts in the MSFD perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Victoria; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    During the 7th FW EU Programme, a large group of research institutions with a strong tradition in marine science designed PERSEUS, a policy-oriented, marine research project aimed at identifying human-derived pressures and their impacts in the Southern European Seas. PERSEUS is about gathering and analyzing the data on our marine ecosystems and developing recommendations to assist policy makers in the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In its initial phase, the project focuses on the analysis and evaluation of human pressures in selected coastal areas across the Mediterranean and Black Seas. This paper reports on the results about the chemical pollution pressure in the Gulf of Naples, one of the sites selected for the analysis, and surrounding waters of the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Based on a systematic up-to-date literature review, the paper brings together for the first time the available information on the presence, severity and distribution of contaminants on the site. In spite of methodological and sampling heterogeneity among studies, this review compiles the data in a harmonized and effective way, so that the current status, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. Thus, the review wishes not only to provide a contribution to the scientific community, but also to help to extract recommendations for mitigating pollution sources and risks in the area of concern. A similar process of analysis may be carried out for other areas and pressures in order to facilitate policy making at the European level. © 2013.

  15. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a realistic dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, H. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire] [and others

    1996-08-01

    This is the final report of the Working Group describing: the enhancement of the previously devised V1 scenario to produce a V2 scenario which includes more detailed source term and other site specific data; the application of models in deterministic and probabilistic mode to calculate contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks, including estimates of uncertainties; the comparison and analysis of the resulting calculations. A series of scenarios was developed based on data provided by Working Group members from a range of actual tailings disposal sites, culminating in the V2.2 and V2.3 scenarios. The V2.2 and V2.3 scenarios are identical in all respects, except that the V2.2 considers radioactive (U-238 chain) contaminants, whilst the V2.3 considers stable elements (As, Ni, Pb). Since the scenarios are based on data obtained from a range of actual sites, they should be considered to be generically realistic rather than representative of a particular single site. In both scenarios, the contaminants of interest are assumed to be released in leachate from a tailings pile into an underlying aquifer. They are transported in groundwater through the aquifer to a well. Water is abstracted from the well and used for: watering beef cattle; human consumption; and irrigating leafy vegetables. The beef and leafy vegetables are consumed by humans living in the area. The same contaminants are also released into the atmosphere due to the wind erosion of the pile and then deposited upon the soil, pasture and leafy vegetables. In addition, for the V2.2 scenario, Rn-222 is assumed to be released to atmosphere from the pile. Unlike the V1 scenario, no consideration is given to surface water exposure pathways. Results show that there is exceedingly good agreement between participants' deterministic and probabilistic estimates of total dose or intake. They agree within a factor of two to three for both scenarios

  16. Streptomyces pactum assisted phytoremediation in Zn/Pb smelter contaminated soil of Feng County and its impact on enzymatic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Guo, Di; Mahar, Amanullah; Ma, Fang; Li, Ronghua; Shen, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities, such as industrial expansion, smelting, mining and agricultural practices, have intensified the discharge of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) into the environment, threatening human health and other organisms. To assist phytoremediation by sorghum in soil contaminated by smelters/mines in Feng County (FC), a pot experiment was performed to examine the phytoremediation potential of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) + biochar. The results showed that root uptake of Zn and Cd was reduced by 45 and 22%, respectively, while the uptake of Pb and Cu increased by 17 and 47%, respectively. The shoot and root dry weight and chlorophyll content improved after Act12 inoculation. β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase and urease activities in soil improved and antioxidant activities (POD, PAL, PPO) decreased after application of Act12 + biochar due to a reduction in stress from PTEs. BCF, TF and MEA confirmed the role of Act12 in the amelioration and translocation of PTEs. PCA analysis showed a correlation between different factors that affect the translocation of PTEs. Overall, Act12 promoted the phytoremediation of PTEs. Field experiments on Act12 + biochar may provide new insights into the rehabilitation and restoration of soils contaminated by mines.

  17. The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Takaoka, Kota; Uemura, Saho; Kono, Akiko; Saito, Akihiko; Kawakami, Norito; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-05-20

    The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan. A cross-sectional mail-in survey with a random sample of inhabitants from Ichinoseki city was conducted eleven months after the disasters, and data from 902 respondents were analyzed by logistic regression models, with multiple imputation methodology. The K6 was used to determine psychological distress. The estimated prevalence of psychological distress was 48.0 percent. House damage due to earthquakes and anxiety about radioactive contamination were significantly associated with psychological distress (p earthquake and radioactive contamination appeared additive.

  18. Applying foraminiferal stratigraphy as a biomarker for heavy metal contamination and mining impact in a fiord in West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Bo; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Kristensen, Peter H; Asmund, Gert

    2003-04-01

    Sulphidic mine waste disposed in marine environments constitutes an environmental risk to aquatic life due to potential uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in biota. Fiord sediments near the former Black Angel Mine in West Greenland are contaminated by lead and zinc as a result of submarine tailings disposal in 1973-1990. In 1999 cores were taken up to 10 km away from the disposal area. Analyses include heavy metals, radiochemical dating (210Pb) and high-resolution foraminiferal stratigraphy. The mining operation resulted in significant changes in the assemblage composition. In addition, up to 20% of the Melonis barleeanus population found in sediment deposited during nearby tailings disposal was deformed compared to a natural background of less than 5%. Throughout cores representing the last 100 years of sedimentation, the total numbers and frequency of morphological abnormalities among M. barleeanus revealed some correlation with heavy metals concentrations (up to r2 = 79%). We conclude that abnormalities among foraminifera may represent a useful biomarker for evaluating trends in the biological impact resulting of submarine tailings disposal as well as long-term environmental impact and subsequent recovery.

  19. Impact of High-Power Pulsed Light on Microbial Contamination, Health Promoting Components and Shelf Life of Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Buchovec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of high-power pulsed light (HPPL on the microbial control and nutritional properties of strawberries. Berries were treated with HPPL and afterwards analyzed in terms of microbial contamination, shelf life extension, antioxidant capacity, firmness, total phenolic, total anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, and colour. Results indicate that the decontamination of strawberries by HPPL was significant compared to control. Naturally distributed mesophilic bacteria on the surface of strawberries were inactivated by 2.2 log, and inoculated Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were inactivated by 1.5 and 1.1 log, respectively. Yeasts/microfungi distributed on the surface of strawberries were inactivated by 1 log. The shelf life of treated strawberries was extended by 2 days. The increase of temperature on the surface of fruit never exceeded 42 °C. No significantly important differences were observed in total phenolic, total anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruits before and after pulsed light treatment. Moreover, no impact on the strawberry colour or firmness was found after HPPL treatment. In conclusion, HPPL is fast, effective, non-thermal and environmentally friendly technique which can be applied for microbial control of strawberries.

  20. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, D. W.; Lance, M. J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Toops, T. J.

    2017-02-27

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na+K and 5 ppm Ca+Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  1. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M. [Landcare Research, Lincoln, (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the `long` prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the `short` prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results.

  2. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the 'long' prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the 'short' prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results

  3. The impact of nitrogen contamination and river modification on a Mississippi River floodplain lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthic, Indu [Box 1099 Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Brugam, Richard B., E-mail: rbrugam@siue.edu [Box 1651 Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Retzlaff, William [Box 1099 Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Johnson, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen contamination has increased in ecosystems around the world (frequently termed the “nitrogen cascade”). Coke production for steel manufacturing is often overlooked as a source of nitrogen to natural ecosystems. We examined sediment cores from a Horseshoe Lake, a floodplain lake located just East of St. Louis Missouri (USA) to test whether a coking plant effluent could be traced using stable isotopes of nitrogen and diatom microfossils. The distribution of δ{sup 15}N values in surface sediment samples from the lake shows the highest values near the coking plant effluent. Stable isotopes of nitrogen from 4 sediment cores using a mixing model showed three sources of nitrogen since 1688 CE. The first source (active between 1688 and 1920 CE) had a calculated δ{sup 15}N value ranging between − 0.4 and 1.1‰ depending on the core. After 1920 a second source with a δ{sup 15}N ranging between 10.6 and 15.4‰ became active. The change in these sources coincides with the construction of a coking plant on the lake shore. A third source with a value approximately 7.0‰ was present at all times and represents background. The diatom microfossil assemblages present from 1688 CE to the late 1800s are dominated by the planktonic species Aulacoseira granulata and periphytic and benthic genera Gomphonema, Cocconeis, and Lyrella. After the late 1800s the diatom assemblages are dominated by Staurosira species indicating a shift of species from high flow riverine environments to epipelic species from a lake environment. Diatom microfossils seem to track the reduction in flooding due to leveeing of the floodplain and the isolation of the lake from the river. Our results show how stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to track nitrogen inputs from industrial sources. Diatom changes corresponded with changes in connectivity between the Mississippi River and its floodplain. - Highlights: • Effluent from a steel plant increases fixed nitrogen input to a

  4. The impact of nitrogen contamination and river modification on a Mississippi River floodplain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthic, Indu; Brugam, Richard B.; Retzlaff, William; Johnson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen contamination has increased in ecosystems around the world (frequently termed the “nitrogen cascade”). Coke production for steel manufacturing is often overlooked as a source of nitrogen to natural ecosystems. We examined sediment cores from a Horseshoe Lake, a floodplain lake located just East of St. Louis Missouri (USA) to test whether a coking plant effluent could be traced using stable isotopes of nitrogen and diatom microfossils. The distribution of δ 15 N values in surface sediment samples from the lake shows the highest values near the coking plant effluent. Stable isotopes of nitrogen from 4 sediment cores using a mixing model showed three sources of nitrogen since 1688 CE. The first source (active between 1688 and 1920 CE) had a calculated δ 15 N value ranging between − 0.4 and 1.1‰ depending on the core. After 1920 a second source with a δ 15 N ranging between 10.6 and 15.4‰ became active. The change in these sources coincides with the construction of a coking plant on the lake shore. A third source with a value approximately 7.0‰ was present at all times and represents background. The diatom microfossil assemblages present from 1688 CE to the late 1800s are dominated by the planktonic species Aulacoseira granulata and periphytic and benthic genera Gomphonema, Cocconeis, and Lyrella. After the late 1800s the diatom assemblages are dominated by Staurosira species indicating a shift of species from high flow riverine environments to epipelic species from a lake environment. Diatom microfossils seem to track the reduction in flooding due to leveeing of the floodplain and the isolation of the lake from the river. Our results show how stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to track nitrogen inputs from industrial sources. Diatom changes corresponded with changes in connectivity between the Mississippi River and its floodplain. - Highlights: • Effluent from a steel plant increases fixed nitrogen input to a floodplain

  5. Deterministic sensitivity analysis for the numerical simulation of contaminants transport; Analyse de sensibilite deterministe pour la simulation numerique du transfert de contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, E

    2007-12-15

    The questions of safety and uncertainty are central to feasibility studies for an underground nuclear waste storage site, in particular the evaluation of uncertainties about safety indicators which are due to uncertainties concerning properties of the subsoil or of the contaminants. The global approach through probabilistic Monte Carlo methods gives good results, but it requires a large number of simulations. The deterministic method investigated here is complementary. Based on the Singular Value Decomposition of the derivative of the model, it gives only local information, but it is much less demanding in computing time. The flow model follows Darcy's law and the transport of radionuclides around the storage site follows a linear convection-diffusion equation. Manual and automatic differentiation are compared for these models using direct and adjoint modes. A comparative study of both probabilistic and deterministic approaches for the sensitivity analysis of fluxes of contaminants through outlet channels with respect to variations of input parameters is carried out with realistic data provided by ANDRA. Generic tools for sensitivity analysis and code coupling are developed in the Caml language. The user of these generic platforms has only to provide the specific part of the application in any language of his choice. We also present a study about two-phase air/water partially saturated flows in hydrogeology concerning the limitations of the Richards approximation and of the global pressure formulation used in petroleum engineering. (author)

  6. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner..., and land resources; (3) Direct and indirect environmental impacts of the proposed action including...

  7. Quantitative analysis of education effect by the number of contamination in an unsealed radioisotope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Kaneko, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Okumura, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    The educational program for radiation workers is essential for the safety of radiation facility that stands on radiation protection practice by each worker. However, there appears no distinct criterion for quantitative evaluation of the education effect on radiation safety. The effectiveness of education was assessed by the number and the frequency (number of contamination/number of users) of contamination, a major incident involving radioactive materials, based on the long-term contamination surveillance data from 1996 to 2001 in Nagasaki University Radioisotope Center. Facility staffs monitored contamination in the facility every day. In 1996 and 1997, the yearly total number and the frequency of contamination found in a molecular biology room, a most frequently-used laboratory, were 150 and 1.21, respectively. The improvement of education program, including introduction of technical procedures to avoid contamination in molecular biological experiments, pre-entry instruction for fresh workers to demonstrate radiation safety practices on site, and spreading the new concept 'contamination happens by all means' through the radiation workers, markedly reduced both the number and the frequency of contamination to 33 and 0.48, respectively. This reduction seemed to be attributable for two different reasons; improvement of skills to avoid contamination, and thorough execution of monitoring and decontamination. These results suggested that contamination was a possible criterion for evaluating effectiveness of education program for radiation workers. (author)

  8. Impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetutu, Eric M.; Ball, Andy S. [School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001 (Australia); Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Dandie, Catherine E. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: Albert.Juhasz@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was investigated in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The extent of {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation varied depending on the bioremediation strategy employed. Under enhanced natural attenuation conditions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation after 98 days was 8.5 {+-} 3.7% compared to < 1.2% without nitrogen and phosphorus additions. {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was further enhanced through Tween 80 amendments (28.9 {+-} 2.4%) which also promoted the growth of a Phanerochaete chyrsosporium fungal mat. Although fungal growth in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil could be promoted through supplementing additional carbon sources (Tween 80, sawdust, compost, pea straw), fungal {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was negligible when sodium azide was added to soil microcosms to inhibit bacterial activity. In contrast, when fungal activity was inhibited through nystatin additions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation ranged from 6.5 {+-} 0.2 to 35.8 {+-} 3.8% after 98 days depending on the supplied amendment. Bacteria inhibition with sodium azide resulted in a reduction in bacterial diversity (33-37%) compared to microcosms supplemented with nystatin or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. However, alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms, highlighting the important role of this bacterial group in {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The roles of different microbial groups in hydrocarbon mineralisation was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting fungal growth did not affect {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting bacterial growth resulted in negligible {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms. Black

  9. Impact of bacterial and fungal processes on 14C-hexadecane mineralisation in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetutu, Eric M.; Ball, Andy S.; Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Dandie, Catherine E.; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of bacterial and fungal processes on 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was investigated in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The extent of 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation varied depending on the bioremediation strategy employed. Under enhanced natural attenuation conditions, 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation after 98 days was 8.5 ± 3.7% compared to 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was further enhanced through Tween 80 amendments (28.9 ± 2.4%) which also promoted the growth of a Phanerochaete chyrsosporium fungal mat. Although fungal growth in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil could be promoted through supplementing additional carbon sources (Tween 80, sawdust, compost, pea straw), fungal 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was negligible when sodium azide was added to soil microcosms to inhibit bacterial activity. In contrast, when fungal activity was inhibited through nystatin additions, 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation ranged from 6.5 ± 0.2 to 35.8 ± 3.8% after 98 days depending on the supplied amendment. Bacteria inhibition with sodium azide resulted in a reduction in bacterial diversity (33–37%) compared to microcosms supplemented with nystatin or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. However, alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms, highlighting the important role of this bacterial group in 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. - Highlights: ► The roles of different microbial groups in hydrocarbon mineralisation was assessed. ► Inhibiting fungal growth did not affect 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. ► Inhibiting bacterial growth resulted in negligible 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. ► alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms. ► The importance of alkB groups in 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was highlighted.

  10. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Leslie C-L; Low, Eng-Ti L; Abdullah, Meilina O; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A A; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W; Brown, Clyde R; Kuek, Alex C S; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y; Chaudhari, Hemangi G; Shah, Shivam A; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  11. Multi-biomarker responses as indication of contaminant effects in Gambusia affinis from impacted rivers by municipal effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Shi, Wen-Jun; Hu, Li-Xin; Tian, Fei; Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated toxic effects in mosquitofish from two urban rivers of South China impacted by municipal effluents by using multiple biomarkers including fish morphology, biochemical indicators and transcriptional responses, and explored potential cause-effect relationship with a list of chemicals (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides). The results showed significant alterations in metallothionein (MT) protein and mRNA expression in mosquitofish collected from the two rivers and a strong association between MT protein and mRNA expression levels and heavy metals in the river water. Both ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and cytochromes P450 1A (CYP1A) mRNA expression were significantly enhanced in mosquitofish at most sampling sites. There existed a strong correlation between EROD activity and CYP1A mRNA expression levels, but no clear correlations between these responses and PAHs in the river water possibly because of the presence of many other agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the two rivers. Significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was observed in mosquitofish brain samples. The pesticides in the two rivers showed an influence on the AChE activity, which was also found to be significantly negatively correlated to fipronil concentrations. Moreover, the result also indicates that metals and pesticides present in the two rivers might cause the observed estrogenic and androgenic effects in mosquitofish. The findings from this study clearly showed morphological, biochemical and transcriptional responses in mosquitofish due to chemical contamination of the two urban rivers. This multi-biomarker approach using mosquitofish can be applied to evaluate contamination of riverine environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-02-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent coupled with a subsequent bioremediation phase of 187d, both with and without nutrient amendment. Chemical oxidation mobilized SOM into the liquid phase, producing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations 8-16 times higher than the untreated field sample. Higher aqueous concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous species were also observed following oxidation; NH4(+) increased 14-172 times. During the bioremediation phase, dissolved carbon and nutrient species were utilized for microbial growth-yielding DOC concentrations similar to field sample levels within 56d of incubation. In the absence of nutrient amendment, the highest microbial respiration rates were correlated with higher availability of nitrogen and phosphorus species mobilized by oxidation. Significant diesel degradation was only observed following nutrient amendment, implying that nutrients mobilized by chemical oxidation can increase microbial activity but are insufficient for bioremediation. While all bioremediation occurred in the first 28d of incubation in the biotic control microcosm with nutrient amendment, biodegradation continued throughout 187d of incubation following chemical oxidation, suggesting that chemical treatment also affects the desorption of organic contaminants from SOM. Overall, results indicate that biodegradation of DOC, as an alternative substrate to diesel, and biological utilization of mobilized nutrients have implications for the success of coupled ISCO and ISB treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of bacterial superficial contamination in classical or ritually slaughtered cattle using metagenetics and microbiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Hupperts, C; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2017-04-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological procedures and 16S rDNA metagenetics. The purpose was also to investigate the neck area to identify bacteria originating from the digestive or the respiratory tract. Twenty bovine carcasses (10 from each group) were swabbed at the slaughterhouse, where both slaughtering methods are practiced. Two swabbing areas were chosen: one "legal" zone of 1600cm 2 (composed of zones from rump, flank, brisket and forelimb) and locally on the neck area (200cm 2 ). Samples were submitted to classical microbiology for aerobic Total Viable Counts (TVC) at 30°C and Enterobacteriaceae counts, while metagenetic analysis was performed on the same samples. The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between both slaughtering practices; with values between 3.95 and 4.87log CFU/100cm 2 and 0.49 and 1.94log CFU/100cm 2 , for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in the bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly observed in the "legal" swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum were more abundant in the "legal" swabbing zone in "Halal" samples, while Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium were encountered more in "Halal" samples, in all swabbing areas. This was also the case for Firmicutes bacterial populations (families of Aerococcaceae, Planococcaceae). Except for Planococcoceae, the analysis of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundances of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences between groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However

  14. Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community Structures in Pristine and Contaminated Aquifers: Field and Laboratory Microcosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zwolinski, M. D.; Schreiber, M. E.; Bahr, J. M.; Sewell, G. W.; Hickey, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantly Bacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% β- and γ-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% α-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65% of the Bacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the

  15. Trace Contaminant Control for the International Space Station's Node 1- Analysis, Design, and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminant generation inside crewed spacecraft cabins is a technical and medical problem that must be continuously evaluated. Although passive control through materials selection and active control by adsorption and catalytic oxidation devices is employed during normal operations of a spacecraft, contaminant buildup can still become a problem. Buildup is particularly troublesome during the stages between the final closure of a spacecraft during ground processing and the time that a crewmember enters for the first time during the mission. Typically, the elapsed time between preflight closure and first entry on orbit for spacecraft such as Spacelab modules was 30 days. During that time, the active contamination control systems are not activated and contaminants can potentially build up to levels which exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) specified by NASA toxicology experts. To prevent excessively high contamination levels at crew entry, the Spacelab active contamination control system was operated for 53 hours just before launch.

  16. Impact of anthropogenic forest contamination on radioresistance of woody plant seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    Radioresistance of seeds of bay willow (Salix pentandra L.) and great sallow willow (Salix caprea L.) from forests chronically affected and non-affected by acidic (SO 2 , NO x , HF, etc.) industries has been studied and compared. Bay willow seeds of 6 harvests showed no difference in radioresistance. However, seeds of both species manifested strong synchronous variability in resistance to preplant exposure. Also, no influence was observed of mother plant gas content on great sallow willow seeds of different harvests. Data obtained confirm similar results of previous studies conducted by the author (1987) to identify the impact of plant gas content on radioresistance of seeds and seedlings of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula verrucosa Erh.). (author)

  17. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) — A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Danet, Andrei-Florin

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. - Highlights: • ESIA is an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral pollutants • Overcoming the analytical limitations of ESIA is challenging • Development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants is needed

  18. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) — A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu, E-mail: badeasilviu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Danet, Andrei-Florin [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Panduri Str., Bucharest 050657 (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. - Highlights: • ESIA is an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral pollutants • Overcoming the analytical limitations of ESIA is challenging • Development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants is needed.

  19. Contaminant classification using cosine distances based on multiple conventional sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Che, Han; Smith, Kate; Chang, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Emergent contamination events have a significant impact on water systems. After contamination detection, it is important to classify the type of contaminant quickly to provide support for remediation attempts. Conventional methods generally either rely on laboratory-based analysis, which requires a long analysis time, or on multivariable-based geometry analysis and sequence analysis, which is prone to being affected by the contaminant concentration. This paper proposes a new contaminant classification method, which discriminates contaminants in a real time manner independent of the contaminant concentration. The proposed method quantifies the similarities or dissimilarities between sensors' responses to different types of contaminants. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using data from contaminant injection experiments in a laboratory and compared with a Euclidean distance-based method. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated using an uncertainty analysis. The results show that the proposed method performed better in identifying the type of contaminant than the Euclidean distance based method and that it could classify the type of contaminant in minutes without significantly compromising the correct classification rate (CCR).

  20. Isolation and identification of indigenous prokaryotic bacteria from arsenic-contaminated water resources and their impact on arsenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebelli, Mohammad Ahmadi; Maleki, Afshin; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Kalantar, Enayatollah; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Gharibi, Fardin

    2017-06-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen. Arsenite [As(III), H 3 AsO 3 ] and arsenate [As(V), H 2 AsO 4 - and HAsO 4 2- ] are the two predominant compounds of As found in surface water and groundwater. The aim of this study was to explore a bioremediation strategy for biotransformation of arsenite to arsenate by microorganisms. In this study, Babagorgor Spring, located west of Iran, was selected as the arsenic-contaminated source and its physicochemical characteristics and in situ microbiological composition were analyzed. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis indicated that the arsenic level was 614μg/l. Fourteen arsenic tolerant indigenous bacteria were isolated from arsenic-contaminated water using chemically defined medium (CDM), supplemented with 260-3900mg/l arsenite and 1560-21800mg/l arsenate. Among the isolates, a strain As-11 exhibited high ability of arsenic transformation. Biochemical tests were used for bacterial identification and confirmation was conducted by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Results confirmed that As-11 was related to the genus Pseudomonas. This bacterium showed maximum tolerable concentration to arsenite up to 3250mg/l and arsenate up to 20280mg/l. Under heterotrophic conditions, the bacterium exhibited 48% of As(III) and 78% of As(V) transformation from the medium amended with 130 and 312mg/l of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate, respectively. Moreover, under chemolithotrophic conditions, bacterium was able to transform 41% of 130mg/l of As(III) from the medium amended with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Pseudomonas strain As-11 was reported as an arsenic transformer, for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Statistical analysis and planning of multihundred-watt impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Waterman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Modular multihundred-watt (MHW) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) are used as a power source for spacecraft. Due to possible environmental contamination by radioactive materials, numerous tests are required to determine and verify the safety of the RTG. There are results available from 27 fueled MHW impact tests regarding hoop failure, fingerprint failure, and fuel failure. Data from the 27 tests are statistically analyzed for relationships that exist between the test design variables and the failure types. Next, these relationships are used to develop a statistical procedure for planning and conducting either future MHW impact tests or similar tests on other RTG fuel sources. Finally, some conclusions are given