WorldWideScience

Sample records for contaminant exposure route

  1. Contamination of cars and exposure dose to drivers traveling through the Route 6 in the restricted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Sasaki, Satoru; Shimomura, Masanori; Takano, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Inoue, Ryo; Yamada, Norikazu

    2012-05-01

    Traffic on the Route 6 will increase after the revision of evacuation area and restricted area. At the request of the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters established in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has surveyed the effect on cars and drivers traveling through the Route 6 in the restricted area as listed bellow. (1) Investigation of contamination of cars traveling through the Route 6. (2) Investigation of exposure dose of drivers traveling through the Route 6. The maximum contamination at the surface of tires and tire-houses of cars traveling through the Route 6 is estimated to be 2 Bq/cm"2 (this concentration is correspond to 470 cpm). The external exposure dose of drivers will be about 4 μSv when they run through the restricted area at a pace of 40 km/h. The internal exposure dose will be small because of the low radioactive concentration in the air. It is important not to stay long in high radiation areas to prevent unnecessary exposure. The main source of the contamination is sand cloud thrown up by the wheels. Though, the radioactivity of the sand cloud is proportional to the surface concentration of roads and dose rate of each area, contamination level by the sand cloud will remain low level. Significant contamination is likely to be caused by running on the soil. So, it is important not to run on the soil on the local road around the Route 6 or road shoulder of the Route 6. It is recommended to wash tires and tire-houses when accidentally run on the soil. (author)

  2. Interactions among contaminant exposure route, kinetics and toxicity in marine deposit-feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette

    Many of the chemicals having the greatest likelihood of causing damage in ecological systems, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals are of persistent and/or hydrophobic character. Deposit-feeders may be important in facilitating the removal of organic contaminants from bulk...

  3. Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources. PMID:25304273

  4. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become contaminated. ... water to remove contamination. This process is called decontamination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of ...

  5. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  6. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation

  7. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  8. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  9. Toxicity of thiamethoxam to Tetranychus urticae Koch and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) through different routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo; Tirello, Paola; Ortiz, Paulina Bermudez

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of the impact of insecticides on Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is crucial for IPM. This study evaluates the effect of thiamethoxam on T. urticae and its predator by considering different routes of exposure (topical, residual and contaminated food exposures) and their combinations. Thiamethoxam effects on T. urticae were higher when residual and contaminated food exposures were considered. The total effect was higher than 90% where contaminated food exposure was involved. On P. persimilis, the total effect was higher in residual and contaminated prey exposures compared with topical exposure, and all combinations of routes of exposure attained a total effect higher than 90%. Thiamethoxam was found to be toxic to T. urticae and P. persimilis; however, the impact of the insecticide depended on the routes of exposure and their combinations. Lethal and sublethal effects occurred in residual and contaminated food exposures, while only sublethal effects occurred in topical exposure of predators and prey. The toxicity of thiamethoxam on prey and predator increased with the number of exposure routes involved. By limiting exposure to thiamethoxam to ingestion of contaminated food only, the impact of the pesticide was more favourable to P. persimilis than to its prey. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  11. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  12. A decision tree approach to screen drinking water contaminants for multiroute exposure potential in developing guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kannan; Carrier, Richard

    2017-07-03

    The consideration of inhalation and dermal routes of exposures in developing guideline values for drinking water contaminants is important. However, there is no guidance for determining the eligibility of a drinking water contaminant for its multiroute exposure potential. The objective of the present study was to develop a 4-step framework to screen chemicals for their dermal and inhalation exposure potential in the process of developing guideline values. The proposed framework emphasizes the importance of considering basic physicochemical properties prior to detailed assessment of dermal and inhalation routes of exposure to drinking water contaminants in setting guideline values.

  13. Cosmic radiation exposure on Canadian-based commercial airline routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Tume, P.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Green, A.R

    1998-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP-60 and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of commercial aircrew, a two-phase investigation was carried out over a one-year period to determine the total dose equivalent on representative Canadian-based flight routes. In the first phase of the study, dedicated scientific flights on a Northern round-trip route between Ottawa and Resolute Bay provided the opportunity to characterize the complex mixed-radiation field, and to intercompare various instrumentation using both a conventional suite of powered detectors and passive dosimetry. In the second phase, volunteer aircrew carried (passive) neutron bubble detectors during their routine flight duties. From these measurements, the total dose equivalent was derived for a given route with a knowledge of the neutron fraction as determined from the scientific flights and computer code (CART-LF) calculations. This study has yielded an extensive database of over 3100 measurements providing the total dose equivalent for 385 different routes. By folding in flight frequency information and the accumulated flight hours, the annual occupational exposures of 26 flight crew have been determined. This study has indicated that most Canadian-based domestic and international aircrew will exceed the proposed annual ICRP-60 public limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} but will be well below the occupational limit of 20 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  14. Effect of exposure routes on the relationships of lethal toxicity to rats from oral, intravenous, intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhong H; Long, Shuang; Zhou, Yuan Y; Peng, Zi Y; Sun, Yi N; Chen, Si W; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-11-01

    The lethal toxicity values (log 1/LD(50)) of 527 aliphatic and aromatic compounds in oral, intravenous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes were used to investigate the relationships of log 1/LD(50) from different exposure routes. Regression analysis shows that the log 1/LD(50) values are well correlated between intravenous and intraperitoneal or intramuscular injections. However, the correlations between oral and intravenous or intraperitoneal routes are relatively poor. Comparison of the average residuals indicates that intravenous injection is the most sensitive exposure route and oral administration is the least sensitive exposure route. This is attributed to the difference in kinetic process of toxicity testing. The toxic effect of a chemical can be similar or significantly different between exposure routes, depending on the absorption rates of chemicals into blood. Inclusion of hydrophobic parameter and fractions of ionic forms can improve the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes, but not between intraperitoneal and oral routes. This is due to the differences of absorption rate in different exposure environments from different routes. Several factors, such as experimental uncertainty, metabolism and toxic kinetics, can affect the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation exposure to skin following radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, H.; Beyermann, M.; Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of skin contamination intensive decontamination measures should not be carried out until the potential radiation exposure to the basal cell layer of the epidermis was assessed. Dose equivalent rates from alpha-, beta- or photon-emitting contaminants were calculated with reference to the surface activity for different skin regions as a function of radiation energy on the condition that the skin was healthy and uninjured and the penetration of contaminants through the epidermis negligible. The results have been presented in the form of figures and tables. In the assessment of potential skin doses, both radioactive decay and practical experience as to the decrease in the level of surface contamination by natural desquamation of the stratum corneum were taken into account. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 46 refs. (author)

  16. Chlorpyrifos PBPK/PD model for multiple routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka S; Timchalk, Charles; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Bartels, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    1. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an important pesticide used to control crop insects. Human Exposures to CPF will occur primarily through oral exposure to residues on foods. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model has been developed that describes the relationship between oral, dermal and inhalation doses of CPF and key events in the pathway for cholinergic effects. The model was built on a prior oral model that addressed age-related changes in metabolism and physiology. This multi-route model was developed in rats and humans to validate all scenarios in a parallelogram design. 2. Critical biological effects from CPF exposure require metabolic activation to CPF oxon, and small amounts of metabolism in tissues will potentially have a great effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic outcomes. Metabolism (bioactivation and detoxification) was therefore added in diaphragm, brain, lung and skin compartments. Pharmacokinetic data are available for controlled human exposures via the oral and dermal routes and from oral and inhalation studies in rats. The validated model was then used to determine relative dermal versus inhalation uptake from human volunteers exposed to CPF in an indoor scenario.

  17. Uptake and distribution of chlordecone in radish: different contamination routes in edible roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létondor, Clarisse; Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Laurent, François

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) was an organochlorine insecticide mainly used to struggle against banana weevils in the French West Indies. Forbidden since 1993, it has been a long-term contaminant of soils and aquatic environments. Crops growing in contaminated soils lead to human exposure by food consumption. We used radiolabeled [(14)C]-CLD to investigate the contamination ways into radish, a model of edible roots. Radish plants were able to accumulate CLD in both roots (RCF35d 647) and tubers (edible parts, CF35d 6.3). CLD was also translocated to leaves (CF35d 1.7). The contamination of tuber was mainly due to peridermic adsorption or CLD systemic translocation to the pith. TSCF was 3.44×10(-)(3). CLD diffused across periderm to internal tissues. We calculated a mean flux of diffusion J through periderm about 5.71×10(-)(14)gcm(-)(2)s(-)(1). We highlighted different contamination routes of the tuber, (i) adsorption on periderm followed by diffusion of CLD towards underlying tissues, cortex, xylem, and pith (ii) adsorption by roots and translocation by the transpiration stream followed by diffusion from xylem vessels towards inner tissues, pith, and peripheral tissues, cortex and periderm. Concerning chemical risk assessment for other tubers, contamination would depend on various parameters, the thickness of periderm and CLD periderm permeance, the origin of secondary tissues - from cortex and/or pith - , the importance of xylem flow in tuber, and the lipid amount within tuber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cosmic Radiation Exposure on Canadian-Based Commercial Airline Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Tume, P.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Green, A.R.; Cousins, T.; Hoffarth, B.E.; Jones, T.A.; Brisson, J.R

    1999-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of ICRP 60 and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of commercial aircrew, a two-part investigation was carried out over a one-year period to determine the total dose equivalent on representative Canadian-based flight routes. As part of the study, a dedicated scientific measurement flight (using both a conventional suite of powered detectors and passive dosimetry) was used to characterise the complex mixed radiation field and to intercompare the various instrumentation. In the other part of the study, volunteer aircrew carried (passive) neutron bubble detectors during their routine flight duties. From these measurements, the total dose equivalent was derived for a given route with a knowledge of the neutron fraction as determined from the scientific flight and computer code (CARI-LF) calculations. This investigation has yielded an extensive database of over 3100 measurements providing the total dose equivalent for 385 different routes. By folding in flight frequency information and the accumulated flight hours, the annual occupational exposures of 26 flight crew have also been determined. This study has indicated that most Canadian-based domestic and international aircrew will exceed the proposed annual ICRP 60 public limit of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, but will be below the occupational limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  19. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. 57... Underground § 57.5001 Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. Except as permitted by § 57.5005— (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the exposure to airborne contaminants shall not exceed, on the basis of...

  20. Persistence and internalization of Salmonella on/in organic spinach sprout: exploring the contamination route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The effects of contamination route, including seed and water, on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Methods: Seeds (1g) were contaminated with S. Newport using 10 ml of S. Newport-water suspension ov...

  1. Aircrew Exposure from Cosmic Radiation on Commercial Airline Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; McCall, M.J.; Green, A.R.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Schrewe, U.J.; O' Brien, K.; Felsberger, E

    2001-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP 60, and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, an extensive study was carried out by the Royal Military College of Canada over a one-year period to measure the cosmic radiation at commercial jet altitudes. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter was used to measure the ambient total dose equivalent rate on 62 flight routes, resulting in over 20,000 data points at one-minute intervals at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes (i.e. which span the full cut-off rigidity of the Earth's magnetic field). These data were then compared to similar experimental work at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, using a different suite of equipment, to measure separately the low and high linear energy transfer components of the mixed radiation field, and to predictions with the LUIN transport code. All experimental and theoretical results were in excellent agreement. From these data, a semi-empirical model was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date (i.e. heliocentric potential). Through integration of the dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a computer code was developed to provide an estimate of the total dose equivalent on any route worldwide at any period in the solar cycle. (author)

  2. [Routes of pathogenic staphylococcal contamination of slaughter poultry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, L; Zakhartsev, Ts; Baĭl'ozov, D

    1977-01-01

    The contamination of birds with pathogenic staphylococci was followed up during their slaughter handling and trimming at two poultry-dressing houses. It was found that water cooling and evisceration were mostly contributing to contamination. Taking part in the dissemination of Staphylococcus infection were also the female workers on the slaughter belt, especially those that had wounds on their hands. Studied were the properties of a total of 881 strains of staphylococci, 43.35 per cent of them being defined as Staph. aureus, and 56.64 per cent--as Staph. edidermidis.

  3. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. 56... Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5001 Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. Except as... contaminants shall not exceed, on the basis of a time weighted average, the threshold limit values adopted by...

  4. Comparison of two possible routes of pathogen contamination of spinach leaves in a hydroponic cultivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Mizuno, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2011-09-01

    The route of pathogen contamination (from roots versus from leaves) of spinach leaves was investigated with a hydroponic cultivation system. Three major bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes, were inoculated into the hydroponic solution, in which the spinach was grown to give concentrations of 10⁶ and 10³ CFU/ml. In parallel, the pathogens were inoculated onto the growing leaf surface by pipetting, to give concentrations of 10⁶ and 10³ CFU per leaf. Although contamination was observed at a high rate through the root system by the higher inoculum (10⁶ CFU) for all the pathogens tested, the contamination was rare when the lower inoculum (10³ CFU) was applied. In contrast, contamination through the leaf occurred at a very low rate, even when the inoculum level was high. For all the pathogens tested in the present study, the probability of contamination was promoted through the roots and with higher inoculum levels. The probability of contamination was analyzed with logistic regression. The logistic regression model showed that the odds ratio of contamination from the roots versus from the leaves was 6.93, which suggested that the risk of contamination from the roots was 6.93 times higher than the risk of contamination from the leaves. In addition, the risk of contamination by L. monocytogenes was about 0.3 times that of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7. The results of the present study indicate that the principal route of pathogen contamination of growing spinach leaves in a hydroponic system is from the plant's roots, rather than from leaf contamination itself.

  5. Understanding the routes of contamination of ready-to-eat vegetables in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Faour-Klingbeil, D; Murtada, M; Kuri, V; Todd, ECD

    2016-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Understanding the routes of contamination of ready-to-eat vegetables in the Middle East journaltitle: Food Control articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.10.024 content_type: article copyright: Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, Janneke; Plusquin, Michelle; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim; Cuypers, Ann; Van Hecke, Etienne; Roels, Harry A.; Carleer, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated soil particles and food are established routes of exposure. We investigated the relations between biomarkers of exposure to cadmium and lead, and the metal loading rates in house dust in the adult residents of an area with a soil cadmium concentration of >=3mg/kg (n=268) and a reference area (n=205). We determined the metal concentrations in house dust allowed to settle for 3 months in Petri dishes placed in the participants' bedrooms. The continuously distributed vegetable index was the first principal component derived from the metal concentrations in six different vegetables. The biomarkers of exposure (blood cadmium 9.2 vs. 6.2nmol/L; 24-h urinary cadmium 10.5 vs. 7.0nmol; blood lead 0.31 vs. 0.24μmol/L), the loading rates of cadmium and lead in house dust (0.29 vs. 0.12 and 7.52 vs. 3.62ng/cm 2 /92 days), and the vegetable indexes (0.31 vs. -0.44 and 0.13 vs. -0.29 standardized units) were significantly higher in the contaminated area. A two-fold increase in the metal loading rate in house dust was associated with increases (P<0.001) in blood cadmium (+2.3%), 24-h urinary cadmium (+3.0%), and blood lead (+2.0%), independent of the vegetable index and other covariates. The estimated effect sizes on the biomarkers of internal exposure were three times greater for house dust than vegetables. In conclusion, in the adult population, house dust is potentially an important route of exposure to heavy metals in areas with contaminated soils, and should be incorporated in the assessment of health risks

  7. Reducing maize-based aflatoxin contamination and exposure

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    super bags' in which to store their grain. The control households will continue using traditional storage techniques. Researchers will assess the extent of aflatoxin contamination in grain stored by both groups and levels of exposure in mothers ...

  8. Human risk assessment of dermal and inhalation exposures to chemicals assessed by route-to-route extrapolation: the necessity of kinetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Bessems, Jos G M; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Bos, Peter M J

    2014-10-01

    In toxicity testing the oral route is in general the first choice. Often, appropriate inhalation and dermal toxicity data are absent. Risk assessment for these latter routes usually has to rely on route-to-route extrapolation starting from oral toxicity data. Although it is generally recognized that the uncertainties involved are (too) large, route-to-route extrapolation is applied in many cases because of a strong need of an assessment of risks linked to a given exposure scenario. For an adequate route-to-route extrapolation the availability of at least some basic toxicokinetic data is a pre-requisite. These toxicokinetic data include all phases of kinetics, from absorption (both absorbed fraction and absorption rate for both the starting route and route of interest) via distribution and biotransformation to excretion. However, in practice only differences in absorption between the different routes are accounted for. The present paper demonstrates the necessity of route-specific absorption data by showing the impact of its absence on the uncertainty of the human health risk assessment using route-to-route extrapolation. Quantification of the absorption (by in vivo, in vitro or in silico methods), particularly for the starting route, is considered essential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  10. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  11. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Worker exposures from recycling surface contaminated radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.; Phillips, J.W.; Culp, J.

    1996-01-01

    Current DOE policy permits release from DOE control of real property with residual levels of surficial radioactive contamination if the contamination is below approved guidelines. If the material contains contamination that is evenly distributed throughout its volume (referred to as volumetric contamination), then Departmental approval for release must be obtained in advance. Several DOE sites presently recycle surface contaminated metal, although the quantities are small relative to the quantities of metal processed by typical mini-mills, hence the potential radiation exposures to mill workers from processing DOE metals and the public from the processed metal are at present also a very small fraction of their potential value. The exposures calculated in this analysis are based on 100% of the scrap metal being processed at the maximum contamination levels and are therefore assumed to be maximum values and not likely to occur in actual practice. This paper examines the relationship between the surface contamination limits established under DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,close quotes and radiation exposures to workers involved in the scrap metal recycling process. The analysis is limited to surficial contamination at or below the guideline levels established in DOE Order 5400.5 at the time of release. Workers involved in the melting and subsequent fabrication of products are not considered radiation workers (no requirements for monitoring) and must be considered members of the public. The majority of the exposures calculated in this analysis range from tenths of a millirem per year (mrem/yr) to less than 5 mrem/yr. The incremental risk of cancer associated with these exposures ranges from 10 -8 cancers per year to 10 -6 cancers per year

  13. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjour, Sarah; Jerrett, Michael; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Hanning, Cooper; Daly, Laura; Lipsitt, Jonah; Balmes, John

    2013-02-07

    A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as "Bicycle Boulevards." We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function. We recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes - a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride. We found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations. These results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers and city planners to expand infrastructure to

  14. Soil ingestion may be an important route for the uptake of contaminants by some reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, C Nelson; Talent, Larry G

    2009-02-01

    Some species of reptiles regularly ingest soil in the wild. Therefore, we evaluated the importance of soil ingestion as a route for the uptake of contaminants in lizards. We used sand as a substitute for soil during the present study. Different groups of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) were provided with a control and five sodium selenite-spiked sand mixtures during a 28-d study. Twenty lizards were assigned to a control group and to each of five selenium-spiked sand mixtures that consisted of nominal selenium (Se) concentrations of 0.05, 0.46, 4.57, 11.41, and 22.83 mg Se/kg dry sand. Leopard geckos readily ingested the Se-spiked sand. We observed concentration-related effects in several endpoints. Overall growth in body mass was the most sensitive endpoint and was significantly (p leopard geckos appear to be as sensitive to sodium selenite as birds and mammals. The present study suggests that ingestion of soil could be an important potential route for the uptake of soil contaminants in some reptiles and should be evaluated in ecotoxicological studies and risk analyses of reptiles.

  15. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete: Part I: relative importance of water and sediment as exposure routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Tina; Thit, Amalie; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Selck, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, and likely released into the aquatic environment. Both aqueous (i.e., dissolved Cu) and particulate Cu can be taken up by organisms. However, how exposure routes influence the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of Cu remains largely unknown. Here, we assess the importance of exposure routes (water and sediment) and Cu forms (aqueous and nanoparticulate) on Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a head-down deposit-feeder. We characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of Cu in L. variegatus across a range of exposure concentrations, covering both realistic and worst-case levels of Cu contamination in the environment. Both aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq; administered as Cu(NO3)2) and nanoparticulate Cu (CuO NPs), whether dispersed in artificial moderately hard freshwater or mixed into sediment, were weakly accumulated by L. variegatus. Once incorporated into tissues, Cu elimination was negligible, i.e., elimination rate constants were in general not different from zero for either exposure route or either Cu form. Toxicity was only observed after waterborne exposure to Cu-Aq at very high concentration (305 µgL-1), where all worms died. There was no relationship between exposure route, Cu form or Cu exposure concentration on either worm survival or growth. Slow feeding rates and low Cu assimilation efficiency (approximately 30%) characterized the uptake of Cu from the sediment for both Cu forms. In nature, L. variegatus is potentially exposed to Cu via both water and sediment. However, sediment progressively becomes the predominant exposure route for Cu in L. variegatus as Cu partitioning to sediment increases.

  16. Cancer excess after arsenic exposure from contaminated milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic is related to increased risk of cancer in the lung, skin, bladder, and, possibly, other sites. However, little is known about the consequences of developmental exposures in regard to cancer risk. During early summer in 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of infant...... occurred in the western part of Japan because of contaminated milk powder. Okayama Prefecture was most severely affected. We examined whether the affected birth cohorts in this prefecture experienced increased cancer mortality....

  17. 30 CFR 57.5005 - Control of exposure to airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of exposure to airborne contaminants... Underground § 57.5005 Control of exposure to airborne contaminants. Control of employee exposure to harmful airborne contaminants shall be, insofar as feasible, by prevention of contamination, removal by exhaust...

  18. Relative importance of different exposure routes of heavy metals for humans living near a municipal solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tong; Wan, Yi; Ben, Yujie; Fan, Senrong; Hu, Jianying

    2017-01-01

    The potential health effects of toxic chemicals (e.g. heavy metals) emitted by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are of great concern to local residents, however there have been few studies on the contributions of different exposure pathways and their subsequent effects on the body burden of residents living near MSWIs. In this study, multiple exposure routes of heavy metals including Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn were assessed by investigating the metals in foods (such as vegetables, crops, meats and fruits etc.), drinking water, ambient air and soil collected surrounding an MSWI in Shenzhen, south China. Vegetable ingestion played the most important role in the total average daily dose of Pb and Cr, and cereals were the key exposure routes for Mn and Cd. Compound-specific contaminations were observed in the investigated areas, with Pb and Cr present in the surrounding environment, having accumulated to relatively high levels in the local vegetables, and the intake of contaminated vegetable foods greatly influencing the body burden of Pb and Cr. Consistently, significantly high blood concentrations of Pb and Cr were detected in the local residents compared to a referenced population, and a lack of significant differences was found for Cd and Mn. The results possibly suggested that emission of MSWI influenced the external exposure doses of the major pathways of Pb and Cr in this study, and resulted in the different body burden of metals in humans living near a MSWI. MSWI-local food-humans is an important exposure pathway for residents living near MSWI, and thus should not be neglected in developing future strategies and policies to prevent the high risks suffered by residents living near MSWIs. - Highlights: • Vegetable and cereal ingestion were the main contributors to exposure of Pb/Cr and Mn/Cd, respectively. • Concentrations of Pb/Cr in vegetables grown near MSWI were significantly higher. • Blood concentrations of Pb/Cr in populations near MSWI were

  19. The relevance of the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemical substances and its role in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Busani, Luca; Tait, Sabrina; La Rocca, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Food may be contaminated with many chemical substances at any level along the production chain. Chemicals that may be found in food items can simultaneously be present in other matrices, as air, water, soil and dust; therefore, human exposure to chemicals via food has to be summed to the exposure through all the other possible routes. The role played by the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemicals assumes amplified proportions when considering contaminated sites. Indeed the link between environment and food production is undeniable and consequently, when population chemical exposure is considered, an integrated approach assessing the contribution of the different routes of exposure, including dietary exposure, is needed. Such integrated approach allows a realistic and comprehensive risk assessment of chemical substances in order to identify and deploy effective prevention and intervention measures to protect human health.

  20. Comparative chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics via multiple routes of exposure and vehicles of administration in the adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Campbell, James A.; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S.; Barr, Dana B.; Timchalk, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide. A number of toxicity and mechanistic studies have been conducted in animals, where CPF has been administered via a variety of different exposure routes and dosing vehicles. This study compared chlorpyrifos (CPF) pharmacokinetics using oral, intravenous (IV), and subcutaneous (SC) exposure routes and corn oil, saline/Tween 20, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as dosing vehicles. Two groups of rats were co-administered target doses (5 mg/kg) of CPF and isotopically labeled CPF (L-CPF). One group was exposed by both oral (CPF) and IV (L-CPF) routes using saline/Tween 20 vehicle; whereas, the second group was exposed by the SC route using two vehicles, corn oil (CPF) and DMSO (L-CPF). A third group was only administered CPF by the oral route in corn oil. For all treatments, blood and urine time course samples were collected and analyzed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and isotopically labeled 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (L-TCPy). Peak TCPy/L-TCPy concentrations in blood (20.2 μmol/l), TCPy/L-TCPy blood AUC (94.9 μmol/l h), and percent of dose excreted in urine (100%) were all highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in saline/Tween 20 and second highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in corn oil. Peak TCPy concentrations in blood were more rapidly obtained after oral administration of CPF in saline/Tween 20 compared to all other dosing scenarios (>1.5 h). These results indicate that orally administered CPF is more extensively metabolized than systemic exposures of CPF (SC and IV), and vehicle of administration also has an effect on absorption rates. Thus, equivalent doses via different routes and/or vehicles of administration could potentially lead to different body burdens of CPF, different rates of bioactivation to CPF-oxon, and different toxic responses. Simulations using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF are consistent with these possibilities

  1. Health effects associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptiste, M.S.; Rothenberg, R.; Nasca, P.C.; Janerich, D.T.; Stutzman, C.D.; Rimawi, K.; O'Brien, W.; Matuszek, J.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the health risks associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings. A group of 135 exposed individuals, who were identified through a statewide jewelry screening program, were studied to determine the frequency of carcinoma and other skin problems on the ring finger. Severity of skin problems increased with increasing length of wear. Forty-one of the exposures were associated with mild to severe skin problems. Nine of the individuals studied were diagnosed as having histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas at the site of exposure. The incidence of skin cancer on the ring finger was eleven times that expected for men and forty-five times that expected for women. These data indicate that physicians who have patients with skin lesions of the ring finger should be aware of the possibility of exposure to a radioactive gold ring

  2. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  3. The absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in mice following different exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changhui; Liu, Tianlong; Li, Linlin; Liu, Huiyu; Chen, Dong; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-03-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are emerging as one of the promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications, but the nanomaterials-body interaction exposed by different administration routes remained poorly understood. In the present study, a systematic investigation of the absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity of silica nanoparticles (SNs) with the average size of 110 nm after four different exposure routes including intravenous, hypodermic, intramuscular injection and oral administration to mice were achieved. The results showed that a fraction of the SNs administrated by the intramuscular and hypodermic injection could cross different biological barriers into the liver but with a low absorption rate. Exposing by oral administration, SNs were absorbed into the intestinal tract and persisted in the liver. And SNs administrated by intravenous injection were mainly present in the liver and spleen. In addition, SNs could cause inflammatory response around the injection sites after intramuscular and hypodermic injection. It was also found that SNs were mainly excreted through urine and feces after different exposure routes. This study will be helpful for selecting the appropriate exposed routes for the development of nanomaterials-based drug delivery system for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products.

  5. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  6. 30 CFR 56.5005 - Control of exposure to airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of exposure to airborne contaminants... Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5005 Control of exposure to airborne contaminants. Control of employee exposure to harmful airborne contaminants shall be, insofar as feasible, by prevention...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE CODE EXPOSURE TOWARD PARENTS’ COGNITION ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmiati D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Messages and sign have certain influence toward humans’ cognition, yet different person might perceive them differently. Persuasive message appears to be one type of messages which has the strongest potential in modifying ones’ behavior. Children and anything about them are parents’ biggest proximity. Regarding to the massive exposure of sexual violence cases happened to children, parents demand access to know more information on this issue. This research is intended to see the effect of the exposure on news about sexual violence in children toward cognition route of parents who have daughters, and to see if there is any different cognition route between fathers and mothers in perceiving news related to sexual violence on children. This research employed an experimental method using the one group pre-post test design. This research involved 15 parents who have daughters who were chosen using an accidental sampling method. This reseach was conducted in the computer laboratory of FISIP UB. Sexual violence codes were displayed in some videos which showed some news on sexual violence happened to children. After that, an instrument in the form of central code and peripheral cognition route scale which was developed from the elaboration likegood model (ELM was given to the samples in the form of questionnaires after they watched some persuasive messages. The results of the data were analyzed using t-test of SPSS 22.0 program. The result of this reseach shows that there is an effect of sexual violence news toward parents’ congition route at 0.820 in a level of significance 0.000, while the congiton route of mothers shows higher mean value at 104.66 than fathers at 91.73.

  8. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete – Part I: Relative importance of water and sediment as exposure routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramskov, Tina, E-mail: tramskov@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Thit, Amalie, E-mail: athitj@ruc.dk [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Croteau, Marie-Noële, E-mail: mcroteau@usgs.gov [US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Selck, Henriette, E-mail: selck@ruc.dk [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Both aqueous and nanoparticulate Cu forms are available for uptake by L. variegatus. • Cu accumulation is driven by both water and sediment uptake. • Cu form weakly influences Cu biodynamics in L. variegatus. • Food ingestion rate is a sensitive endpoint for dietborne Cu exposure. • Stable isotope tracers allow detecting accumulation after environmentally relevant exposures. - Abstract: Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, and likely released into the aquatic environment. Both aqueous (i.e., dissolved Cu) and particulate Cu can be taken up by organisms. However, how exposure routes influence the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of Cu remains largely unknown. Here, we assess the importance of exposure routes (water and sediment) and Cu forms (aqueous and nanoparticulate) on Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a head-down deposit-feeder. We characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of Cu in L. variegatus across a range of exposure concentrations, covering both realistic and worst-case levels of Cu contamination in the environment. Both aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq; administered as Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and nanoparticulate Cu (CuO NPs), whether dispersed in artificial moderately hard freshwater or mixed into sediment, were weakly accumulated by L. variegatus. Once incorporated into tissues, Cu elimination was negligible, i.e., elimination rate constants were in general not different from zero for either exposure route or either Cu form. Toxicity was only observed after waterborne exposure to Cu-Aq at very high concentration (305 μg L{sup −1}), where all worms died. There was no relationship between exposure route, Cu form or Cu exposure concentration on either worm survival or growth. Slow feeding rates and low Cu assimilation efficiency (approximately 30%) characterized the uptake of Cu from the sediment for both Cu forms. In nature, L. variegatus is potentially exposed to Cu

  9. Recommendations for determining the surface contamination of the skin and estimating radiation exposure of the skin after contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations are applicable to the determination of surface contaminations of the skin and to the estimation of the expected radiation exposure of the skin of contaminated persons. According to the present recommendations, the radiation exposure can only be estimated for the intact and healthy skin

  10. Cadmium exposure route affects antioxidant responses in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Lingtian [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Buchwalter, David B., E-mail: david_buchwalter@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were suppressed by dietary cadmium (Cd) exposures, but not dissolved exposures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary Cd reduced concentrations of active glutathione in whole insect homogenates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings suggest that diet derived Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueous derived Cd in this mayfly, and may help explain the disconnection between laboratory and field data for aquatic insect responses to trace metal pollution. - Abstract: Aquatic organisms accumulate metals directly from water and from their diets. Exposure to metals is known to generate oxidative stress in living organisms and this stress may be ameliorated via activation of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To determine if antioxidant physiology is dependent on Cd exposure route in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, we exposed larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd from isolated dissolved or dietary exposure routes to achieve comparable tissue concentrations. Dissolved Cd had no effect on the antioxidant enzymes examined. However, dietary Cd significantly suppressed catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased concentrations of the reduced (active) form of glutathione in C. triangulifer larvae. These findings suggest that dietary Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueously derived Cd in this mayfly. We further examined the effect of dietary Cd tissue loading rates on antioxidant enzyme suppression and found that absolute tissue load appeared more important than loading rate. These results may help explain why insects are routinely unresponsive to dissolved metal exposures in the laboratory, yet highly responsive to metal pollution in nature.

  11. Cadmium exposure route affects antioxidant responses in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were suppressed by dietary cadmium (Cd) exposures, but not dissolved exposures. ► Dietary Cd reduced concentrations of active glutathione in whole insect homogenates. ► These findings suggest that diet derived Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueous derived Cd in this mayfly, and may help explain the disconnection between laboratory and field data for aquatic insect responses to trace metal pollution. - Abstract: Aquatic organisms accumulate metals directly from water and from their diets. Exposure to metals is known to generate oxidative stress in living organisms and this stress may be ameliorated via activation of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To determine if antioxidant physiology is dependent on Cd exposure route in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, we exposed larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd from isolated dissolved or dietary exposure routes to achieve comparable tissue concentrations. Dissolved Cd had no effect on the antioxidant enzymes examined. However, dietary Cd significantly suppressed catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased concentrations of the reduced (active) form of glutathione in C. triangulifer larvae. These findings suggest that dietary Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueously derived Cd in this mayfly. We further examined the effect of dietary Cd tissue loading rates on antioxidant enzyme suppression and found that absolute tissue load appeared more important than loading rate. These results may help explain why insects are routinely unresponsive to dissolved metal exposures in the laboratory, yet highly responsive to metal pollution in nature.

  12. Ultra-trace measurement of Dechloranes to investigate food as a route of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Homme, Benjamin; Calaprice, Chiara; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Leardi, Riccardo; Focant, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (syn- and anti-isomers), Dechlorane 602, Dechlorane 603, Dechlorane 604, Chlordene Plus, and Mirex are used as flame-retardants and were recently found in human serum of the European population. In order to investigate if food consumption would possibly be a significant route of exposure, we developed a method for the measurement of Dechloranes in food and feed. We showed that it was possible to extend the scope of the regular polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin like (DL-), and non-dioxin like (NDL-) regulated PCBs clean-up and fractionation procedure to Dechloranes and that no compound degradation occurred during the strong acidic treatments used for lipid digestion. Dechloranes were measured by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQMS/MS). We optimized injection parameters by face centered experimental design (FCD). The electron ionization fragmentation was investigated to set appropriate multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. Instrumental and method limits of quantitation (iLOQs and mLOQs) were determined following EU guidelines for dioxin analyses in food. A total of 88 samples were analyzed to assess the prevalence of this route of exposure to humans. Average levels of the sum of Dechloranes ranged from 10 to 31pg/g fat, with the exception of fish, feed additives, and corn that were reported in pg/g wet weight at average levels of 9, 12, and 2pg/g ww. Based on Belgian food habits, a dietary intake was estimated to be 136pg/day. The relatively low reported levels indicate that other routes of human exposure should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Canadian-based aircrew exposure from cosmic radiation on commercial airline routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, M.J.; Green, A.R.; Lewis, B.J.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Schrewe, U. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); O' Brien, K. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, Arizona (United States); Feldsberger, E. [University of Graz (Austria)

    2000-07-01

    As part of a continuing study on the occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) was used to monitor this exposure on 64 flight routes spanning a range of geomagnetic latitudes between 40{sup o}S and 85{sup o}N. The microdosimetric data obtained from these flights were compared to that obtained from several terrestrial sources and were used to characterize the radiation field at jet altitudes. From 20 000 ambient dose equivalent rates obtained at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes, a correlation was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date. By integration of this dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a predictive code was developed to provide a total ambient dose equivalent prediction for a given flight. (author)

  14. The dark side of suibsidies: quantifying contaminant exposure to riparian predators via stream insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic insects provide a critical nutrient subsidy to riparian food webs, yet their role as vectors of contaminants to terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood. We investigated relationships between aquatic (resource utilization) and contaminant exposure for a riparian invert...

  15. Effective dose rate coefficients for exposure to contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K.G. [Easterly Scientific, Knoxville, TN (United States); Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckerman, K.F.; Easterly, C.E. [Easterly Scientific, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bellamy, M.B.; Hiller, M.M.; Dewji, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hertel, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Manger, R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has undertaken calculations related to various environmental exposure scenarios. A previous paper reported the results for submersion in radioactive air and immersion in water using age-specific mathematical phantoms. This paper presents age-specific effective dose rate coefficients derived using stylized mathematical phantoms for exposure to contaminated soils. Dose rate coefficients for photon, electron, and positrons of discrete energies were calculated and folded with emissions of 1252 radionuclides addressed in ICRP Publication 107 to determine equivalent and effective dose rate coefficients. The MCNP6 radiation transport code was used for organ dose rate calculations for photons and the contribution of electrons to skin dose rate was derived using point-kernels. Bremsstrahlung and annihilation photons of positron emission were evaluated as discrete photons. The coefficients calculated in this work compare favorably to those reported in the US Federal Guidance Report 12 as well as by other authors who employed voxel phantoms for similar exposure scenarios. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of osprey habitat suitability and interaction with contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschik, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) have been the focus of conservation efforts since their dramatic population decline attributed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related chemicals in the 1960s. Several recent studies of ospreys nesting in the United States have indicated improved reproduction. However, the density of breeding ospreys varies greatly among locations, with some areas seemingly habitable but not occupied. Because of concerns about pollution in the highly industrialized portions of the Delaware River and Bay, USA, we evaluated contaminant exposure and productivity in ospreys nesting on the Delaware River and Bay in 2002. We characterized habitat in the coastal zone of Delaware, USA, and the area around the river in Pennsylvania, USA, using data we collected as well as extant information provided by state and federal sources. We characterized habitat based on locations of occupied osprey nests in Delaware and Pennsylvania. We evaluated water clarity, water depth, land use and land cover, nest availability, and contaminants in sediment for use in a nest-occupancy model. Our results demonstrated that the presence of occupied nests was associated with water depth, water clarity, distance to an occupied osprey nest, and presence of urban land use, whereas a companion study demonstrated that hatching success was associated with the principal components derived from organochlorine-contaminant concentrations in osprey eggs (total polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene, chlordane and metabolites, and heptachlor epoxide). Our study provides guidelines for resource managers and local conservation organizations in management of ospreys and in development of habitat models that are appropriate for other piscivorous and marsh-nesting birds.

  17. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H Krupke

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen or by contact (soil/planter dust is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed

  18. Commuters' exposure to particulate matter air pollution is affected by mode of transport, fuel type, and route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Lenters, Virissa; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2010-06-01

    Commuters are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, but little quantitative information is currently available on differences in exposure between different modes of transport, routes, and fuel types. The aim of our study was to assess differences in commuters' exposure to traffic-related air pollution related to transport mode, route, and fuel type. We measured particle number counts (PNCs) and concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter bus passengers, we calculated that the inhaled air pollution doses were highest for cyclists. With the exception of PM10, we found that inhaled air pollution doses were lowest for electric bus passengers. Commuters' rush hour exposures were significantly influenced by mode of transport, route, and fuel type.

  19. Measurement and simulation of the in-flight radiation exposure on different air routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Vana, N.

    2003-01-01

    The exposure of air-crew personnel to cosmic radiation is considered to be occupational exposure and requirements for dose assessment are given in the European Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM. The High-Temperature Ratio (HTR) Method for LiF: Mg, Ti TLDs utilizes the well-investigated relative intensity of the combined high-temperature glow peaks 6 and 7 compared with the dominant peak 5 (left-hand side of Figure 1) as an indication of the dose-average LET of a mixed radiation field of unknown composition. The difference in the peak-5 readings of the neutron-sensitive TLD-600 ( 6 LiF: Mg, Ti) and the neutron-insensitive TLD-700 ( 7 LiF: Mg, Ti) can be utilized to assess the neutron dose equivalent accumulated in-flight. For this purpose, the dosemeter crystals were calibrated individually in the CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field (CERF) [8] which simulates the cosmic-ray induced neutron spectrum in good detail. The experiments conducted onboard passenger aircraft on different north-bound and trans-equatorial flight routes were aimed at the following: to measure the total dose equivalent accumulated during the flight, to assess the contribution of neutrons, and to compare the results with calculations by means of the well-known CARI computer code. Measurements were performed on a series of eight north-bound flights between Cologne and Washington as well as on the routes Vienna-Atlanta, Vienna-Sydney and Vienna-Tokyo during different solar activity conditions. Precise altitude and route profiles were recorded by the pilots. The experimental results were compared with model calculations using the latest release 6M of the CARI code. Precise altitude and route data on a ten-minute to one-hour scale were taken as input. The calculated dose values indicate that the algorithms employed for the computational assessment of route doses have been significantly improved during the last decade. The CARI results generally tend to be in reasonable agreement with the measured

  20. Relevancy of human exposure via house dust to the contaminants lead and asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Lijzen JPA; SIR; LER

    2004-01-01

    The present report addresses the issues whether house dust is likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of humans, in particular for the contaminants lead and asbestos. House dust consists for 30-70% of soil material, indicating that contaminated soil can lead to contaminated house dust. It

  1. Differential behavioural responses to venlafaxine exposure route, warming and acidification in juvenile fish (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Paula, José Ricardo; Camacho, Carolina; Pissarra, Vasco; Fogaça, Fabiola; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Pedro Pousão; Barceló, Damià; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Marques, António; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2018-09-01

    Antidepressants, such as venlafaxine (VFX), which are considered emerging environmental pollutants, are increasingly more present in the marine environment, and recent evidence suggest that they might have adverse effects on fish behaviour. Furthermore, altered environmental conditions associated to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also have a determinant role on fish behaviour, fitness and survival. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceuticals exposure and climate change) are still far from being fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess behavioural responses (in juvenile meagre (Argyrosomus regius) exposed to VFX via water ([VFX] ~20μgL -1 ) and via dietary sources ([VFX] ~160μgkg -1 dry weight), as well as to increased temperature (ΔT°C=+5°C) and high CO 2 levels (ΔpCO 2 ~1000μatm; equivalent to ΔpH=-0.4units). Overall, VFX bioaccumulation in fish plasma was enhanced under the combination of warming and acidification. VFX triggered fish exploration, whereas fish activity and shoal cohesion were reduced. Acidification alone decreased fish exploration and shoal cohesion, and reversed fish preference to turn leftwards compared to control conditions. Such alterations were further enhanced by VFX exposure. The combination of warming and acidification also reduced shoal cohesion and loss of lateralization, regardless of VFX exposure. The distinct behaviour observed when VFX contamination, acidification and warming acted alone or in combination highlighted the need to consider the likely interactive effects of seawater warming and acidification in future research regarding the toxicological aspects of chemical contaminants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Occupational exposure to radon for underground tourist routes in Poland: Doses to lung and the risk of developing lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Radon concentrations for 31 Polish underground tourist routes were analyzed. The equivalent dose to the lung, the effective dose and the relative risk were calculated for employees of the analyzed routes on the grounds of information on radon concentrations, work time, etc. Material and Methods: The relative risk for lung cancers was calculated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VI Committee model. Equivalent doses to the lungs of workers were determined using the coefficients calculated by the Kendall and Smith. The conversion coefficient proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA in the report No. 33 was used for estimating the effective doses. Results: In 13 routes, the effective dose was found to be above 1 mSv/year, and in 3 routes, it exceeded 6 mSv/year. For 5 routes, the equivalent dose to lungs was higher than 100 mSv/year, and in 1 case it was as high as 490 mSv/year. In 22.6% of underground workplaces the risk of developing lung cancer among employees was about 2 times higher than that for the general population, and for 1 tourist route it was about 5 times higher. The geometric mean of the relative risk of lung cancer for all workers of underground tourist routes was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.6–1.87. Routes were divided into: caves, mines, post-military underground constructions and urban underground constructions. Conclusions: The difference between levels of the relative risk of developing lung cancer for all types of underground tourist routes was not found to be significant. If we include the professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes into the group of occupational exposure, the number of persons who are included in the Category A due to occupational exposure may increase by about 3/4. The professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes should be monitored for their exposure to radon. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:687

  3. Occupational exposure to radon for underground tourist routes in Poland: Doses to lung and the risk of developing lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Olszewski, Jerzy; Politański, Piotr; Zmyślony, Marek

    2017-07-14

    Radon concentrations for 31 Polish underground tourist routes were analyzed. The equivalent dose to the lung, the effective dose and the relative risk were calculated for employees of the analyzed routes on the grounds of information on radon concentrations, work time, etc. The relative risk for lung cancers was calculated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VI Committee model. Equivalent doses to the lungs of workers were determined using the coefficients calculated by the Kendall and Smith. The conversion coefficient proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the report No. 33 was used for estimating the effective doses. In 13 routes, the effective dose was found to be above 1 mSv/year, and in 3 routes, it exceeded 6 mSv/year. For 5 routes, the equivalent dose to lungs was higher than 100 mSv/year, and in 1 case it was as high as 490 mSv/year. In 22.6% of underground workplaces the risk of developing lung cancer among employees was about 2 times higher than that for the general population, and for 1 tourist route it was about 5 times higher. The geometric mean of the relative risk of lung cancer for all workers of underground tourist routes was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.87). Routes were divided into: caves, mines, post-military underground constructions and urban underground constructions. The difference between levels of the relative risk of developing lung cancer for all types of underground tourist routes was not found to be significant. If we include the professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes into the group of occupational exposure, the number of persons who are included in the Category A due to occupational exposure may increase by about 3/4. The professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes should be monitored for their exposure to radon. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):687-694. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC

  4. A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure--a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Ole; Hvidberg, Martin; Ketzel, Matthias; Storm, Lars; Stausgaard, Lizzi

    2008-01-15

    A proper selection of route through the urban area may significantly reduce the air pollution exposure. This is the main conclusion from the presented study. Air pollution exposure is determined for two selected cohorts along the route going from home to working place, and back from working place to home. Exposure is determined with a street pollution model for three scenarios: bicycling along the shortest possible route, bicycling along the low exposure route along less trafficked streets, and finally taking the shortest trip using public transport. Furthermore, calculations are performed for the cases the trip takes place inside as well as outside the traffic rush hours. The results show that the accumulated air pollution exposure for the low exposure route is between 10% and 30% lower for the primary pollutants (NO(x) and CO). However, the difference is insignificant and in some cases even negative for the secondary pollutants (NO(2) and PM(10)/PM(2.5)). Considering only the contribution from traffic in the travelled streets, the accumulated air pollution exposure is between 54% and 67% lower for the low exposure route. The bus is generally following highly trafficked streets, and the accumulated exposure along the bus route is therefore between 79% and 115% higher than the high exposure bicycle route (the short bicycle route). Travelling outside the rush hour time periods reduces the accumulated exposure between 10% and 30% for the primary pollutants, and between 5% and 20% for the secondary pollutants. The study indicates that a web based route planner for selecting the low exposure route through the city might be a good service for the public. In addition the public may be advised to travel outside rush hour time periods.

  5. Development and Application of a Human PBPK Model for Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) to Investigate Impacts of Multi-Route Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its presence in water as a volatile disinfection byproduct, BDCM, which is mutagenic and a rodent carcinogen, poses a risk for exposure via multiple routes. We developed a refined human PBPK model for BDCM (including new chemical-specific human parameters) to evaluate the...

  6. Commuters’ Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Affected by Mode of Transport, Fuel Type, and Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Lenters, Virissa; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Background Commuters are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, but little quantitative information is currently available on differences in exposure between different modes of transport, routes, and fuel types. Objectives The aim of our study was to assess differences in commuters’ exposure to traffic-related air pollution related to transport mode, route, and fuel type. Methods We measured particle number counts (PNCs) and concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), PM10, and soot between June 2007 and June 2008 on 47 weekdays, from 0800 to 1000 hours, in diesel and electric buses, gasoline- and diesel-fueled cars, and along two bicycle routes with different traffic intensities in Arnhem, the Netherlands. In addition, each-day measurements were taken at an urban background location. Results We found that median PNC exposures were highest in diesel buses (38,500 particles/cm3) and for cyclists along the high-traffic intensity route (46,600 particles/cm3) and lowest in electric buses (29,200 particles/cm3). Median PM10 exposure was highest from diesel buses (47 μg/m3) and lowest along the high- and low-traffic bicycle routes (39 and 37 μg/m3). The median soot exposure was highest in gasoline-fueled cars (9.0 × 10−5/m), diesel cars (7.9 × 10−5/m), and diesel buses (7.4 × 10−5/m) and lowest along the low-traffic bicycle route (4.9 × 10−5/m). Because the minute ventilation (volume of air per minute) of cyclists, which we estimated from measured heart rates, was twice the minute ventilation of car and bus passengers, we calculated that the inhaled air pollution doses were highest for cyclists. With the exception of PM10, we found that inhaled air pollution doses were lowest for electric bus passengers. Conclusions Commuters’ rush hour exposures were significantly influenced by mode of transport, route, and fuel type. PMID:20185385

  7. Characterizing Contamination and Assessing Exposure, Risk and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports its responders' ability to characterize site contamination by developing sampling protocols, sample preparation methods, and analytical methods for chemicals, biotoxins, microbial pathogens, and radiological agents.

  8. Drinking water exposure to cadmium, an environmental contaminant, results in the exacerbation of autoimmune disease in the murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffel, Elizabeth K.; Wolf, Carl; Poklis, Alphonse; White, Kimber L.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The primary route of exposure to the general population occurs via contaminated drinking water or food supplies. Our hypothesis was that cadmium could be a trigger for inducing autoimmune disease (AD) in genetically predisposed populations. Therefore, New Zealand Black/White F1 (NZBW) mice were exposed to cadmium via drinking water. Mice were exposed to: 0, 3, 30, 3000 or 10000 parts per billion (ppb) of cadmium in tap water for 2, 4, 28, or 31 weeks. After 4 weeks of exposure, in the group of mice exposed to 10000 ppb cadmium, there was an increased incidence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). There was also deposition of immune complexes in all groups after 4 weeks of exposure. After 31 weeks, there were increases in IgG2a in mice exposed to low doses of cadmium. In an attempt to establish the progression from an autoimmune reaction to the development of AD, the biological marker for AD, proteinuria, was assessed. Onset of proteinuria was exacerbated by 11 weeks in mice exposed to cadmium. This data suggests that short-term exposure may result in a type of autoimmune reaction since the mice are beginning to produce ANA after only 4 weeks of exposure and there is immune-complex deposition in the kidney. Long-term exposure to cadmium appears to result in the exacerbation of AD as indicated by the development of proteinuria and continued presence of immune complexes in the kidney. The mechanism may involve the increased production of IgG2a, which is capable of forming immune complexes and causing autoimmune glomerulonephritis

  9. Examining waterborne and dietborne routes of exposure and their contribution to biological response patterns in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozon-Ramilo, Lisa D.; Dubé, Monique G.; Squires, Allison J.; Niyogi, Som

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Objective (i) was achieved by isolating each route of exposure (diet, water and the combination of the two) and comparing it to a control. The metal mining effluent studied encompassed several different effluent types including: mine water, mill facility, tailing impoundment, treatment pond, treatment facility, seepage and surface drainage effluent. Experiment 1 examined exposure pathways by isolating effluent exposure through the diet, water or the combination of the two. Experiment 2 examined whether differences in Fathead minnow responses occurred when fish were fed a live or frozen (dead) diet of chironomids. Multiple trophic levels (consumers and carnivores) were placed in each artificial stream simultaneously. Primary route of exposure to Fathead minnow when held in control water and fed effluent-exposed chironomid larvae. - Abstract: The objectives of the current study were: (i) to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of water and diet as routes of exposure causing toxicity in fathead minnow (FHM) exposed to metal mining effluents (MME) using a full factorial water/food experimental design (Experiment 1), and (ii) to assess differences in the effects of food quality on toxicity by comparing FHM fed both a live and frozen diet of Chironomus dilutus (Experiment 2). The results showed significant increases in general water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, conductivity) and various metals in the effluent treatment waters compared to control waters, with maximum increase seen in the multi-trophic streams. Metals accumulation (Rb, Al, Se, Sr, Tl, Ce, Co, Cu, Pb) effects of both waterborne and multi-trophic exposures were significant in one or more fathead minnow tissue type (muscle, gonads, liver, larvae) relative to those in the control systems. Condition factor and liver somatic index (LSI) of FHM were also significantly affected in both exposures by one or both routes of exposure (water and/or diet). In addition, cumulative

  10. Microbiology of Fresh Produce: Route of Contamination, Detection Methods, and Remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Asmita; Srivastava, Pragati; Sahgal, Manvika

    2016-10-25

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthful diet. They provide vitamins, minerals and fiber to help keep our body healthy. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated with harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. The major family of pathogen associated with food are members of Enterobacteriaceae which commonly form a part of microbiological criteria and their presence is traditionally related to hygiene and safety of foods. Organic fertilizers, irrigation water quality and soil are major source of contamination. For removal of pathogens, various decontamination procedures are also followed to reduce microbial load on the fruits. These are chemical preservatives and irradiation. Microbiological study of fresh produce can be done by various phenotypic, biochemical and molecular techniques so that pathogen can properly be identified. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed global risk communication message and training materials to assist countries in strengthening their food educating programs. There is a need for improved surveillance systems on food-borne pathogens, on food products and on outbreaks so that comparable data are available from a wider range of countries.

  11. Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, "Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2016-11-09

    Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children's environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children's activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children's environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children's environmental exposure and children's health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  12. The pharmacokinetic properties of bifenthrin in the rat following multiple routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Derek; Liu, Zhiwei; Chandrasekaran, Appavu; ElNaggar, Shaaban

    2015-06-01

    Pyrethroids generally have relatively low oral toxicity but variable inhalation toxicity. The pharmacokinetics of bifenthrin in the rat after oral, inhalation and intravenous administration is described. Pyrethroid acute toxicity via oral and inhalation routes is also presented. Groups of male rats were dosed by oral gavage at 3.1 mg kg(-1) in 1 mL kg(-1) of corn oil (the critical, acute, oral benchmark dose lower limit, BMDL) and at an equivalent dose by inhalation (0.018 mg L(-1)) for 4 h.  At 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after dosing initiation, blood plasma and brain bifenthrin concentrations were measured. The maximum concentrations of bifenthrin in plasma were 361 ng mL(-1) or 0.853 μM (oral) and 232 ng mL(-1) or 0.548 μM (inhalation), and in brain they were 83 and 73 ng g(-1). The area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) values were 1969 h ng mL(-1) (plasma) and 763 h ng mL(-1) (brain) following oral gavage dosing, and 1584 h ng mL(-1) (plasma) and 619 h ng mL(-1) (brain) after inhalation. Intravenous dosing resulted in apparent terminal half-life (t1/2 ) values of 13.4 h (plasma) and 11.1 h (brain) and in AUC0-∞ values of 454 and 1566 h ng mL(-1) for plasma and brain. Clearance from plasma was 37 mL min(-1) kg(-1). Peak plasma nd brain concentrations were generally a little higher after oral dosing (by ca 14%). Inhalation administration of bifenthrin did not cause increases in exposure in plasma or brain by avoiding first-pass effects in the liver. The elimination t1/2 was comparable with other pyrethroids and indicated little bioaccumulation potential. These pharmokinetics data allow risks following inhalation exposure to be modeled using oral toxicity data. © 2014 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Human exposure to contaminants in the traditional Greenland diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul; Muir, Derek; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank

    2004-09-20

    The traditional diet is a significant source of contaminants to people in Greenland, although contaminant levels vary widely among species and tissue from very low in many to very high in a few. Our study has included cadmium, mercury, selenium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and toxaphene in the major species and tissues consumed by Greenlanders. In general, the levels of these are very low in terrestrial species and in muscle of many marine species. High organochlorines concentrations are typically found in blubber of marine mammals and high metal levels in liver and kidney of seals and whales. In this study, the mean intakes of cadmium, chlordanes and toxaphene significantly exceed 'acceptable/tolerable intakes' (ADI/TDI) by a factor between 2.5 and 6. Mean intakes of mercury, PCB and dieldrin also exceed ADI/TDI by up to approximately 50%. However as these figures are mean intakes and as variation in both food intake and contaminant levels is large, the variation of contaminant intake among individuals is also large, and some individuals will be exposed to significantly higher intakes. The mean intakes of DDT, HCH and chlorobenzenes are well below the ADI/TDI values, and it seems unlikely that the TDI for these contaminants normally is exceeded in the Greenland population. The evaluation of contaminant intake in this study points to seal muscle, seal liver, seal kidney, seal blubber and whale blubber as the dominant contributors of contaminants in the traditional diet. Levels in liver from Greenland halibut, snow crab, king eider, kittiwake, beluga and narwhal and kidney of beluga and narwhal are also high but were, with the exception of toxaphene in Greenland halibut liver, not important sources in this study, because they were eaten in low quantities. A way to minimize contaminant intake would be to avoid or limit the consumption of diet items

  14. Human exposure to contaminants in the traditional Greenland diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Muir, Derek; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The traditional diet is a significant source of contaminants to people in Greenland, although contaminant levels vary widely among species and tissue from very low in many to very high in a few. Our study has included cadmium, mercury, selenium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and toxaphene in the major species and tissues consumed by Greenlanders. In general, the levels of these are very low in terrestrial species and in muscle of many marine species. High organochlorines concentrations are typically found in blubber of marine mammals and high metal levels in liver and kidney of seals and whales. In this study, the mean intakes of cadmium, chlordanes and toxaphene significantly exceed 'acceptable/tolerable intakes' (ADI/TDI) by a factor between 2.5 and 6. Mean intakes of mercury, PCB and dieldrin also exceed ADI/TDI by up to approximately 50%. However as these figures are mean intakes and as variation in both food intake and contaminant levels is large, the variation of contaminant intake among individuals is also large, and some individuals will be exposed to significantly higher intakes. The mean intakes of DDT, HCH and chlorobenzenes are well below the ADI/TDI values, and it seems unlikely that the TDI for these contaminants normally is exceeded in the Greenland population. The evaluation of contaminant intake in this study points to seal muscle, seal liver, seal kidney, seal blubber and whale blubber as the dominant contributors of contaminants in the traditional diet. Levels in liver from Greenland halibut, snow crab, king eider, kittiwake, beluga and narwhal and kidney of beluga and narwhal are also high but were, with the exception of toxaphene in Greenland halibut liver, not important sources in this study, because they were eaten in low quantities. A way to minimize contaminant intake would be to avoid or limit the consumption of diet items with high

  15. Exposure Through Runoff and Ground Water Contamination Differentially Impact Behavior and Physiology of Crustaceans in Fluvial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Alexandra N; Belanger, Rachelle M; Moore, Paul A

    2018-06-19

    Chemical pollutants enter aquatic systems through numerous pathways (e.g., surface runoff and ground water contamination), thus associating these contaminant sources with varying hydrodynamic environments. The hydrodynamic environment shapes the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants through turbulent mixing. The differential dispersal of contaminants is not commonly addressed in ecotoxicological studies and may have varying implications for organism health. The purpose of this study is to understand how differing routes of exposure to atrazine alter social behaviors and physiological responses of aquatic organisms. This study used agonistic encounters in crayfish Orconectes virilis as a behavioral assay to investigate impact of sublethal concentrations of atrazine (0, 40, 80, and 160 µg/L) delivered by methods mimicking ground water and surface runoff influx into flow-through exposure arenas for a total of 23 h. Each experimental animal participated in a dyadic fight trial with an unexposed opponent. Fight duration and intensity were analyzed. Experimental crayfish hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle tissue samples were analyzed for cytochrome P450 and acetylcholinesterase levels to discern mechanism of detoxification and mode of action of atrazine. Atrazine delivered via runoff decreased crayfish overall fight intensity and contrastingly ground water delivery increased overall fight intensity. The behavioral differences were mirrored by increases in cytochrome P450 activity, whereas no differences were found in acetylcholinesterase activity. This study demonstrates that method of delivery into fluvial systems has differential effects on both behavior and physiology of organisms and emphasizes the need for the consideration of delivery pathway in ecotoxicological studies and water-impairment standards.

  16. The effects of exposure route on DNA adduct formation and cellular proliferation by 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, D K; Schoonhoven, R; Ito, N; Swenberg, J A

    1996-09-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) induces high incidences of tumors at multiple sites in mice and rats when administered chronically by gavage. The animal tumor data are being used to predict human risk from potential exposure to TCP in drinking water. Risk assessment may be affected by differences in the route of exposure. Gavage administration, which results in high bolus concentrations compared to drinking water exposure, may quantitatively affect toxicokinetics, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. We have examined the effects of TCP exposure by the two routes on the formation of DNA adducts and the induction of cellular proliferation. Male B6C3F1 mice were administered [14C]TCP for 1 week by gavage or in drinking water at the low dose (6 mg/kg) used in the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay. Two target organs (forestomach and liver) and two nontarget organs (glandular stomach and kidney) were examined for DNA adduct formation. Adducts were hydrolyzed from DNA, isolated by HPLC, and quantitated by measuring HPLC fractions for radioactivity. In the forestomach, liver, and kidney, gavage administration of TCP resulted in 1.4-to 2.4-fold greater yields of the major DNA adduct, previously identified as S-[1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione. Significant differences in cell proliferation, as determined by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA, were also observed for the two routes. Gavage administration of TCP for 2 weeks resulted in up to a threefold greater cell proliferation rate relative to administration in drinking water. Our findings of exposure-related differences in TCP-induced DNA adduct formation and cell proliferation suggest that a risk assessment based on the existing gavage study may overestimate human risk.

  17. Impact of dietary exposure to food contaminants on the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Bech, Sára

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a community with increased exposure levels. A total of 79 clinically verified idiopathic PD cases and 154 controls matched by sex and a...... in adult life was significantly associated with PD, thus suggesting a positive association between previous exposure to marine food contaminants and development of PD......., pesticides and metals also suggested an increased risk for PD. Current serum concentrations of summation operator PCB and related contaminants suggested slightly increased ORs, although only beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) was statistically significant. Increased intake of whale meat and blubber...

  18. Distribution of Exhaled Contaminants and Personal Exposure in a Room using Three Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Adana, M. Ruiz de

    2012-01-01

    The level of exposure to human exhaled contaminants in a room depends not only on the air distribution system but also on people’s different positions, the distance between them, people’s activity level and height, direction of exhalation, and the surrounding temperature and temperature gradient...... between the manikins are changed to study the influence on the level of exposure. The results show that the air exhaled by a manikin flows a longer distance with a higher concentration in case of displacement ventilation than in the other two cases, indicating a significant exposure to the contaminants....... Human exhalation is studied in detail for different distribution systems: displacement and mixing ventilation as well as a system without mechanical ventilation. Two thermal manikins breathing through the mouth are used to simulate the exposure to human exhaled contaminants. The position and distance...

  19. Food contamination as a pathway for lead exposure in children during the 2010-2013 lead poisoning epidemic in Zamfara, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohamed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2018-05-01

    In 2010, an estimated 400 to 500 children died of acute lead poisoning associated with artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Processing of gold ores containing up to 10% lead within residential compounds put residents, especially children, at the highest risk. Principal routes of exposure were incidental ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soil and dusts. Several Nigerian and international health organizations collaborated to reduce lead exposures through environmental remediation and medical treatment. The contribution of contaminated food to total lead exposure was assessed during the environmental health response. Objectives of this investigation were to assess the influence of cultural/dietary habits on lead exposure pathways and estimate the contribution of contaminated food to children's blood lead levels (BLLs). A survey of village dietary practices and staple food lead content was conducted to determine dietary composition, caloric intakes, and lead intake. Potential blood lead increments were estimated using bio-kinetic modeling techniques. Most dietary lead exposure was associated with contamination of staple cereal grains and legumes during post-harvest processing and preparation in contaminated homes. Average post-harvest and processed cereal grain lead levels were 0.32mg/kg and 0.85mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Age-specific food lead intake ranged from 7 to 78μg/day. Lead ingestion and absorption were likely aggravated by the dusty environment, fasting between meals, and nutritional deficiencies. Contamination of staple cereal grains by highly bioavailable pulverized ores could account for as much as 11%-34% of children's BLLs during the epidemic, and were a continuing source after residential soil remediation until stored grain inventories were exhausted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  1. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feister, Uwe [German Meteorological Service, Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg - Richard-Assmann-Observatory, Am Observatorium 12, 15848 Lindenberg (Germany); Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich [German Social Accident Insurance Institution for Transport and Traffic, Ottenser Hauptstrasse 54, 22765 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  2. Importance of exposure model in estimating impacts when a water distribution system is contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Environmental Science Division; USEPA

    2008-01-01

    The quantity of a contaminant ingested by individuals using tap water drawn from a water distribution system during a contamination event depends on the concentration of the contaminant in the water and the volume of water ingested. If the concentration varies with time, the actual time of exposure affects the quantity ingested. The influence of the timing of exposure and of individual variability in the volume of water ingested on estimated impacts for a contamination event has received limited attention. We examine the significance of ingestion timing and variability in the volume of water ingested by using a number of models for ingestion timing and volume. Contaminant concentrations were obtained from simulations of an actual distribution system for cases involving contaminant injections lasting from 1 to 24 h. We find that assumptions about exposure can significantly influence estimated impacts, especially when injection durations are short and impact thresholds are high. The influence of ingestion timing and volume should be considered when assessing impacts for contamination events

  3. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  4. Aquatic Sentinels Forecasting Human Exposure To Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of us have heard the axiom, “canary in the coal mine”. These melodious exposure indicators - a necessity in U.K. mines well into the 20th century - were especially sensitive to methane and carbon monoxide gases, and would cease singing (and oftentimes die) at le...

  5. Personal Exposure to Contaminant Sources in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    Three different tools for personal exposure assessment are presented. They are all able to consider the local influence of persons in ventilated rooms where concentration gradients prevail: A Breathing Thermal Manikin, a Computer Simulated Person, and a Trained Sensory Panel. The tools are applied...

  6. WHY DO THE ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OT TOLUENE IN RATS DEPEND ON THE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...

  7. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... asthma, eczema, and wheeze. We applied principal components analysis (PCA) to sixteen contaminants in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metabolites of diethylhexyl (DEHP) and diisononyl (DiNP) phthalates, PCB-153, and p,p'-DDE. Scores of five principal...... components (PCs) explaining 70% of the variance were included in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis that included both populations, the PC2 score, reflecting exposure to DiNP, was negatively associated with current eczema (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96). Other associations were...

  8. An evaluation of the worker exposure during the RA reactor decommissioning due to presence of contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Simovic, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a possibility to establish the relationship between the presence of the surface contamination in the RA reactor rooms and the worker exposure during the decommissioning activities is discussed. RESRAD-BUILD code and the models typical for the RA reactor has been used to determine annual doses from the supposed activities of the main expected RA reactor contaminants. Different room air exchange rates have been modelled and analysed. (author) [sr

  9. Dosimetry of skin-contact exposure to tritium gas contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, M.

    1990-12-01

    The radiological hazards from tritium are usually associated with exposure to tritium oxide either by inhalation, ingestion or permeation through skin. However, exposure from skin contact with tritium gas contaminated surfaces represents a different radiological hazard in tritium removal facilities and future fusion power plants. Previous experiments on humans and more recent experiments on hairless rats at Chalk River Laboratories have shown that when a tritium gas-contaminated surface is brought into contact with intact skin, high concentrations of organically-bound tritium in urine and skin are observed which were not seen from single tritiated water (liquid or vapour form) contamination. The results of the rat experiments, which involved measurements of tritium activity in urine and skin, after contact with contaminated stainless steel, are described. These results are also compared to previous data from human experiments. The effect of various exposure conditions and different contaminated surfaces such as brass, aluminum and glass are analysed and related to the results from contaminated stainless steel exposure. Dosimetric models are being developed in order to improve the basis for dose assessment for this mode of tritium uptake. The presently studied model is explained along with the assumptions and methods involved in its derivation. The features of 'STELLA', the software program used to implement the model, are discussed. The methods used to estimate skin and whole body dose from a model are demonstrated. Finally, some experiments for improving the accuracy of the model are proposed. Briefly, this study compares the results from animal and human experiments as well as different exposure conditions, and determines the range of whole body and skin dose that may be involved from skin-contact intake. This information is essential for regulatory purposes particularly in the derivation of doses for skin-contact contamination. (15 figs., 7 tabs., 29 refs.)

  10. Contaminant exposure and effects in pinnipeds: implications for Steller sea lion declines in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G; Heintz, Ron; Krahn, Margaret M

    2003-07-20

    After nearly 3 decades of decline, the western stock of Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) was listed as an endangered species in 1997. While the cause of the decline in the 1970s and 1980s has been attributed to nutritional stress, recent declines are unexplained and may result from other factors including the presence of environmental contaminants. SSL tissues show accumulation of butyltins, mercury, PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes and hexachlorobenzene. SSL habitats and prey are contaminated with additional chemicals including mirex, endrin, dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexanes, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds, cadmium and lead. In addition, many SSL haulouts and rookeries are located near other hazards including radioactivity, solvents, ordnance and chemical weapon dumps. PCB and DDT concentrations measured in a few SSL during the 1980s were the highest recorded for any Alaskan pinniped. Some contaminant exposures in SSL appear to be elevated in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea compared to southeast Alaska, but there are insufficient data to evaluate geospatial relationships with any certainty. Based on very limited blubber data, current levels of PCBs may not pose a risk to SSL based on comparison to immunotoxicity tissue benchmarks, but SSL may have been at risk from pre-1990 PCB exposures. While exposure to PCBs and DDTs may be declining, SSL are likely exposed to a multitude of other contaminants that have not been monitored. The impacts of these exposures on SSL remain unknown because causal effects have not been established. Field studies with SSL have been limited in scope and have not yet linked contaminant exposures to adverse animal health or population effects. Several biomarkers may prove useful for monitoring exposure and additional research is needed to evaluate their utility in SSL. We conclude that there are insufficient data to reject the hypothesis that contaminants play a role in the continued decline of SSL, and suggest

  11. DNA adduct quantification in Eisenia fetida after subchronic exposures to creosote contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrois, J.W.A.; McGill, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Within soil ecosystems contaminant toxicity can vary from acute and chronic, depending on the time of exposure. Due to the long times involved chronic toxicity is difficult to determine. DNA adducts fall into the category of biochemical markers that act as an early warning system in environmental monitoring. It has been proposed that they could be used as a sensitive method to determine environmental exposures to compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can occur, although not exclusively, in creosote. In this connection, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a PAH that can be transformed into an electrophilic metabolite, which ultimately results in DNA adduct formation. Use was made of a 32P postlabeling method to quantify the number of DNA adducts occurring in the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to weathered creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils with and without additions of extra BaP. DNA adducts can be measured in earthworms exposed to creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils. E. fetida exposed to weathered creosote contaminated soils had significantly more DNA adducts than those exposed to a pristine control soil. Exposures to creosote contaminated soils with additional BaP (1000 mg/kg) or biotreatment did not yield statistically significant increases in DNA adducts compared to the pristine control. (Abstract only)

  12. Exposure to recycled uranium contaminants in gaseous diffusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jeri L.; Yiin, James H.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Apostoaei, A. Iulian

    2017-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study of health effects in a pooled cohort of gaseous diffusion plant workers, organ dose from internal exposure to uranium was evaluated. Due to the introduction of recycled uranium into the plants, there was also potential for exposure to radiologically significant levels of "9"9Tc, "2"3"7Np and "2"3"8","2"3"9Pu. In the evaluation of dose response, these radionuclide exposures could confound the effect of internal uranium. Using urine bioassay data for study subjects reported in facility records, intakes and absorbed dose to bone surface, red bone marrow and kidneys were estimated as these organs were associated with a priori outcomes of interest. Additionally, "9"9Tc intakes and doses were calculated using a new systemic model for technetium and compared to intakes and doses calculated using the current model recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Organ absorbed doses for the transuranics were significant compared to uranium doses; however, "9"9Tc doses calculated using the new systemic model were significant as well. Use of the new model resulted in an increase in "9"9Tc-related absorbed organ dose of a factor of 8 (red bone marrow) to 30 (bone surface). (authors)

  13. Acute high-dose lead exposure from beverage contaminated by traditional Mexican pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, T D; Proops, D; Palazuelos, E; Graef, J; Hernandez Avila, M

    1994-10-15

    Screening and follow-up blood lead measurements in a 7-year-old child of a US Embassy official in Mexico City revealed an increase in blood lead concentration from 1.10 to 4.60 mumol/L in less than 4 weeks. The cause was traced to fruit punch contaminated with lead leached from traditional ceramic pottery urns. Consumption of the contaminated punch at a picnic was associated with a 20% increase in blood lead concentrations among embassy staff and dependants who were tested 6 weeks after the exposure. This episode highlights the continued health risk, even from brief exposure, posed by traditional pottery in Mexico.

  14. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies.

  15. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  16. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  17. External exposure model for various geometries of contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LePoire, D.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1996-01-01

    A computational model for external exposure was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's residual radioactive material guideline computer code (RESRAD) on the basis of dose coefficients from Federal Guidance Report No. 12 and the point-kernel method. This model includes the effects of different materials and exposure distances, as well as source geometry (cover thickness, source depth, area, and shape). A material factor is calculated on the basis of the point-kernel method using material-specific photon cross-section data and buildup factors. This present model was incorporated into RESRAD-RECYCLE (a RESRAD family code used for computing radiological impacts of metal recycling) and is being incorporated into RESRAD-BUILD (a DOE recommended code for computing impacts of building decontamination). The model was compared with calculations performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Code (MCNP) and the Microshield code for three different source geometries, three different radionuclides ( 234 U, 238 U, and 60 Co, representing low, medium, and high energy, respectively), and five different source materials (iron, copper, aluminum, water, and soil). The comparison shows that results of this model are in very good agreement with MCNP calculations (within 5% for 60 Co and within 30% for 238 U and 234 U for all materials and source geometries). Significant differences (greater than 100%) were observed with Microshield for thin 234 U sources

  18. Contaminant exposure of birds nesting in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Franson, J Christian; Jones, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In earlier studies, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were reported in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings collected from lower Green Bay (WI, USA) in 1994 and 1995 and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs collected in 1991. Comparable samples collected in 2010 and 2011 indicated that concentrations of PCBs were 35%, 62%, 70%, and 88% lower than in the early 1990s in tree swallow eggs, tree swallow nestlings, double-crested cormorant eggs, and black-crowned night-heron eggs, respectively; concentrations of DDE were 47%, 43%, 51%, and 80% lower, respectively. These declines are consistent with regional contaminant trends in other species. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in herring gull (Larus argentatus) than in black-crowned night-heron eggs collected from Green Bay in 2010; PCB concentrations in double-crested cormorant and tree swallow eggs were intermediate. The estimated toxicity of the PCB mixture in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow was the equal to or greater than toxicity in the 3 piscivorous bird species. A multivariate analysis indicated that the composition percentage of lower-numbered PCB congeners was greater in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow than in eggs of the 3 piscivorous species nesting in Green Bay. Dioxin and furan concentrations and the toxicity of these chemicals were also higher in tree swallows than these other waterbird species nesting in Green Bay. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessing the Quantitative Relationships between Preschool Children's Exposures to Bisphenol A by Route and Urinary Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited published information exists on young children’s exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) in the United States using urinary biomonitoring. In a previous project, we quantified the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children to BPA in environmental and personal media over 48-h pe...

  20. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  1. Radiation exposure profile and dose estimates to flyers en route Frankfurt to Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The earth is continuously bombarded by the high energy radiation (galactic radiation) from solar system commonly known as cosmic radiation. Intensity of cosmic ray radiation exposures change with altitude and increases rapidly with the increase in altitude from the earth. Passenger and cargo flights fly at different altitudes and therefore the crew and passengers are exposed to radiation levels significantly higher than the average background levels on the earth. A typical commercial jet aircraft fly at an altitude of 30,000 - 40,000 feet (9-12 km) and at these heights radiation exposure rates increase by about 100 times from the background levels. European countries have guidelines and suggestions on radiation exposure to air crew members in sectors that may potentially expose them to levels exceeding 1 mSv per annum. The paper details the radiation exposure profile recorded in Frankfurt-Dubai-Mumbai sector and evaluation of average radiation exposure received by the flyers and air crew members

  2. Model for evaluation of the radiological exposure in an urban environment after a radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine Rua Rodriguez

    1994-08-01

    A dynamic model aimed on the assessment of the long-term consequences of an accidental contamination of an urban environments has been developed. The model was designed to assess the radiation exposure, as a function of time, of the different kinds of people that uses the contaminated environment, the relative contribution of each exposure pathway and to simulate the application of countermeasures and its effects on the reduction of surfaces contamination and on the exposure of the individuals and of the population. The model is an empirical one, mainly based on environmental data gathered after the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, and takes into account climatic and population habits characteristic of tropical areas. The model was applied here to a contamination with the radionuclide 137 Cs but can be easily adapted to other nuclides by changes on parameter values. An analysis of the variabilities associated to the model outputs regarding population habits, different kinds of urban environment and parameters uncertainty has shown that the main source of uncertainty on model predictions is associated to a correct knowledge of population characteristics, its habits and used of the contaminated environment. (author)

  3. The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed in Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturovic, A.M.; Sobajic, M.V.; Smelcerovic, M.A.; Damljanovic, D.D.; Drndarevic, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed and produced in Boris Kidric Institute, presented in this paper, are digital survey instruments. The common principle of these instruments is the 'simple precision' concept, i.e. predetermined time pulse counting. This principle is discussed and basic structure of these instruments is shown with their possibilities and features (author)

  4. Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Edwards, S.; Kennedy, M.; O'Hagan, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Scholz, G.; Steinberg, P.; Tennant, D.; Chiodini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for

  5. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Dussort, P.; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O’Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile,

  6. Transuranium contamination in BWRs after fuel accidents and its impact on decommissioning exposures and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, K.

    1996-12-01

    The theme of the present study is to quantify the amount of transuranium activity in different parts of the plant after various fuel accidents, and which impact such contamination has on radiation exposure and costs for decommissioning the plant. The consequences of four different accident degrees have been treated: Common fuel failures, e.g. in line with recent experiences from Swedish BWRs; Fuel channel obstruction resulting in partial melting of one fuel assembly; Total loss of electric power resulting in partial meltdown of the core, but with primary circuit intact preventing a massive contamination of the containment; A LOCA followed by a core meltdown and melting and penetration of the reactor pressure vessel. The amount of transuranium activity distributed, the form of this activity and the plant contamination are evaluated for these accidents. The costs and exposures have been split up on cleanup activities after the accident and decommissioning. 75 refs.

  7. Transuranium contamination in BWRs after fuel accidents and its impact on decommissioning exposures and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.

    1996-12-01

    The theme of the present study is to quantify the amount of transuranium activity in different parts of the plant after various fuel accidents, and which impact such contamination has on radiation exposure and costs for decommissioning the plant. The consequences of four different accident degrees have been treated: Common fuel failures, e.g. in line with recent experiences from Swedish BWRs; Fuel channel obstruction resulting in partial melting of one fuel assembly; Total loss of electric power resulting in partial meltdown of the core, but with primary circuit intact preventing a massive contamination of the containment; A LOCA followed by a core meltdown and melting and penetration of the reactor pressure vessel. The amount of transuranium activity distributed, the form of this activity and the plant contamination are evaluated for these accidents. The costs and exposures have been split up on cleanup activities after the accident and decommissioning. 75 refs

  8. Transport of Aquatic Contaminant and Assessment of Radioecological Exposure with Spatial and Temporal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the radioecological exposure assessment for a contaminated aquatic ecosystem has been performed in this dissertation. The primary objectives of this research were to advance the understanding of radiation exposure in nature and to increase current capabilities for estimating aquatic radiation exposure with the consideration of spatial and temporal effect in nature. This was accomplished through the development of a two-dimensional aquatic exposure assessment framework and by applying the framework to the contaminated Chernobyl cooling lake (pond). This framework integrated spatial and temporal heterogeneity effects of contaminant concentration, abundance and distribution of ecosystem populations, spatial- and temporal-dependent (or density-dependent) radionuclide ingestion, and alternative food web structures. The exposure model was built on the population level to allow for the integration of density dependent population regulation into the exposure assessment. Plankton population dynamics have been integrated into the hydrodynamic-transport model to determine plankton biomass density changes and distributions. The distribution of contaminant in water was also calculated using a hydrodynamic-transport model. The significance of adding spatial and temporal effects, spatial and temporal related ecological functions, and hydrodynamics in the exposure assessment was illustrated through a series of case studies. The results suggested that the spatial and temporal heterogeneity effects of radioactive environments were substantial. Among the ecological functions considered, the food web structure was the most important contributor to the variations of fish exposure. The results obtained using a multiple prey food web structure differed by a factor of 20 from the equilibrium concentration, and by a factor of 2.5 from the concentration obtained using a single-prey food web. Impacts of changes in abundance and distribution of biomass on contaminant

  9. Life-Stage PBPK Models for Multiple Routes of Ethanol Exposure in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol is commonly blended with gasoline (10% ethanol) in the US, and higher ethanol concentrations are being considered. While the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of orally-ingested ethanol are widely reported, comparable work is limited for inhalation exposure (IE), particularly...

  10. Behavioral and health responses associated with road traffic noise exposure along alpine through-traffic routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lercher, P.; Kofler, W.W. [Institute for Social Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-09-06

    The perceived impact of rising traffic noise exposure on residents in five rural, alpine communities was assessed in an epidemiological study (1989 adults, aged 25-65), using subjective and objective exposure indices. Significant associations were found between noise exposure above 55 dB(A) and annoyance from noise, vibrations, exhaust fumes and soot/dust exposure. Closing windows, double glazing, moving sleeping room, filing complaints, supporting pressure groups and the wish to move was just as significantly linked with noise level as was loss of wellbeing/life satisfaction, increase of sleep problems, health worries and poorer health ratings. However, noise sensitive persons showed a quite different response pattern with lower overall nuisance, fewer behavioral actions but stronger health impacts than those persons actually having expressed their annoyance

  11. Groundwater contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon due to diesel spill from a telecom base station in a Nigerian City: assessment of human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu Cornelius; Ochonogor, Alfred

    2018-03-26

    Diesel pollution of groundwater poses great threat to public health, mainly as a result of the constituent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the human health risk exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel contaminated groundwater used by several families at Ring Road, Jos, Nigeria (as caused by diesel spill from a telecom base station) was assessed. Prior to the groundwater being treated, the residents were using the water after scooping off the visible diesel sheen for purposes of cooking, washing, and bathing. Until this study, it is not clear whether the groundwater contamination had resulted in sub-chronic exposure of the residents using the water to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the extent of the PAHs posing a health risk. The diesel contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated nearby groundwater (control) were collected and analyzed for PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dosage of the dermal and oral ingestion entry routes of PAHs was determined. The estimation of the non-carcinogenic health risk was via hazard quotients (HQ) and the associated hazard index (HI), while the estimation of the carcinogenic health risk was via lifetime cancer risks (LCR) and the associated risk index (RI). Obtained results indicate that the exposure of the residents to the PAHs may have made them susceptible to the risk of non-carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)pyrene and the carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

  12. Scenarios for the assessment of urban exposures after radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.N.G.; Guimarães, J.R.D.; Rochedo, E.R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Accidents involving radioactive material are not frequent but may include releases of radionuclides to the air, land or waterways. These releases are usually uncontrollable and may lead to doses in the public in excess of the reference levels established by regulations defined by the national regulatory agencies of each country. Although they had occurred sporadically since the last century, it was observed that, after the emergency phase, the public concern is enhanced when they feel that there is an unpreparedness of authorities responsible for remediation actions, due to the lack of definition of strategies to be adopted in the long term after such events. The aim of this work is to describe reference urban scenarios, considering the characteristics observed in residential and free access areas of urban centers. These scenarios were developed based on the counties surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plant. Considering the counties within 50 km from the nuclear power plant, nine belong to the state of Rio de Janeiro and seven belong to São Paulo state; the highest population densities were observed in five counties of Rio de Janeiro. Based on the different types of residences and outdoor areas observed in these 16 counties, six reference scenarios for urban areas were developed including areas comprised by four types of residential houses (with low, medium and high shielding building material and houses in a row), apartments in buildings, and park areas with lawn and trees. The characteristics of each of these scenarios were raised through Google Earth images considering 1 km 2 of different locations comprised by each type of area defined. In a next step, the information obtained in each scenario shall be used in computer simulations to characterize the effects and consequences on public exposure of the application of decontamination procedures. (authors)

  13. Exposure to contaminants and nutritional intakes in a French vegetarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, S; Rivière, G; Allès, B; Kesse-Guyot, E; Méjean, C; Hercberg, S; Touvier, M; Bemrah, N

    2017-11-01

    The NutriNet Santé study collected, on a voluntary basis, the dietary consumption of French vegetarian populations (N = 1766, including 188 vegan individuals) from 18 to 81 years (18-77 years for the vegan). Taking advantage of the availability of contamination data generated in the context of the second French total diet study, dietary exposures of French vegetarian populations to several contaminants were estimated. Results showed that exposures to persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PCDD/Fs for instance) was dramatically lower than those of the general French population due to the non consumption of food of animal origins. On the other hand, exposures to phytoestrogens, some mycotoxins (T2 and HT2 toxins) and some trace elements (Cd, Al, Sn, Ni) were higher in the vegetarian population compared to those of the general population. Despite some limitations of this approach (both the consumption study and the total diet study were not aimed to estimate dietary exposure of the vegetarian populations), this study showed that dietary habits can dramatically influence the exposure of some contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the 239 Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant 239 Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total 239 Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the 239 Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the 239 Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the 239 Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the 239 Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables

  15. Assessing exposures and risks in heterogeneously contaminated areas: A simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingleton, D.J.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Oezkaynak, H.; Butler, D.A.; Jianping Xue

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at a number of facilities under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The major goals of this program are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination of these sites and, to the extent possible, make surplus real property available for other uses. The assessment of potential baseline health risks and ecological impacts associated with a contaminated site is an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required at all Superfund sites. The purpose of this paper is to describe one phase of the baseline assessment, i.e., the characterization of human health risks associated with exposure to chemical contaminants in air and on interior building surfaces at a contaminated site. The model combines data on human activity patterns in a particular microenvironment within a building with contaminant concentrations in that microenvironment to calculate personal exposure profiles and risks within the building. The results of the building assessment are presented as probability distributions functions and cumulative distribution functions, which show the variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Assessing exposures and risks in heterogeneously contaminated areas: A simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingleton, D.J.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Oezkaynak, H.; Butler, D.A.; Xue, J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at a number of facilities under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The major goals of this program are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination of these sites and, to the extent possible, make surplus real property available for other uses. The assessment of potential baseline health risks and ecological impacts associated with a contaminated site is an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required at all Superfund sites. The purpose of this paper is to describe one phase of the baseline assessment, i.e., the characterization of human health risks associated with exposure to chemical contaminants in air and on interior building surfaces at a contaminated site. The model combines data on human activity patterns in a particular microenvironment within a building with contaminant concentrations in that microenvironment to calculate personal exposure profiles and risks within the building. The results of the building assessment are presented as probability distribution functions and cumulative distribution functions, which show the variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates

  17. EXHALED HUMAN BREATH MEASUREMENT OF JET FUEL CONSTITUENTS: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN INHALATION AND DERMAL EXPOSURE ROUTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to anecdotal reports, perceived health issues, and widespread complaints, the U.S. military launched an investigation into the occupational and environmental human exposure to jet fuel. The work described in the presentation assesses the correlation between two breat...

  18. Different routes, same pathways: Molecular mechanisms under silver ion and nanoparticle exposures in the soil sentinel Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novo, Marta; Lahive, Elma; Díez-Ortiz, María; Matzke, Marianne; Morgan, Andrew J.; Spurgeon, David J.; Svendsen, Claus; Kille, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology products is increasing; with silver (Ag) nanoparticles particularly widely used. A key uncertainty surrounding the risk assessment of AgNPs is whether their effects are driven through the same mechanism of action that underlies the toxic effects of Ag ions. We present the first full transcriptome study of the effects of Ag ions and NPs in an ecotoxicological model soil invertebrate, the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Gene expression analyses indicated similar mechanisms for both silver forms with toxicity being exerted through pathways related to ribosome function, sugar and protein metabolism, molecular stress, disruption of energy production and histones. The main difference seen between Ag ions and NPs was associated with potential toxicokinetic effects related to cellular internalisation and communication, with pathways related to endocytosis and cilia being significantly enriched. These results point to a common final toxicodynamic response, but initial internalisation driven by different exposure routes and toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Highlights: • Molecular effects underlying Ag ions and NPs exposure were studied in Eisenia fetida. • Full transcriptomic study of a genetically characterised lineage. • NPs and ions presented a similar toxicodynamic response. • Internalisation of the two Ag forms by different toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Transcriptomic analyses after exposure of earthworms to silver NPs or ions showed a final common toxicodynamic response, but internalisation by different toxicokinetic mechanisms

  19. Estimation of radiation exposures due to the exemption of beta-contaminated radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltz, D.; Botsch, W.; Huettig, M.; Boerchers, F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have checked the individual clearance levels of pure beta-emitters (Sr 89, Sr 90+) according to Anlage III, Table 1, column 8 and 10 StrlSchV for the clearance of buildings. According to Monte-Carlo simulations the direct exposure coming from contaminated parts of a building can exceed the range of trivial doses significantly, although the clearance levels are met. Furthermore, the high radiation level outside a barrel of beta-emitting waste showed that even the mass-specific clearance levels for the disposal of beta-contaminated waste need to be reviewed. (orig.)

  20. Applying acoustic telemetry to understand contaminant exposure and bioaccumulation patterns in mobile fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew D; van der Meulen, Dylan E; Brodie, Stephanie; Cadiou, Gwenaël; Knott, Nathan A

    2018-06-01

    Contamination in urbanised estuaries presents a risk to human health, and to the viability of populations of exploited species. Assessing animal movements in relation to contaminated areas may help to explain patterns in bioaccumulation, and assist in the effective management of health risks associated with consumption of exploited species. Using polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) contamination in Sydney Harbour estuary as a case study, we present a study that links movement patterns resolved using acoustic telemetry to the accumulation of contaminants in mobile fish on a multi-species basis. Fifty-four individuals across six exploited species (Sea Mullet Mugil cephalus; Luderick Girella tricuspidata; Yellowfin Bream Acanthopagrus australis; Silver Trevally Pseudocaranx georgianus; Mulloway Argyrosomus japonicus; Yellowtail Kingfish Seriola lalandi) were tagged with acoustic transmitters, and their movements tracked for up to 3years. There was substantial inter-specific variation in fish distribution along the estuary. The proportion of distribution that overlapped with contaminated areas explained 84-98% of the inter-specific variation in lipid-standardised biota PCDD/F concentration. There was some seasonal variation in distribution along the estuary, but movement patterns indicated that Sea Mullet, Yellowfin Bream, Silver Trevally, and Mulloway were likely to be exposed to contaminated areas during the period of gonadal maturation. Acoustic telemetry allows examination of spatial and temporal patterns in exposure to contamination. When used alongside biota sampling and testing, this offers a powerful approach to assess exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential risks faced by different species, as well as human health risks associated with their consumption. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure Path Perceptions and Protective Actions in Biological Water Contamination Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study extends the Protective Action Decision Model, developed to address disaster warning responses in the context of natural hazards, to “boil water” advisories. The study examined 110 Boston residents' and 203 Texas students' expectations of getting sick through different exposure paths for contact with contaminated water. In addition, the study assessed respondents' actual implementation (for residents or behavioral expectations (for students of three different protective actions – bottled water, boiled water, and personally chlorinated water – as well as their demographic characteristics and previous experience with water contamination. The results indicate that people distinguish among the exposure paths, but the differences are small (one-third to one-half of the response scale. Nonetheless, the perceived risk from the exposure paths helps to explain why people are expected to consume (or actually consumed bottled water rather than boiled or personally chlorinated water. Overall, these results indicate that local authorities should take care to communicate the relative risks of different exposure paths and should expect that people will respond to a boil water order primarily by consuming bottled water. Thus, they should make special efforts to increase supplies of bottled water in their communities during water contamination emergencies.

  2. The Penobscot River and environmental contaminants: Assessment of tribal exposure through sustenance lifeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie; Kusnierz, Daniel; Hillger, Robert; Ferrario, Joseph; Hughes, Thomas; Diliberto, Janet; Orazio, Carl E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Byrne, Christian; Sugatt, Richard; Warren, Sarah; DeMarini, David; Elskus, Adria; Stodola, Steve; Mierzykowski, Steve; Pugh, Katie; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    EPA in collaboration with the Penobscot Indian Nation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USF&WS) collectively embarked on a four year research study to evaluate the environmental health of the riverine system by targeting specific cultural practices and using traditional science to conduct a preliminary contaminant screening of the flora and fauna of the Penobscot River ecosystem. This study was designed as a preliminary screening to determine if contaminant concentrations in fish, eel, snapping turtle, wood ducks, and plants in Regions of the Penobscot River relevant to where PIN tribal members hunt, fish and gather plants were high enough to be a health concern. This study was not designed to be a statistically validated assessment of contaminant differences among study sites or among species. The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life

  3. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Novak Babič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  4. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Babič, Monika; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Vargha, Márta; Tischner, Zsófia; Magyar, Donát; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Carla; Meyer, Wieland; Brandão, João

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  5. Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment. a review. b_antizar@hotmail.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2008-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills, disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters, antifouling agents, and the preservation of wood. Due to its widespread use as an antifouling agent in boat paints, TBT is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems exceeding acute and chronic toxicity levels. TBT is the most significant pesticide in marine and freshwaters in Europe and consequently its environmental level, fate, toxicity and human exposure are of current concern. Thus, the European Union has decided to specifically include TBT compounds in its list of priority compounds in water in order to control its fate in natural systems, due to their toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and endocrine disruptive characteristics. Additionally, the International Maritime Organization has called for a global treaty that bans the application of TBT-based paints starting 1 of January 2003, and total prohibition by 1 of January 2008. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding TBT, with special attention paid to the environmental levels, toxicity, and human exposure. TBT compounds have been detected in a number of environmental samples. In humans, organotin compounds have been detected in blood and in the liver. As for other persistent organic pollutants, dietary intake is most probably the main route of exposure to TBT compounds for the general population. However, data concerning TBT levels in foodstuffs are scarce. It is concluded that investigations on experimental toxicity, dietary intake, potential human health effects and development of new sustainable technologies to remove TBT compounds are clearly necessary.

  6. Evaluation of exposure scenarios on intentional microbiological contamination in a drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Forêt, Jean Marie; Chardon, Jurgen; Teunis, Peter; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Tangena, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Drinking water distribution networks are vulnerable to accidental or intentional contamination events. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seeding duration and concentration, exposure pathway (ingestion via drinking of water and tooth brushing and inhalation by taking a shower) and pathogen infectivity on exposure and infection risk in the case of an intentional pathogenic contamination in a drinking water distribution network. Seeding of a pathogen for 10 min and 120 min, and subsequent spreading through a drinking water distribution network were simulated. For exposure via drinking, actual data on drinking events and volumes were used. Ingestion of a small volume of water by tooth brushing twice a day by every person in the network was assumed. Inhalation of contaminated aerosol droplets took place when taking a shower. Infection risks were estimated for pathogens with low (r = 0.0001) and high (r = 0.1) infectivity. In the served population (48 000 persons) and within 24 h, about 1400 persons were exposed to the pathogen by ingestion of water in the 10-min seeding scenario and about 3400 persons in the 120-min scenario. The numbers of exposed persons via tooth brushing were about the same as via drinking of water. Showering caused (inhalation) exposure in about 450 persons in the 10-min scenario and about 1500 in the 120-min scenario. Regardless of pathogen infectivity, if the seeding concentration is 10(6) pathogens per litre or more, infection risks are close to one. Exposure by taking a shower is of relevance if the pathogen is highly infectious via inhalation. A longer duration of the seeding of a pathogen increases the probability of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates.

  8. Neonicotinoid-Induced Mortality of Diaphorina Citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is Affected by Route of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kevin W; Rogers, Michael E

    2017-10-01

    The use of neonicotinoids in citrus (Rutaceae) has increased substantially to help manage the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of the devastating citrus disease, huanglongbing (HLB). In citrus pest management programs, neonicotinoids are most often applied to the soil as a drench and move through xylem channels from the roots into the foliage. We developed a novel assay to quantify the dose required to kill D. citri following ingestion and compare it with the dose required to kill by contact. The LC50 of the laboratory strain for ingestion of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin were each approximately 10-fold greater than the respective LC50 by contact exposure. Four field populations were tested to validate comparative exposure of the laboratory strain to imidacloprid and determine the relative susceptibility of field populations to imidacloprid by exposure through ingestion and contact. The contact assay exhibited low (10) RR50 values were observed for the Lake Placid and Lake Alfred populations using the contact and the ingestion method. This research demonstrates that the ingestion assay method described herein is more sensitive in detection of low-level resistance and should be the standard methodology used in monitoring for resistance to systemic insecticides for this global pest. We found D. citri populations with a lower than expected susceptibility to neonicotinoids in the field, which warrants the implementation of resistance management practices to preserve the utility of soil-applied neonicotinoids in citrus. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Hossain, Rifat; Bonjour, Sophie; Onda, Kyle; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Hunter, Paul; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-01

    To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources. We estimated coverage of different types of drinking water source based on household surveys and censuses using multilevel modelling. Coverage data were combined with water quality studies that assessed E. coli or TTC including those identified by a systematic review (n = 345). Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates. We assessed sensitivity of estimated exposure to study quality, indicator bacteria and separately considered nationally randomised surveys. We estimate that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water which suffers from faecal contamination, of these 1.1 billion drink water that is of at least 'moderate' risk (>10 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml). Data from nationally randomised studies suggest that 10% of improved sources may be 'high' risk, containing at least 100 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml. Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%-51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8-18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%-63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%-45%). Estimates were not sensitive to the exclusion of low quality studies or restriction to studies reporting E. coli. Microbial contamination is widespread and affects all water source types, including piped supplies. Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Environmental contamination and human exposure to manganese--contribution of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, J; Vyskocil, A; Kennedy, G

    1999-01-01

    The organomanganese compound MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), an antiknock additive in unleaded gasoline, has been used in Canada since 1976. Indeed, Canada is the only country where MMT is almost exclusively used. In October 1995, by court decision the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) granted Ethyl's waiver for the use of MMT in the United States. Paradoxically, in 1997 the federal government of Canada adopted a law (C-29) that banned both the interprovincial trade and the importation for commercial purposes of manganese-based substances, including MMT. However, MMT is currently widely used in Canada because of substantial stockpiling, and six Canadian provinces are challenging the law in the courts. Moreover, MMT has been approved for use in Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Russia, and conditionally, in New Zealand. It has been suggested by some scientists that combustion of MMT may be a significant source of exposure to inorganic Mn in urban areas. The crucial question is whether Mn contamination from industrial sources combined with the additional contamination that would result from the widespread use of MMT would lead to toxic effects. Our research efforts have attempted to assess the environmental/ecosystem Mn contamination arising from the combustion of MMT in abiotic and biotic systems as well as human exposure. The experimental evidence acquired so far provides useful information on certain environmental consequences of the use of MMT as well as raising a number of questions. Our results gave evidence indicating that roadside air, soils, plants, and animals may be contaminated by Mn. As well, some specific groups of the population could have a higher level of exposure to Mn. Nevertheless, the levels of exposure remain below international guide values. Further studies and further characterization of dose-response relationships are thus needed to provide successful implementation of evidence-based risk-assessment approaches.

  11. Unjustifiable exposures: Sellafield radioactive contamination of the rivers Lune and Wyre, Lancashire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Paul; Green Patrick.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination along the banks of the rivers Lune and Wyre in Lancashire, due to legally permitted discharges from Sellafield Reprocessing Plant, demonstrate that communities, such as houseboat dwellers living in the area are receiving over half the recommended site specific dose limit. Exposures are based on gamma dose rates and it is recommended that the limit is reduced from 500 uSv per year to 200 uSv per year. (UK)

  12. Contamination of Fresh Produce by Microbial Indicators on Farms and in Packing Facilities: Elucidation of Environmental Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Faith E; Lickness, Jacquelyn Sunshine; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Newman, Kira L; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2017-06-01

    To improve food safety on farms, it is critical to quantify the impact of environmental microbial contamination sources on fresh produce. However, studies are hampered by difficulties achieving study designs with powered sample sizes to elucidate relationships between environmental and produce contamination. Our goal was to quantify, in the agricultural production environment, the relationship between microbial contamination on hands, soil, and water and contamination on fresh produce. In 11 farms and packing facilities in northern Mexico, we applied a matched study design: composite samples ( n = 636, equivalent to 11,046 units) of produce rinses were matched to water, soil, and worker hand rinses during two growing seasons. Microbial indicators (coliforms, Escherichia coli , Enterococcus spp., and somatic coliphage) were quantified from composite samples. Statistical measures of association and correlations were calculated through Spearman's correlation, linear regression, and logistic regression models. The concentrations of all microbial indicators were positively correlated between produce and hands (ρ range, 0.41 to 0.75; P contamination of soil and water and contamination of produce. This methodology provides a foundation for future field studies, and results highlight the need for interventions surrounding farmworker hygiene and sanitation to reduce microbial contamination of farmworkers' hands. IMPORTANCE This study of the relationships between microbes on produce and in the farm environment can be used to support the design of targeted interventions to prevent or reduce microbial contamination of fresh produce with associated reductions in foodborne illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cholinesterase activities in the scallop Pecten jacobaeus: Characterization and effects of exposure to aquatic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano, Bonacci; Ilaria, Corsi; Silvano, Focardi

    2008-01-01

    Nearshore marine environments of industrialized countries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution. It is therefore a priority task to investigate the sensitivity of new ecotoxicological warning signals of the occurrence and effects of aquatic pollutants. The main aims of the present study were: 1) to characterize the biochemical properties of ChEs in tissues of the bivalve Pecten jacobaeus, using different specific substrates and selective inhibitors; 2) to measure sensitivity of ChE activities to in vitro exposure to the OPs azamethiphos and DFP and to the heavy metals cadmium and zinc. Our final aim was to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of ChEs measurement in tissues of the scallop for monitoring marine environmental quality and neurotoxic compounds contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Responses to specific inhibitors have suggested that ChEs in adductor muscle share many characteristics with vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. Dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was observed in response to in vitro exposure to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and azamethiphos. Sensitivity to zinc and DFP was lower. ChEs in P. jacobaeus might therefore have potential as a sensitive biomarker for monitoring marine pollution. Results of the present study will be useful to focus further experiment of exposure to pollutants under in vivo conditions. Capsule: Cholinesterase activities in scallop Pecten jacobaeus were observed to be sensitive to contaminants in vitro and may therefore have potential as biomarkers for monitoring water pollution

  15. Cholinesterase activities in the scallop Pecten jacobaeus: Characterization and effects of exposure to aquatic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, Bonacci [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: bonacci@unisi.it; Ilaria, Corsi [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: corsii@unisi.it; Silvano, Focardi [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: focardi@unisi.it

    2008-03-15

    Nearshore marine environments of industrialized countries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution. It is therefore a priority task to investigate the sensitivity of new ecotoxicological warning signals of the occurrence and effects of aquatic pollutants. The main aims of the present study were: 1) to characterize the biochemical properties of ChEs in tissues of the bivalve Pecten jacobaeus, using different specific substrates and selective inhibitors; 2) to measure sensitivity of ChE activities to in vitro exposure to the OPs azamethiphos and DFP and to the heavy metals cadmium and zinc. Our final aim was to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of ChEs measurement in tissues of the scallop for monitoring marine environmental quality and neurotoxic compounds contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Responses to specific inhibitors have suggested that ChEs in adductor muscle share many characteristics with vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. Dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was observed in response to in vitro exposure to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and azamethiphos. Sensitivity to zinc and DFP was lower. ChEs in P. jacobaeus might therefore have potential as a sensitive biomarker for monitoring marine pollution. Results of the present study will be useful to focus further experiment of exposure to pollutants under in vivo conditions. Capsule: Cholinesterase activities in scallop Pecten jacobaeus were observed to be sensitive to contaminants in vitro and may therefore have potential as biomarkers for monitoring water pollution.

  16. Spatial screening methods for evaluating environmental contaminant hazards and exposure vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Human and biotic communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to sea-level rise and severe storms due to climate change. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms, which could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed spatial screening methods to identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors. These methods have been applied within the northeastern U.S. to document contaminants of emerging concern, highlight vulnerable communities, and prioritize locations for future sampling campaigns. Integration of this information provides a means to better assess the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and sea-level rise (incremental) disturbances. This presentation will provide an overview of a decision support tool developed by the USGS to document contaminants in the environment relative to key receptor populations and historic storm vulnerabilities. The support tool is designed to accommodate a broad array of geologic, land-use, and climatic variables and utilizes public, nationally available data sources to define contaminant sources and storm vulnerabilities. By employing a flexible and adaptable strategy built upon publicly available data, the method can readily be applied to other site selection or landscape evaluation efforts. Examples will be presented including the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response pilot study (see http://toxics.usgs.gov/scorr/), and investigations of endocrine disruption in the Chesapeake Bay. Key limitations and future applications will be discussed in addition to ongoing method developments to accommodate non-coastal disaster scenarios and more refined contaminant definitions.

  17. Do contamination of and exposure to chicken meat and water drive the temporal dynamics of Campylobacter cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J M; Pollari, F; Pintar, K D M; Nesbitt, A; Butler, A J; Ravel, A

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacteriosis, the most frequent bacterial enteric disease, shows a clear yet unexplained seasonality. The study purpose was to explore the influence of seasonal fluctuation in the contamination of and in the behaviour exposures to two important sources of Campylobacter on the seasonality of campylobacteriosis. Time series analyses were applied to data collected through an integrated surveillance system in Canada in 2005-2010. Data included sporadic, domestically-acquired cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection, contamination of retail chicken meat and of surface water by C. jejuni, and exposure to each source through barbequing and swimming in natural waters. Seasonal patterns were evident for all variables with a peak in summer for human cases and for both exposures, in fall for chicken meat contamination, and in late fall for water contamination. Time series analyses showed that the observed campylobacteriosis summer peak could only be significantly linked to behaviour exposures rather than sources contamination (swimming rather than water contamination and barbequing rather than chicken meat contamination). The results indicate that the observed summer increase in human cases may be more the result of amplification through more frequent risky exposures rather than the result of an increase of the Campylobacter source contamination.

  18. Technogenic contamination of Bulgarian green leafy vegetation and its contribution to public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, P.; Vasilev, G.

    2007-01-01

    Main sources of excessive background ionizing radiation exposure for the Bulgarian public are the following: medical radiation procedures; occupational radiation exposure; enhanced natural radiation exposure (uranium mining and milling, artificial fertilizers, non-radioactive sources of energy, building materials etc.); environmental technogenic radionuclide contamination from global fallouts (1950-1970) and Chernobyl accident depositions (1986-1996 and after). The green leafy vegetation, incl. forage plants used for feeding of farm animals (sheep and cows) as well as leafy vegetables (lettuce, dock, spinach, parsley etc.) are one of the main reservoirs of technogenic radionuclides. Bulgaria is situated in the middle northern latitude zone (40 north - 50 north) where the global radioactive fallout from nuclear experiments (1945-1962) were most intensive. Bulgaria is also one of the countries most affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident on 26 April 1986. Respectively, the Bulgarian population dose burden is high compared with the other European countries (excluding the population near the site, i.e. Ukraine, Russia and Byelorussian). Both the global and Chernobyl fallout (globally distributed) contaminated the green leafy vegetation with technogenic radionuclides of two groups: Short-lived, mainly Iodine-131; Long-lived, mainly Cesium-137 and partially Strontium- 90. The effects on the Bulgarian public from technogenic radionuclide contamination of green leafy vegetation were analyzed. The analyses show the following chain in motion of technogenic radionuclides (Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 are chosen as representative): 1) Iodine-131: (duration of transfer - less than 30 to 60 days since fallout); a) fallout - meadow grass - sheep and cows - milk and dairy products - person; b) fallout - leafy vegetables - person; 2) Cesium-137 (duration of transfer - several days) (based on Chernobyl experience); a) fallout - meadow grass - forage - sheep, cows, etc. - milk and dairy

  19. Optimal management routes for the restoration of territories contaminated during and after the Chernobyl accident: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report identifies optimised restoration strategies for contaminated territories (actually private agricultural lands and forests) in Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The evaluation of restoration strategies is based on economic and radiological criteria. For this purpose a methodology involving the subdivision of the territories into categories based on doses was developed. Remediation strategies for agricultural lands involves many options; for example, extensive resettlement, supply of clean milk, radical improvement of land, etc. For contaminated forests the potential radiological impact resulting from a selection of countermeasures like incineration of contaminated wood has been thoroughly evaluated

  20. Subchronic toxicity of Nile tilapia with different exposure routes to Microcystis aeruginosa: Histopathology, liver functions, and oxidative stress biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. R. Abdel-Latif

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (Microcystis aeruginosa contains microcystins [MCs] have been reported to induce clinicopathological alterations as well as different oxidative stress in aquatic biota. Aim: Three-week subchronic exposure experiment was carried out on Nile tilapia, to determine their effects on fish behavior, tissues, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: Fish were exposed to four main treatments; orally fed diet plus toxic cells of M. aeruginosa (containing 3500 μg/g MC-LR, immersion in 500 μg MC-LR/L, intraperitoneal injection of M. aeruginosa MC-LR with a dose of 0.1 ml of extracted toxin at a dose of 200 μg/kg bwt, and the fourth one served as a control group, then the fish were sacrificed at the end of 3rd week of exposure. Results: The results revealed no recorded mortality with obvious behavioral changes and an enlarged liver with the congested gall bladder. Histopathology demonstrated fragmentation, hyalinization, and necrosis of the subcutaneous musculature marked fatty degeneration, and vacuolation of hepatopancreatic cells with adhesion of the secondary gill lamellae associated with severe leukocytic infiltration. Furthermore, liver functions enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidase, and catalase enzymes were significantly increased in all treatments starting from the 2nd week as compared to the control levels. Conclusion: In this context, the study addresses the possible toxicological impacts of toxic M. aeruginosa contain MC-LR to Nile tilapia, and the results investigated that MC-LR is toxic to Nile tilapia in different routes of exposure as well as different doses.

  1. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri

    2002-01-01

    Even if drinking water of poor rural communities is obtained from a 'safe' source, it can become contaminated during storage in the house. To investigate the relative importance of this domestic domain contamination, a 5-week intervention study was conducted. Sixty-seven households in Punjab......, Pakistan, were provided with new water storage containers (pitchers): 33 received a traditional wide-necked pitcher normally used in the area and the remaining 34 households received a narrow-necked water storage pitcher, preventing direct hand contact with the water. Results showed that the domestic...... domain contamination with indicator bacteria is important only when the water source is relatively clean, i.e. contains less than 100 Escherichia coli per 100 ml of water. When the number of E. coli in the water source is above this value, interventions to prevent the domestic contamination would have...

  2. Child's play : investigating the exposure potential of environmental contaminants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.C.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic and chromium have been identified as soil contaminants from smelting, industrial and mining activities. The potential for human uptake of these elements from soil has been established with highest concentrations found in children, who are particularly susceptible to environmental exposure. This study explores the exposure potential of selected soil trace elements in rural Victoria, Australia, by investigating the relationship between uptake, measured using toenail clippings as the biomarker of exposure, and soil concentrations in two communities: one near current and historic gold mining, the other an agricultural community. We report the preliminary findings of a cross-sectional survey, in which toenail clippings were obtained from 12 children in the former community, and 16 children in the latter. (author). 26 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat

  4. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Nelen, Vera [Department of Health, Provincial Institute for Hygiene, Kronenburgstraat 45, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeyens, Willy [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene (Belgium); Van Larebeke, Nicolas [Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sioen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.sioen@ugent.be [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); FWO Research Foundation, Egmontstraat 5, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.

  5. Exposure and acute exposure-effects before and after modification of a contaminated humidification system in a synthetic-fibre plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; de Monchy, JGR; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Objective: Follow-up study of exposure and acute exposure-effects after modification to steam humidification of a contaminated cold water system which had caused an outbreak of humidifier fever in a synthetic-fibre plant. Methods: Before and after modification of the system aerobiological

  6. Studies on the role of routes of allergen exposure in high IgE-producing beagle dogs sensitized to house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, R; Nicklin, C; Lopez, J

    2006-10-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the role played by oral, epicutaneous, and inhalation routes of exposure to house dust mites (HDM). The colony of high IgE-producing beagle dogs has been shown to develop pruritic dermatitis compatible with atopic dermatitis following environmental exposure (EE) to HDM. In crossover experiments, the response to EE was compared to two modified challenges, oral exposure (OE) and snood and muzzle exposure (SME). For OE, HDM were fed daily for 3 days. For SME, ingestion of allergen was prevented but there was inhalation and epicutaneous exposure to all body regions except to one ear. In all experiments, dogs were challenged for three consecutive days, and evaluated before, 6 h after exposure and daily thereafter, for 5 days. After a wash-out period, groups were crossed-over so that each dog was randomly challenged to all three protocols. Clinical scores were analysed using least squares analysis of variance. All dogs developed pruritic dermatitis regardless of the protocol. With OE, lesions developed in the same body regions as with EE although scores were lower. This difference became more evident after the first 3 days when OE scores decreased and EE scores continued to increase. The scores of covered and uncovered ears did not differ with SME. Scores for the remainder of the body were significantly lower than for EE. The development of lesions on covered ears supports the importance of inhalation or a systemic reaction to epicutaneous exposure in other areas. It is concluded that all routes are important and have additive effects, that route of exposure does not determine the distribution of lesions and that continuous epicutaneous exposure probably plays the most important role.

  7. Assessment of gold exposure and contamination in galvanizing workplace by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Amaral, A.M.; Maia, E.C.P.; Albinati, C.C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Gold is not included in the current list of elements considered essential to humans and there are many controversies related to its toxicity. According to the chemical characteristics of the element, Au 1+ is favored for binding at sites with S donor, such as sulfhydryl group (-SH) in proteins in biological systems. This tendency raises the possibility of health-related risk, mainly linked to a long-term exposure to high and low levels of gold. This paper highlights the determination of gold by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) during the assessment of exposure levels to metals and possible workers' contamination in three galvanizing factories applying the same processes. This assessment is aimed at giving support to Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. INAA, mix of k 0 and monostandard methods was applied to air filter, hair and toenail samples, and to urine samples. Solvent extraction of gold was carried out followed by comparative INAA. The results revealed that gold was present in all matrixes, indicating the exposure in the workplace and suggesting endogenous contamination. Is gold playing a role as a toxic element? (author)

  8. Personal exposure to particulate matter in commuters using different transport modes (bus, bicycle, car and subway) in an assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.

  9. Airborne particles in indoor environment of homes, schools, offices and aged care facilities: The main routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Bae, G N; Buonanno, G; Chao, C Y H; Clifford, S; Fu, S C; Hänninen, O; He, C; Isaxon, C; Mazaheri, M; Salthammer, T; Waring, M S; Wierzbicka, A

    2017-11-01

    It has been shown that the exposure to airborne particulate matter is one of the most significant environmental risks people face. Since indoor environment is where people spend the majority of time, in order to protect against this risk, the origin of the particles needs to be understood: do they come from indoor, outdoor sources or both? Further, this question needs to be answered separately for each of the PM mass/number size fractions, as they originate from different sources. Numerous studies have been conducted for specific indoor environments or under specific setting. Here our aim was to go beyond the specifics of individual studies, and to explore, based on pooled data from the literature, whether there are generalizable trends in routes of exposure at homes, schools and day cares, offices and aged care facilities. To do this, we quantified the overall 24h and occupancy weighted means of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PN - particle number concentration. Based on this, we developed a summary of the indoor versus outdoor origin of indoor particles and compared the means to the WHO guidelines (for PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and to the typical levels reported for urban environments (PN). We showed that the main origins of particle metrics differ from one type of indoor environment to another. For homes, outdoor air is the main origin of PM 10 and PM 2.5 but PN originate from indoor sources; for schools and day cares, outdoor air is the source of PN while PM 10 and PM 2.5 have indoor sources; and for offices, outdoor air is the source of all three particle size fractions. While each individual building is different, leading to differences in exposure and ideally necessitating its own assessment (which is very rarely done), our findings point to the existence of generalizable trends for the main types of indoor environments where people spend time, and therefore to the type of prevention measures which need to be considered in general for these environments. Copyright © 2017 The

  10. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A.; Alaee, Mehran; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: → NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. → Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. → NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - 1 H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  11. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  12. An analysis of OSHA inspections assessing contaminant exposures in general medical and surgical hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jordan L; Sleeth, Darrah K; Larson, Rodney R; Pahler, Leon F

    2013-04-01

    This study analyzed data from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Chemical Exposure Health Database to assess contaminant exposures in general medical and surgical hospitals. Seventy-five inspections conducted in these hospitals from 2005 through 2009 were identified. Five categories of inspections were conducted, the three most common being complaint-based, planned, and referral-based inspections. Complaint-based inspections comprised the majority of inspections-55 (73%) of the 75 conducted. The overall violation rate for all inspection types was 68%. This finding was compared to the violation rates of planned inspections (100%), referral-based inspections (83%), and complaint-based inspections (62%). Asbestos was the hazardous substance most commonly sampled and cited by OSHA in hospitals, with 127 samples collected during 24 inspections; 31% of the total 75 inspections resulting in one or more violations were due to asbestos. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Does pre-exposure to warming conditions increase Mytilus galloprovincialis tolerance to Hg contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Coppola, Francesca; Henriques, Bruno; Wrona, Fredrick; Figueira, Etelvina; Pereira, Eduarda; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which marine invertebrate populations can tolerate extreme weather events, such as short-term exposure to high temperatures, and the underlying biochemical response mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, scarce information is available on how marine organisms respond to the presence of pollutants after exposure to heat stress conditions. Therefore, the present study aimed to understand how the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis responds to Hg pollution after pre-exposure to warming conditions. Mussels were exposed to control (17°C) and warming (21°C) conditions during 14days, followed by Hg contamination during 28days under different temperature regimes (17 and 21°C). The results obtained demonstrated significantly higher Hg concentrations in mussels under 17°C during the entire experiment than in organisms exposed to 21°C during the same period, which resulted in higher oxidative stress in mussels under control temperature. Significantly higher Hg concentrations were also observed in mussels pre-exposed to 21°C followed by a 17°C exposure comparing with organisms maintained the entire experiment at 21°C. These results may be explained by higher metabolic capacity in organisms exposed to 17°C after pre-exposure to 21°C that although induced antioxidant defences were not enough to prevent oxidative stress. No significant differences in terms of Hg concentration were found between mussels exposed to 17°C during the entire experiment and organisms pre-exposed to 21°C followed by a 17°C exposure, leading to similar oxidative stress levels in mussels exposed to both conditions. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that pre-exposure to warming conditions did not change mussels' accumulation and tolerance to Hg in comparison to Hg contaminated mussels maintained at control temperature. Furthermore, the present study indicate that organisms maintained under warming conditions for long periods may prevent the accumulation of

  14. Assessment of correlation between leucocytes migration reaction and level of inhalation exposure to priority air contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Masnavieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays each forth person suffers from allergic diseases and allergic pathology prevalence is constantly growing. There are compounds in air which are generally toxic, or have sensitizing or allergenic effects on a body. For example, we can name formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. Our research goal was to reveal a correlation between reaction of leucocytes migration inhibition to formaldehyde and level of inhalation exposure to the examined chemicals. We examined 410 teenag-ers who permanently lived in industrial cities in Irkutsk region. We studied individual load as per formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. We estimated eosinophils content in nasal mucus and determined indexes of leucocytes migration inhibition to for-maldehyde. Index of formaldehyde effects danger was detected to exceed 1 in 54% teenagers. The greatest value of danger coefficient in terms of exposure to this substance was equal to 1.76. anger index in terms of exposure to nitrogen dioxide didn't exceed 0.7 in the examined teenagers. The obtained results prove that inhalation formaldehyde load influences teenag-ers from industrial centers as sensitization to this substance evolves in them. We found out that true inhibition reaction of leucocytes migration in a reaction with formaldehyde more frequently occurred in people with danger index in terms of ex-posure to this substance being lower than 1. We obtained models which described correlation between level of sensitization to formaldehyde and a number of eosinophils in nasal mucus and it allowed us to detect that sensitization depended on the examined contaminants content in the air. The sensitization to chemical air contaminants which we revealed in teenagers calls for necessary activities aimed at reducing risks of allergenic pathology evolvement in them.

  15. Bioavailability and toxicity of metals from a contaminated sediment by acid mine drainage: linking exposure-response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea to contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Bonnail, Estefanía; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    Streams and rivers strongly affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) have legal vacuum in terms of assessing the water toxicity, since the use of conventional environmental quality biomarkers is not possible due to the absence of macroinvertebrate organisms. The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea has been widely used as a biomonitor of metal contamination by AMD in freshwater systems. However, these clams are considered an invasive species in Spain and the transplantation in the field study is not allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency. To evaluate the use of the freshwater bivalve C. fluminea as a potential biomonitor for sediments contaminated by AMD, the metal bioavailability and toxicity were investigated in laboratory by exposure of clams to polluted sediments for 14 days. The studied sediments were classified as slightly contaminated with As, Cr, and Ni; moderately contaminated with Co; considerably contaminated with Pb; and heavily contaminated with Cd, Zn, and specially Cu, being reported as very toxic to Microtox. On the fourth day of the exposure, the clams exhibited an increase in concentration of Ga, Ba, Sb, and Bi (more than 100 %), followed by Co, Ni, and Pb (more than 60 %). After the fourth day, a decrease in concentration was observed for almost all metals studied except Ni. An allometric function was used to determine the relationship between the increases in metal concentration in soft tissue and the increasing bioavailable metal concentrations in sediments.

  16. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Legacy and emerging organohalogenated contaminants in wild edible aquatic organisms: Implications for bioaccumulation and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Li, Qing X; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Peng, Pingan; Mai, Bixian

    2018-03-01

    Highly industrialized and urbanized watersheds may receive various contaminants from anthropogenic activities. In this study, legacy and emerging organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) were measured in edible wild aquatic organisms sampled from the Pearl River and Dongjiang River in a representative industrial and urban region in China. High concentrations of target contaminants were observed. The Pearl River exhibited higher concentrations of OHCs than the Dongjiang River due to high industrialization and urbanization. Agrochemical inputs remained an important source of OHCs in industrialized and urbanized watershed in China, but vigilance is needed for recent inputs of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) originated from e-waste recycling activities. Bioaccumulation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and Dechlorane Plus (DP) was biological species- and compound-specific, which can be largely attributed to metabolic capability for xenobiotics. No health risk was related to the daily intake of DDTs, HCHs, and PBDEs via consumption of wild edible species investigated for local residents. However, the current exposure to PCBs through consuming fish is of potential health concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Accidental ammonia exposure to county fair show livestock due to contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Kasten, Steve; Banerjee, Monty

    2002-10-01

    Nitrogen based fertilizers represent an important element in the farm economy, but their storage and use are associated with major risks to livestock and humans. An accidental ammonia exposure occurred at a Midwest county fair in Illinois. Six deaths occurred in show livestock; a Holstein cow, 3 Holstein heifers, a goat, and a lamb. Mortality was associated with consumption of water inadvertently contaminated with a liquid fertilizer containing ammonium nitrate and urea commonly used for irrigating agricultural crop fields and brought onto the fairgrounds by a tanker truck previously used to transport liquid fertilizer. The show animals that drank the contaminated water immediately became ill, developed seizures and died within a few hours. Postmortem findings were unremarkable to nonspecific. Rumen contents from the lamb, Holstein cow, and Holstein heifer had ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of l,000, 1,150 and 1,440 ppm, respectively. Water from the heifer's water bucket, the cow's water bucket, and the tanker truck, had nitrate levels of 6,336, 6,116, and 6,248 ppm, respectively. The ammonia toxicosis was attributed to the contaminated water brought onto the fairgrounds by the tankertruck that previously transported liquid ammonium nitrateand urea. This accident underscores the importance of meticulous observation of safety guidelines and measured working practices in agriculture and animal husbandry.

  19. Exposure and bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils from the La Parrilla mine, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, H. M.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Murciego, A.; Buyolo, T.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic derived from mining activity may contaminate water, soil and plant ecosystems resulting in human health and ecotoxicological risks. In this study, exposure assessment of arsenic (As) in soil, spoil, pondwater and plants collected from the areas contaminated by mine tailings and spoils in and around the La Parrilla mine, Caceres province, Spain, was carried out using AAS method. Water solubility, bioavailability and soil-plant transfer coefficients of As and phytoremediation potential of plants were determined. Arsenic concentrations varied from 148 to 2,540 mg/kg in soils of site 1 and from 610 to 1,285 mg/kg in site 2 exceeding the guideline limit for agricultural soil (50 mg/kg). Arsenic concentrations in pond waters varied from 8.8 to 101.4 μg/l. High concentrations of water-soluble As in the soils that ranged from 0.10 to 4.71 mg/kg in site 1 and from 0.46 to 4.75 mg/kg in site 2 exceeded the maximum permitted level of water-soluble As (0.04 mg/kg) in agricultural soils. Arsenic concentrations varied from 0.8 to 149.5 mg/kg dry wt in the plants of site 1 and from 2.0 to 10.0 mg/kg in the plants of site 2. Arsenic concentrations in plants increased in the approximate order: Retama sphaerocarpa phytoremediation of As contaminated soils.

  20. Comparison of public exposures from different sources of radioactive contamination in recent years in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, B.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    In spite of that Slovenia is a small country it contains a considerable variety of radioactive sources, which cause radioactive contamination of the environment. These sources mostly belong to nuclear fuel cycle, as the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, the Zirovski vrh Uranium Mine (in the decommissioning), the TRIGA Research Reactor and Central low and intermediate level radioactive waste storage. Some other technological enhanced natural radiation sources, for example, the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant have also an impact to the environment. The comparison of the public exposure due to various sources of radioactive releases to the exposure of a members of the public in Slovenia shows that the critical group in the vicinity of the Zirovski Vrh uranium mine is the most exposed one in Slovenia. The global contamination due to the Chernobyl accident and the past nuclear tests was estimated to be around 10 μSv in Slovenia while the estimated annual dose for all other radioactive facilities are in the order of magnitude of one μSv. In this review the releases from the hospitals are not reported but some studies showed that it is not negligible. (authors)

  1. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  2. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  3. Environmental Contamination as an Important Route for the Transmission of the Hospital Pathogen VRE: Modeling and Prediction of Classical Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wolkewitz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In addition to the close contact between patients and medical staff, the contamination of surfaces plays an important role in the transmission of pathogens such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE. Mathematical modeling is a very convenient tool for hospital infection control as it allows the quantitative prediction of the effects of special hygiene and control interventions. Methods We present a compartmental model which describes the dynamics of transmission from patient to patient, also taking into account the interaction with medical staff and environmental contamination. Empirical data from a VRE outbreak in the onco-haematological unit at the University Medical Center Freiburg (Germany were collected with 100 consecutive admissions being followed up for 90 days. Stochastical simulations were used to predict the prevalence of patients colonised with VRE at the time when at least one of the following interventions were introduced: hand hygiene, disinfection of surfaces, cohorting, screening and antibiotic reduction. Results Graphical figures show the temporal dynamics of several simulation scenarios. If no prevention or intervention is present, simulations based on transmission models predict an expected endemic prevalence per ward of 0.83 (95% CI:0.66, 1.00 after the first infected person enters the unit. Interventions may reduce this prevalence, but only the combination of several interventions can control a VRE outbreak. Conclusions The model predicts that only the combination of several interventions can control an VRE outbreak in this setting. The inclusion of environmental contamination improves the compartmental model and allows a prediction of the efficacy of the disinfection of surfaces. These results can be applied to other settings and will therefore help to understand and control the spread of nosocomial pathogens.

  4. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linnea M.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, D.J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations.

  5. Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuke; Moe, Christine L; Null, Clair; Raj, Suraja J; Baker, Kelly K; Robb, Katharine A; Yakubu, Habib; Ampofo, Joseph A; Wellington, Nii; Freeman, Matthew C; Armah, George; Reese, Heather E; Peprah, Dorothy; Teunis, Peter F M

    2017-01-01

    Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple

  6. Estimating children's exposure to toxic elements in contaminated toys and children's jewelry via saliva mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Nguyen, Alain; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-09-19

    Children's potential for exposure to potentially toxic elements in contaminated jewelry and toys via mouth contact has not yet been fully evaluated. Various toys and jewelry (metallic toys and jewelry [MJ], plastic toys, toys with paint or coating, and brittle/pliable toys; n = 32) were tested using the saliva extraction (mouthing) compartment of the DIN and RIVM bioaccessibility protocols to assess As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se mobilization via saliva. Total concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb were found elevated in analyzed samples. Four metals were mobilized to saliva from 16 MJ in significant quantities (>1 μg for highly toxic Cd and Pb, >10 μg for Cu and Ni). Bioaccessible concentrations and hazard index values for Cd exceeded limit values, for young children between 6 mo- and 3 yr-old and according to both protocols. Total and bioaccessible metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, encouraging the use of bioaccessibility for more accurate hazard assessments. Bioaccessibility increased with increasing extraction time. Overall, the risk from exposure to toxic elements via mouthing was high only for Cd and for MJ. Further research on children's exposure to toxic elements following ingestion of toy or jewelry material is recommended.

  7. Occupational exposure to contaminated biological material: perceptions and feelings experienced among dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila PINELLI

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group exposed to the risk of acquiring infections through occupational injuries.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions with regard to their occupational exposure to potentially infectious biologic materials.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Interviews were conducted by means of a script with open questions. The speeches were recorded, transcribed and qualitative analysis was performed with the aid of QUALIQUANTISOFT® software. The Collective Subject Discourse (CSD was obtained.RESULT: The feeling most frequently experienced was related to the fear of contagion. Most accidents occurred during the handling of sharp dental instruments. Respondents attributed the occurrence of accidents especially the lack of attention, carelessness while handling sharp instruments, and lack of use of Personal Protective Equipment. As regards the measures taken right after the exposure, they "washed the local area". Other respondents reported they "continued the dental treatment". They complained mostly about the fear of having been infected, and because they had to leave the faculty to take blood exams for HIV screening. As part of the learning experience the injured reported they paid more attention when handling sharp instruments. The students informed that any type of injury due to contact with contaminated material must be notified. However, they were neglectful about reporting their own injury.CONCLUSION: Education strategies for preventive measures related to occupational exposure must be restructured, because the knowledge and the fear of contagion among dental students were not always sufficient for a complete adherence to treatment protocols and notification.

  8. Using the Salmonella assay to delineate the dispersion routes of mutagenic compounds from coal wastes in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Flavio Manoel Rodrigues; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2009-03-17

    The mutagenicity of acidic and organic extracts of surface soil under the influence of a coal-fired power plant was evaluated by Salmonella/microsome assay using strains TA97a, TA98 and TA100 in the absence and presence of exogenous metabolic systems (S9 mix). Additionally, strains YG1041 and YG1042 (sensitive to nitroderivatives) were used for the organic extracts. In general, the responses were higher in the organic extracts in the presence of S9 mix. The comparison between strains TA98 and TA100 and their derived strains YG1041 and YG1042, respectively, allowed the detection of the presence of nitro-aromatic compounds in some sampling areas, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. The interpretation of the set of mutagenesis data suggests that there are two important mutagenic compound dispersion routes in the area of study: frameshift mutagens were dispersed predominantly by runoff and leaching, while base-pair substitution mutagens were dispersed mainly by the atmosphere. This mutagenic damage might be attributed to the effects of several substances detected in the area, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons and the metals aluminum, cadmium, lead and iron.

  9. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes contamination routes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants detected by DNA-based typing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Huss, Hans Henrik; Ojeniyi, B.

    2001-01-01

    and environment could not be excluded. Contamination of the product occurred in specific areas (the brining and slicing areas). In plant I, the same RAPD type (RAPD type 12) was found over a 4-year period, indicating that an established in-house flora persisted and was not eliminated by routine hygienic......, monocytogenes). A total of 429 strains of L. monocytogenes were subsequently compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling, and 55 different RAPD types were found. The RAPD types detected on the products were identical to types found on the processing equipment and in the processing environment...... procedures. In plant II, where the prevalence of L, monocytogenes was much tower, no RAPD type persisted over long periods of time, and several different L, monocytogenes RAPD types were isolated. This indicates that persistent strains may be avoided by rigorous cleaning and sanitation; however, due...

  10. Exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Dietz, Rune; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Jørgensen, Even H; Sonne, Christian; Verreault, Jonathan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2010-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) encompass an array of anthropogenic organic and elemental substances and their degradation and metabolic byproducts that have been found in the tissues of exposed animals, especially POPs categorized as organohalogen contaminants (OHCs). OHCs have been of concern in the circumpolar arctic for decades. For example, as a consequence of bioaccumulation and in some cases biomagnification of legacy (e.g., chlorinated PCBs, DDTs and CHLs) and emerging (e.g., brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA) found in Arctic biota and humans. Of high concern are the potential biological effects of these contaminants in exposed Arctic wildlife and fish. As concluded in the last review in 2004 for the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) on the effects of POPs in Arctic wildlife, prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects in relation to OHC exposure, and attempts to assess known tissue/body compartment concentration data in the context of possible threshold levels of effects to evaluate the risks. This review concentrates mainly on post-2002, new OHC effects data in Arctic wildlife and fish, and is largely based on recently available effects data for populations of several top trophic level species, including seabirds (e.g., glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), polar (Arctic) fox (Vulpes lagopus), and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), as well as semi-captive studies on sled dogs (Canis familiaris). Regardless, there remains a dearth of data on true contaminant exposure, cause-effect relationships with respect to these contaminant exposures in Arctic wildlife and fish. Indications of exposure effects are largely

  11. Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Ferguson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  12. PIXE analysis of hilar gland for the evaluation of personal history of exposure to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo; Sasa, Yoshihiko; Maeda, Kunihiko.

    1992-01-01

    Seven autopsied cases were studied for the evaluation of individual history of exposure to environmental contaminants based on the elemental profile of hilar gland by PIXE and lung tissue by AAS. The results well characterized their occupational history, especially from Cr, Al, Si and As detection. Moreover, it might be possible that these analyses would provide data to suspect the chemical form of each element in deposited particles of lung parenchyma, since the solubility could reflect the different profile of element between hilar gland and lung parenchyma. In addition to these retrospective analyses using the materials obtained from autopsies, it is possible to assess the individual risk using small quantity of hilar gland or lung tissue obtained by biopsy or surgical resection. (author)

  13. Primary circuit contamination in nuclear power plants: contribution to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provens, H.

    2002-01-01

    In every country since the 80's, a clear downward trend is observed concerning the occupational doses at nuclear power plants, as shows the regularly decreasing annual collective dose per operating reactor. Even if technology and work management are improving, the reduction and the control of radiation sources remain one critical point. This paper summarizes the results of an extended study on the primary circuit contamination in nuclear power plants and its contribution to workers' exposure. The paper reviews the origin and mechanisms of radiation production and the different ways of radiation control or reduction based on physical and chemical parameters and not organisational or human factors. It underlines that chemistry control of the primary circuit is one essential component of radiation protection optimisation in nuclear power plants. Results reported come from scientific data in open literature and cannot be generalized to all the power plants

  14. Assesment of systemic exposure form a wound contaminated by radioactive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, Jean; Menoux, Bernadette; Chaptinel, Yves

    1992-03-01

    Wound contamination may occur in case of accidental exposure of workers handling radioactive products. In order to operate radio-toxicological follow-up, a fairly general model must be able to apply to the various injuries and products involved. Some principles and their applications are developed to make it possible for physicians to set up a monitoring program relevant to the assessment of the systemic burden. Only the dosimetry relative to the activity passing through the cutaneous mucous barrier into the blood flow is considered. Local doses at the wound level are not considered. For the interpretation of the measurements, both retention and excretion curves and dosimetric factors are given for the most common radionuclides. (authors) [fr

  15. An early approach for the evaluation of repair processes in fish after exposure to sediment contaminated by an oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Maria J; Jimenez-Tenorio, Natalia; Reguera, Diana F; Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Delvalls, T Angel

    2008-12-01

    A chronic bioassay was carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Solea senegalensis to determine the toxicity of contaminants from an oil spill(Prestige). Also, the repair processes in fish affected by contaminants due to oil exposure were evaluated. Over 30 days individuals were exposed to clean sediment (control) and to sediment contaminated by a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other substances. The physicochemical parameters of the tanks (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were controlled during the exposure period. Clean sediment from the Bay of Cadiz (Spain) was used as negative control and was mixed with fuel oil to prepare the dilution (0.5% w:w dry-weight). After the exposure period, fish were labeled and transferred to "clean tanks" (tanks without sediment) in order to study the recovery and the repair processes in the exposed organisms. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure and recovery period. After 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure, individuals showed significant induction (P tank", enabled a first evaluation of the repair process of the induced damages due to the fuel oil exposure. After the recovery phase, control individuals showed a more significant decrease (P repair processes probably need longer recovery periods to observe significant improvement of the affected organs. This will be further investigated in the future.

  16. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enclosure design for flock-level, chronic exposure of birds to air contaminant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michelle A; Kinniburgh, David W; Smits, Judit E G

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to design an enclosure suitable for studying the ecotoxicological effects of vehicle emissions on groups of wild birds without compromising welfare. Two, adjacent enclosures sheltered from sunlight, wind and rain, were bird-proofed and wrapped with thick polyethylene sheeting. Emissions were directed into the treatment enclosure from the exhaust of a light-duty gasoline truck, using flexible, heat-proof pipe, with joins sealed to prevent leakage. During active exposure, the engine was idled for 5 h/day, 6 days/week for 4 weeks. Fans maintained positive pressure (controls) and negative pressure (treatment), preventing cross-contamination of enclosures and protecting investigators. Four sets of passive, badge-type samplers were distributed across each enclosure, measuring nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds (NO 2 , SO 2 and VOCs, respectively), and were complemented by active monitors measuring VOCs and particulate matter (2.5 µm diameter, PM 2.5 ). We found that the concentrations of NO 2 , SO 2 and PM 2.5 were not different between treatment and control enclosures. Volatile organic compounds (e.g. benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) were approximately six times higher in the treatment enclosure than control (13.23 and 2.13 µg m -1 , respectively). In conclusion, this represents a successful, practical design for studying the effects of sub-chronic to chronic exposure to realistic mixtures of vehicle exhaust contaminants, in groups of birds. Recommended modifications for future research include a chassis dynamometer (vehicle treadmill), to better replicate driving conditions including acceleration and deceleration.

  18. Evaluation of the contribution of contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces in the measure of exposure rate of radioiodine therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Rafael Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces is significant and the measures of patient exposure rate are held on the fourth dependencies, relevant questions are raised: the background radiation of the room stay high due to surface contamination, may interfere with the rate of patient exposure at the time of its release? The monitoring site is important to determine whether the patient will be released? The value of the deal activity and the clinical condition of the patient may increase the contamination, influencing the monitoring results? This paper aims to conduct a quantitative analysis of surface contamination of the contribution of therapeutic room at the time is monitored exposure rate from inpatient. Measurements were made regarding the hospitalization of 32 patients with different doses administered activity, age and of both genders. The measurements were performed in the therapeutic rooms at the hospital Brotherhood Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo. Exposure rate measurements were performed at the center of the room at 1 meter of the patient on the day of its release. After his release and prior to decontamination, measurements were performed at predetermined landmarks within the therapeutic room. The results revealed that on average background radiation, high due to surface contamination contributes only 2% of the patient dose rate. It can be considered that even with influence of contamination of surfaces, this is insignificant to determine if the patient may or may not be released. This study suggests that the site in which monitoring occurs exposure rate of the patient should not be decisive for liberation thereof. (author)

  19. Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    be heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon polychlorinated (PCB) mixture. The microarray was able to distinguish dolphins by sex, geographic location, and corroborate previously published health irregularities for the Georgia dolphins. Genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, development/differentiation and oncogenic pathways were found to be differentially expressed in GA dolphins. The report bridges the advancements in dolphin genome sequencing to the first step towards providing a cost-effective means to screen for indicators of chemical toxin exposure as well as disease status in top level predators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Health risk assessment of urban population exposure to contaminants in the soils of the Southern Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, N. A.; Tarasova, N. P.; Osipov, K. Yu.; Maximova, D. I.

    2015-11-01

    This study concerns the human health risk due to exposure of Co, Cu, As, Mn contained in soils of the Southern Kuzbass, where the coal industry is developed. Soil samples of 200 were taken in Mezhdurechensk - city with intensive coal mining and processing industries. The content of heavy metals in samples were determined using the electron spectroscopy. Several samples were also investigated by methods of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With regard to the effects of heavy metals on the adult population health the total Hazard Index (HI) for ingestion and inhalation routes was 0.87×10-1 and 7.8×10-1 respectively. According to the contribution of Co, Cu, As, Mn to the total HI the elements form the decreasing series Mn (0,42-0,50)> Co (0.18-0.20)> Cu (0,13-0,19 )> As (0,05-0,09). These chemical elements are present in the organic and inorganic forms in coals and coal wastes. Ranking the city territory has shown that administrative districts have different HI values (8.4 10-1 - 8.8 10-1). When analyzing the human health risks of coal mining and coal-processing enterprises the impact of heavy metals as components of coals and combustion products should be taken into account.

  2. Spatial and statistical methods for correlating the interaction between groundwater contamination and tap water exposure in karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Rivera, V. L.; Macchiavelli, R. E.; Torres Torres, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater systems in karst regions are highly vulnerable to contamination and have an enormous capacity to store and rapidly convey pollutants to potential exposure zones over long periods of time. Contaminants in karst aquifers used for drinking water purposes can, therefore, enter distributions lines and the tap water point of use. This study applies spatial and statistical analytical methods to assess potential correlations between contaminants in a karst groundwater system in northern Puerto Rico and exposure in the tap water. It focuses on chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) and phthalates because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the potential public health impacts. The work integrates historical data collected from regulatory agencies and current field measurements involving groundwater and tap water sampling and analysis. Contaminant distributions and cluster analysis is performed with Geographic Information System technology. Correlations between detection frequencies and contaminants concentration in source groundwater and tap water point of use are assessed using Pearson's Chi Square and T-Test analysis. Although results indicate that correlations are contaminant-specific, detection frequencies are generally higher for total CVOC in groundwater than tap water samples, but greater for phthalates in tap water than groundwater samples. Spatial analysis shows widespread distribution of CVOC and phthalates in both groundwater and tap water, suggesting that contamination comes from multiple sources. Spatial correlation analysis indicates that association between tap water and groundwater contamination depends on the source and type of contaminants, spatial location, and time. Full description of the correlations may, however, need to take into consideration variable anthropogenic interventions.

  3. Integrated Assessment of Shallow-Aquifer Vulnerability to Multiple Contaminants and Drinking-Water Exposure Pathways in Holliston, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Claus Henn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Half of U.S. drinking water comes from aquifers, and very shallow ones (<20 feet to water table are especially vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. We present the case of Holliston, a Boston, Massachusetts suburb that draws its drinking water from very shallow aquifers, and where metals and solvents have been reported in groundwater. Community concerns focus on water discolored by naturally occurring manganese (Mn, despite reports stating regulatory aesthetic compliance. Epidemiologic studies suggest Mn is a potentially toxic element (PTE for children exposed by the drinking-water pathway at levels near the regulatory aesthetic level. We designed an integrated, community-based project: five sites were profiled for contaminant releases; service areas for wells were modeled; and the capture zone for one vulnerable well was estimated. Manganese, mercury, and trichloroethylene are among 20 contaminants of interest. Findings show that past and/or current exposures to multiple contaminants in drinking water are plausible, satisfying the criteria for complete exposure pathways. This case questions the adequacy of aquifer protection and monitoring regulations, and highlights the need for integrated assessment of multiple contaminants, associated exposures and health risks. It posits that community-researcher partnerships are essential for understanding and solving complex problems.

  4. Long-term Neurotoxic Effects of Early-life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschengrau, Ann; Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Vieira, Veronica M; Gallagher, Lisa G; Getz, Kelly D; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2016-01-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983, widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. A retrospective cohort study (the Cape Cod Health Study) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. This review describes the study methods and findings regarding the effects of prenatal and childhood exposure on neurologic outcomes during early adulthood, including vision, neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, risky behaviors, and mental illness. The review also describes the strengths and challenges of conducting population-based epidemiologic research in this unique setting. Participants were identified by cross-matching birth certificates and water system data. Information on health outcomes and confounding variables was collected from self-administered surveys (n = 1689), neuropsychological tests (n = 63), vision examinations (n = 63), and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 42). Early-life exposure to PCE was estimated using a leaching and transport model. The data analysis compared the occurrence of each health outcome among individuals with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure to unexposed individuals while considering the effect of confounding variables. The study found evidence that early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water has long-term neurotoxic effects. The strongest associations were seen with illicit drug use, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Key strengths of the study were availability of historical data on affected water systems, a relatively high exposure prevalence and wide range of exposure levels, and little confounding. Challenges arose mainly from the historical

  5. Contaminant exposure in relation to spatio-temporal variation in diet composition: A case study of the little owl (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, A.M.; Wijnhoven, S.; Baveco, H.; van den Brink, N.W.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure of the little owl Athene noctua to trace metal contamination in a Dutch Rhine River floodplain area. Diet composition was calculated per month for three habitat types, based on the population densities of six prey types (earthworms, ground beetles and four small mammal

  6. CAirTOX, An inter-media transfer model for assessing indirect exposures to hazardous air contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is a quantitative evaluation of information on potential health hazards of environmental contaminants and the extent of human exposure to these contaminants. As applied to toxic chemical emissions to air, risk assessment involves four interrelated steps. These are (1) determination of source concentrations or emission characteristics, (2) exposure assessment, (3) toxicity assessment, and (4) risk characterization. These steps can be carried out with assistance from analytical models in order to estimate the potential risk associated with existing and future releases. CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making these types of calculations. CAirTOX follows an approach that has been incorporated into the CalTOX model, which was developed for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, With CAirTOX, we can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The capacity to explicitly address uncertainty has been incorporated into the model in two ways. First, the spreadsheet form of the model makes it compatible with Monte-Carlo add-on programs that are available for uncertainty analysis. Second, all model inputs are specified in terms of an arithmetic mean and coefficient of variation so that uncertainty analyses can be carried out

  7. Tritium activity balance in hairless rats following skin-contact exposure to tritium-gas-contaminated stainless-steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1994-06-01

    Studies using animals and human volunteers have demonstrated that the dosimetry for skin-contact exposure to contaminated metal surfaces differs from that for the intake of tritiated water or tritium gas. However, despite the availability of some information on the dosimetry for skin-contact with tritium-gas-contaminated metal surfaces, uncertainties in estimating skin doses remain, because of poor accounting for the applied tritium activity in the body (Eakins et al., 1975; Trivedi, 1993). Experiments on hairless rats were performed to account for the tritium activity applied onto the skin. Hairless rats were contaminated through skin-contact exposure to tritium-gas-contaminated stainless-steel planchets. The activity in the first smear was about 35% of the total removable activity (measured by summing ten consecutive swipes). The amount of tritium applied onto the skin can be approximated by estimating the tritium activity in the first smear removed form the contaminated surfaces. 87 {+-} 9% of the transferred tritium was retained in the exposed skin 30 min post-exposure. 30 min post exposure, the unexposed skin and the carcass retained 8 {+-} 6% and 3 {+-} 2% of the total applied tritium activity, respectively. The percentage of tritium evolved from the body or breathed out was estimated to be 2 {+-} 1% of the total applied activity 30 min post-exposure. It is recommended that to evaluate accurately the amount of tritium transferred to the skin, alternative measurement approaches are required that can directly account for the transferred activity onto the skin. 15 refs., 13 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Environmental and behavioral changes may influence the exposure of an Arctic apex predator to pathogens and contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Patyk, Kelly A.; Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack; McCollum, Matthew; McKinney, Melissa A.; Ramey, Andy M.; Cerqueira-Cezar, Camila; Kwok, Oliver C H; Dubey, Jitender P; Hennager, S.G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent decline of sea ice habitat has coincided with increased use of land by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the southern Beaufort Sea (SB), which may alter the risks of exposure to pathogens and contaminants. We assayed blood samples from SB polar bears to assess prior exposure to the pathogens Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Neospora caninum, estimate concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and evaluate risk factors associated with exposure to pathogens and POPs. We found that seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and T. gondii antibodies likely increased through time, and provide the first evidence of exposure of polar bears to C. burnetii, N. caninum, and F. tularensis. Additionally, the odds of exposure to T. gondii were greater for bears that used land than for bears that remained on the sea ice during summer and fall, while mean concentrations of the POP chlordane (ΣCHL) were lower for land-based bears. Changes in polar bear behavior brought about by climate-induced modifications to the Arctic marine ecosystem may increase exposure risk to certain pathogens and alter contaminant exposure pathways.

  9. Fungal contamination of crude herbal remedies as a possible source of mycotoxin exposure in man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OGOyero; AOBOyefolu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The documented evidence of toxigenic fungi and their toxic metabolites on medicinal plants,coupled with the ability of these toxins to resist decomposition and temperature treatments necessitated this study,with a view of surveying for a possible carry over into the final medicinal products.As such popular indigenous crude herbal prepa-rations widely consumed for various ailments in south-western Nigeria,were screened for fungal contamination,my-coflora enumeration,flora mycotoxin productibility,detection and quantification of a potent human carcinogen (afla-toxin).Methods:Fungal contamination was assessed on acidified potato dextrose agar using the plate count method, while mycotoxin detection,extraction and quantification were achieved by the thin -layer chromatography and chem-ical confirmation techniques.Mycoflora were characterized by standard procedures.Results:The total plate count ranged from 1.80 ×104 CFU /ML to 1.10 ×105 CFU /ML and 2.00 ×103 CFU /ML to 1.38 ×105 CFU /ML for water and dry gin extracted preparations respectively.The mycoflora consisted of six genera (Aspergillus,Penicillium,Fu-sarium,Mucor,Alternaria and Rhizopus).Thirty-four percent (34 %)of the potential toxigenic species (Aspergil-lus,Penicillium and Fusarium)produced mycotoxins in culture,while further characterization indicated production of aflatoxin B1 (42 %),ochratoxin A (50 %)and penicillic acid (8 %)by the mycotoxigenic strains respectively. The aflatoxin content of the herbal medicines ranged between 0.004 μg/kg and 0.345 μg/kg.Conclusion:The study confirmed the carry over of the fungal contaminants and their toxic metabolites into the final herbal medicines in quantities that exceeded some of the available limits.The implication of this is that the chronic exposure to mycotox-ins particularly aflatoxins as a result of long term consumption of these preparations,could lead to impaired growth, nutritional interference,immunologic suppression and hepatocellular

  10. Heavy metal exposure, reproductive activity, and demographic patterns in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting a contaminated floodplain wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, Jeffrey M.; Heske, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of selected metals and selenium (Se) in the tissues of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) collected at a constructed wetland originally created as a retention basin for sediments dredged from Lake DePue, Illinois. These sediments were contaminated with high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and other elements as a result of nearby smelting operations. White-footed mice inhabiting the former retention basin experienced greater exposure to Cd, Pb, and Se than those from nearby reference sites. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in livers of mice from the contaminated wetland and adjacent floodplain reference site were greater than in mice from the more-distant reference sites. Judging by concentrations in their kidneys, white-footed mice inhabiting the floodplain adjacent to the contaminated wetland had greater exposure to Cd than those from the two more-distant reference sites. Concentrations of Hg in tissues of mice did not vary appreciably among sites. Concentrations of Cd and Se in the tissues of some white-footed mice from the contaminated wetland exceeded critical concentrations observed in experimental studies of laboratory mice and rats; with few exceptions tissue Pb concentrations were below published effects levels. However, we did not detect changes in abundance, demographics, or reproductive activity that might suggest population-level effects of contaminant exposure. Mean weight of embryos expressed as a function of crown-rump length did not differ among locations sampled, and no gross lesions indicative of exposure to heavy metals were observed. Kidney and liver weight, corrected for body weight, were nominally, though not significantly, lowest in both male and female mice from areas of increased Cd and Pb exposure. Metals dredged from Lake DePue were still bioavailable 25 years after deposition. However, small mammal populations are resilient to environmental stressors and we did not detect differences in

  11. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Until now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  12. Contamination of occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Bruhn, Gerd; Artmann, Andreas; Sentuc, Florence-Nathalie; Tiessen, Olga

    2017-12-01

    In the precursor project of this study a simulation procedure was developed, consisting of a 3D-CAD model, a mathematical method for coordinate transformation, the software MicroShield and an empiric job model, to calculate the occupational exposure for definable jobs at the primary circuit. It was validated for inspection and maintenance jobs at PWRs of the second and third KWU/Siemens generation. With that the aptitude of this tool for prognosis of radiation exposure was demonstrated. Adhering contaminations within the primary circuit are considered as relevant sources, whereas activated core-near components are neglected. In this study, the model was extended by PWR of the so-called Convoy generation, which differ from older plants in the material composition and consequently in the relevant nuclide vectors. With information from a visit at a nuclear power plant and conversation with the staff, the model could be adjusted appropriately. The radionuclide Cobalt-60 is indeed less important compared to older plant-types, but it is still the dominant nuclide in facilities of the fourth KWU/Siemens generation, so that it is used as reference nuclide. Due to the contemporary planned final shut-down of the three Convoy plants (besides other), dismantling work was set into focus of simulation. Simulation was conducted and results compared for Convoy plants and for plants of the older generations two and three. Furthermore, by comparative simulations the question was answered if full system decontamination in Convoy plants before dismantling lead to benefits that justify this measure. The determined dose saving during unmounting works at the steam generators caused by the decontamination is remarkable. An abdication of decontamination at this location would lead to doses much higher than the occupational job dose during steam generator dismantling in a decontaminated generation 2 facility.

  13. Breaking the Take Home Pesticide Exposure Pathway for Agricultural Families: Workplace Predictors of Residential Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Richard A.; Lu, Chensheng; Negrete, Maria; Galvin, Kit

    2018-01-01

    Background Pesticides used in agriculture can be taken into worker homes and pose a potential risk for children and other family members. This study focused on identification of potential intervention points at the workplace. Methods Workers (N = 46) recruited from two tree fruit orchards in Washington State were administered a 63-item pesticide safety questionnaire. Dust was collected from commuter vehicles and worker homes and analyzed for four organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (azinphosmethyl, phosmet, chlorpyrifos, malathion). Results Geometric mean azinphosmethyl concentrations in dust for three worker groups (16 pesticide handlers, 15 green fruit thinners, 15 organic orchard workers) ranged from 0.027–1.5 μg/g, with levels in vehicle dust higher than in house dust, and levels in house dust from handlers’ homes higher than levels from tree fruit thinners’ homes. Vehicle and house dust concentrations of azinphosmethyl were highly associated (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001). Significant differences were found across worker groups for availability of laundry facilities, work boot storage, frequency of hand washing, commuter vehicle use, parking location, and safety training. Conclusions These findings support a focus on intervention activities to reduce take home pesticide exposure closer to the source of contamination; specifically, the workplace and vehicles used to travel to the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:1063–1071, 2013. PMID:23853121

  14. Pathway analysis and exposure assessment: MEPAS modeling for nonradiological chemical contaminants at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Dirkes, R.; Buck, J.; Cooper, A.; Castieton, K.; Glantz, C.

    1995-01-01

    A Chemical Pathway Analysis and Exposure Assessment was performed by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The SESP monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife in order to assess onsite of offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health risk at the Hanford Site. The objectives of this study are (1) determine if a nonradiological chemical monitoring program is warranted for the Hanford Site, (2) ensure that the selection of surveillance parameters such as media, sampling location, and analytes are chosen in a manner that is scientifically sound and cost-efficient, and (3) identify specific nonradiological chemicals of concern (COC) for the Hanford Site. The basis for identification of COC for the Hanford Site was an extensive literature review. The model was also used to predict COC concentrations required onsite to achieve an offsite cancer incidence of 1 E-6 and a hazard quotient of 1.0. This study indicated that nonradiological chemical contamination occurring onsite does not pose a significant offsite human health risk. The highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual from COC was from arsenic (1.76E-1 0); the highest hazard quotient was chromium VI (1.48E-04)

  15. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md. Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0–87.6% and 20.1–82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9–71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1–59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co-contaminated fields due to mining activities. PMID:28850097

  16. Prevalence and correlates of fentanyl-contaminated heroin exposure among young adults who use prescription opioids non-medically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmadu, Alexandria; Carroll, Jennifer J; Hadland, Scott E; Green, Traci C; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2017-05-01

    The rate of overdose deaths caused by fentanyl-contaminated heroin (FCH) use is increasing rapidly in the United States. We examined risk factors for exposure to FCH and experiences with FCH use among young adult non-medical prescription opioids (NMPO) users. We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 29 reporting prior 30day NMPO use between January 2015 and February 2016. Participants completed questionnaires ascertaining drug use patterns and risk behaviors, including FCH exposure. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with known or suspected FCH exposure. Of 199 participants, the median age was 25 (IQR: 22, 27), 130 (65.3%) were male, and 122 (61.3%) were of White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. In total, 22 (11%) reported known or suspected FCH exposure in the prior six months. Several drug use patterns and risk behaviors were associated with FCH exposure, including: regular heroin and cocaine use; diverted pharmaceutical fentanyl use in the prior six months; NMPO use to avoid withdrawal symptoms; longer duration of NMPO use; regular injection drug use; and prior overdose (all pfentanyl prior to last use, 59% reported that FCH provides a better high, and all recognized that fentanyl increases overdose risk. Exposure to fentanyl-contaminated heroin is an emerging trend among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island. Overdose prevention programs addressing FCH use are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of breast cancer following exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Cape Cod, Massachusetts: reanalysis of a case-control study using a modified exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Thomas F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE is an important occupational chemical used in metal degreasing and drycleaning and a prevalent drinking water contaminant. Exposure often occurs with other chemicals but it occurred alone in a pattern that reduced the likelihood of confounding in a unique scenario on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. We previously found a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer among women with the highest exposures using a simple exposure model. We have taken advantage of technical improvements in publically available software to incorporate a more sophisticated determination of water flow and direction to see if previous results were robust to more accurate exposure assessment. Methods The current analysis used PCE exposure estimates generated with the addition of water distribution modeling software (EPANET 2.0 to test model assumptions, compare exposure distributions to prior methods, and re-examine the risk of breast cancer. In addition, we applied data smoothing to examine nonlinear relationships between breast cancer and exposure. We also compared a set of measured PCE concentrations in water samples collected in 1980 to modeled estimates. Results Thirty-nine percent of individuals considered unexposed in prior epidemiological analyses were considered exposed using the current method, but mostly at low exposure levels. As a result, the exposure distribution was shifted downward resulting in a lower value for the 90th percentile, the definition of "high exposure" in prior analyses. The current analyses confirmed a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer for women with high PCE exposure levels defined by either the 90th percentile (adjusted ORs 1.0-1.5 for 0-19 year latency assumptions or smoothing analysis cut point (adjusted ORs 1.3-2.0 for 0-15 year latency assumptions. Current exposure estimates had a higher correlation with PCE concentrations in water samples (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.65, p

  18. Effect of risk information exposure on consumers' responses to foods with insect contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Magariyama, Yukio; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Shichiri, Kumiko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Wada, Yuji

    2014-02-01

    This study explores the impact that scientific information about insect contamination of food has on consumer perceptions. Participants (n = 320, Japanese consumers) were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 information-type conditions: (1) information about insect type, (2) information about contamination processes, (3) information about the safety of contaminated food, (4, 5, 6) combinations of 2 of (1), (2), and (3) above, (7) all information, and (8) no-information, and asked to rate their valuation, behavioral intention, and attitude toward food with insect contamination. Results demonstrated that some combinations of scientific information that include the safety of the contaminated food are effective to reduce consumers' compulsive rejection of insect contamination in food, whereas the single presentation of information about insect type increases consumers' explicit rejection of both the contaminated product and the manufacturer. These findings have implications for the coordination of risk communication strategies. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Resuspended contaminated sediments cause sublethal stress to oysters: A biomarker differentiates total suspended solids and contaminant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Katelyn J; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Ringwood, Amy H; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-06-01

    Resuspended contaminated sediments represent an important route of contaminant exposure for aquatic organisms. During resuspension events, filter-feeding organisms are exposed to contaminants, in both the dissolved form (at the gills) and the particulate form (in the digestive system). In addition, these organisms must manage the physical stress associated with an increase in total suspended solids (TSS). To date, few studies have experimentally compared the contributions to biological stress of contaminated and clean suspended solids. The authors mixed field-collected sediments (cellular biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione) were measured to evaluate sublethal toxicity. Lysosomal membrane stability was the most sensitive biomarker for distinguishing effects from resuspended contaminated sediments, as increasing amounts of contaminated TSS increased lysosomal membrane destabilization. The authors' results illustrate the importance of considering contaminant exposures from resuspended sediments when assessing the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Significance of radon exposures in developing cleanup criteria for radium-contaminated soil at the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, D.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Hillman, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, is included on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting cleanup activities at the site. This paper discusses the significance of radon exposures that may result from radium-contaminated soil and the approach currently being taken at the Weldon Spring site to address this issue

  1. Initial hospital management of irradiated and radio-contaminated victims in case of accidental exposure of populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehrenbach; Mantzarides, M.; Bonardel, G.; Gontier, E.; Laroche, P.; Carbonnieres, H. de

    2006-01-01

    The current risk of radiologic exposure of the population occurs in many circumstances. The industrial accident is remarkably illustrated by the Tchernobyl event. Another kind is still virtual but the international situation does not allow to turn this hypothesis down. It is terrorist utilization of radioactive material. In these situations, medical problems are specific and require particular knowledge about the two forms of exposure which are external irradiation and external and internal contamination. Pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation effects concerning biological tissues are similar in these situations but care actions are dedicated. These elements are mandatory for the elaboration of procedures for the reception of irradiated or contaminated victims, being wounded or not, in a first-aid department. These procedures must comprise two aspects: the recognition of the radiologic exposition and the therapeutic actions taking into account the severity of associated injuries. Diagnosis of a radioactive contamination is rather simple by external detection. Conversely, to estimate the reality of an external irradiation is much more difficult but necessary for dosimetric evaluation. This latter is of the highest importance for the prevision of delayed clinical manifestations. At the hospital level, despite the training effort for first aid departments staff, the nuclear medicine physician, specialist for radioactive contamination, can play a specific role for the preparation of the equipment, the procedures and during intervention after a radiologic event has happened. This emphasizes the obligation for him to update his knowledge about this subject. (author)

  2. Atomic structure from large-area, low-dose exposures of materials: A new route to circumvent radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.C., E-mail: jannik.meyer@univie.ac.at; Kotakoski, J.; Mangler, C.

    2014-10-15

    Beam-induced structural modifications are a major nuisance in the study of materials by high-resolution electron microscopy. Here, we introduce a new approach to circumvent the radiation damage problem by a statistical treatment of large, noisy, low-dose data sets of non-periodic configurations (e.g. defects) in the material. We distribute the dose over a mixture of different defect structures at random positions and with random orientations, and recover representative model images via a maximum likelihood search. We demonstrate reconstructions from simulated images at such low doses that the location of individual entities is not possible. The approach may open a route to study currently inaccessible beam-sensitive configurations. - Highlights: • A new approach to circumvent radiation damage. • Statistical treatment of large noisy data sets. • Analysis of radiation sensitive material defects.

  3. A vapourized Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) delivery system part I: development and validation of a pulmonary cannabinoid route of exposure for experimental pharmacology studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Laurie A; Charchoglyan, Armen; Brewer, Dyanne; Matthews, Brittany A; Heipel, Heather; Mallet, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Most studies evaluating the effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) in animal models administer it via a parenteral route (e.g., intraperitoneal (IP) or intravenous injection (IV)), however, the common route of administration for human users is pulmonary (e.g., smoking or vapourizing marijuana). A vapourized Δ(9)-THC delivery system for rodents was developed and used to compare the effects of pulmonary and parenteral Δ(9)-THC administration on blood cannabinoid levels and behaviour. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to pulmonary Δ(9)-THC (1, 5, and 10mg of inhaled vapour) delivered via a Volcano® vapourizing device (Storz and Bickel, Germany) or to parenteral Δ(9)-THC (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mg/kg injected IP). Quantification of Δ(9)-THC and its psychoactive metabolite, 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-THC (11-OH-Δ(9)-THC), in blood was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In order to verify the potential for the vapourization procedure to produce a robust conditioned place preference (CPP) or conditioned place avoidance CPA, classical conditioning procedures were systematically varied by altering the exposure time (10 or 20min) and number of exposed rats (1 or 2) while maintaining the same vapourization dose (10mg). Blood collected at 20min intervals showed similar dose-dependent and time-dependent changes in Δ(9)-THC and 11-OH-Δ(9)-THC for both pulmonary and parenteral administration of Δ(9)-THC. However, vapourized Δ(9)-THC induced CPP under certain conditions whereas IP-administered Δ(9)-THC induced CPA. These results support and extend the limited evidence (e.g., in humans, Naef et al., 2004; in rodents, Niyuhire et al., 2007) that Δ(9)-THC produces qualitatively different effects on behaviour depending upon the route of administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Additional exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs from the diet as a consequence of the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, C; Anderson, W; Flynn, A; Pratt, I

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the discovery of elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs in a porcine fat sample taken as part of the national residues monitoring programme led to the detection of a major feed contamination incidence in the Republic of Ireland. To estimate additional exposure to dioxins and PCBs due to the contamination incident, all data associated with the contamination incident were collected and reviewed. An exposure model was devised that took into account the proportion of contaminated product reaching the final consumer during the contamination incident window and which utilised all additional information that became available after the incident occurred. Exposure estimates derived for both dioxins and PCBs showed that the body burden of the general population remained largely unaffected by the contamination incident and only approximately 10% were exposed to elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs. Whilst this proportion of the population experienced quite a significant additional load to the existing body burden, the estimated exposure values do not suggest that these would be associated with adverse health effects, based on current knowledge. The exposure period was also limited in time to approximately 3 months, following the recall of contaminated meat immediately on detection of the contamination.

  5. Behaviour and cross-contamination of pathogenic bacteria in household kitchens - relevance to exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningrum, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    Illness resulting from consumption of contaminated food is a continuous serious public health problem in the world. A proportion of this foodborne disease is attributable to improper preparation practices in the home, including cross-contamination.Salmonella , Campylobacter and Staphylococcus aureus

  6. CSOIL 2000 an exposure model for human risk assessment of soil contamination. A model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand E; Otte PF; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    This RIVM description of the CSOIL 2000 model deals, for the first time, with all aspects of the model. CSOIL 2000 can be used to derive intervention values. Intervention values are calculated for contaminated soil and represent a measure for determining when contaminated soil needs to be

  7. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model for multiple exposure routes for soman in multiple species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweeney, R.E.; Langenberg, J.P.; Maxwell, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model has been developed in advanced computer simulation language (ACSL) to describe blood and tissue concentration-time profiles of the C(±)P(-) stereoisomers of soman after inhalation, subcutaneous and intravenous exposures at low (0.8-1.0 × LD50),

  8. Subcellular partitioning of metals in Aporrectodea caliginosa along a gradient of metal exposure in 31 field-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumelle, Léa [INRA, UR 251 PESSAC, 78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Gimbert, Frédéric [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR 6249 University of Franche-Comté/CNRS Usc INRA, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Hedde, Mickaël [INRA, UR 251 PESSAC, 78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Guérin, Annie [INRA, US 0010 LAS Laboratoire d' analyses des sols, 273 rue de Cambrai, 62000 Arras (France); Lamy, Isabelle, E-mail: lamy@versailles.inra.fr [INRA, UR 251 PESSAC, 78026 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Subcellular fractionation of metals in organisms was proposed as a better way to characterize metal bioaccumulation. Here we report the impact of a laboratory exposure to a wide range of field-metal contaminated soils on the subcellular partitioning of metals in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. Soils moderately contaminated were chosen to create a gradient of soil metal availability; covering ranges of both soil metal contents and of several soil parameters. Following exposure, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined both in total earthworm body and in three subcellular compartments: cytosolic, granular and debris fractions. Three distinct proxies of soil metal availability were investigated: CaCl{sub 2}-extractable content dissolved content predicted by a semi-mechanistic model and free ion concentration predicted by a geochemical speciation model. Subcellular partitionings of Cd and Pb were modified along the gradient of metal exposure, while stable Zn partitioning reflected regulation processes. Cd subcellular distribution responded more strongly to increasing soil Cd concentration than the total internal content, when Pb subcellular distribution and total internal content were similarly affected. Free ion concentrations were better descriptors of Cd and Pb subcellular distribution than CaCl{sub 2} extractable and dissolved metal concentrations. However, free ion concentrations and soil total metal contents were equivalent descriptors of the subcellular partitioning of Cd and Pb because they were highly correlated. Considering lowly contaminated soils, our results raise the question of the added value of three proxies of metal availability compared to soil total metal content in the assessment of metal bioavailability to earthworm. - Highlights: • Earthworms were exposed to a wide panel of historically contaminated soils • Subcellular partitioning of Cd, Pb and Zn was investigated in earthworms • Three proxies of soil metal availability were

  9. Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg, and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg. Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2-4.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y. Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643. The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure.

  10. Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Rainbow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. Methods We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2–4 years, n=207, school-age children (5–7 years, n=157, parents of young children (n=446, and older adults (n=149. We compared exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds (acrylamide, arsenic, lead, mercury, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, chlordane, DDE, and dioxin based on self-reported food frequency data by age group. To determine if cancer and non-cancer benchmark levels were exceeded, chemical levels in food were derived from publicly available databases including the Total Diet Study. Results Cancer benchmark levels were exceeded by all children (100% for arsenic, dieldrin, DDE, and dioxins. Non-cancer benchmarks were exceeded by >95% of preschool-age children for acrylamide and by 10% of preschool-age children for mercury. Preschool-age children had significantly higher estimated intakes of 6 of 11 compounds compared to school-age children (p Conclusions Dietary strategies to reduce exposure to toxic compounds for which cancer and non-cancer benchmarks are exceeded by children vary by compound. These strategies include consuming organically produced dairy and selected fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide intake, consuming less animal foods (meat, dairy, and fish to reduce intake of persistent organic pollutants and metals, and consuming lower quantities of chips, cereal, crackers, and other processed carbohydrate foods to reduce acrylamide intake.

  11. Personal Care Products Are Only One of Many Exposure Routes of Natural Toxic Substances to Humans and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Bucheli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products” is dedicated to addressing the multidisciplinary special challenges of natural ingredients in personal care products (PCP and addresses also environmental exposure. In this perspective article, we argue that environmental exposure is probably not so much dominated by PCP use, but in many cases by direct emission from natural or anthropogenically managed vegetation, including agriculture. In support of this hypothesis, we provide examples of environmental fate and behaviour studies for compound classes that are either listed in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients (INCI or have been discussed in a wider context of PCP applications and have been classified as potentially harmful to humans and the environment. Specifically, these include estrogenic isoflavones, the carcinogenic ptaquiloside and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, terpenes and terpenoids, such as artemisinin, and mycotoxins. Research gaps and challenges in the domains of human and environmental exposure assessment of natural products common to our currently rather separated research communities are highlighted.

  12. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper......-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed....

  13. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  14. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-01-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  15. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-08-29

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi ( Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0-87.6% and 20.1-82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9-71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1-59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd < 0.83 μg kg -1 bw day -1 , BEDI of As < 3 μg kg -1 bw day -1 ) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (TBTHQ for Cd and As < 1), this applied for both levels of co-contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co-contaminated

  16. Identification of candidate biomarkers of the exposure to PCBs in contaminated cattle: A gene expression- and proteomic-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, F; Badino, P; Spalenza, V; Manzini, L; Renzone, G; Salzano, A M; Dal Piaz, F; Scaloni, A; Rychen, G; Nebbia, C

    2018-05-28

    Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread and persistent contaminants. Through a combined gene expression/proteomic-based approach, candidate biomarkers of the exposure to such environmental pollutants in cattle subjected to a real eco-contamination event were identified. Animals were removed from the polluted area and fed a standard ration for 6 months. The decontamination was monitored by evaluating dioxin and PCB levels in pericaudal fat two weeks after the removal from the contaminated area (day 0) and then bimonthly for six months (days 59, 125 and 188). Gene expression measurements demonstrated that CYP1B1 expression was significantly higher in blood lymphocytes collected in contaminated animals (day 0), and decreased over time during decontamination. mRNA levels of interleukin 2 showed an opposite quantitative trend. MALDI-TOF-MS polypeptide profiling of serum samples ascertained a progressive decrease (from day 0 to 188) of serum levels of fibrinogen β-chain and serpin A3-7-like fragments, apolipoprotein (APO) C-II and serum amyloid A-4 protein, along with an augmented representation of transthyretin isoforms, as well as APOC-III and APOA-II proteins during decontamination. When differentially represented species were combined with serum antioxidant, acute phase and proinflammatory protein levels already ascertained in the same animals (Cigliano et al., 2016), bioinformatics unveiled an interaction network linking together almost all components. This suggests the occurrence of a complex PCB-responsive mechanism associated with animal contamination/decontamination, including a cohort of protein/polypeptide species involved in blood redox homeostasis, inflammation and lipid transport. All together, these results suggest the use in combination of such biomarkers for identifying PCB-contaminated animals, and for monitoring the restoring of their healthy condition following a decontamination process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Uncertainties in contamination level and in doses after exposure to actinide aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, P.; Berard, P.; Frank, D.; Ansoborlo, E.; Fottorino, R.; Challeton-Devatayre, C.; Miele, A.; Blanchin, N.; Raynaud, P.; Piechowski, J. [CEA Cadarache, MEDOR, A. Miele, SST, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2006-07-01

    dissolution rate of the compound and an inhibition of the alveolar clearance due to particle transport (s{sub s} 2 x 10{sup -5}d{sup -1}, AI{sub 1}{yields}bb{sub 1} 1 x 10{sup -3}d{sup -1} and AI{sub 2}{yields}bb{sub 1} 1 x 10{sup -6}d{sup -1} compared with default values of 1 x 10{sup -4}d{sup -1}, 2 x 10{sup -2}d{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup -3}d{sup -1}, respectively). The corresponding effective dose appeared 4 times higher than that calculated using the default parameters. In the second case, no fit was possible. The contamination involved presumably a type M compound of high specific a activity (1.8 x 10{sup 12} Bq g{sup -1}) due to the presence of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm. ICRP deposition model is based on the inhalation of an infinite number of aerosol particles (deterministic approach). In fact, assuming a default aerosol size of 5{mu}m, the thoracic measurement per formed on day 1 (180 Bq) might correspond to an inhalation exposure to about 100 particles, only about 15 particles being deposited in the deep lung. Such a low value was supported by the very different results obtained with the 4 detectors used for the anthropo-radiometry. After 6 days, the thoracic activity was less than 10 Bq. Thus, it appears that for inhaled aerosols containing less than 1000 particles, a stochastic application of the model has to be done. In this case, only a discrete deconvolution using the specific bioassay data could provide a realistic dose assessment. The results show limits of the deterministic application of the ICRP models which mainly depend on the number of particles in the aerosol and,indicate that long term bioassay data are useful to identify important alteration of the late lung clearance by particle transport which could occur. (authors)

  18. Uncertainties in contamination level and in doses after exposure to actinide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Berard, P.; Frank, D.; Ansoborlo, E.; Fottorino, R.; Challeton-Devatayre, C.; Miele, A.; Blanchin, N.; Raynaud, P.; Piechowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    inhibition of the alveolar clearance due to particle transport (s s 2 x 10 -5 d -1 , AI 1 →bb 1 1 x 10 -3 d -1 and AI 2 →bb 1 1 x 10 -6 d -1 compared with default values of 1 x 10 -4 d -1 , 2 x 10 -2 d -1 and 1 x 10 -3 d -1 , respectively). The corresponding effective dose appeared 4 times higher than that calculated using the default parameters. In the second case, no fit was possible. The contamination involved presumably a type M compound of high specific a activity (1.8 x 10 12 Bq g -1 ) due to the presence of 238 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm. ICRP deposition model is based on the inhalation of an infinite number of aerosol particles (deterministic approach). In fact, assuming a default aerosol size of 5μm, the thoracic measurement per formed on day 1 (180 Bq) might correspond to an inhalation exposure to about 100 particles, only about 15 particles being deposited in the deep lung. Such a low value was supported by the very different results obtained with the 4 detectors used for the anthropo-radiometry. After 6 days, the thoracic activity was less than 10 Bq. Thus, it appears that for inhaled aerosols containing less than 1000 particles, a stochastic application of the model has to be done. In this case, only a discrete deconvolution using the specific bioassay data could provide a realistic dose assessment. The results show limits of the deterministic application of the ICRP models which mainly depend on the number of particles in the aerosol and,indicate that long term bioassay data are useful to identify important alteration of the late lung clearance by particle transport which could occur. (authors)

  19. [Analysis on contamination of zearalenone and dietary exposure assessment in food samples of Shaanxi Province in 2013-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawei; Wang, Caixia; Tian, Li; Wang, Minjuan; Guo, Rong; Qiao, Haiou

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the contamination of zearalenone in food in Shaanxi Province, and to assess the dietary zearalenone exposure and the health risk of intaking zearalenone from corn products for Shaanxi residents. In 2013-2016, samples of five kinds of food including grains, vegetable oil, liquor and infants' food were collected randomly from ten cities, and determined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake assessment of human exposure to zearalenone was carried out in combination of food consumption data with concentration of zearalenone. 1193 samples were detected zearalenone and the total detection rate was 17. 27%, with the mean value of 13. 5 μg/kg. Among all food samples, oil products were more seriously polluted than other kinds of foods, its detection rate was 79. 37%. And 12 samples of grain products exceed the standard, the exceeding standard rate was 1. 64%, which were all corn products. The level of zearalenone detected in wheat flour, rice, millet, beer and bakery products was low. The overall level of zearalenone contamination inmarket food is common, but corn products may be the severely contaminated foods with zearalenone in Shaanxi Province. The risk assessmentresult suggests that the current dietary intake of zearalenone from corn products in Shaanxi Province has no appreciable effect on health, however, the concentrations of zearalenone in corn products are relatively high, and need to be monitored in the future.

  20. Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuke; Moe, Christine L; Null, Clair; Raj, Suraja J; Baker, Kelly K; Robb, Katharine A; Yakubu, Habib; Ampofo, Joseph A; Wellington, Nii; Freeman, Matthew C; Armah, George; Reese, Heather E; Peprah, Dorothy; Teunis, Peter F M

    2017-10-01

    Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple pathways for children under 5 years old in four high-density, low-income, urban neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. We collected more than 500 hours of structured observation of behaviors of 156 children, 800 household surveys, and 1,855 environmental samples. Data were analyzed using Bayesian models, estimating the environmental and behavioral factors associated with exposure to fecal contamination. These estimates were applied in exposure models simulating sequences of behaviors and transfers of fecal indicators. This approach allows us to identify the contribution of any sources of fecal contamination in the environment to child exposure and use dynamic fecal microbe transfer networks to track fecal indicators from the environment to oral ingestion. The contributions of different sources to exposure were categorized into four types (high/low by dose and frequency), as a basis for ranking pathways by the potential to reduce exposure. Although we observed variation in estimated exposure (10 8 -10 16 CFU/day for Escherichia coli ) between different age groups and neighborhoods, the greatest contribution was consistently from food (contributing > 99.9% to total exposure). Hands played a pivotal role in fecal microbe transfer, linking environmental sources to oral ingestion. The fecal microbe transfer network constructed here provides a systematic approach to study the complex interaction between contaminated environment and human behavior on exposure to fecal contamination.

  1. Hospital management of mass radiological casualties: reassessing exposures from contaminated victims of an exploded radiological dispersal device (RDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Armin; Harper, Frederick Taylor; Smith, James M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the key issues in the aftermath of an exploded radiological dispersal device from a terrorist event is that of the contaminated victim and the concern among healthcare providers for the harmful exposures they may receive in treating patients, especially if the patient has not been thoroughly decontaminated. This is critically important in the event of mass casualties from a nuclear or radiological incident because of the essential rapidity of acute medical decisions and that those who have life- or limb-threatening injuries may have treatment unduly delayed by a decontamination process that may be unnecessary for protecting the health and safety of the patient or the healthcare provider. To estimate potential contamination of those exposed in a radiological dispersal device event, results were used from explosive aerosolization tests of surrogate radionuclides detonated with high explosives at the Sandia National Laboratories. Computer modeling was also used to assess radiation dose rates to surgical personnel treating patients with blast injuries who are contaminated with any of a variety of common radionuclides. It is demonstrated that exceptional but plausible cases may require special precautions by the healthcare provider, even while managing life-threatening injuries of a contaminated victim from a radiological dispersal device event.

  2. Nickel toxicity to benthic organisms: The role of dissolved organic carbon, suspended solids, and route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Kevin W; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Burton, G Allen

    2016-01-01

    Nickel bioavailability is reduced in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended solids (TSS), and other complexing ligands; however, no studies have examined the relative importance of Ni exposure through different compartments (water, sediment, food). Hyalella azteca and Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to Ni-amended water, sediment, and food, either separately or in combination. Both organisms experienced survival and growth effects in several Ni compartment tests. The DOC amendments attenuated L. stagnalis Ni effects (survival, growth, and (62)Ni bioaccumulation), and presence of TSS exposures demonstrated both protective and synergistic effects on H. azteca and L. stagnalis. (62)Ni trophic transfer from food to H. azteca and L. stagnalis was negligible; however, bioaccumulating (62)Ni was attributed to (62)Ni-water ((62)Ni flux from food), (62)Ni-TSS, and (62)Ni-food. Overall, H. azteca and L. stagnalis Ni compartment toxicity increased in the following order: Ni-water > Ni-sediment > Ni-all (water, sediment, food) > Ni-food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0 2 ) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations

  4. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  5. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following a Chemical Terrorist Attack: Decision Criteria for Multipathway Exposure Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annetta; Dolislager, Fredrick; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Love, Adam H.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination. PMID:21399674

  6. Comparative assessment of spent nuclear fuel transportation routes using risk factors and a geographic information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of potential alternative routes was simplified through the use of six comparative risk factors evaluated using detailed, route-specific data. The route and environmental attributes varied strongly with location and were developed from national, state, and local sources. The six comparative factors were risk measures of incident-free transportation radiation exposure, radiological accident population exposure, nonradiological accidents, contamination of environmental sensitive areas, environmental justice for minority populations, and environmental justice for low-income populations. An assessment of four real North-Central Florida routes provided a sample implementation of the analysis tools and risk factors. The assessment routes, consisting of common beginning and end locations, included an interstate highway, a rural highway, a mostly urban highway, and a combination interstate highway with rural bypass. This route comparative assessment study predicted that the interstate highway, despite a higher population density, greater traffic volume, and greater number of vehicular fatality accidents, would present the lowest cumulative risk. On the contrary, the rural highway route, characterized as having the lowest population density, minimal vehicle traffic volume, and the lowest percentages of minority and low-income populations, displayed the highest cumulative risk measure. Factors contributing to the high risk for the rural highway route included greater route length, higher vehicular fatality accident rates per vehicle mile traveled, and the close proximity to environmentally sensitive areas. This route comparative assessment study predicted that the interstate highway, despite a higher population density, greater traffic volume, and greater number of vehicular fatality accidents, would present the lowest cumulative risk. On the contrary, the rural highway route, characterized as having the lowest population density, minimal vehicle traffic volume

  7. Challenging conventional risk assessment with respect to human exposure to multiple food contaminants in food: A case study using maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R; Connolly, L; Frizzell, C; Elliott, C T

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins and heavy metals are ubiquitous in the environment and contaminate many foods. The widespread use of pesticides in crop production to control disease contributes further to the chemical contamination of foods. Thus multiple chemical contaminants threaten the safety of many food commodities; hence the present study used maize as a model crop to identify the severity in terms of human exposure when multiple contaminants are present. High Content Analysis (HCA) measuring multiple endpoints was used to determine cytotoxicity of complex mixtures of mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides. Endpoints included nuclear intensity (NI), nuclear area (NA), plasma membrane permeability (PMP), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial mass (MM). At concentrations representing legal limits of each individual contaminant in maize (3ng/ml ochratoxin A (OTA), 1μg/ml fumonisin B1 (FB1), 2ng/ml aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 100ng/ml cadmium (Cd), 150ng/ml arsenic (As), 50ng/ml chlorpyrifos (CP) and 5μg/ml pirimiphos methyl (PM), the mixtures (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As) and (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) were cytotoxic for NA and MM endpoints with a difference of up to 13.6% (p≤0.0001) and 12% (p≤0.0001) respectively from control values. The most cytotoxic mixture was (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) across all 4 endpoints (NA, NI, MM and MMP) with increases up to 61.3%, 23.0%, 61.4% and 36.3% (p≤0.0001) respectively. Synergy was evident for two endpoints (NI and MM) at concentrations contaminating maize above legal limits, with differences between expected and measured values of (6.2-12.4% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) and 4.5-12.3% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) for NI and MM, respectively. The study introduces for the first time, a holistic approach to identify the impact in terms of toxicity to humans when multiple chemical contaminants are present in foodstuffs. Governmental regulatory bodies must begin to contemplate how to safeguard the population when

  8. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure assessment in a community exposed to contaminated drinking water, New Hampshire, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Elizabeth R; Chan, Benjamin P; Talbot, Elizabeth A; Nassif, Julianne; Bean, Christine; Cavallo, Steffany J; Metcalf, Erin; Simone, Karen; Woolf, Alan D

    2018-04-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic chemicals used in manufacturing that resist environmental degradation, can leach into drinking water, and bioaccumulate in tissues. Some studies have shown associations with negative health outcomes. In May 2014, a New Hampshire public drinking water supply was found to be contaminated with PFAS from a former U.S. Air Force base. We established a serum testing program to assess PFAS exposure in the affected community. Serum samples and demographic and exposure information were collected from consenting eligible participants. Samples were tested for PFAS at three analytical laboratories. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and analyzed by age and exposure variables. A total of 1578 individuals provided samples for PFAS testing; >94% were found to have perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) detectable in serum. Geometric mean serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were 8.6 μg/L (95% CI:8.3-8.9), 3.1 μg/L (95% CI: 3.0-3.2), and 4.1 μg/L (95% CI: 3.9-4.3), respectively, which were statistically higher than the general U.S. Significant associations were observed between PFAS serum concentrations and age, time spent in the affected community, childcare attendance, and water consumption. PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were found in significantly higher levels in the affected population, consistent with PFAS drinking water contamination. Given increased recognition of PFAS contamination in the U.S, a coordinated national response is needed to improve access to biomonitoring and understand health impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of

  10. Model of external exposure of population living in the areas subjected to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, we formulated the general approach to assessment of external doses to population living in contaminated areas (the model equation and the set of parameters). The model parameters were assessed on the basis of results of monitoring in the environment, phantom experiments, and social and demographic information obtained on the contaminated areas. Verification of model assessments performed by comparison with measurement results of individual external doses in inhabitants within the thermoluminescent dosimetry method have shown that differences in dose assessments within both methods does not exceed 1.5 times at a confidence level of 95%. In the paper, we present the results illustrating specific features of external dose formation in population living in the areas of Russia subjected to radioactive contamination due to nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, radioactive releases from the Mayak enterprise, and the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  11. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Infants Living in Arsenic-Contaminated Areas in Bangladesh and Its Association with Arsenic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Attia, John; Alauddin, Mohammad; McEvoy, Mark; McElduff, Patrick; Hussain, Sumaira; Akhter, Ayesha; Akter, Shahnaz; Islam, M. Munirul; Ahmed, AM Shamsir; Iyengar, Vasu; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2018-01-01

    Data is scarce on early life exposure to arsenic and its association with malnutrition during infancy. This study followed the nutritional status of a cohort of 120 infants from birth to 9 months of age in an arsenic contaminated area in Bangladesh. Anthropometric data was collected at 3, 6 and 9 months of the infant’s age for nutritional assessment whereas arsenic exposure level was assessed via tube well drinking water arsenic concentration at the initiation of the study. Weight and height measurements were converted to Z-scores of weight for age (WAZ-underweight), height for age (HAZ-stunting), weight for height (WHZ-wasting) for children by comparing with WHO growth standard. Arsenic exposure levels were categorized as <50 μg/L and ≥50 μg/L. Stunting rates (<−2 SD) were 10% at 3 months and 44% at both 6 and 9 months. Wasting rates (<−2 SD) were 23.3% at 3 months and underweight rates (<−2 SD) were 25% and 10% at 3 and 6 months of age, respectively. There was a significant association of stunting with household drinking water arsenic exposure ≥50 μg/L at age of 9 months (p = 0.009). Except for stunting at 9 months of age, we did not find any significant changes in other nutritional indices over time or with levels of household arsenic exposure in this study. Our study suggests no association between household arsenic exposure and under-nutrition during infancy; with limiting factors being small sample size and short follow-up. Difference in stunting at 9 months by arsenic exposure at ≥50 μg/L might be a statistical incongruity. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to establish any association. PMID:29301293

  12. AIR CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE DURING THE OPERATION OF LAWN AND GARDEN EQUIPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the Small Engine Exposure Study (SEES) to evaluate potential exposures among users of small, gasoline-powered, non-road spark-ignition (SI) lawn and garden engines. Equipment tested included riding tractors, walk-behind la...

  13. Nosocomial Mycobacterium bovis-bacille Calmette-Guérin infections due to contamination of chemotherapeutics: case finding and route of transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Margreet C.; de Haas, Petra E. W.; Verbrugh, Henri A.; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Hartwig, Nico G.; de Man, Peter; Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Deutekom, Henk; Yntema, J. L.; Vulto, Arnold G.; Messemaker, Marja; van Soolingen, Dick

    2003-01-01

    We studied nosocomial infections due to Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Onco-TICE bacteria, transmitted by contamination of medication prepared in BCG Onco-TICE-contaminated hoods in the pharmacy, in 5 immunocompromised patients at 3 hospitals. The BCG strains cultured from the

  14. Climate-induced behavioral changes influence exposure of an Arctic apex predator to pathogens and contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) may serve as sentinels for pathogens and contaminants, providing insight into changing Arctic ecosystems and health risks to wildlife and humans. Recent changes in the availability of sea ice habitat have coincided with increased use of land by polar bears from the sout...

  15. Human contamination by persistent toxic substances: the rationale to improve exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    We know quite a lot about the generalized human contamination by environmental chemical agents; this statement is fully compatible with the view that most countries lack the necessary monitoring systems. We also know quite a lot about the toxic effects of environmental pollutants; this statement is fully compatible with the proposal that we need both more research and more energetic policies to decrease human contamination by such pollutants. Unsurprisingly, we know too little about the (environmental and social) causes and the etiopathogenesis (mechanisms) of the most prevalent diseases, and we will continue to miss relevant causes and mechanisms if we neglect the toxic chemicals that commonly contaminate humans, worldwide. Basic, clinical end environmental-epidemiological research on human health should more often consider integrating biomarkers of internal dose of environmental chemical pollutants. When we act in more responsible, rational, and scientific ways; when we become less dismissive towards environmental hazards; and when we thus neglect less the generalized human contamination by environmental chemical agents and their toxic effects, we will expand mechanistic biologic knowledge, and we shall as well increase the effectiveness of interventions and policies that enable the primary prevention of human diseases which cause huge amounts of economic burden and human suffering.

  16. Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2001-01-01

    Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

  17. Fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and its exposure in infants under 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Happy; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Kimanya, Martin; Hipolite, Danstan; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The carry-over of fumonisin B1 from contaminated feed into dairy milk also suggests its carry-over from contaminated food into breast milk. This study assessed fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and associated exposures of infants under 6 months of age. Breast milk samples were collected from 131 lactating mothers and the weight of their infants was measured during the first month of lactation. Fumonisin B1 was extracted using methanol:acetone, cleaned up with Strong Anion Exchange columns and quantified by HPLC. Fumonisin B1 exposure in each child was estimated using deterministic approach. Out of the 131 samples, 58 (44.3%) contained fumonisin B1 at levels ranging from 6.57 to 471.05 ng/ml. Of the contaminated samples, 10.3% had fumonisin B1 levels above the EU limit of 200 ppb for fumonisins in infants' food. Exposure in the infants ranged from 0.78 to 64.93 µg/kg body weight (bw) per day (median, 3 µg/kg bw/day) and exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable limit of 2 µg/kg bw/day in 29% of the infants. In conclusion, breast milk from mothers in Northern Tanzania is contaminated with fumonisins at levels that lead to unacceptable exposures in infants. Strategies to prevent lactating mothers from fumonisin exposure are urgently needed to minimise fumonisin exposure in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Alvarez, David A.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrationspresent in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  19. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Alvarez, David A; Taylor, Julia A; vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E

    2015-08-15

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrations present in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. ECOTOXICOGENOMICS: LINKAGES BETWEEN EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS IN ASSESSING RISKS OF AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS TO FISH (JOURNAL ARTICLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the biological effects of exposures to chemicals in the environment relies on classical methods and emerging technologies in the areas of genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics. Linkages between the historical and newer toxicological tools are currently being devel...

  1. ECOTOXICOGENOMICS: LINKAGES BETWEEN EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS IN ASSESSING RISKS OF AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS TO FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the biological effects of exposures to chemicals in the environment relies on classical and emerging technologies in the areas of genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics. Linkages between the historical and newer toxicological tools are currently being developed in o...

  2. Gulf of Mexico offshore operations monitoring experiment (GOOMEX), phase I : sublethal responses to contaminant exposure - introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, M.C.; Green, R.H.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Offshore Operations Monitoring Experiment (GOOMEX) is a three-phase study to test and evaluate a range of biological, biochemical, and chemical methodologies to detect and assess chronic sublethal biological impacts in the vicinity of long-duration activities associated with oil and gas exploration and production. A chronic impact is defined as an effect on the biota caused by exposure to the long-term accumulation of chemicals in the environment. The basic program, comprising four field activities over a 2-yr period, was designed to detect nearfield impacts and contaminant gradients extending out from each site. Five test sites were evaluated and three selected as most appropriate for long-term study: MU-A85, MAI-686, and HI-A389. The sampling design included a radial pattern with stations at 30-50, 100, 200, 500, and 3000 m distance and employed a dose-response model to test the hypotheses that biological, chemical, and biochemical variations are due to platform-derived contaminants. Study components included contaminant (trace metals and hydrocarbons) analysis in sediments, pore waters, and biological tissues; assemblage analysis of benthic meiofauna, infauna, and epifauna, assessment of community health based on life history and reproduction studies; and the induction of detoxification responses. (author). 57 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Contaminant exposure in relation to spatio-temporal variation in diet composition: A case study of the little owl (Athene noctua)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, Aafke M.; Wijnhoven, Sander; Baveco, Hans; Brink, Nico W. van den

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure of the little owl Athene noctua to trace metal contamination in a Dutch Rhine River floodplain area. Diet composition was calculated per month for three habitat types, based on the population densities of six prey types (earthworms, ground beetles and four small mammal species) combined with the little owl’s functional response to these prey types. Exposure levels showed a strong positive relationship with the dietary fraction of earthworms, but also depended on the dietary fraction of common voles, with higher common vole fractions resulting in decreasing exposure levels. Spatio-temporal changes in the availability of earthworms and common voles in particular resulted in considerable variation in exposure, with peaks in exposure exceeding a tentative toxicity threshold. These findings imply that wildlife exposure assessments based on a predefined, average diet composition may considerably underestimate local or intermittent peaks in exposure. - Highlights: ► We assessed dietary cadmium exposure of the little owl in a Dutch floodplain. ► Exposure levels were related mainly to the availability of earthworms and voles. ► Diet composition and exposure levels showed large spatio-temporal variation. ► Seasonal peaks in exposure exceeded a tentative toxicity threshold. - Dietary contaminant exposure of opportunistic predators may vary considerably due to spatio-temporal variation in diet.

  4. A mouse model of cytogenetic analysis to evaluate caesium137 radiation dose exposure and contamination level in lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Martin-Bodiot, Cecile; Gregoire, Eric; Roy, Laurence [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique (PRP-HOM/SRBE/LDB), Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Desbree, Aurelie [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI, Laboratoire d' Evaluation de la Dose Interne, Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Barquinero, Joan Francesc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique (PRP-HOM/SRBE/LDB), Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    In case of external overexposure to ionizing radiation, an estimation of its genotoxic effects on exposed individuals can be made retrospectively by the measurement of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations on circulating lymphocytes. Compared with external irradiation, intakes of radionuclides may, however, lead to specific features influencing dose distribution at the scale of body, of tissue or even of cell. Therefore, in case of internal contamination by radionuclides, experimental studies, particularly using animal models, are required to better understand mechanisms of their genotoxic effects and to better estimate the absorbed dose. The present study was designed to evaluate a cytogenetic method in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes that would allow determination of yields and complexities of chromosome aberrations after low-dose rate exposure to {sup 137}Cs delivered in vitro either by irradiation or by contamination. By using M-FISH analysis, we compared the low-dose rate responses observed in mouse to the high-dose rate responses observed both in mouse and in human. Promising similarities between the two species in the relative biological effect evaluation show that our cytogenetic model established in mouse might be useful to evaluate various radiation exposures, particularly relevant in case of intakes of radionuclides. (orig.)

  5. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    quantitative comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems advance their use for hazard assessment and extrapolation to humans. The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar those calculated for humans exposed to the same at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 iron oxide (as Fe).

  6. A multi-metric assessment of environmental contaminant exposure and effects in an urbanized reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen B.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Baumann, Paul C.; DeWeese, Lawrence R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Coyle, James J.; Smith, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Charles River Project provided an opportunity to simultaneously deploy a combination of biomonitoring techniques routinely used by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, and the Contaminant Biology Program at an urban site suspected to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to these standardized methods, additional techniques were used to further elucidate contaminant exposure and potential impacts of exposure on biota. The purpose of the study was to generate a comprehensive, multi-metric data set to support assessment of contaminant exposure and effects at the site. Furthermore, the data set could be assessed to determine the relative performance of the standardized method suites typically used by the National Water Quality Assessment Program and the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, as well as the additional biomonitoring methods used in the study to demonstrate ecological effects of contaminant exposure. The Contaminant Effects Workgroup, an advisory committee of the U.S. Geological Survey/Contaminant Biology Program, identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the contaminant class of greatest concern in urban streams of all sizes. The reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts, was selected as the site for this study based on the suspected presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and the presence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). All of these fish have extensive contaminant-exposure profiles related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other environmental contaminants. This project represented a collaboration of universities, Department of the Interior bureaus including multiple components of the USGS (Biological Resources Discipline and Water Resources Discipline Science Centers, the

  7. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  8. Exposure of nonbreeding migratory shorebirds to cholinesterase-inhibiting contaminants in the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, K.M.; Hooper, M.J.; Johnson, K.A.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Zaccagnini, M.E.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    Migratory shorebirds frequently forage and roost in agricultural habitats, where they may be exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. Exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, common anti-cholinesterases, can cause sublethal effects, even death. To evaluate exposure of migratory shorebirds to organophosphorus and carbamates, we sampled birds stopping over during migration in North America and wintering in South America. We compared plasma cholinesterase activities and body masses of individuals captured at sites with no known sources of organophosphorus or carbamates to those captured in agricultural areas where agrochemicals were recommended for control of crop pests. In South America, plasma acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in Buff-breasted Sandpipers was lower at agricultural sites than at reference sites, indicating exposure to organophosphorus and carbamates. Results of plasma cholinesterase reactivation assays and foot-wash analyses were inconclusive. A meta-analysis of six species revealed no widespread effect of agricultural chemicals on cholinesterase activity. however, four of six species were negative for acetylcholinesterase and one of six for butyrylcholinesterase, indicating negative effects of pesticides on cholinesterase activity in a subset of shorebirds. Exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can decrease body mass, but comparisons between treatments and hemispheres suggest that agrochemicals did not affect migratory shorebirds' body mass. Our study, one of the first to estimate of shorebirds' exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, suggests that shorebirds are being exposed to cholinesterase- inhibiting pesticides at specific sites in the winter range but not at migratory stopover sites. future research should examine potential behavioral effects of exposure and identify other potential sitesand levels of exposure. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  9. Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenhuber, E.; Winkelmann, I.; Ruehle, H.R.; Bayer, A.; Wirth, E.; Haubelt, R.; Koenig, K.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ''radioactive cloud'' was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter

  10. Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettenhuber, E; Winkelmann, I; Ruehle, H R [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Bayer, A; Wirth, E; Haubelt, R; Koenig, K [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ``radioactive cloud`` was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter. 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Examination of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware Bay and River in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Bean, Thomas G; McGowan, Peter C; Callahan, Carl R; Erickson, Richard A; Hale, Robert C

    2018-05-22

    A study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in the coastal Inland Bays of Delaware, and the Delaware Bay and Delaware River in 2015 examined spatial and temporal trends in contaminant exposure, food web transfer and reproduction. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), coplanar PCB toxic equivalents, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in sample eggs were generally greatest in the Delaware River. Concentrations of legacy contaminants in 2015 Delaware Bay eggs were lower than values observed in the 1970s through early 2000s. Several alternative brominated flame retardants were rarely detected, with only TBPH [bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate)] present in 5 of 27 samples at <5 ng/g wet weight. No relation was found between p,p'-DDE, total PCBs or total PBDEs in eggs with egg hatching, eggs lost from nests, nestling loss, fledging and nest success. Osprey eggshell thickness recovered to pre-DDT era values, and productivity was adequate to sustain a stable population. Prey fish contaminant concentrations were generally less than those in osprey eggs, with detection frequencies and concentrations greatest in white perch (Morone americana) from Delaware River compared to the Bay. Biomagnification factors from fish to eggs for p,p'-DDE and total PCBs were generally similar to findings from several Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Overall, findings suggest that there have been improvements in Delaware Estuary waterbird habitat compared to the second half of the 20th century. This trend is in part associated with mitigation of some anthropogenic contaminant threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multigenerational contaminant exposures produce non-monotonic, transgenerational responses in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimberly, David A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, ecotoxicologists rely on short-term tests that assume populations to be static. Conversely, natural populations may be exposed to the same stressors for many generations, which can alter tolerance to the same (or other) stressors. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of how multigenerational stressors alter life history traits and stressor tolerance. After continuously exposing Daphnia magna to cadmium for 120 days, we assessed life history traits and conducted a challenge at higher temperature and cadmium concentrations. Predictably, individuals exposed to cadmium showed an overall decrease in reproductive output compared to controls. Interestingly, control D. magna were the most cadmium tolerant to novel cadmium, followed by those exposed to high cadmium. Our data suggest that long-term exposure to cadmium alter tolerance traits in a non-monotonic way. Because we observed effects after one-generation removal from cadmium, transgenerational effects may be possible as a result of multigenerational exposure. - Highlights: • Daphnia magna exposed to cadmium for 120 days. • D. magna exposed to cadmium had decreased reproductive output. • Control D. magna were most cadmium tolerant to novel cadmium stress. • Long-term exposure to cadmium alter tolerance traits in a non-monotonic way. • Transgenerational effects observed as a result of multigenerational exposure. - Adverse effects of long-term cadmium exposure persist into cadmium free conditions, as seen by non-monotonic responses when exposed to novel stress one generation removed.

  13. Evaluating exposure of pedestrians to airborne contaminants associated with non-potable water use for pavement cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, M; Da, G; Ausset, P; Haenn, S; Géhin, E; Moulin, L

    2016-04-01

    Climate change and increasing demography press local authorities to look after affordable water resources and replacement of drinking water for city necessities like street and pavement cleaning by more available raw water. Though, the substitution of drinking by non-drinking resources demands the evaluation of sanitary hazards. This article aims therefore to evaluate the contribution of cleaning water to the overall exposure of city dwellers in case of wet pavement cleaning using crossed physical, chemical and biological approaches. The result of tracer experiments with fluorescein show that liquid water content of the cleaning aerosol produced is about 0.24 g m(-3), rending possible a fast estimation of exposure levels. In situ analysis of the aerosol particles indicates a significant increase in particle number concentration and particle diameter, though without change in particle composition. The conventional bacterial analysis using total coliforms as tracer suggests that an important part of the contamination is issued from the pavement. The qPCR results show a more than 20-fold increase of background genome concentration for Escherichia coli and 10-fold increase for Enterococcus but a negligible contribution of the cleaning water. The fluorescence analysis of the cleaning aerosol confirms the above findings identifying pavement surface as the major contributor to aerosol organic load. The physical, chemical and microbiological approaches used make it possible to describe accurately the cleaning bioaerosol and to identify the existence of significantly higher levels of all parameters studied during the wet pavement cleaning. Though, the low level of contamination and the very short time of passage of pedestrian in the zone do not suggest a significant risk for the city dwellers. As the cleaning workers remain much longer in the impacted area, more attention should be paid to their chronic exposure.

  14. Exposure to a northern contaminant mixture (NCM alters hepatic energy and lipid metabolism exacerbating hepatic steatosis in obese JCR rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Mailloux

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, defined by the American Liver Society as the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol, is the most common liver disease in North America. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are viewed as the major causes of NAFLD. Environmental contaminants have also been implicated in the development of NAFLD. Northern populations are exposed to a myriad of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, flame retardants, and toxic metals, while also affected by higher rates of obesity and alcohol abuse compared to the rest of Canada. In this study, we examined the impact of a mixture of 22 contaminants detected in Inuit blood on the development and progression of NAFLD in obese JCR rats with or without co-exposure to 10% ethanol. Hepatosteatosis was found in obese rat liver, which was worsened by exposure to 10% ethanol. NCM treatment increased the number of macrovesicular lipid droplets, total lipid contents, portion of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. This was complemented by an increase in hepatic total cholesterol and cholesterol ester levels which was associated with changes in the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport. In addition, NCM treatment increased cytochrome P450 2E1 protein expression and decreased ubiquinone pool, and mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit ATP5A and Complex IV activity. Despite the changes in mitochondrial physiology, hepatic ATP levels were maintained high in NCM-treated versus control rats. This was due to a decrease in ATP utilization and an increase in creatine kinase activity. Collectively, our results suggest that NCM treatment decreases hepatic cholesterol export, possibly also increases cholesterol uptake from circulation, and promotes lipid accumulation and alters ATP homeostasis which exacerbates the existing hepatic steatosis in genetically obese JCR rats with

  15. The calculation of individual radiation exposure rates arising from routine discharges of activity into an estuary or sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1982-03-01

    Simple methods are described which enable assessments to be made of exposure rates to individuals arising from the release of activity into an estuary or sea. These methods are based in the main on those employed by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food together with models developed by the author. The exposure routes considered are the ingestion of seafood and external exposure from β and γ emitters arising from occupancy over contaminated sediments or beaches and the handling of fishing gear. These routes are generally the most important, but for any chosen site it will also be necessary to determine whether any other exposure routes are significant. (author)

  16. The calculation of individual radiation exposure rates arising from routine discharges of activity into an estuary or sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1982-11-01

    Simple methods are described which enable assessments to be made of exposure rates to individuals arising from the release of activity into an estuary or sea. These methods are based in the main on those employed by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food together with models developed by the author. The exposure routes considered are the ingestion of seafood and external exposure from ν and ν emitters arising from occupancy over contaminated sediments or beaches and the handling of fishing gear. These routes are generally the most important, but for any chosen site it will also be necessary to determine whether any other exposure routes are significant. (author)

  17. Examining Lead Exposures in California through State-Issued Health Alerts for Food Contamination and an Exposure-Based Candy Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Nelson, Kali; Sanford, Eric; Clarity, Cassidy; Emmons-Bell, Sophia; Gorukanti, Anuhandra; Kennelly, Patrick

    2017-10-26

    In California, the annual number of children under age 6 y of age with blood lead levels (BLL) ≥10μg/dL is estimated at over 1,000 cases, and up to 10,000 cases when BLL between 4.5 and 9.5 μg/dL are included. State-issued health alerts for food contamination provide one strategy for tracking sources of food-related lead exposures. As well, California passed legislation in 2006 for the Food and Drug Branch (FDB) of the state health department to test and identify lead in candy. This report presents health alert data from California over a 14-y period, compares data before and after the candy testing program began, and examines country of origin, ZIP code data, and time from candy testing to release of health alerts for lead-contaminated candies for 2011-2012. After 2007, health alerts issued for lead in candy and food increased significantly. Analysis of candy-testing data indicated that multiple counties and ZIP codes were affected. Seventeen candies with high lead concentrations were identified, resulting in rapid dissemination (food and candy testing programs provides an opportunity to identify and immediately act to remove nonpaint sources of lead affecting children. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2582.

  18. Allergy arising from exposure to airborne contaminants in an insect rearing facility: Health effects and exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.

    1994-06-01

    In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.

  19. Evaluation of the soil-to-indoor air exposure pathway at petroleum contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W. B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Results of two approaches for evaluating human exposure to benzene inside a former gasoline station converted into a strip mall were discussed. Using passive air sampling, benzene levels inside the mall were evaluated. It was found that contrary to expectations the levels inside the mall were lower than the average levels in Canadian homes. The second approach, i.e. modeling of soil vapour entry, confirmed the findings of the passive air test by showing that incremental exposure conditions for mall workers was no worse than what they receive by inhalation in their own homes. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Evaluation of the soil-to-indoor air exposure pathway at petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindzierski, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of two approaches for evaluating human exposure to benzene inside a former gasoline station converted into a strip mall were discussed. Using passive air sampling, benzene levels inside the mall were evaluated. It was found that contrary to expectations the levels inside the mall were lower than the average levels in Canadian homes. The second approach, i.e. modeling of soil vapour entry, confirmed the findings of the passive air test by showing that incremental exposure conditions for mall workers was no worse than what they receive by inhalation in their own homes. 14 refs., 2 figs

  1. Screening-level exposure-based prioritization to identify potential POPs, vPvBs and planetary boundary threats among Arctic contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A report that reviews Arctic contaminants that are not currently regulated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs under international treaties was recently published by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP. We evaluated 464 individual chemicals mentioned in the AMAP report according to hazard profiles for POPs, very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB chemicals, and two novel and distinct hazard profiles we derived from the planetary boundary threat framework. The two planetary boundary threat profiles assign high priority to chemicals that will be mobile and poorly reversible environmental contaminants. Utilizing persistence as a proxy for poor reversibility, we defined two exposure-based hazard profiles; airborne persistent contaminants (APCs and waterborne persistent contaminants (WPCs that are potential planetary boundary threats. We used in silico estimates of physicochemical properties and multimedia models to calculate hazard metrics for persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential, then we synthesized this information into four exposure-based hazard scores of the potential of each AMAP chemical to fit each of the POP, vPvB, APC and WPC exposure-based hazard profiles. As an alternative to adopting a “bright line” score that represented cause for concern, we scored the AMAP chemicals by benchmarking against a reference set of 148 known and relatively well-studied contaminants and expressed their exposure-based hazard scores as percentile ranks against the scores of the reference set chemicals. Our results show that scores in the four exposure-based hazard profiles provide complementary information about the potential environmental exposure-based hazards of the AMAP chemicals. Our POP, vPvB, APC and WPC exposure-based hazard scores identify high priority chemicals for further study from among the AMAP contaminants.

  2. Perinatal exposure to low-dose BDE-47, an emergent environmental contaminant, causes hyperactivity in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Alexander; Girard, Sylvie; Lachapelle, Sophie; Abdelouahab, Nadia; Sebire, Guillaume; Takser, Larissa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a group of environmental contaminants increasing in North America. Few data are available on neurobehavioral effects at low-dose exposure. Our goal in the present study was to evaluate whether low-dose BDE-47, which is the most abundant PBDE in human samples, affects the neurobehavioral development of rats. Dams were exposed to vehicle or low-dose BDE-47 (0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg body weight) each 5 days from gestational day 15 to postnatal day (PND) 20 by intravenous injections. Spontaneous locomotor activity of pups was assessed using the open field test on PND 15, 20 and 25. Sensorimotor coordination was assessed using a RotaRod on PND 30. Exposure to BDE-47 increased locomotor activity of pups. Developmental landmarks and sensorimotor coordination were not influenced by exposure to BDE-47. BDE-47 content in adipose tissue of exposed rats was similar to that known for human populations. These results indicate neurodevelopmental disruption induced in rats by BDE-47 at levels found in the human population.

  3. Safety analysis of occupational exposure of healthcare workers to residual contaminations of cytotoxic drugs using FMECA security approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Laetitia Minh Mai; Reitter, Delphine; He, Sophie; Bonle, Franck Té; Launois, Amélie; Martinez, Diane; Prognon, Patrice; Caudron, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Handling cytotoxic drugs is associated with chemical contamination of workplace surfaces. The potential mutagenic, teratogenic and oncogenic properties of those drugs create a risk of occupational exposure for healthcare workers, from reception of starting materials to the preparation and administration of cytotoxic therapies. The Security Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) was used as a proactive method to assess the risks involved in the chemotherapy compounding process. FMECA was carried out by a multidisciplinary team from 2011 to 2016. Potential failure modes of the process were identified based on the Risk Priority Number (RPN) that prioritizes corrective actions. Twenty-five potential failure modes were identified. Based on RPN results, the corrective actions plan was revised annually to reduce the risk of exposure and improve practices. Since 2011, 16 specific measures were implemented successively. In six years, a cumulative RPN reduction of 626 was observed, with a decrease from 912 to 286 (-69%) despite an increase of cytotoxic compounding activity of around 23.2%. In order to anticipate and prevent occupational exposure, FMECA is a valuable tool to identify, prioritize and eliminate potential failure modes for operators involved in the cytotoxic drug preparation process before the failures occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chesapeake Bay fish–osprey (Pandion haliaetus) food chain: Evaluation of contaminant exposure and genetic damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.; Hale, Robert C.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Erickson, Richard A.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, a large-scale ecotoxicological study was conducted in several Chesapeake Bay (USA) tributaries (Susquehanna River and flats, the Back, Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco Rivers, Anacostia/ middle Potomac, Elizabeth and James Rivers) and Poplar Island as a mid-Bay reference site. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) diet and the transfer of contaminants from fish to osprey eggs were evaluated. The most bioaccumulative compounds (biomagnification factor > 5) included p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, and 154. This analysis suggested that alternative brominated flame retardants and other compounds (methoxytriclosan) are not appreciably biomagnifying. A multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that major differences in patterns among study sites were driven by PCB congeners 105, 128, 156, 170/190, and 189, and PBDE congeners 99 and 209. An integrative redundancy analysis showed that osprey eggs from Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River and the Elizabeth River had high residues of PCBs and p,p′-DDE, with PBDEs making a substantial contribution to overall halogenated contamination on the Susquehanna and Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers. The redundancy analysis also suggested a potential relation between PBDE residues in osprey eggs and oxidative DNA damage in nestling blood samples. The results also indicate that there is no longer a discernible relation between halogenated contaminants in osprey eggs and their reproductive success in Chesapeake Bay. Osprey populations are thriving in much of the Chesapeake, with productivity rates exceeding those required to sustain a stable population.

  5. Sublethal detoxification responses to contaminant exposure associated with offshore production platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S. J.; Willett, K. L.; Thomsen, J.; Beatty, K. B.; Connor, K.; Narasimhan, T. R.; Erickson, C. M.; Safe, S. H. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Several fish and invertebrate species were evaluated for their responses to contamination associated with petroleum and gas development and production in the Gulf of Mexico. Sampling was done at 100 and 3000 m from the center of three platforms. No significant near/far station differences were observed in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity for invertebrate species. Similarly, no AHH activity, or cytochrome P450 mRNA levels, or biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite concentrations were detected in 16 fish species. There were, however, some species-specific differences in AHH and biliary PAH metabolite levels. 78 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Expanded target-chemical analysis reveals extensive mixed-organic-contaminant exposure in USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Romanok, Kristin; Barber, Larry B.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jones, Daniel K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Surface water from 38 streams nationwide was assessed using 14 target-organic methods (719 compounds). Designed-bioactive anthropogenic contaminants (biocides, pharmaceuticals) comprised 57% of 406 organics detected at least once. The 10 most-frequently detected anthropogenic-organics included eight pesticides (desulfinylfipronil, AMPA, chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, metolachlor, atrazine, CIAT, glyphosate) and two pharmaceuticals (caffeine, metformin) with detection frequencies ranging 66–84% of all sites. Detected contaminant concentrations varied from less than 1 ng L–1 to greater than 10 μg L–1, with 77 and 278 having median detected concentrations greater than 100 ng L–1 and 10 ng L–1, respectively. Cumulative detections and concentrations ranged 4–161 compounds (median 70) and 8.5–102 847 ng L–1, respectively, and correlated significantly with wastewater discharge, watershed development, and toxic release inventory metrics. Log10 concentrations of widely monitored HHCB, triclosan, and carbamazepine explained 71–82% of the variability in the total number of compounds detected (linear regression; p-values: environment application (pesticides), designed-bioactive organics (median 41 per site at μg L–1 cumulative concentrations) in developed watersheds present aquatic health concerns, given their acknowledged potential for sublethal effects to sensitive species and lifecycle stages at low ng L–1.

  7. Community Engaged Cumulative Risk Assessment of Exposure to Inorganic Well Water Contaminants, Crow Reservation, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T.; Lefthand, Myra J.; Young, Sara L.; Kindness, Larry; Other Medicine, Roberta; Ford, Timothy E.; Dietrich, Eric; Parker, Albert E.; Hoover, Joseph H.; Camper, Anne K.

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 11 million people in the US have home wells with unsafe levels of hazardous metals and nitrate. The national scope of the health risk from consuming this water has not been assessed as home wells are largely unregulated and data on well water treatment and consumption are lacking. Here, we assessed health risks from consumption of contaminated well water on the Crow Reservation by conducting a community-engaged, cumulative risk assessment. Well water testing, surveys and interviews were used to collect data on contaminant concentrations, water treatment methods, well water consumption, and well and septic system protection and maintenance practices. Additive Hazard Index calculations show that the water in more than 39% of wells is unsafe due to uranium, manganese, nitrate, zinc and/or arsenic. Most families’ financial resources are limited, and 95% of participants do not employ water treatment technologies. Despite widespread high total dissolved solids, poor taste and odor, 80% of families consume their well water. Lack of environmental health literacy about well water safety, pre-existing health conditions and limited environmental enforcement also contribute to vulnerability. Ensuring access to safe drinking water and providing accompanying education are urgent public health priorities for Crow and other rural US families with low environmental health literacy and limited financial resources. PMID:29304032

  8. Exposure to fentanyl-contaminated heroin and overdose risk among illicit opioid users in Rhode Island: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Marshall, Brandon D L; Rich, Josiah D; Green, Traci C

    2017-08-01

    Illicit fentanyl use has become wide spread in the US, causing high rates of overdose deaths among people who use drugs. This study describes patterns and perceptions of fentanyl exposure among opioid users in Rhode Island. A mixed methods study was conducted via questionnaire with a convenience sample of 149 individuals using illicit opioids or misusing prescription opioids in Rhode Island between January and November 2016. Of these, 121 knew of fentanyl and reported known or suspected exposure to fentanyl in the past year. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the first 47 participants. Study participants were predominantly male (64%) and white (61%). Demographic variables were similar across sample strata. Heroin was the most frequently reported drug of choice (72%). Self-reported exposure to illicit fentanyl in the past year was common (50.4%, n=61). In multivariate models, regular (at least weekly) heroin use was independently associated with known or suspected fentanyl exposure in the past year (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=4.07, 95% CI: 1.24-13.3, p=0.020). In interviews, users described fentanyl as unpleasant, potentially deadly, and to be avoided. Participants reporting fentanyl exposure routinely experienced or encountered non-fatal overdose. Heroin users reported limited ability to identify fentanyl in their drugs. Harm reduction strategies used to protect themselves from fentanyl exposure and overdose, included test hits, seeking prescription opioids in lieu of heroin, and seeking treatment with combination buprenorphine/naloxone. Participants were often unsuccessful in accessing structured treatment programs. Among illicit opioid users in Rhode Island, known or suspected fentanyl exposure is common, yet demand for fentanyl is low. Fentanyl-contaminated drugs are generating user interest in effective risk mitigation strategies, including treatment. Responses to the fentanyl epidemic should be informed by the perceptions and experiences of

  9. Control of Indoor Airflows for Reduction of Human Exposure to Aerosol Contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova

    . An increase of the air change rate did not affect the comparable normalized concentration distribution of the tracer gas and the larger particles, namely 0.7μm and 3.5 μm. However, the ventilation rate was important for comparing the behaviour of the ultrafine particles (0.07 μm) and the tracer gas......, there is still a need for improved understanding of the air movement in the vicinity of the occupants. Tracer gas measurements are often used to study exposure to both indoor generated gases and airborne particles (aerosols). The tracer gas, however, cannot be used as a common substitute for aerosols of all...... sizes due to the different physical forces acting on them. Determining to what extent tracer gas can be used as substitute for aerosols when assessing occupants’ exposure to indoor aerosols is needed and can be used for appropriate ventilation systems design. A properly developed ventilation method...

  10. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel N.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  11. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  12. Exposure scenarios of the German Federal Soil Protection and Contamination Ordinance - impact pathway from soil to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konietzka, R.

    2005-01-01

    The soil uptake values used for calculating soil values have not undergone strict scientific validation by extensive testing. As far as possible be they can and should be based on empirical data. In many cases it is inevitable to resort to conventions, but these should be made plausible through empirical studies. Land use scenarios relevant to the calculation of test values for direct uptake from soil to humans are playgrounds, residential areas, park and leisure facilities and industrial and commercial properties. The relevant exposure pathways are assumed to differ between scenarios depending on certain characteristics of the potentially exposed population groups. In most cases the pathways oral, inhalational (inhalation of contaminated dusts) and dermal uptake from the soil are considered

  13. A new approach to assess occupational exposure to airborne fungal contamination and mycotoxins of forklift drivers in waste sorting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; de Oliveira, Ana Cebola; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Quintal-Gomes, Anita; Twarużek, Magdalena; Kosicki, Robert; Soszczyńska, Ewelina; Viegas, Susana

    2017-11-01

    The waste management industry is an important employer, and exposure of waste-handling workers to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. Besides fungal contamination, it is important to consider the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in this setting. Forklifts with closed cabinet and air conditioner are commonly used in waste industry to transport waste and other products within the facilities, possibly increasing the risk of exposure under certain conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal contamination and mycotoxin levels in filters from the air conditioning system of forklift cabinets, as an indicator to assess occupational exposure of the drivers working in a waste sorting facility. Cytotoxicity was also assessed to understand and characterize the toxicity of the complex mixtures as present in the forklift filters. Aqueous extracts of filters from 11 vehicles were streaked onto 2% malt extract agar (MEA) with chloramphenicol (0.05 g/L) media, and in dichloran glycerol (DG18) agar-based media for morphological identification of the mycobiota. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of genes from Aspergillus sections Fumigati, Flavi, Circumdati, and Versicolores was also performed. Mycotoxins were analyzed using LC-MS/MS system. Cytotoxicity of filter extracts was analyzed by using a MTT cell culture test. Aspergillus species were found most frequently, namely Aspergillus sections Circumdati (MEA 48%; DG18 41%) and Nigri (MEA 32%; DG18 17.3%). By qPCR, only Aspergillus section Fumigati species were found, but positive results were obtained for all assessed filters. No mycotoxins were detected in aqueous filter extracts, but most extracts were highly cytotoxic (n = 6) or medium cytotoxic (n = 4). Although filter service life and cytotoxicity were not clearly correlated, the results suggest that observing air conditioner filter replacement frequency may be a critical aspect to avoid worker's exposure. Further research is

  14. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  15. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  16. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eevers, N.; Hawthorne, J.R.; White, J.C.; Vangronsveld, J.; Weyens, N.

    2016-01-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. - Highlights: • Cucurbita pepo accumulates DDE and can be used for phytoremediation. • Phytoremediation capacity might be enhanced with endophytic bacteria. • The differences in bacterial communities without and with DDE are investigated. • Several DDE-tolerant bacteria are discovered and might be used in phytoremediation. - DDE-exposure and DDE-uptake of Cucurbita pepo lead to increases in both diversity

  17. Evaluation of the contamination and the exposure to manganese from the combustion of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in unleaded fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, J.; Loranger, S.; Kennedy, G.

    1994-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used since 1976 in Canada as an antiknock additive in gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead. Combustion of MMT in the engine forms manganese oxides, mainly Mn 3 O 4 , which are emitted into the environment. Since human exposure to Mn is associated with various health problems, a research program was initiated to evaluate the degree of contamination and the fate of Mn originating from MMT combustion. Four projects were conducted as part of this program: chronological evaluation of atmospheric Mn concentrations in Montreal from 1981 to 1992; comparative evaluation of Mn concentrations in soil and vegetation exposed to MMT-generated Mn; evaluation of the pigeon as an ecological indicator of MMT-generated Mn contamination; and evaluation of the occupational and environmental exposure of workers exposed to Mn oxides. Methodologies and results from these projects are reveiwed. In Montreal, atmospheric Mn levels are significantly higher at monitoring stations in areas of high traffic density. A large drop in Mn levels starting in 1991 was attributed to closure of a ferromanganese plant ca 25 km from Montreal. Field tests in experimental bean and oat plots also showed higher Mn levels in soil and plants in areas of high traffic. While pigeons from Montreal had higher Mn levels in tissues than rural pigeons, it is nevertheless impossible to link such levels directly to Mn originating from MMT. Mechanics were found to be exposed to higher atmospheric Mn concentrations than blue collar workers. Blood Mn levels in those workers were normal, but Mn concentrations in hair of mechanics were significantly higher than those found in a control group. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Hawthorne, J R; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Projected Hg dietary exposure of 3 bird species nesting on a contaminated floodplain (South River, Virginia, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincheng; Newman, Michael C

    2013-04-01

    Dietary Hg exposure was modeled for Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), Eastern song sparrow (Melospiza melodia), and Eastern screech owl (Otus asio) nesting on the contaminated South River floodplain (Virginia, USA). Parameterization of Monte-Carlo models required formal expert elicitation to define bird body weight and feeding ecology characteristics because specific information was either unavailable in the published literature or too difficult to collect reliably by field survey. Mercury concentrations and weights for candidate food items were obtained directly by field survey. Simulations predicted the probability that an adult bird during breeding season would ingest specific amounts of Hg during daily foraging and the probability that the average Hg ingestion rate for the breeding season of an adult bird would exceed published rates reported to cause harm to other birds (>100 ng total Hg/g body weight per day). Despite the extensive floodplain contamination, the probabilities that these species' average ingestion rates exceeded the threshold value were all <0.01. Sensitivity analysis indicated that overall food ingestion rate was the most important factor determining projected Hg ingestion rates. Expert elicitation was useful in providing sufficiently reliable information for Monte-Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Environmental contaminants of health-care origin: Exposure and potential effects in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2018-01-01

    A diverse range of fauna could be exposed to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via diet, dermal absorption or bioconcentration. Low level exposures of free-ranging wildlife to APIs has only been demonstrated for a few pathways (e.g., ingestion of fish in estuaries by piscivorous birds), and many remain hypothetical (e.g., ingestion of invertebrates in sludge amended fields by terrestrial vertebrates). Our understanding of API dose-response relationships in wildlife have only been assessed for endocrine disrupting compounds and a few veterinary therapeutics. Drug specific responses at various levels of biological organization are poorly characterized for nearly all wildlife species, and thus our understanding of risk is limited. There is interest in using a read-across approach to fill knowledge gaps for risk. This approach, using data collected in laboratory mammals and humans, would enable predictions for likelihood of adverse effects in wildlife. Given the great diversities in physiologies among species, a combination of in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches will be required to fill the knowledge gaps for exposure, hazard and risk.

  1. Radium-226-contaminated drinking water: hypothesis on an exposure pathway in a population with elevated childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W; Kranefeld, A; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I

    1993-10-01

    A recent epidemiological survey on childhood malignant disease in the region of Ellweiler, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, revealed a significantly increased incidence of childhood leukemia, but observed incidences of lymphoma and solid tumors were normal. Established risk factors such as individual exposure to chemicals as well as hereditary genetic disorders were ruled out in interviews with the patients or their families. The general population in the region, however, is subjected to considerable doses of ionizing radiation due to high levels of external gamma radiation and high activities of indoor radon. Radiation-specific chromosome aberrations were found in one of two healthy siblings and one father of leukemia patients as well as in any of three probands living in houses with high indoor radon activities. Radon and natural gamma radiation, however, cannot explain the geographical pattern of the cases. Four out of seven cases were observed in two particular villages near a uranium processing plant. The drinking water of these villages partly came from a small river that was contaminated with radium-226 washed out from the dumps of the uranium plant. Only sparse measurements of 226Ra are available, but derived red bone marrow doses for children in the two villages obtained from a simple radio-ecological model show the significance of the drinking water pathway. Prenatal 226Ra exposure of fetuses due to placental transfer and accumulation may have led to significant doses and may explain the excess cases of childhood leukemia in the region even in quantitative terms.

  2. Radium-226-contaminated drinking water: Hypothesis on an exposure pathway in a population with elevated childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, W.; Kranefeld, A.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.

    1993-01-01

    A recent epidemiological survey on childhood malignant disease in the region of Ellweiler, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, revealed a significantly increased incidence of childhood leukemia, but observed incidences of lymphoma and solid tumors were normal. Established risk factors such as individual exposure to chemicals as well as hereditary genetic disorders were ruled out in interviews with the patients or their families. The general population in the region, however, is subjected to considerable doses of ionizing radiation due to high levels of external γ radiation and high activities of indoor radon. Radiation-specific chromosome aberrations were found in one of two healthy siblings and one father of leukemia patients as well as in any of three probands living in houses with high indoor radon activities. Radon and natural γ radiation, however, cannot explain the geographical pattern of the cases. Four out of seven cases were observed in two particular villages near a uranium processing plant. The drinking water of these villages partly came from a small river that was contaminated with radium-226 washed out from the dumps of the uranium plant. Only sparse measurements of 226 Ra are available, but derived red bone marrow doses for children in the two villages obtained from a simple radio-ecological model show the significance of the drinking water pathway. Prenatal 226 Ra exposure of fetuses due to placental transfer and accumulation may have led to significant doses and may explain the excess cases of childhood leukemia in the region even in quantitative terms. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Estimates of potential childhood lead exposure from contaminated soil using the US EPA IEUBK Model in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Mohmmad, Shaike M; Gulson, Brian L; Taylor, Mark P; Kristensen, Louise J; Birch, Gavin

    2017-07-01

    Surface soils in portions of the Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) urban area are contaminated with lead (Pb) primarily from past use of Pb in gasoline, the deterioration of exterior lead-based paints, and industrial activities. Surface soil samples (n=341) were collected from a depth of 0-2.5cm at a density of approximately one sample per square kilometre within the Sydney estuary catchment and analysed for lead. The bioaccessibility of soil Pb was analysed in 18 samples. The blood lead level (BLL) of a hypothetical 24 month old child was predicted at soil sampling sites in residential and open land use using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Integrated Exposure Uptake and Biokinetic (IEUBK) model. Other environmental exposures used the Australian National Environmental Protection Measure (NEPM) default values. The IEUBK model predicted a geometric mean BLL of 2.0±2.1µg/dL using measured soil lead bioavailability measurements (bioavailability =34%) and 2.4±2.8µg/dL using the Australian NEPM default assumption (bioavailability =50%). Assuming children were present and residing at the sampling locations, the IEUBK model incorporating soil Pb bioavailability predicted that 5.6% of the children at the sampling locations could potentially have BLLs exceeding 5µg/dL and 2.1% potentially could have BLLs exceeding 10µg/dL. These estimations are consistent with BLLs previously measured in children in Sydney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative sensitivity of harbour and grey seals to several environmental contaminants using in vitro exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, M.M.; Frouin, H.; Pillet, S.; Lesage, V.; De Guise, S.; Fournier, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), mercury chloride (HgCl 2 ), methylmercury chloride (CH 3 HgCl), and PCBs on lymphocyte proliferation in phocids. PBMCs isolated from harbour and grey seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of contaminants. A reduction of viability occurred when cells were exposed to 10 -4 M HgCl 2 or CH 3 HgCl or to 50 ppm of Aroclor 1254. In both grey and harbour seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was suppressed when their cells were incubated with 5 x 10 -5 M CdCl 2 or 10 -4 M HgCl 2 . An inhibition of proliferation occurred with CH 3 HgCl from 10 -6 M in grey seals and from 10 -5 M in harbour seals. In grey seals, Aroclor 1254 reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 15 ppm. In both harbour and grey seals, CH 3 HgCl was ten times more immunotoxic that HgCl 2 . From IC 50 , chemicals were ranked in terms of toxicity as followed: CH 3 HgCl > CdCl 2 > HgCl 2 > Aroclor 1254.

  5. Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: From field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an agricultural field before it entered a 43.5-m ditch transect. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling, we directly quantified the flow route contributions to surface water discharge and solute loading. Our multi-scale experimental approach allowed us to relate these measurements to field-scale NO 3 concentration patterns in shallow groundwater and to continuous NO 3 records at the catchment outlet. Our results show that the tile drains contributed 90-92% of the annual NO 3 and heavy metal loads. Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of tile drainage are important for adequate water quality management. - Direct measurements of flow route contributions to surface water contaminant loading reveal the crucial role of tile drainage for catchment-scale water and solute transport.

  6. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    . cholerae El Tor strain N16961, showed hemolysis and proteolysis activity but none of them exhibited any hemagglutinin activity on human erythrocytes. The study findings indicate that V. cholerae contamination is mostly originated in and around kitchen area rather than latrine area. Contaminated food...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh......The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...

  7. Mixtures of endocrine disrupting contaminants modelled on human high end exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Kortenkamp, A.; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2012-01-01

    exceeding 1 is expected to lead to effects in the rat, a total dose more than 62 times higher than human exposures should lead to responses. Considering the high uncertainty of this estimate, experience on lowest‐observed‐adverse‐effect‐level (LOAEL)/NOAEL ratios and statistical power of rat studies, we...... expected that combined doses 150 times higher than high end human intake estimates should give no, or only borderline effects, whereas doses 450 times higher should produce significant responses. Experiments indeed showed clear developmental toxicity of the 450‐fold dose in terms of increased nipple...... though each individual chemical is present at low, ineffective doses, but the effects of mixtures modelled based on human intakes have not previously been investigated. To address this issue for the first time, we selected 13 chemicals for a developmental mixture toxicity study in rats where data about...

  8. The assumption of heterogeneous or homogeneous radioactive contamination in soil/sediment: does it matter in terms of the external exposure of fauna?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.

    2014-01-01

    The classical approach to environmental radioprotection is based on the assumption of homogeneously contaminated media. However, in soils and sediments there may be a significant variation of radioactivity with depth. The effect of this heterogeneity was investigated by examining the external exposure of various sediment and soil organisms, and determining the resulting dose rates, assuming a realistic combination of locations and radionuclides. The results were dependent on the exposure situation, i.e., the organism, its location, and the quality and quantity of radionuclides. The dose rates ranged over three orders of magnitude. The assumption of homogeneous contamination was not consistently conservative (if associated with a level of radioactivity averaged over the full thickness of soil or sediment that was sampled). Dose assessment for screening purposes requires consideration of the highest activity concentration measured in a soil/sediment that is considered to be homogeneously contaminated. A more refined assessment (e.g., higher tier of a graded approach) should take into consideration a more realistic contamination profile, and apply different dosimetric approaches. - Highlights: • Defining contamination as homogeneous may not be conservative for dose assessment. • The impact of source heterogeneity on dose is closely linked to the exposure scenario. • Dosimetric calculations (method and tool) should differ from screening to higher tiers

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  10. Exposure of young dairy cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through intensive grazing of contaminated pastures in a herd positive for Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Whitlock, Robert H; Buergelt, Claus D; Sweeney, Raymond W

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of 1- to 2-year-old cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on pasture previously grazed by infected cattle. The exposure of yearling cattle to pastures contaminated with MAP resulted in infection with MAP, showing that age resistance to infection can be overcome by pressure of infection.

  11. Contaminant exposure in relation to spatio-temporal variation in diet composition: A case study of the little owl (Athene noctua)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, A.M.; Wijnhoven, S.; Baveco, H.; Van den Brink, N.W.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure of the little owl Athene noctua to trace metal contamination in a Dutch Rhine River floodplain area. Diet composition was calculated per month for three habitat types, based on the population densities of six prey types (earthworms, ground beetles and four small mammal

  12. Legacy and emerging brominated flame retardants in China: A review on food and human milk contamination, human dietary exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-05-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of widely used chemicals, which have been produced and used since 1970s. As a consequence of substantial and long-term usage, BFRs have been found to be ubiquitous in humans, wildlife, and abiotic matrices around the world. Although several reports have reviewed BFRs contamination in general, none have focused specifically on foods and human milk, and the corresponding dietary exposure. Foods (including human milk) have long been recognized as a major pathway of BFRs intake for non-occupationally exposed persons. This review summarizes most available BFRs data in foods and human milk from China in recent years, and emphasizes several specific aspects, i.e., contamination levels of legacy and emerging BFRs, dietary exposure assessment and related health concerns, comparison between various BFRs, and temporal changes in BFRs contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of the dietary arsenic exposures from ingestion of contaminated soil and hyperaccumulating Pteris ferns used in a residential phytoremediation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen; Hatfield, Sarah; Nagarajan, Vinay; Blaylock, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating ferns are used to phytoremediate As-contaminated soils, including soils in residential areas. This use may pose a health risk if children were to ingest these plants. Spider brake (Pteris cretica L.) plants were grown in sand spiked with arsenate, to produce tissue As concentrations (2000-4500 mg kg DW(-1)) typical of those observed in plants deployed for As phytoremediation. The fronds were subjected to a physiologically-based extraction test to estimate As bioaccessibility, which ranged from 3.4-20.5%. A scenario for human dietary exposure to As in an urban setting was then estimated for a child consuming 0.25 g DW of tissue. The calculation of dietary exposure took into account the As concentration in the fern pinnae, the bioaccessibility of As in the tissue, and the typical absorption of inorganic As by the gastrointestinal tract. The pinnae As concentrations and the calculated dietary exposures were used to create a non-linear regression model relating tissue As concentration to dietary exposure. Data from a phytoremediation project in a residential area using Pteris cretica and Pteris vittata (L.) were input into this model to project dietary As exposure in a residential phytoremediation setting. These exposures were compared to estimates of dietary As exposure from the consumption of soil. The results showed that dietary exposures to As from consumption of soil or pinnae tissue were similar and that estimates of dietary exposure were below the LOAEL value of 14 microg As kg(-1) d(-1). The results suggest that the hyperaccumulation of As in Pteris ferns during growth in moderately contaminated residential soils (e.g., < or = 100 mg As kg DW(-1)) does not represent an inherent risk or a risk substantially different from that posed by accidental ingestion of contaminated soil.

  14. Risk-Based Management of Contaminated Groundwater: The Role of Geologic Heterogeneity, Exposure and Cancer Risk in Determining the Performance of Aquifer Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.M.; Carle, S.F.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of aquifer remediation is typically expressed in terms of a reduction in contaminant concentrations relative to a regulated maximum contaminant level (MCL), and is usually confined by sparse monitoring data and/or simple model calculations. Here, the effectiveness of remediation is examined from a risk-based perspective that goes beyond the traditional MCL concept. A methodology is employed to evaluate the health risk to individuals exposed to contaminated household water that is produced from groundwater. This approach explicitly accounts for differences in risk arising from variability in individual physiology and water use, the uncertainty in estimating chemical carcinogenesis for different individuals, and the uncertainties and variability in contaminant concentrations within groundwater. A hypothetical contamination scenario is developed as a case study in a saturated, alluvial aquifer underlying a real Superfund site. A baseline (unremediated) human exposure and health risk scenario, as induced by contaminated groundwater pumped from this site, is predicted and compared with a similar estimate based upon pump-and-treat exposure intervention. The predicted reduction in risk in the remediation scenario is not an equitable one-that is, it is not uniform to all individuals within a population and varies according to the level of uncertainty in prediction. The importance of understanding the detailed hydrogeologic connections that are established in the heterogeneous geologic regime between the contaminated source, municipal receptors, and remediation wells, and its relationship to this uncertainty is demonstrated. Using two alternative pumping rates, we develop cost-benefit curves based upon reduced exposure and risk to different individuals within the population, under the presence of uncertainty

  15. Full-length genome sequence analysis of an avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) as contaminant in live poultry vaccine: The commercial live vaccines might be a potential route for ALV-J transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Lin, L; Li, H; Shi, M; Gu, Z; Wei, P

    2018-02-25

    One avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) strain was isolated from 67 commercial live poultry vaccines produced by various manufacturers during 2013-2016 in China. The complete genomes of the isolate were sequenced and it was found that the genes gag and pol of the strain were relatively conservative, while the gp85 gene of the strain GX14YYA1 had the highest similarities with a field strain GX14ZS14, which was isolated from the chickens of a farm that had once used the same vaccine as the one found to be contaminated with the GX14YYA1. This is the first report of ALV-J contaminant in live poultry vaccine in China. Our finding demonstrates that vaccination of the commercial live vaccines might be a potential new route for ALV-J transmission in chickens and highlights the need for more extensive monitoring of the commercial live vaccines in China. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Dose estimates from protracted external exposure of inhabitants living in contaminated area of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, H.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kurotaki, K.; Uchiyama, M.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Barishkov, N.; Mishin, A.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the radiation risk assessment, it is important to estimate the accurate doses of inhabitants, due to protracted exposure after the Chernobyl accident as well as the high doses just after the accident. We used a model for estimation of the dose with a long-term temporal change using information of dose rate on the ground and profile of the activity depth distribution in soil. A value C t [μSv h -1 /(MBq m -2 )], which is dose rate in air corresponding to the initial deposition of 137 Cs on the ground just after the accident, was analyzed using the results of the measurements of dose rate in air and activity in soil samples in the contaminated area of Bryansk region in Russia. From the analysis, the value, C 12 at 12 years after the accident can be predicted by categorizing usage of the land. The values obtained from the results of the actual measurement were 1.5 for forest, 1.0 for pasture, 0.6 for yard, and 0.45 for arable or kitchen garden. Temporal change of C t was estimated with a vertical migration model of activity in soil developed by Golikov et al. Annual dose due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in the period from 1987 to 1999 in farmers, and forest workers were estimated by the model using above values. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by using the personal dose monitoring. The cumulative doses of the inhabitants estimated by the model range from 10 to 60 mSv. (author)

  17. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisarat Songprasert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG in urine (as an internal exposure dose and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose. Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available.

  18. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by Means of airborne particulate matter and bio monitors using Nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B. C.; Maia, Elene C. P.; Albinati, Claudia; Filho, Serafim S.

    2001-01-01

    To make an occupational diagnosis is complex because of the difficulty to identify and characterise the expositions. Physicians do not usually have access to the quantity of raw material managed by the worker, dates, period of exposure to the substance. Besides this the onset of occupational diseases is similar to other chronic diseases. Then, this project aimed at assessing metal levels in a galvanising industry by means of biomonitors, scalp hair and toenails donated by workers, and particulate matter collected on air filter. The analysis of the samples was carried out by k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis, k0-INAA. The project was conducted together with the physicians of the Secretariat Municipal de Saude (Municipal Department of Health) and it was inserted in a Worker's Health Awareness Program. Belo Horizonte and surrounding areas are an important industrial centre, concentrating many industries in several areas. Only in Belo Horizonte there are more than 20 galvanising industries ranging from home factories to well equipped ones. This industry was chosen as Object of this project because it is responsible for the majority of patients who look for medical assistance because of metal contamination. Stationary air sampling was carried out in order to evaluate the level of elemental concentration in the indoor environment of the plant. Comparative Group sampling was carried out the same way as the Work Group for scalp hair and toenails. The irradiations were performed in the reactor TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 in the CDTN. Elemental concentration results determined in the samples from non-exposed people were compared to values in the literature and there were no significant differences between the values. The airborne particulate matter results showed the high level of pollutants which the workers are exposed to inside the galvanising factory. The results obtained confirmed the medical suspicions of workers' contamination and the medical recommendations aimed

  19. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report II (1998-2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2015 in a region of Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of the village of Volincy (Korma district) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precautions in the course of time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. External exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, internal exposure is only slightly elevated and has no significant negative influence on the health of the inhabitants. In 2013, the internal dose decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/a. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Up to now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and individual advice is available, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former closed areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules.

  20. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report II (1998-2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2015 in a region of Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of the village of Volincy (Korma district) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precautions in the course of time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. External exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, internal exposure is only slightly elevated and has no significant negative influence on the health of the inhabitants. In 2013, the internal dose decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/a. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Up to now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and individual advice is available, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former closed areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules.

  1. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2014-01-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of 131 I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees 131 I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted

  2. [Accidents with exposure to biological material contaminated with HIV in workers at a third level hospital in Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Codes Ilario, Aurelia; de Juanes Pardo, José Ramón; Arrazola Martínez, M del Pilar; Jaén Herreros, Felisa; Sanz Gallardo, M Inmaculada; Lago López, Emilia

    2004-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an occupational hazard among healthcare professionals accidentally contaminated with HIV-positive blood. This study is aimed at describing the characteristics of the accidents involving blood of HIV-positive patients recorded over a sixteen-year period at a general hospital. Epidemiological study of the accidents reported in 2001 involving biological material from an HIV-positive source by the healthcare personnel of a general hospital throughout the 1986-2001 period entailing the presence of biological material from HIV-positive serology individuals. Individual, time and place-related variables, in addition to the initial serologies and those throughout the protocolized follow-up were studied for those individuals involved in these accidents. A total 550 accidents entailing an HIV-positive source were reported. The average number of accidents was 34.4/year. The accidental exposure rate for the period under study was 7.5/1000 workers/year. The professional group showing the highest accident rate was the nursing staff (54.4%). Percutaneous injuries were the most frequent (80.2%). The mean exposure rate was 2.6/100 beds/year. The anatomical areas involved to the greatest degree were the fingers (75.6%). A total 53.4% of those injured completed the serological follow-up without having shown any seroconversion. Throughout the sixteen-year period under study, the annual incidence of accidents involving an HIV-positive source increased from the 27 accidents reported in 1986 to the 60 accidents reported in 1990, there having been a downward trend as of that point in time, to the point of 12 accidents having been recorded in 2001.

  3. Exposure to secondhand smoke in Germany: air contamination due to smoking in German restaurants, bars, and other venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Seibold, Bjoern; Schunk, Susanne; Jentzsch, Elmar; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Dresler, Carolyn; Travers, Mark J; Hyland, Andrew

    2008-03-01

    This study quantified exposure to secondhand smoke in German restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues by determining the concentration of respirable suspended particles measuring 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5) in indoor air. The measurements were taken using an inconspicuous device placed on the investigator's table in the venue. The concentration of particulate matter in the indoor air was measured for a minimum of 30 min. A total of 39 restaurants, 20 coffee bars, 12 bars, 9 discothèques, and 20 restaurant cars in trains were visited throughout Germany from September 30 to October 31, 2005. The readings disclosed a median PM2.5 of 260 microg/m3 and an arithmetic mean PM2.5 of 333 microg/m3. Median values were 378 microg/m3 in bars, 131 microg/m3 in cafes, and 173 microg/m3 in restaurants. The highest medians were measured in discothèques and restaurant cars, with values averaging 432 microg/m3 and 525 microg/m3 PM2.5, respectively. This study was the first to show the magnitude and extent of exposure to secondhand smoke on such an extensive scale in Germany. The contaminated air due to smoking is a human carcinogenic and major health hazard, which would be prevented most effectively and completely by implementing a ban on smoking. This study is important for the ongoing national debate in Germany as well as for debates in all countries without smoke-free air legislation, which includes most countries around the world.

  4. Changes in Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Levels Before and After the Phthalate Contamination Event and Identification of Exposure Sources in a Cohort of Taiwanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chian-Feng; Wang, I-Jen

    2017-08-19

    In 2011, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration inadvertently discovered that, for decades, manufacturers had replaced expensive natural emulsifiers in food products with diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). We wanted to compare urinary phthalate metabolite levels of children before and after the DEHP food contamination event and identify source(s) of phthalate exposure in addition to the illegal food additives. In the present study, morning urine samples were collected from a cohort of 453 children in 2010 in Taipei. After the DEHP food contamination event, there were 200 cohort children left at follow-up in 2013. The geometric means (GMs) of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP) levels before and after the event were 9.39 and 13.34 µg/g of creatinine, respectively, with no significant difference ( p = 0.093). After the DEHP food contamination event, we found that urinary phthalate metabolite levels were significantly higher in people who frequently consumed microwave-heated food and used fragrance-containing products ( p food contamination event, thus, other sources must contribute to phthalate exposure in daily life. Public awareness of approaches to reducing phthalate exposure is necessary.

  5. Biomagnification of hexachlorobenzene: influence of uptake routes in a laboratory test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeler, P.; Meller, M.; Roembke, J.; Spoerlein, P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate such a potential biomagnification, a laboratory test was developed. It consisted of a two-step food chain including the sediment dwelling freshwater oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Mueller) and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, Linne), a small teleost fish which often feeds primarily on benthic invertebrates. Artificial sediment and reconstituted water were used. To examine the influence of benthic prey on the bioaccumulation of a POP in the predator, fish were exposed to 14 C-labelled hexachlorobenzene via spiked water, spiked sediment, pre-contaminated prey organisms, and to combinations of these exposure routes. Summarising the results of these experiments, it could be shown that the exposure to HCB via different routes resulted in a significantly higher accumulation in fish than an exposure to single pathways. It was concluded that the major uptake routes for fish were the overlying water and the food, whereas the contribution of spiked sediment itself was relatively small. HCB was biomagnified in the tested laboratory food chain. Therefore, concerning secondary poisoning, the environmental risk assessment of POPs like HCB should not be based on existing bioaccumulation tests alone, since they focus only on exposure via the water pathway. Instead, the influence of food and sediment as exposure routes should be considered as well, using comprehensive food chain modelling and/or laboratory studies. (orig.) [de

  6. Particle-size dependence on metal(loid) distributions in mine wastes: Implications for water contamination and human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.S.; Wilson, K.M.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The mining and processing of metal-bearing ores has resulted in contamination issues where waste materials from abandoned mines remain in piles of untreated and unconsolidated material, posing the potential for waterborne and airborne transport of toxic elements. This study presents a systematic method of particle size separation, mass distribution, and bulk chemical analysis for mine tailings and adjacent background soil samples from the Rand historic mining district, California, in order to assess particle size distribution and related trends in metal(loid) concentration as a function of particle size. Mine tailings produced through stamp milling and leaching processes were found to have both a narrower and finer particle size distribution than background samples, with significant fractions of particles available in a size range (???250 ??m) that could be incidentally ingested. In both tailings and background samples, the majority of trace metal(loid)s display an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size, resulting in higher proportions of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in finer-sized fractions which are more susceptible to both water- and wind-borne transport as well as ingestion and/or inhalation. Established regulatory screening levels for such elements may, therefore, significantly underestimate potential exposure risk if relying solely on bulk sample concentrations to guide remediation decisions. Correlations in elemental concentration trends (such as between As and Fe) indicate relationships between elements that may be relevant to their chemical speciation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  8. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.; Watson, S.; McDonald, P.; Copplestone, D.; Watts, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137 Cs and 241 Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h -1 , below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h -1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h -1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  9. Exposición infantil al plomo en sitios contaminados Children exposure to lead in contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Flores-Ramírez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado de la exposición infantil al plomo en diversos tipos de sitios contaminados. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó de junio 2008 a diciembre 2009 en cuatro sitios de México: metalúrgica de Ávalos, Chihuahua.; metalúrgica de Morales, San Luis Potosí (SLP; zona alfarera en La Trinidad, Tlaxcala, y sitio minero en Cedral, SLP. Se cuantificó plomo en polvo y se realizó un biomonitoreo humano en niños de la comunidad. RESULTADOS: Los valores obtenidos de plomo en polvo exterior superaron el límite establecido de 400 mg/kg para suelos residenciales en un intervalo de valores para los cuatro sitios de 62 a 5 187 mg/kg. En cuanto al monitoreo biológico, todas las poblaciones presentaron valores extremos, desde los 22 µg/dL en Cedral, 31 µg/dL en Morales, y 32 µg/dL en Ávalos, hasta los 52 µg/dL en La Trinidad. Es importante señalar que encontramos una correlación positiva y significativa entre los valores de plomo en polvo y plomo en sangre en todos los sitios de estudio (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP; Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. RESULTS: Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead

  10. Analysis, distribution, and dietary exposure of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in cookies and their relationship with other heat-induced contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Lorenzo, Gema; Morales, Francisco J

    2010-03-10

    Thermal processing of food leads to the formation of dicarbonyls such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), which are potentially harmful because they are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). GO and MGO formation was examined during the baking process of cookies as cookies are a widely distributed food commodity in Western diets. GO and MGO were chromatographically analyzed after employment of an improved method of derivatization with orthophenylenediamine to produce stable quinoxaline derivatives. Sample extraction, cleanup, and chromatographic conditions were evaluated to provide an in-house validated procedure for GO and MGO analysis in cookies. Quantification limits were set at 1.5 and 2 mg/kg for GO and MGO, respectively, with an average recovery of 103% and a calculated precision lower than 7%. Studies were carried out both on laboratory-scale cookies under controlled conditions and on commercial samples as well. GO and MGO values in commercial cookies ranged from 4.8 to 26.0 mg/kg and from 3.7 to 81.4 mg/kg, respectively. Commercial cookies made from ammonium bicarbonate and fructose showed the highest levels of MGO. Dicarbonyls were rapidly formed on the upper side of the cookie regardless of the shape or thickness of the samples, confirming there was a surface effect. Under controlled baking conditions, the formations of GO and MGO were linearly correlated with baking time. MGO formation was related with acrylamide, a heat-processing contaminant, in commercial cookies, but this relationship was not observed for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Dietary exposure of the Spanish population to GO and MGO from cookies was estimated to be 213 and 216 microg/person/day, respectively.

  11. The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, A; Uddh Söderberg, T; Jarsjö, J; Åström, M; Olofsson, B; Balfors, B; Destouni, G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. The assumption of heterogeneous or homogeneous radioactive contamination in soil/sediment: does it matter in terms of the external exposure of fauna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2014-12-01

    The classical approach to environmental radioprotection is based on the assumption of homogeneously contaminated media. However, in soils and sediments there may be a significant variation of radioactivity with depth. The effect of this heterogeneity was investigated by examining the external exposure of various sediment and soil organisms, and determining the resulting dose rates, assuming a realistic combination of locations and radionuclides. The results were dependent on the exposure situation, i.e., the organism, its location, and the quality and quantity of radionuclides. The dose rates ranged over three orders of magnitude. The assumption of homogeneous contamination was not consistently conservative (if associated with a level of radioactivity averaged over the full thickness of soil or sediment that was sampled). Dose assessment for screening purposes requires consideration of the highest activity concentration measured in a soil/sediment that is considered to be homogeneously contaminated. A more refined assessment (e.g., higher tier of a graded approach) should take into consideration a more realistic contamination profile, and apply different dosimetric approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2013-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ≥90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. -- Highlights: •Earthworm response to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in soil is examined. •Metabolomics shows significant changes to metabolic profile after 2 days. •Significant relationships observed between metabolomic and reproduction endpoints. •Metabolomics may have value as a rapid screening tool for chronic toxicity. -- Earthworm metabolomic responses measured after 2 and 14 days are compared to traditional earthworm ecotoxicity endpoints (survival and reproduction) in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

  14. Risk assessment of historical soil contamination with cyanides; origin, potential human exposure and evaluation of Intervention Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster HW; LBG

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate, and indicate possible adjustment of, the current Dutch Intervention Values for cyanides (CN) a review has been made of sources of CN soil contamination, behaviour of CN species and present environmental concentrations related to soils contaminated before 1987. Knowledge on

  15. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Skirrow, Rachel C; Rieberger, Kevin J; van Aggelen, Graham; Meays, Cynthia L; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-10-15

    An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in principle, to field-captured Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Zatrucie tlenkiem węgla – drogi narażenia, obraz kliniczny, metody leczenia = Carbon monoxide poisoning, routes of exposure, clinical manifestation, treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sowa

    2015-04-01

    owa kluczowe: tlenek węgla, zatrucie, hipoksja.   Abstract   Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, non-irritating and toxic gas, undetectable by the sense organs. CO is a product of incomplete combustion of substances containing hydrocarbon products (industrial gas, coal, wood. Carbon monoxide is one of the most common causes of poisoning inhalation in the world. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to analyze the routes of exposure, clinical manifestation and treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. Brief overview of the state of knowledge: The toxicity of carbon monoxide is strongly associated with its high affinity for hemoglobin (approximately 200 times greater than the oxygen. The heart and central nervous system (CNS are the most vulnerable to CO. Pathomechanism of action involves binding of carbon monoxide with iron atom in the heme molecule to form a compound called carboxyhemoglobin (COHb. Inhaling carbon monoxide-rich air may cause anoxia. The oxidative metabolic processes are inhibited. Accumulation of acidic metabolites cause the enlargement of the cerebral arteries and consequently hyperemia of the brain. Summary: The amount of carbon monoxide poisoning in Poland is higher than in other European countries. Significant decrease mortality for carbon monoxide poisoning has observed over the last few years. Thousands of patients who lose their health and  their lives, should cause the attention to the effectiveness of preventive measures.   Keywords: carbon monoxide, poisoning, hypoxia.

  17. Unraveling the Relative Importance of Oral and Dermal Contaminant Exposure in Reptiles: Insights from Studies Using the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M.; Talent, Larry G.; Anderson, Todd A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to the same quantities of three model chemicals via oral (gavage) and dermal (ventral skin application) exposure for either 24 or 48 hours. Three phthalate esters (di-methyl phthalate [DMP], di-iso-butyl phthalate [DIBP], and di-n-octyl phthalate [DNOP]) were chosen as model chemicals because they represent a gradient of lipophilicity but are otherwise structurally similar. Overall, the more lipophilic phthalates (DIBP and DNOP) were found to have higher concentrations in tissues than the less lipophilic DMP. Significant differences in tissue concentrations between DIBP and DNOP were tissue-dependent, suggesting that delivery to a site of action following exposure is not only a simple function of lipophilicity. In dermal treatments, DMP usually had fewer detections (except in ventral skin samples), suggesting that lipophilicity (log Kow>2) is a requirement for uptake across the skin. In general, tissue residues were greater in oral treatments than dermal treatments (significant in adipose and liver tissue), but differences were driven strongly by differences in DMP which did not appear to be absorbed well across skin. When differences in tissue residue concentrations between oral and dermal exposure did occur, the difference was not drastic. Taken together these results suggest that dermal exposure should be considered in risk assessments for reptilian receptors. Dermal exposure may be an especially important route for reptiles as their ectothermic physiology translates to lower energetic demands and dietary exposure compared to birds and mammals. PMID

  18. Unraveling the relative importance of oral and dermal contaminant exposure in reptiles: insights from studies using the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to the same quantities of three model chemicals via oral (gavage) and dermal (ventral skin application) exposure for either 24 or 48 hours. Three phthalate esters (di-methyl phthalate [DMP], di-iso-butyl phthalate [DIBP], and di-n-octyl phthalate [DNOP]) were chosen as model chemicals because they represent a gradient of lipophilicity but are otherwise structurally similar. Overall, the more lipophilic phthalates (DIBP and DNOP) were found to have higher concentrations in tissues than the less lipophilic DMP. Significant differences in tissue concentrations between DIBP and DNOP were tissue-dependent, suggesting that delivery to a site of action following exposure is not only a simple function of lipophilicity. In dermal treatments, DMP usually had fewer detections (except in ventral skin samples), suggesting that lipophilicity (log Kow>2) is a requirement for uptake across the skin. In general, tissue residues were greater in oral treatments than dermal treatments (significant in adipose and liver tissue), but differences were driven strongly by differences in DMP which did not appear to be absorbed well across skin. When differences in tissue residue concentrations between oral and dermal exposure did occur, the difference was not drastic. Taken together these results suggest that dermal exposure should be considered in risk assessments for reptilian receptors. Dermal exposure may be an especially important route for reptiles as their ectothermic physiology translates to lower energetic demands and dietary exposure compared to birds and mammals.

  19. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Luong, Hoang Van; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  20. Impact of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Infant Growth: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Dioxin-Contaminated Areas in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother–infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants’ birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants’ size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ. PMID:22815734

  1. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  2. Radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells: an environmental health assessment examining a rural Colorado mountain community's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Michael Anthony; Ferraro, Aimee; Mendelsohn, Aaron B; Prehn, Angela Witt

    2013-11-01

    In the study discussed in this article, 27 private drinking water wells located in a rural Colorado mountain community were sampled for radon contamination and compared against (a) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL), (b) the U.S. EPA proposed alternate maximum contaminate level (AMCL), and (c) the average radon level measured in the local municipal drinking water system. The data from the authors' study found that 100% of the wells within the study population had radon levels in excess of the U.S. EPA MCL, 37% were in excess of the U.S. EPA AMCL, and 100% of wells had radon levels greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. Radon contamination in one well was found to be 715 times greater than the U.S. EPA MCL, 54 times greater than the U.S. EPA AMLC, and 36,983 times greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. According to the research data and the reviewed literature, the results indicate that this population has a unique and elevated contamination profile and suggest that radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells can present a significant public health concern.

  3. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Wright

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR = 32.3, p < 0.001, whilst packaged (sachet or bottled water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001, compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  4. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-03-09

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012-2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  5. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9. Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1. Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation

  6. Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei

    2013-11-16

    It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also

  7. Gulf of Mexico offshore operations monitoring experiment (GOOMEX), Phase I: Sublethal responses to contaminant exposure - introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, M. C.; Montagna, P.; Roscigno, P. F.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of a three-phase study to evaluate the range of biological, biochemical and chemical methodologies to detect and assess chronic sublethal biological impacts in the vicinity of long-duration activities in the Gulf of Mexico associated with oil and gas exploration and production, was provided. The basic program comprises four activities stretching over a two-year period, and is designed to detect nearfield impacts and contaminant gradients extending out of each of three sites. Sampling design includes a radial pattern with stations at intervals up to 3000 meters distant from the platform. The design employs a dose-response model to test the hypothesis that biological, biochemical and chemical variations are due to platform-derived contaminants. Detailed analysis of the contaminants includes analysis of sediments, pore waters and biological tissue, and assessment of community health based on life history and reproduction studies. 57 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by means of airborne particulate matter and biomonitors using k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A. de B.C.; Pereira Maia, E.C.; Filho, S.S.; Albinati, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to assess the elemental concentration level in a galvanizing industry and alert for the need to assess the outcome of a long-term exposure, scalp hair and toenail samples were used as bioindicators and the industry environment was evaluated through airborne particulate matter. The elemental concentration results have pointed out a high exposure to pollutant at workplaces and a high elemental concentration in biomonitors suggesting endogenous contamination. The majority of the elements determined in airborne particulate matter were also determined in hair and toenail samples. The results evidence the efficiency of these matrixes as biomonitors and the importance to carry out the airborne particulate matter sampling in parallel to these biomonitors mainly in occupational epidemiological studies. (author)

  9. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  10. Cadmium, lead, and arsenic contamination in paddy soils of a mining area and their exposure effects on human HEPG2 and keratinocyte cell-lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shengguo; Shi, Lizheng; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Hui; Qin, Yanyan; Pan, Weisong; Hartley, William; Cui, Mengqian

    2017-07-01

    A mining district in south China shows significant metal(loid) contamination in paddy fields. In the soils, average Pb, Cd and As concentrations were 460.1, 11.7 and 35.1mgkg -1 respectively, which were higher than the environmental quality standard for agricultural soils in China (GB15618-1995) and UK Clea Soil Guideline Value. The average contents of Pb, Cd and As in rice were 5.24, 1.1 and 0.7mgkg -1 respectively, which were about 25, 4.5 or 2.5 times greater than the limit values of the maximum safe contaminant concentration standard in food of China (GB 2762-2012), and about 25, 10 or 1 times greater than the limit values of FAO/WHO standard. The elevated contents of Pb, Cd and As detected in soils around the factories, indicated that their spatial distribution was influenced by anthropogenic activity, while greater concentrations of Cd in rice appeared in the northwest region of the factories, indicating that the spatial distribution of heavy metals was also affected by natural factors. As human exposure around mining districts is mainly through oral intake of food and dermal contact, the effects of these metals on the viability and MT protein of HepG2 and KERTr cells were investigated. The cell viability decreased with increasing metal concentrations. Co-exposure to heavy metals (Pb+Cd) increased the metals (Pb or Cd)-mediated MT protein induction in both human HepG2 and KERTr cells. Increased levels of MT protein will lead to greater risk of carcinogenic manifestations, and it is likely that chronic exposure to metals may increase the risk to human health. Nevertheless, when co-exposure to two or more metals occur (such as As+Pb), they may have an antagonistic effect thus reducing the toxic effects of each other. Metal contaminations in paddy soils and rice were influenced by anthropogenic activity; metal co-exposure induced MT protein in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  12. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Rieberger, Kevin J.; Aggelen, Graham van; Meays, Cynthia L.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  13. Nephrolithiasis screening for people with self-perceived exposure to melamine-contaminated milk products in Taipei County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Cheng Wu

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that governments can carry out a good risk communication program in relation to melamine-contaminated milk product events, and thus reassure the public as well as allay fears over perceived health risks stemming from such events.

  14. VINE ROUTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyuben Hristov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a scheme for the modern vine route in Bulgaria. Five basic vine routes and one international, between Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece are defined. All routes consider characteristic varieties of grapes and kinds of vine products. Vine tourist products combined with visits of important natural and anthropological object are in the bases of the defined routes. The described routes are an important contribution to development of alternative tourist products in the country.

  15. Novel route of toxicant exposure in an ancient extant vertebrate: nickel uptake by hagfish skin and the modifying effects of slime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Chris N; Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2015-02-03

    Utilizing an in vitro technique, the skin of Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti) was shown to take up nickel from the water via a high affinity, low capacity transport pathway. Uptake was biphasic, with saturation occurring at low nickel exposure concentrations, superseded by linear, diffusive uptake at levels greater than 50 μM. In vivo exposures showed that nickel accumulated mainly in the gill, heart, and brain, representing a tissue distribution distinct from that found in teleosts. Slime on the epidermal surface was shown to significantly reduce the uptake of low concentrations (10 μM) of the metals zinc and nickel, but slime had no effect on organic nutrient (the amino acid l-alanine) absorption. At a higher metal exposure concentration (1 mM), slime was no longer protective, indicating saturation of metal-binding sites. This is the first study to show that metals can be taken up by the integument of hagfish. The ability of the skin to act as a transport epithelium may be of particular importance for a burrowing, benthic scavenger, such as hagfish, which are likely to be exposed to relatively enriched levels of metal toxicants through their habitat and lifestyle, and this may have consequences for human health through hagfish consumption.

  16. How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiede, Karen; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    product types on the UK market as well as release scenarios, their possible fate and behaviour in raw water and during drinking water treatment was performed. Based on the available data, all the ENPs which are likely to reach water sources were identified and categorized. Worst case concentrations......This study explored the potential for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to contaminate the UK drinking water supplies and established the significance of the drinking water exposure route compared to other routes of human exposure. A review of the occurrence and quantities of ENPs in different...... drinking waters. Worst case predicted concentrations in drinking waters were in the low- to sub-µg/l range and more realistic estimates were tens of ng/l or less. For the majority of product types, human exposure via drinking water was predicted to be less important than exposure via other routes...

  17. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  18. Emergency measures and treatment in the event of accidental aver exposure to radiation or of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1960-01-01

    In the first part the author presents an overall view of emergency measures to be applied in the case of internal or external radioactive contamination. He states in particular, in these two cases, the methods by which it is possible to eliminate the contaminating radioactive substances from the organism. The author then considers the therapeutic methods to be adopted in the case of an accident of overexposure to radiation, distinguishing between the case of a partial irradiation and that of an acute total irradiation. There will be essentially three methods used depending on the physical measures carried out (irradiation, conditions, estimation of the dose received) and of the clinical data collected: particular treatments, treatment for helping the organism during its return to normal activity, temporary or permanent replacement of the organs affected. (author) [fr

  19. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the health effects of low-level exposure to environmental radiation contamination in Port Hope, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R.; Lees, R.E.M.; Roberts, J.H.

    1984-06-01

    From 1939 to 1948 residues from radium production at Eldorado Nuclear Ltd.'s plant in Port Hope, Ontario were disposed of in and around the town of Port Hope. In 1980 a study was set up to determine the health effects of these residues. This report concerns phase two a case- control study of lung cancer in the exposed population. Doses for the 118 cases and controls were reconstructed to give the final year of exposure, the residences occupied during the period of exposure, and the total estimated exposure for various latency periods. Statistical analysis of the data gathered could not give coherent results or show an identifiable increased risk of lung cancer from elevated alpha radiation levels due to the confounding effect of cigarette smoking. Ninety percent of the cases of lung cancer found were attributable to smoking

  1. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  2. Chironomus riparius exposure to fullerene-contaminated sediment results in oxidative stress and may impact life cycle parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waissi, G.C.; Bold, S.; Pakarinen, K.; Akkanen, J.; Leppänen, M.T.; Petersen, E.J.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • FullerenesC_6_0 were tested to C. riparius with acute and chronic exposures. • The rapid uptake of fullerenes by C. riparius observed after an acute experiment. • Oxidative stress was localized in tissues under microvilli layer. - Abstract: A key component of understanding the potential environmental risks of fullerenes (C_6_0) is their potential effects on benthic invertebrates. Using the sediment dwelling invertebrate Chironomus riparius we explored the effects of acute (12 h and 24 h) and chronic (10 d, 15 d, and 28 d) exposures of sediment associated fullerenes. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of exposure to C_6_0 in the sediment top layer ((0.025, 0.18 and 0.48) C_6_0 mg/cm"2) on larval growth, oxidative stress and emergence rates and to quantify larval body burdens in similarly exposed organisms. Oxidative stress localization was observed in the tissues next to the microvilli and exoskeleton through a method for identifying oxidative stress reactions generated by reactive oxygen species. Rapid intake of fullerenes was shown in acute experiments, whereas body residues decreased after chronic exposure. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed oxidative damage and structural changes in cells located between the lipid droplets and next to the microvilli layer in fullerene exposed samples. Fullerene associated sediments also caused changes in the emergence rate of males and females, suggesting that the cellular interactions described above or other effects from the fullerenes may influence reproduction rates.

  3. Chironomus riparius exposure to fullerene-contaminated sediment results in oxidative stress and may impact life cycle parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waissi, G.C., E-mail: greta.waissi@uef.fi [Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland); Bold, S. [GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre of Ocean for Research Kiel (Germany); Pakarinen, K.; Akkanen, J. [Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland); Leppänen, M.T. [Finnish Environment Institute, Jyväskylä (Finland); Petersen, E.J. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Kukkonen, J.V.K. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • FullerenesC{sub 60} were tested to C. riparius with acute and chronic exposures. • The rapid uptake of fullerenes by C. riparius observed after an acute experiment. • Oxidative stress was localized in tissues under microvilli layer. - Abstract: A key component of understanding the potential environmental risks of fullerenes (C{sub 60}) is their potential effects on benthic invertebrates. Using the sediment dwelling invertebrate Chironomus riparius we explored the effects of acute (12 h and 24 h) and chronic (10 d, 15 d, and 28 d) exposures of sediment associated fullerenes. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of exposure to C{sub 60} in the sediment top layer ((0.025, 0.18 and 0.48) C{sub 60} mg/cm{sup 2}) on larval growth, oxidative stress and emergence rates and to quantify larval body burdens in similarly exposed organisms. Oxidative stress localization was observed in the tissues next to the microvilli and exoskeleton through a method for identifying oxidative stress reactions generated by reactive oxygen species. Rapid intake of fullerenes was shown in acute experiments, whereas body residues decreased after chronic exposure. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed oxidative damage and structural changes in cells located between the lipid droplets and next to the microvilli layer in fullerene exposed samples. Fullerene associated sediments also caused changes in the emergence rate of males and females, suggesting that the cellular interactions described above or other effects from the fullerenes may influence reproduction rates.

  4. Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implication for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Peng, Jia-Xi; Hong, Yi-Guo; Feng, Xin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hair has long been recognized as a good biomarker for human exposure to Hg. The mercury concentrations in 14 species of marine fish and hair samples from 177 coastal residents in Hainan, South China Sea were investigated to assess the status of mercury exposure associated with marine fish consumption. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the fish muscles were 0.094 ± 0.008 and 0.066 ± 0.006 μg/gww, respectively, which were far below the limit considered safe for consumption (0.5 μg/g). The average THg concentrations in hair of adults (1.02 ± 0.92 μg/g) were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level of 2.2 μg/g. However, 23.7% of children had a hair THg level exceeding the RfD level of 1μg/g, indicating a great risk of Hg exposure to children via fish consumption. The concentration of THg in hair was significantly correlated with fish consumption but not with gender-specific fish intake. With higher fish consumption frequency, the fishermen had significantly elevated hair Hg levels compared to the students and the other general public, who had similar hair THg levels but different fish consumption patterns, indicating the existence of other sources of Hg exposure to the residents of Hainan Island. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  6. Relating the ability of mallards to ingest high levels of sediment to potential contaminant exposure in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Hoffman, David J.; Audet, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    When waterfowl feed from the bottom of bodies of water, they sometimes ingest sediments along with their food, and this sediment can be a major source of contaminants. Learning how much sediment waterfowl can consume in their diet and still maintain their health would be helpful in assessing potential threats from contaminants in sediment. In a controlled laboratory study the maximum tolerated percentage of sediment in the diet of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was measured. When fed a well-balanced commercial avian diet, 50, 60, or 70% sediment in the diet on a dry-weight basis did not cause weight loss over a two-week period. Ducks fed this same commercial diet, but containing 80 or 90% sediment, lost 8.6 and 15.6% of their body weight, respectively, in the first week on those diets. After factoring in the ability of the mallards to sieve out some of the sediment from their diet before swallowing it, we concluded that the mallards could maintain their health even when approximately half of what they swallowed, on a dry-weight basis, was sediment.

  7. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O.; Herzke, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56...... it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles....

  8. Lithium an emerging contaminant: Bioavailability, effects on protein expression, and homeostasis disruption in short-term exposure of rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkatcheva, Victoria, E-mail: victoria.tkatcheva@gmail.com [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); Poirier, David; Chong-Kit, Richard; Furdui, Vasile I.; Burr, Christopher; Leger, Ray; Parmar, Jaspal; Switzer, Teresa [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); Maedler, Stefanie; Reiner, Eric J. [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Chemistry, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada); Sherry, James P.; Simmons, Denina B.D. [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Lithium is highly bioavailable and elevated in fish brain after 48 h of waterborne Li-exposure. • Elevated Li correlated with decreased Na and Ca, and resulted in down regulation of LDL and Ptgs2. • Increased expression of Atp7b and WDr38 was observed with increased Li-exposure. • We identify the need for data on the occurrence of Li in surface, waste and drinking waters. - Abstract: Worldwide production of lithium (Li) has increased dramatically during the past decade, driven by the demand for high charge density batteries. Information about Li in the aquatic environment is limited. The present study was designed to explore the effects of Li in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile trout were exposed to a nominal concentration of 1.0 mg Li/L in three separate exposures. Major ion concentrations were measured in brain and plasma by ion chromatography. Plasma proteins and fatty acids were measured by HPLC–MS/MS. Lithium accumulated in the brain and plasma. Arachidonic acid was elevated in plasma after 48 h. Elevated concentrations of Li in brain were associated with depressed concentrations of sodium, magnesium, potassium and ammonium relative to the control. In plasma, sodium and calcium were also depressed. Several changes occurred to plasma proteins corresponding to Li exposure: inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (Ptgs2), increased expression of copper transporting ATP synthases, and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate elevated Li concentrations in fish brain, with associated effects on ion regulation.

  9. Lithium an emerging contaminant: Bioavailability, effects on protein expression, and homeostasis disruption in short-term exposure of rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkatcheva, Victoria; Poirier, David; Chong-Kit, Richard; Furdui, Vasile I.; Burr, Christopher; Leger, Ray; Parmar, Jaspal; Switzer, Teresa; Maedler, Stefanie; Reiner, Eric J.; Sherry, James P.; Simmons, Denina B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithium is highly bioavailable and elevated in fish brain after 48 h of waterborne Li-exposure. • Elevated Li correlated with decreased Na and Ca, and resulted in down regulation of LDL and Ptgs2. • Increased expression of Atp7b and WDr38 was observed with increased Li-exposure. • We identify the need for data on the occurrence of Li in surface, waste and drinking waters. - Abstract: Worldwide production of lithium (Li) has increased dramatically during the past decade, driven by the demand for high charge density batteries. Information about Li in the aquatic environment is limited. The present study was designed to explore the effects of Li in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile trout were exposed to a nominal concentration of 1.0 mg Li/L in three separate exposures. Major ion concentrations were measured in brain and plasma by ion chromatography. Plasma proteins and fatty acids were measured by HPLC–MS/MS. Lithium accumulated in the brain and plasma. Arachidonic acid was elevated in plasma after 48 h. Elevated concentrations of Li in brain were associated with depressed concentrations of sodium, magnesium, potassium and ammonium relative to the control. In plasma, sodium and calcium were also depressed. Several changes occurred to plasma proteins corresponding to Li exposure: inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (Ptgs2), increased expression of copper transporting ATP synthases, and Na + /K + ATPase. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate elevated Li concentrations in fish brain, with associated effects on ion regulation

  10. Effects on instruments of the World Health Organization--recommended protocols for decontamination after possible exposure to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-contaminated tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stanley A; Merritt, Katharine; Woods, Terry O; Busick, Deanna N

    2005-01-15

    It has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that rigorous decontamination protocols be used on surgical instruments that have been exposed to tissue possibly contaminated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). This study was designed to examine the effects of these protocols on various types of surgical instruments. The most important conclusions are: (1) autoclaving in 1N NaOH will cause darkening of some instruments; (2) soaking in 1N NaOH at room temperature damages carbon steel but not stainless steel or titanium; (3) soaking in chlorine bleach will badly corrode gold-plated instruments and will damage some, but not all, stainless-steel instruments, especially welded and soldered joints. Damage became apparent after the first exposure and therefore long tests are not necessary to establish which instruments will be damaged. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biomarkers of Contaminant Exposure in Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. – Biomonitoring of Major Rivers in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Svobodova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of organisms to assess exposure to environmental contaminants is of great potential use. Biochemical markers, specifically liver enzymes of the first and the second phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 (CYP 450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and tripeptide reduced glutathione (GSH - were used to assess contamination of the aquatic environment at 12 locations near the mouths of major rivers in the Czech Republic. These rivers were the Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra. The indicator species selected was the Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. The highest levels of CYP 450 and EROD catalytic activity were found in livers of fish from the Labe (Obříství (0.32±0.10 nmol mg-1 protein and 1061.38±545.51 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. The highest levels of GST catalytic activity and GSH content were found in fish from the Otava (35.39±13.35 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein and 4.29±2.10 nmol GSH mg-1 protein, respectively. They were compared with levels of specific inductors of these biochemical markers in muscle. The results confirmed contamination of some river locations (Labe Obříství, Svratka.

  12. Review of arsenic contamination, exposure through water and food and low cost mitigation options for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Tjell, Jens Christian; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid found to be an important groundwater contaminant of mainly natural geogenic origin worldwide particularly in large deltas and along major rivers in poor regions of South- and East-Asia. Excessive and long-term human intake of toxic inorganic As with food and wate...... for lowering the human intake of As in rural areas are critically evaluated in terms of public acceptance, sustainability and impact on arsenicosis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....... is causing arsenicosis, which is disfiguring, disabling, and leading to potentially fatal diseases like skin- and internal cancers. It is estimated that more than 100. million people mainly in developing countries are at risk. The arsenicosis situation in affected countries has been named the largest...

  13. Is exposure to ionising radiation associated with childhood cardiac arrhythmia in the Russian territories contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout? A cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Landon, Geraldine; Clero, Enora; Doroshchenko, Vladimir; Silenok, Aleksandr; Kurnosova, Irina; Butsenin, Andrei; Denjoy, Isabelle; Franck, Didier; Heuze, Jean-Pierre; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2018-03-25

    To investigate childhood cardiac arrhythmia and chronic exposure to caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) resulting from the Chernobyl accident. Prospective cross-sectional study using exposed/unexposed design conducted in the Bryansk region from May 2009 to May 2013 on children selected on the basis of 137 Cs soil deposition: control territories ([ 137 Cs]555 kBq per square metre, where children were considered as exposed). Russian territories affected by the Chernobyl fallout (Bryansk region). This cross-sectional study included 18 152 children aged 2-18 years and living in the Bryansk region (Russia). All children received three medical examinations (ECG, echocardiography and 137 Cs whole-body activity measurement) and some of them were given with a 24-hour Holter monitoring and blood tests. Cardiac arrhythmia was diagnosed in 1172 children living in contaminated territories and 1354 children living in control territories. The crude prevalence estimated to 13.3% in contaminated territories was significantly lower than in control territories with 15.2% over the period 2009-2013 (PChernobyl fallout. The suspected increase of cardiac arrhythmia in children exposed to Chernobyl fallout is not confirmed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Oral relative bioavailability of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in contaminated soil and its prediction using in vitro strategies for exposure refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Albert L.; Herde, Paul; Smith, Euan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the bioavailability of DDTr (sum of DDT, DDD and DDE isomers) in pesticide-contaminated soil was assessed using an in vivo mouse model. DDTr relative bioavailability (RBA) ranged from 18.7±0.9 (As35) to 60.8±7.8% (As36) indicating that a significant portion of soil-bound DDTr was not available for absorption following ingestion. When DDTr bioaccessibility was assessed using the organic Physiologically Based Extraction Test (org-PBET), the inclusion of a sorption sink (silicone cord) enhanced DDTr desorption by up to 20-fold (1.6–3.8% versus 18.9–56.3%) compared to DDTr partitioning into gastrointestinal fluid alone. Enhanced desorption occurred as a result of the silicone cord acting as a reservoir for solubilized DDTr to partition into, thereby creating a flux for further desorption until equilibrium was achieved. When the relationship between in vivo and in vitro data was assessed, a strong correlation was observed between the mouse bioassay and the org-PBET+silicone cord (slope=0.94, y-intercept=3.5, r 2 =0.72) suggesting that the in vitro approach may provide a robust surrogate measure for the prediction of DDTr RBA in contaminated soil. - Highlights: • An optimised mouse assay was used to quantify DDTr relative bioavailability in soil. • DDTr bioaccessibility was also determined using an in vitro sorption sink approach. • A strong correlation was observed between in vivo and in vitro data. • The sorption sink approach may be used to predict DDTr relative bioavailability.

  15. Oral relative bioavailability of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in contaminated soil and its prediction using in vitro strategies for exposure refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: Albert.Juhasz@unisa.edu.au [Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Herde, Paul [South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Smith, Euan [Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the bioavailability of DDTr (sum of DDT, DDD and DDE isomers) in pesticide-contaminated soil was assessed using an in vivo mouse model. DDTr relative bioavailability (RBA) ranged from 18.7±0.9 (As35) to 60.8±7.8% (As36) indicating that a significant portion of soil-bound DDTr was not available for absorption following ingestion. When DDTr bioaccessibility was assessed using the organic Physiologically Based Extraction Test (org-PBET), the inclusion of a sorption sink (silicone cord) enhanced DDTr desorption by up to 20-fold (1.6–3.8% versus 18.9–56.3%) compared to DDTr partitioning into gastrointestinal fluid alone. Enhanced desorption occurred as a result of the silicone cord acting as a reservoir for solubilized DDTr to partition into, thereby creating a flux for further desorption until equilibrium was achieved. When the relationship between in vivo and in vitro data was assessed, a strong correlation was observed between the mouse bioassay and the org-PBET+silicone cord (slope=0.94, y-intercept=3.5, r{sup 2}=0.72) suggesting that the in vitro approach may provide a robust surrogate measure for the prediction of DDTr RBA in contaminated soil. - Highlights: • An optimised mouse assay was used to quantify DDTr relative bioavailability in soil. • DDTr bioaccessibility was also determined using an in vitro sorption sink approach. • A strong correlation was observed between in vivo and in vitro data. • The sorption sink approach may be used to predict DDTr relative bioavailability.

  16. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  17. Assessment of Hg contamination and exposure to miners and schoolchildren at a small-scale gold mining and recovery operation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbangtalad, S; Parkpian, P; Visvanathan, C; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-12-01

    Gold extracted by Hg-amalgamation process, which can cause both health and environmental problems, is widespread in South East Asia including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Small-scale gold mining operations have been carried out since the year 2000 in Phanom Pha District, Phichit Province, Thailand. Since no data is available for evaluating Hg exposure, an investigation of mercury (Hg) contamination and exposure assessment was carried out at this mine site. Environmental monitoring illustrated the total Hg in water was as high as 4 microg/l while Hg in sediment ranged between 102 to 325 microg/kg dry weight. Both Hg deposition from the air (1.28 microg/100 cm(2)/day) and concentration in surface soil (20,960 microg/kg dry weight) were elevated in the area of amalgamation. The potential of Hg exposure to miners as well as to schoolchildren was assessed. The concentrations of Hg in urine of 79 miners who were directly (group I) or indirectly (group II) involved in the gold recovery operation were 32.02 and 20.04 microg/g creatinine, respectively, which did not exceed regulatory limits (35 microg/g creatinine). Hair Hg levels in both groups (group I and group II) also were not significantly higher than the non-exposed group. In terms of risk factors, gender and nature of food preparation and consumption were the two significant variables influencing the concentration of Hg in urine of miners (P mining process. In a second Hg exposure assessment, a group of 59 schoolchildren who attended an elementary school near the gold mine site was evaluated for Hg exposure. A slightly higher Hg urine concentration was detected in group I and group II (involved and not involved in gold recovery) at average levels of 15.82 and 9.95 microg/g creatinine, respectively. The average Hg values for both groups were below the established levels indicating no risk from Hg intake. Average Hg hair level in all schoolchildren (0.93 microg/g) was not significantly higher than reference

  18. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimi Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP. "Sansai" (edible wild plants in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137 were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3% samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0% samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7% registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit. The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y, at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015. Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides ("Koshiabura" and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, "Zenmai". Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the "satoyama" (countryside culture of ingesting "sansai," also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster.

  20. Global change effects on the long-term feeding ecology and contaminant exposures of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Arts, Michael T; Born, Erik W; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Dietz, Rune

    2013-08-01

    Rapid climate changes are occurring in the Arctic, with substantial repercussions for arctic ecosystems. It is challenging to assess ecosystem changes in remote polar environments, but one successful approach has entailed monitoring the diets of upper trophic level consumers. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) and fatty acid carbon isotope (δ(13) C-FA) patterns were used to assess diets of East Greenland (EG) polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 310) over the past three decades. QFASA-generated diet estimates indicated that, on average, EG bears mainly consumed arctic ringed seals (47.5 ± 2.1%), migratory subarctic harp (30.6 ± 1.5%) and hooded (16.7 ± 1.3%) seals and rarely, if ever, consumed bearded seals, narwhals or walruses. Ringed seal consumption declined by 14%/decade over 28 years (90.1 ± 2.5% in 1984 to 33.9 ± 11.1% in 2011). Hooded seal consumption increased by 9.5%/decade (0.0 ± 0.0% in 1984 to 25.9 ± 9.1% in 2011). This increase may include harp seal, since hooded and harp seal FA signatures were not as well differentiated relative to other prey species. Declining δ(13) C-FA ratios supported shifts from more nearshore/benthic/ice-associated prey to more offshore/pelagic/open-water-associated prey, consistent with diet estimates. Increased hooded seal and decreased ringed seal consumption occurred during years when the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was lower. Thus, periods with warmer temperatures and less sea ice were associated with more subarctic and less arctic seal species consumption. These changes in the relative abundance, accessibility, or distribution of arctic and subarctic marine mammals may have health consequences for EG polar bears. For example, the diet change resulted in consistently slower temporal declines in adipose levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants, as the subarctic seals have higher contaminant burdens than arctic seals. Overall, considerable changes are occurring in the EG

  1. Evaluation of the contribution of contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces in the measure of exposure rate of radioiodine therapy patients; Avaliacao da contribuicao da contaminacao de superficies do quarto terapeutico na medida da taxa de exposicao de pacientes de radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Rafael Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces is significant and the measures of patient exposure rate are held on the fourth dependencies, relevant questions are raised: the background radiation of the room stay high due to surface contamination, may interfere with the rate of patient exposure at the time of its release? The monitoring site is important to determine whether the patient will be released? The value of the deal activity and the clinical condition of the patient may increase the contamination, influencing the monitoring results? This paper aims to conduct a quantitative analysis of surface contamination of the contribution of therapeutic room at the time is monitored exposure rate from inpatient. Measurements were made regarding the hospitalization of 32 patients with different doses administered activity, age and of both genders. The measurements were performed in the therapeutic rooms at the hospital Brotherhood Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo. Exposure rate measurements were performed at the center of the room at 1 meter of the patient on the day of its release. After his release and prior to decontamination, measurements were performed at predetermined landmarks within the therapeutic room. The results revealed that on average background radiation, high due to surface contamination contributes only 2% of the patient dose rate. It can be considered that even with influence of contamination of surfaces, this is insignificant to determine if the patient may or may not be released. This study suggests that the site in which monitoring occurs exposure rate of the patient should not be decisive for liberation thereof. (author)

  2. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Zaccaroni, Annalisa [Large Pelagic Vertebrate Group, Veterinary Faculty, University of Bologna, Viale Vespucci 2, Cesenatico (FC) 47042 (Italy); Zumbado, Manuel [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P{sub eq})), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P{sub eq,} which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated

  3. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Zumbado, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P_e_q)), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P_e_q_, which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated • Dietary

  4. Crocodile bones as archives of pollution exposure: lead contamination in Kakadu National Park, and what's in Sweetheart's Osteoderms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Markich, S.J.; Hammerton, K.M.; Russell, R.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental findings made it then possible to evaluate the hypothesis that the estuarine crocodile osteodermal laminations would record enhanced blood lead concentrations resulting from the ingestion of lead shot. At about 140 days following lead shot ingestion, two osteoderms were removed from each exposed and control animal. SIMS analysis of Pb-208 and Ca-42 signal intensities was then performed on sections that were prepared and analysed using similar methods previously used on field-collected specimens (Twining et al., 1999). These initial findings are consistent with the hypothesis that incremental laminations of the osteoderm will archive a lead signal that responds to enhanced levels of lead in the animal's blood during its life. SEM analysis identified the laminated structure of the osteoderm, however microprobe analysis did not detect appreciable amounts of even Ca and P, although the organic matrix was obviously present. It is proposed that this anomalous result is due to the preparatory tanning of the skin, in acid solution, that could be expected to leach elements from the organic matrix. An analogy is drawn with the decalcified skeletons in the bodies of the Druid sacrifices due their deposition in acid swamp waters in the UK. The challenge is now to sample osteoderms from large crocodiles in the Finniss River, preferably in close proximity to the Rum Jungle mine site, where any archived pollution signal would be more intense, and then repeat this analytical investigation of the osteodermal history of contaminant loadings

  5. Influence of different sanitizers on food contaminant bacteria: effect of exposure temperature, contact time, and product concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Augusto Beltrame

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of four Sanitizers - peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonium, and organic acids - was tested in this work using different bacteria recognized as a problem to meat industry, Salmonella sp., S. aureus, E. coli and L. monocytogenes. The effects of sanitizer concentration (0.2, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.4%, at different temperatures (10 and 45 °C and contact time (2, 10, 15, 18 and 25 minutes were evaluated. Tests in an industrial plant were also carried out considering previously obtained results. In a general way, peracetic acid presented higher efficiencies using low concentration (0.2% and contact time (2 minutes at 10 °C. The tests performed in industrial scale showed that peracetic acid presented a good performance in concentration and contact time lower than that suggested by the suppliers. The use of chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium led to reasonable results at the indicated conditions, and organic acids were ineffective under concentration and contact time higher than those indicated by the suppliers in relation to Staphylococcus aureus. The results, in general, show that the choice for the most adequate sanitizer depends on the microorganism contaminant, the time available for sanitizer application, and also on the process cost.

  6. Phytoremediation of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) by Melastoma malabathricum L. from contaminated soil in separate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, S Norleela; Abdullah, S Rozaimah Sheikh; Idris, M

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the uptake of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) from contaminated soil using Melastoma malabathricum L. species. The cultivated plants were exposed to As and Pb in separate soils for an observation period of 70 days. From the results of the analysis, M. malabathricum accumulated relatively high range of As concentration in its roots, up to a maximum of 2800 mg/kg. The highest accumulation of As in stems and leaves was 570 mg/kg of plant. For Pb treatment, the highest concentration (13,800 mg/kg) was accumulated in the roots of plants. The maximum accumulation in stems was 880 mg/kg while maximum accumulation in leaves was 2,200 mg/kg. Only small amounts of Pb were translocated from roots to above ground plant parts (TF 1) is indicative this plants is a good bioaccumulator for these metals. Therefore, phytostabilisation is the mechanism at work in M. malabathricum's uptake of Pb, while phytoextraction is the dominant mechanism with As.

  7. Is there a relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability after exposure to field-contaminated soils?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Lamy, Isabelle; Cheviron, Nathalie; Hedde, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    Generic biomarkers are needed to assess environmental risks in metal polluted soils. We assessed the strength of the relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability under conditions of cocktail of metals at low doses and large range of soil parameters. Aporrectodea caliginosa was exposed in laboratory to a panel of soils differing in Cd, Pb and Zn total and available (CaCl 2 and EDTA-extractable) concentrations, and in soil texture, pH, CEC and organic-C. Glycogen, protein and lipid contents were recorded in exposed worms. Glycogen contents were not linked to the explaining variables considered. Variable selection identified CaCl 2 extractable metals concentrations and soil texture as the main factors affecting protein and lipid contents. The results showed opposite effects of Pb and Zn, high inter-individual variability of biomarkers and weak relationships with easily extractable metals. Our results support the lack of genericity of energy reserves in earthworms exposed to field-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Energy reserves were quantified in earthworms exposed to a wide panel of field soils. • Protein and lipid contents were related to CaCl 2 extractable metals. • Soil texture affected protein and lipid contents. • Energy reserves were highly variable inter-individually. - Earthworm energy reserves response to low doses of available metals is not generic

  8. Assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via involuntary ingestion of soil from contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunde, Oluwatoyin T; Mills, Graham A; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

    2014-01-01

    Soils from 12 sites in Lagos area, Nigeria impacted by anthropogenic activities were extracted by ultrasonication and analysed for the concentration of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The concentration of the sum of PAHs ranged from 0.2 to 254 μg/g at these sites. The sum benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent dose (BaPeq) at the sites ranged from 0.0 (K, forest soil) to 16.7 μg/g (C, the lubricating oil depot soil). Mean daily intake (MDI) for the composite soils samples when compared that of food revealed that some of the individual PAH in samples from sites A (Dump site), C (Depot and loading point for used for black oil), F (Dump site), G(petroleum depot), H (Roadside) and L (Car park) exceeded the recommended the recommended MDI threshold for food, indicating some risk associated with activities on these sites based on this ingestion estimate exceeded value. 8.2 × 10(-6), 7.1 × 10(-7), 1.2 × 10(-4), 4.9 × 10(-7), 7.3 × 10(-7), 1.4 × 10(-5), 7.9 × 10(-5), 4.6 × 10(-6), 3.4 × 10(-7), 2.4 × 10(-7), 2.2 × 10(-7) and 1.1 × 10(-4) estimated theoretical cancer risk (ER) for an adult with a body weight of 70 kg working on sites were composite soil samples A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L respectively were sampled. The ER from occupational exposure to surface soil based on oral ingestion were all higher than the target risk of 1 × 10(-6) for normal exposure but were all within the 1 × 10(-4) for extreme exposure for most of the sites except for site C and L. The differences in concentration and risk were related to the different activities (e.g., handling of petroleum products, open burning, bush burning) undertaken at these locations. However, it should be noted here that the resultant risk could be overestimated, since these calculations were based on an exhaustive extraction technique which may be different from uptake by the human guts (bioavailability study).

  9. Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Jørgensen, Even H; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Muir, Derek C G; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2012-01-01

    Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n = 5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n = 5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 μg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n = 5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 μg/g l.w. (n = 5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes.

  10. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (<25, 25-50, 50-75, ≥75 percentile of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ, cross-sectional comparisons of body size and neurodevelopment scales and comparisons of longitudinally assessed body size were performed respectively. At birth, head circumference of girls in the ≥75 percentile group was significantly larger than those in the <25 and 50-75 percentile groups. At 4 months of age, the weight and body mass index (BMI of boys in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Increase in weight was significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in both sexes from birth to 1 month but only in boys at 1-4 months of age. Estimated marginal mean values in a mixed model of weight and BMI during the first 4 months of life were significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in boys. In girls, marginal mean values for head circumference were increased with increase in dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  11. Development of a technical guide for the identification of radiological sources of potential exposure and/or contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.; Scott, A.; Falo, G.; Collins, J.; Szrom, F.; Collins, D.

    1999-01-01

    Radiological assessment of sites with radioactive residues starts with the identification of potential sources. The US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) has developed a technical guide that summarizes sources of potential radiological exposures of both civilian and military origin. These sources include those found in the natural environment, in the nuclear fuel cycle, in medical and industrial settings, in the transportation of radioactive materials, in US Army commodities and foreign materiel, and in the use and storage of nuclear weapons. This technical guide is intended to foster awareness of radiological hazards and to provide the reader with the knowledge necessary to take the first step in radiological health risk assessment: recognition of the hazard. Furthermore, this guide can be used in conjunction with other technical guides for performing radiological surveys and field dose assessments in war or peacetime operations. (author)

  12. Exposure to contaminated sediments induces alterations in the gill epithelia in juvenile Solea senegalensis: a comparative in situ and ex situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    2014-06-01

    contaminated sediments. Hypertrophied chloride cells are a consequence of a hindered osmotic regulation by the impairment of ionic active transport, leading to loss-of-function and excessive fluid retention in the cytoplasm. On its turn, a reduction in number and size of gill mucous cells likely reduced the protection provided by mucous to these delicate structures. In general, the alterations were more pronounced in the ex situ study than in situ bioassays, which is probably linked to differences in contaminant bioavailability between laboratory and field scenarios. This variation is likely related to, for instance, estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment steady-state parameters. Interestingly, the results suggest that time of exposure is a key factor, since fewer alterations were observed in animals sampled at the end of the assay (28 days compared to the mid-term (14 days, revealing adaptation to toxicological challenge. In conclusion, mixed sediment contamination can cause physiological alterations in fish gill epithelia that can be determined histologically. These subtle changes may affect the health status of animals by impairing key vital functions such as osmotic balance. As such, physiological alterations to fish gill epithelia may reflect, as in the present case, estuarine sediment contamination even when severe gill lesions are reduced or absent, which mandates caution when interpreting histopathological data in fish for the purpose of environmental risk assessment.

  13. Estimation of sport fish harvest for risk and hazard assessment of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Strenge, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated fish flesh can be a significant route of human exposure to hazardous chemicals. Estimation of exposure resulting from the consumption of fish requires knowledge of fish consumption and contaminant levels in the edible portion of fish. Realistic figures of sport fish harvest are needed to estimate consumption. Estimates of freshwater sport fish harvest were developed from a review of 72 articles and reports. Descriptive statistics based on fishing pressure were derived from harvest data for four distinct groups of freshwater sport fish in three water types: streams, lakes, and reservoirs. Regression equations were developed to relate harvest to surface area fished where data bases were sufficiently large. Other aspects of estimating human exposure to contaminants in fish flesh that are discussed include use of bioaccumulation factors for trace metals and organic compounds. Using the bioaccumulation factor and the concentration of contaminants in water as variables in the exposure equation may also lead to less precise estimates of tissue concentration. For instance, muscle levels of contaminants may not increase proportionately with increases in water concentrations, leading to overestimation of risk. In addition, estimates of water concentration may be variable or expressed in a manner that does not truly represent biological availability of the contaminant. These factors are discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  14. Exposición a contaminantes ambientales y patología respiratoria Exposure to environmental contaminants & respiratory pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Eugenia González Domínguez

    2008-12-01

    functional respiratory tests, Methacholine test and electrocardiogram. Results: The peak-flow measurement and the direct bronchial hyperactivity test using metacholine were negative. The alergic tests performed were generally negative with the exception of 3 positive results concerning aero alergens test. Conclusions: The negative results of the peak-flow measurements and the metacholine test of an active worker, would practically disguard a cadre of work related asthma, at the present time. We cannot discard the concomitant possibility of a reactive disfunction syndrome via the aerial route in a precise moment of time previous to the study. In such case, the existence of an initial bronchial hyperreactivity could have yielded finally not being detectable with metacholine. The creation of multidisciplinary equipment is fundamental for the detection of respiratory diseases of possible work origin.

  15. A cleanroom contamination control system

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, W.; Eaton, T.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical methods for hazard and risk analysis are being considered for controlling contamination\\ud in pharmaceutical cleanrooms. The most suitable method appears to be the HACCP system that has\\ud been developed for the food industry, but this requires some reinterpretation for use in\\ud pharmaceutical manufacturing. This paper suggests a possible system.\\ud To control contamination effectively, it is necessary to have a good appreciation of the routes and\\ud sources of contamination, and ...

  16. Suggested Methods for Assessment of Accidental External Exposure and Internal Contamination of Workers and their Medical Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.A.; Morsy, Samira M.; Hanna, I.R.A.; Hafez, M.B.; Mohamed, H.O.; Jahns, E.; Saied, F.I.A.

    1969-01-01

    Certain assumptions are given for the amount of fission products released from a research reactor after the occurrence of an accident. The size and location of radioactive cloud are assumed, and the corresponding external and internal exposures of workers are computed. A method is suggested for assessment of accidental external radiation dose based on experimental studies performed on the changes of quenching effect of plasma or sera as a.result of whole- body gamma-radiation ranging from 25-200 rems. For assessment of accidentally internally incorporated gamma emitters we suggest the standard chair whole-body counter technique which was found to detect reliably 1/100 of the maximum permissible body burden within eight minutes. It was also suggested that a separation method based on the use of absorption phenomena observed for Sephadex (gel resin) can be applied for quick determination of gross alpha activity in urine. For management of accidentally exposed workers to radiation doses of a lethal or sublethal nature, bone-marrow transplantation therapy and blood component therapy in sterile rooms is discussed in the light of experience gained from treatment of leukaemia with intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  17. Evaluation and Quantification of Uncertainty in the Modeling of Contaminant Transport and Exposure Assessment at a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, J.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; Catlett, K.; Crowe, B.; Hooten, M.; Rawlinson, S.; Schuh, A.; Stockton, T.; Yucel, V.

    2002-12-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States (U.S.) is a highly regulated undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), itself a large generator of such wastes, requires a substantial amount of analysis and assessment before permitting disposal of LLW at its facilities. One of the requirements that must be met in assessing the performance of a disposal site and technology is that a Performance Assessment (PA) demonstrate "reasonable expectation" that certain performance objectives, such as dose to a hypothetical future receptor, not be exceeded. The phrase "reasonable expectation" implies recognition of uncertainty in the assessment process. In order for this uncertainty to be quantified and communicated to decision makers, the PA computer model must accept probabilistic (uncertain) input (parameter values) and produce results which reflect that uncertainty as it is propagated through the model calculations. The GoldSim modeling software was selected for the task due to its unique facility with both probabilistic analysis and radioactive contaminant transport. Probabilistic model parameters range from water content and other physical properties of alluvium to the activity of radionuclides disposed to the amount of time a future resident might be expected to spend tending a garden. Although these parameters govern processes which are defined in isolation as rather simple differential equations, the complex interaction of couple processes makes for a highly nonlinear system with often unanticipated results. The decision maker has the difficult job of evaluating the uncertainty of modeling results in the context of granting permission for LLW disposal. This job also involves the evaluation of alternatives, such as the selection of disposal technologies. Various scenarios can be evaluated in the model, so that the effects of, for example, using a thicker soil cap over the waste cell can be assessed. This ability to evaluate mitigation

  18. Exposure to mixtures of organohalogen contaminants and associative interactions with thyroid hormones in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanger, Gro D; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Fjeldberg, Rita R; Letcher, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G; Kirkegaard, Maja; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the multivariate relationships between adipose tissue residue levels of 48 individual organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (1999-2001, n=62), using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression for four groupings of polar bears; subadults (SubA), adult females with cubs (AdF_N), adult females without cubs (AdF_S) and adult males (AdM). In the resulting significant PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S, some OHCs were especially important in explaining variations in circulating TH levels: polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE)-99, PBDE-100, PBDE-153, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-52, PCB-118, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, trichlorobenzene (TCB) and pentachlorobenzene (QCB), and both negative and positive relationships with THs were found. In addition, the models revealed that DDTs had a positive influence on total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (TT3) in AdF_S, and that a group of 17 higher chlorinated ortho-PCBs had a positive influence on total 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, TT4) in AdF_N. TH levels in AdM seemed less influenced by OHCs because of non-significant PLS models. TH levels were also influenced by biological factors such as age, sex, body size, lipid content of adipose tissue and sampling date. When controlling for biological variables, the major relationships from the PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S were found significant in partial correlations. The most important OHCs that influenced TH levels in the significant PLS models may potentially act through similar mechanisms on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, suggesting that both combined effects by dose and response addition and perhaps synergistic potentiation may be a possibility in these polar bears. Statistical associations are not evidence per se of biological cause-effect relationships. Still, the results of the present study indicate that OHCs may affect circulating

  19. Soil contaminated phyto remediation of Pb and cd metal by using rice straw fermented by trichoderma viride that given exposure 250 gray doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yullita SL Andini; Hendrawati; Tri Retno Diah Larasati; Nana Mulyana

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is one form of environmental pollution that is harmful to living organisms. One way to resolve this problem by using phyto remediation with rice straw fermented by Trichoderma viride that given exposure 250 gray doses of gamma radiation. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of Trichoderma viride fermented hay to improve the ability of Pb and Cd accumulation in the root zone of plants sweet corn (Zea Mays). There are three stages in the research process, namely the stages of SSF (Solid State Fermentation), incorporation, and Land farming. The fermentation process is done during the 16-day trial. Furthermore, the results of the SSF (Solid State Fermentation) mixed in soil that has been contaminated with heavy metals showed that administration of straw result SSF real impact on the value of pH, water content of the four treated samples. Results incorporation process and then applied with a crop of sweet corn (Zea Mays). Accumulation of heavy metals in sweet corn plant, analyzed by AAS analysis instrumentation. The measurement results show that the accumulation of Pb in the roots of plants in the sample K amounted to 33.66 mg/Kg, A sample of 26.80 mg/Kg, the sample B of 51.47 mg/kg, and sample C of 55.70 mg/Kg. While the metals Cd uptake in the roots of corn plants in the sample K showed Cd uptake of 269.65 mg/Kg, the sample A of 445.70 mg/Kg, the sample B of 337.17 mg/Kg and sample C of 336.72 mg/Kg. The phyto remediation process takes place based on the fito-stabilization principle. (author)

  20. Very Low Dose Fetal Exposure to Chernobyl Contamination Resulted in Increases in Infant Leukemia in Europe and Raises Questions about Current Radiation Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Busby

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0–1 y was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. The cumulative absorbed doses to the fetus, as conventionally assessed, varied from 0.02 mSv in the UK through 0.06 mSv in Germany, 0.2 mSv in Greece and 2 mSv in Belarus, where it was highest. Nevertheless, the effect was real and given the specificity of the cohort raised questions about the safety of applying the current radiation risk model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP to these internal exposures, a matter which was discussed in 2000 by Busby and Cato [7,8] and also in the reports of the UK Committee examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters. Data on infant leukemia in the United Kingdom, chosen on the basis of the cohorts defined by the study of Greece were supplied by the UK Childhood Cancer Research Group. This has enabled a study of leukemia in the combined infant population of 15,466,845 born in the UK, Greece, and Germany between 1980 and 1990. Results show a statistically significant excess risk RR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 < RR < 1.80 (2-tailed; p = 0.0025 in those born during the defined peak exposure period of 01/07/86 to 31/12/87 compared with those born between 01/01/80 and 31/12/85 and 01/01/88 and 31/12/90. The excess risks in individual countries do not increase monotonically with the conventionally calculated doses, the relation being biphasic, increasing sharply at low doses and falling at high doses. This result is discussed in relation to fetal/cell death at higher doses and also to induction of DNA repair. Since the cohort is chosen specifically on the basis of exposure to internal radionuclides, the result can be expressed as evidence for a significant error in the conventional modeling for such internal fetal exposures.

  1. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2015-06-15

    to minimize metal exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, Roberta [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Hashim, Dana [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Donna, Filippo [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina [Department of Food Chemistry, Metal Laboratory, IZSLER, Brescia (Italy); Beone, Gian Maria [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Università Cattolica, Piacenza (Italy); Lucchini, Roberto G. [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (United States); Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    . We recommend thorough washing of vegetables to minimize metal exposure. - Highlights: • We assessed metal concentrations in 3 areas of varying ferroalloy activity. • Measurements utilized XRF, aqua regia, and modified BCR sequential extraction. • Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn were higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants. • Over 60% and 10% of spinach samples exceeded maximum Pb and Cd European standards. • Thorough washing is recommended when consuming vegetables from ferroalloy areas.

  3. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R.; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    . We recommend thorough washing of vegetables to minimize metal exposure. - Highlights: • We assessed metal concentrations in 3 areas of varying ferroalloy activity. • Measurements utilized XRF, aqua regia, and modified BCR sequential extraction. • Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn were higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants. • Over 60% and 10% of spinach samples exceeded maximum Pb and Cd European standards. • Thorough washing is recommended when consuming vegetables from ferroalloy areas

  4. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E.; Hermida, J.C.; Dantas, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  5. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  6. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report; Langzeitbeobachtung der Dosisbelastung der Bevoelkerung in radioaktiv kontaminierten Gebieten Weissrusslands. Korma-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2009-09-24

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Until now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  7. Contamination of occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors; Kontamination und berufliche Strahlenexposition in KKW mit Druckwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Bruhn, Gerd; Artmann, Andreas; Sentuc, Florence-Nathalie; Tiessen, Olga

    2017-12-15

    In the precursor project of this study a simulation procedure was developed, consisting of a 3D-CAD model, a mathematical method for coordinate transformation, the software MicroShield and an empiric job model, to calculate the occupational exposure for definable jobs at the primary circuit. It was validated for inspection and maintenance jobs at PWRs of the second and third KWU/Siemens generation. With that the aptitude of this tool for prognosis of radiation exposure was demonstrated. Adhering contaminations within the primary circuit are considered as relevant sources, whereas activated core-near components are neglected. In this study, the model was extended by PWR of the so-called Convoy generation, which differ from older plants in the material composition and consequently in the relevant nuclide vectors. With information from a visit at a nuclear power plant and conversation with the staff, the model could be adjusted appropriately. The radionuclide Cobalt-60 is indeed less important compared to older plant-types, but it is still the dominant nuclide in facilities of the fourth KWU/Siemens generation, so that it is used as reference nuclide. Due to the contemporary planned final shut-down of the three Convoy plants (besides other), dismantling work was set into focus of simulation. Simulation was conducted and results compared for Convoy plants and for plants of the older generations two and three. Furthermore, by comparative simulations the question was answered if full system decontamination in Convoy plants before dismantling lead to benefits that justify this measure. The determined dose saving during unmounting works at the steam generators caused by the decontamination is remarkable. An abdication of decontamination at this location would lead to doses much higher than the occupational job dose during steam generator dismantling in a decontaminated generation 2 facility.

  8. Evaluation of biological endpoints in crop plants after exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): implications for phytotoxicological assessment of novel contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wiebke; Redshaw, Clare H

    2015-02-01

    Human pharmaceuticals have been detected in the terrestrial environment at µg to mg kg(-1) concentrations. Repeated application of sewage sludge (biosolids) and increasing reclaimed wastewater use for irrigation could lead to accumulation of these novel contaminants in soil systems. Despite this, potential phytotoxicological effects on higher plants have rarely been evaluated. These studies aimed to test effects upon germination, development, growth and physiology of two crop plants, namely radish (Raphanus sativus Spakler 3) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa All Year Around), after exposure to different, but structurally related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at environmentally relevant concentrations. A range of biological endpoints comprising biomass, length, water content, specific root and shoot length, root to shoot ratio, daily progress of stages of cell elongation and organ emergence (primary root, hypocotyl elongation, cotyledon emergence, cotyledon opening, and no change), as well as photosynthetic measurements were evaluated. Compounds from the fenamic acid class were found to affect R. sativus root endpoints (root length and water content), while ibuprofen affected early root development of L. sativa. In general, phytotoxicological effects on root endpoints demonstrated that impacts upon higher plants are not only compound specific, but also differ between plant species. It was found that the usage of a wide range of biological endpoints (all simple, cost-effective and ecologically relevant) were beneficial in detecting differences in plant responses to NSAID exposure. Due to paucity and discrepancy within the few previously available phytotoxicological studies with pharmaceuticals, it is now essential to allocate time and resources to consider development of suitable chronic toxicity tests, and some suggestions regarding this are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transfer and Decontamination of S. aureus in Transmission Routes Regarding Hands and Contact Surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Arinder

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection are pre-requirements for hygiene management in hospital settings and the food industry. In order to facilitate risk management, different contamination scenarios and interventions need to be evaluated. In the present study data on transfer rates and reductions of Staphylococcus aureus were provided in an experimental set-up using artificial skin. Using this methodology, test persons were not exposed with pathogenic bacteria. An exposure assessment model was developed and applied to evaluate different contamination routes and hygiene interventions. The transfer rates of S. aureus from inoculated VITRO-SKIN® to fomites were calculated from blotting series. The VITRO-SKIN® was more prone to spread bacteria than fomites. When different surfaces were cleaned, the reduction of S. aureus varied between <1 and 7 log CFU. It could not be concluded that a certain coupon material, cleaning agent, cleaning wipe, soiling or humidity consistently resulted in a high or low reduction of S. aureus. The reduction of S. aureus and E. coli during hand washing was evaluated on artificial skin, VITRO-SKIN®. The reduction of E. coli on VITRO-SKIN® was similar to the log reduction obtained when washing human hands. The S. aureus count on a human hand was both calculated in different scenarios describing different contamination routes starting from a contaminated hand using the exposure assessment model, and measured on an experimental setup using VITRO-SKIN® for validation. A linear relationship was obtained between the analysed level of S. aureus and the calculated level. However, the calculated levels of S. aureus on the VITRO-SKIN® in the scenarios were 1-1.5 log lower than the analysed level. One of the scenarios was used to study the effect of interventions like hand washing and cleaning of surfaces.

  10. Exposure to antineoplastic drugs outside the hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijster, T; Fransman, W; Veldhof, R; Kromhout, H

    2006-10-01

    The objectives were (i) to identify occupational populations outside hospitals working with antineoplastic drugs, (ii) to determine the size of the populations 'at risk', (iii) to identify major determinants and routes of exposure outside hospitals and (iv) to estimate exposure levels and frequencies relative to levels found in hospitals. The survey consisted of two phases; (i) identification of activities with potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs by literature review, interviews, questionnaires and workplace visits, (ii) exploratory measurements of exposure and surface contamination in selected sectors. Eight sectors were identified with potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs: pharmaceutical industry, pharmacies, universities, veterinary medicine, nursing homes, home care, laundry facilities, and waste treatment. Four sectors were of primary concern: veterinary medicine, home care, nursing homes and industrial laundries. The populations potentially exposed in these sectors vary considerably (from several tens to thousands of workers), as do their levels of exposure. Exposure measurements collected in the veterinary medicine sector showed that workers are indeed exposed to antineoplastic drugs and, in some cases (on gloves after administration), levels were 15 times higher than levels measured during administration in hospitals. Workers sorting contaminated hospital laundry in industrial laundry facilities were exposed to antineoplastic drugs through inhalation. For the home care and nursing homes sectors the highest exposure levels were found when cleaning toilets and washing treated patients. These two sectors are expected to have the largest exposed population (5,000-10,000 individuals). This study has resulted in a comprehensive overview of populations with potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Exposure levels can potentially be high compared with the hospital environment, because exposure routes are complex and awareness of the hazard (and

  11. Heavy metals in soils along unpaved roads in south west Cameroon: Contamination levels and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M

    2016-04-01

    Soils enriched with heavy metals from vehicular emission present a significant exposure route of heavy metals to individuals using unpaved roads. This study assessed the extent of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination of soils along unpaved roads in Cameroon, and the health risks presented by incidental ingestion and dermal contact with the soils using metal contamination factor (CF) pollution load index, hazard quotients (HQ) and chronic hazard index (CHI). CF values obtained (0.9-12.2) indicate moderate to high contamination levels. HQ values for Cr, Cd and Pb exceeded the reference doses. Moderate health hazard exists for road users in the areas with intense anthropogenic activities and high average daily traffic (ADT) volume according to CHI values (1-4) obtained. The economy and quality of life in cities with unpaved roads could be threatened by health challenges resulting from long-term exposure to heavy metal derived from high ADT volumes.

  12. Drosophila larvae food intake cessation following exposure to Erwinia contaminated media requires odor perception, Trpa1 channel and evf virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Seydou; Masuzzo, Ambra; Royet, Julien; Kurz, C Leopold

    2017-05-01

    When exposed to microorganisms, animals use several protective strategies. On one hand, as elegantly exemplified in Drosophila melanogaster, the innate immune system recognizes microbial compounds and triggers an antimicrobial response. On the other hand, behaviors preventing an extensive contact with the microbes and thus reducing the risk of infection have been described. However, these reactions ranging from microbes aversion to intestinal transit increase or food intake decrease have been rarely defined at the molecular level. In this study, we set up an experimental system that allowed us to rapidly identify and quantify food intake decreases in Drosophila larvae exposed to media contaminated with bacteria. Specifically, we report a robust dose-dependent food intake decrease following exposure to the bacteria Erwinia carotovora carotovora strain Ecc15. We demonstrate that this response does not require Imd innate immune pathway, but rather the olfactory neuronal circuitry, the Trpa1 receptor and the evf virulence factor. Finally, we show that Ecc15 induce the same behavior in the invasive pest insect Drosophila suzukii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  14. Bioaccumulation of selenium and induced biological effects in the filter feeding bivalve Corbicula fluminea: influence of ventilatory activity, selenium speciation and route of transfer; Bioaccumulation du selenium et effets biologiques induits chez le bivalve filtreur Corbicula fluminea: prise en compte de l'activite ventilatoire, de la speciation du selenium et de la voie de contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, E

    2005-10-15

    Selenium is an essential micro-nutrient for most of living organisms. However, toxic effects in several ecosystems have been reported in the literature. Toxicity comprehension is difficult due to the complexity of Se oxidation states in the environment. The aim of this thesis work was to acquire knowledge on the physiological and environmental factors involved in bioaccumulation and toxicity processes in the freshwater filter-feeding bivalve C. fluminea. The aims were: i) to define what the factors involved in Se bioaccumulation processes in the bivalve are, ii) to characterize Se bioaccumulation at different biological organisation levels, iii) to investigate Se toxic effects. First experiments, carried out for short term exposure duration (3 days), have permitted to underline the importance of Se chemical speciation in bioaccumulation processes in C. fluminea. It has been shown that the organic form, seleno-methionine, was much more bio-available than the inorganic forms, selenite and selenate. Moreover, the route of transfer was determinant in those processes. Inorganic forms have been better extracted by trophic route, whereas seleno-methionine has been better extracted by the direct route. In our experimental conditions, ventilation of the bivalve has not been a limiting factor for Se bioaccumulation by the direct route, whereas it has been for bioaccumulation by the trophic route. Ventilation has been largely modified by the presence of dissolved selenite and seleno-methionine. We have shown that the kinetics of seleno-methionine bioaccumulation are much more fast than those of selenite. Moreover, when introduced as SeMet, internalized Se appeared to be relatively remanent in soft tissues of C. fluminea in comparison with Se internalized when introduced as selenite. Subcellular and molecular distributions of these forms were very different. Finally, it has been shown that seleno-methionine and selenite could generate weak alterations of the anti

  15. Generic study on the relation between contamination if primary coolants and occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants with PWR. Final report; Generische Studie zum Zusammenhang zwischen Kontamination von Primaerkreislaufmedien und beruflicher Strahlenexposition bei Kernkraftwerken mit Druckwasserreaktor. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Andreas; Bruhn, Gerd; Schneider, Sebastian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Strub, Erik [Koeln Univ. (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    A generic model for the primary cooling system contamination in pressurized water reactors and the resulting radiological consequences has been developed. The functional capability was demonstrated by means of three examples concerning manipulation procedures during revision outages. Activities at the main reactor coolant pumps were studied and the influence of the coolant contamination on the resulting dose rates and collective doses were calculated. The effect of a Co-90 hot spot in a more remote area on the radiation exposure during the specific action at the reactor pumps was considered.

  16. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Reproduction, embryonic development, and maternal transfer of contaminants in the amphibian Gastrophryne carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William Alexander; DuRant, Sarah Elizabeth; Staub, Brandon Patrick; Rowe, Christopher Lee; Jackson, Brian Phillip

    2006-05-01

    Although many amphibian populations around the world are declining at alarming rates, the cause of most declines remains unknown. Environmental contamination is one of several factors implicated in declines and may have particularly important effects on sensitive developmental stages. Despite the severe effects of maternal transfer of contaminants on early development in other vertebrate lineages, no studies have examined the effects of maternal transfer of contaminants on reproduction or development in amphibians. We examined maternal transfer of contaminants in eastern narrow-mouth toads (Gastrophryne carolinensis) collected from a reference site and near a coal-burning power plant. Adult toads inhabiting the industrial area transferred significant quantities of selenium and strontium to their eggs, but Se concentrations were most notable (up to 100 microg/g dry mass). Compared with the reference site, hatching success was reduced by 11% in clutches from the contaminated site. In surviving larvae, the frequency of developmental abnormalities and abnormal swimming was 55-58% higher in the contaminated site relative to the reference site. Craniofacial abnormalities were nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent in hatchlings from the contaminated site. When all developmental criteria were considered collectively, offspring from the contaminated site experienced 19% lower viability. Although there was no statistical relationship between the concentration of Se or Sr transferred to eggs and any measure of offspring viability, our study demonstrates that maternal transfer may be an important route of contaminant exposure in amphibians that has been overlooked.

  18. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    couple of decades. To deliver competitive service and price, transportation today needs to be cost effective. A company requiring for things to be shipped will aim at having the freight shipped as cheaply as possible while often satisfying certain time constraints. For the transportation company......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...

  19. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  20. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Michael G; Syverson, Paul F; Goldschlag, David M

    1996-01-01

    ...), and file transfers (FTP) have been implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis...

  1. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  2. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  3. Risks to Ecological Receptors Posed by Contaminants of Potential Concern in the Lower Three Runs Cooling Ponds and Canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blas, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-21

    The upper portion of Lower Three Runs includes several ponds, reservoirs, and canals that were formerly used as a cooling system for nuclear production reactors. This area was divided into nine exposure areas (EAs) for the assessment of environmental contamination resulting from past reactor operations and other industrial processes. A tiered screening process identified several contaminants of potential concern including aluminum, cyanide, lead, manganese, mercury, DDD, DDE, and DDT. Risks posed by these contaminants to ecological receptors (river otter, belted kingfisher, raccoon, and blue heron) were assessed using contaminant exposure models that estimated contaminant intake resulting from ingestion of food, water, and sediment/ soil and compared these intakes with toxicity reference values (TRVs). The contaminant exposure models showed that the TRVs were not exceeded in the otter model, exceeded by aluminum in EA 7 (Pond 2 and associated canals) in the raccoon model, and exceeded by mercury in EAs 2, 3 (Pond B), 6 (Par Pond), and 8 (Ponds 4 and 5 and Canal to Pond C) in both the kingfisher and blue heron models. Hazard quotients (total exposure dose divided by the TRV) were 2.8 for aluminum and 1.7- 3.6 for mercury. The primary route of exposure for aluminum was the ingestion of soil, and the primary route of exposure for mercury was the ingestion of mercury contaminated fish. Elevated levels of mercury in fish were at least partly the result of the aerial deposition of mercury onto Lower Three Runs and its watershed. The atmospheric deposition of mercury creates pervasive contamination in fish throughout the Savannah River basin. Another possible source of mercury was the discharge of mercury contaminated Savannah River water into the Lower Three Runs cooling ponds and canals during previous years of reactor operation. This contamination originated from industries located upstream of the SRS. The aluminum exceedance for the raccoon was likely the result of

  4. Uranium contaminated drinking water linked to leukaemia-Revisiting a case study from South Africa taking alternative exposure pathways into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Frank; Erasmus, Ewald; Geipel, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents results of a follow-up to an earlier study which established a geospatial link between naturally elevated uranium (U) levels in borehole water and haematological abnormalities in local residents serving as a proxy for leukaemia prevalent in the area. While the original study focussed on drinking water only, this paper also explores alternative exposure pathways including the inhalation of dust and the food chain. U-levels in grass and tissue of sheep generally reflect U-levels in nearby borehole water and exceed background concentrations by 20 to nearly 500 times. U-levels in sheep tissue increase with age of the animal. Wool showed the highest U-concentration followed by other non-consumable tissue such as hooves, teeth and bones. Lower levels occur in edible parts such as meat and inner organs. The U-deposition rate in wool is several orders of magnitudes higher than in bone as a known target organ. Wool is an easy-to-sample non-invasive bioindicator for U-levels in meat. Depending on the original water content, dried samples show up to 5 times higher U-levels than identical fresh material. Contaminated drinking water is the main exposure pathway for farm residents resulting in U-uptake rates exceeding the WHO's tolerable daily intake (TDI) limit by up to 900%. This is somewhat mitigated by the fact that U-speciation is dominated by a neutral calcium-uranyl-carbonate complex of relatively low toxicity. Commercially available household filters are able to significantly reduce U-levels in well water and are thus recommended as a short-term intervention. Based on average consumption rates sheep meat, as local staple food, accounts for 34% of the TDI for U. Indoor levels of radon should be monitored, too, since it is linked to both, U and leukaemia. With elevated U-levels being present in other geological formations across South Africa boreholes in these areas should be surveyed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. VOC contamination in hospital, from stationary sampling of a large panel of compounds, in view of healthcare workers and patients exposure assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bessonneau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess, for the first time, the nature of the indoor air contamination of hospitals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: More than 40 volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers and terpenes were measured in a teaching hospital in France, from sampling in six sampling sites--reception hall, patient room, nursing care, post-anesthesia care unit, parasitology-mycology laboratory and flexible endoscope disinfection unit--in the morning and in the afternoon, during three consecutive days. Our results showed that the main compounds found in indoor air were alcohols (arithmetic means ± SD: 928±958 µg/m³ and 47.9±52.2 µg/m³ for ethanol and isopropanol, respectively, ethers (75.6±157 µg/m³ for ether and ketones (22.6±20.6 µg/m³ for acetone. Concentrations levels of aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes and limonene were widely variable between sampling sites, due to building age and type of products used according to health activities conducted in each site. A high temporal variability was observed in concentrations of alcohols, probably due to the intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs in all sites. Qualitative analysis of air samples led to the identification of other compounds, including siloxanes (hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, anesthetic gases (sevoflurane, desflurane, aliphatic hydrocarbons (butane, esters (ethylacetate, terpenes (camphor, α-bisabolol, aldehydes (benzaldehyde and organic acids (benzoic acid depending on sites. CONCLUSION: For all compounds, concentrations measured were lower than concentrations known to be harmful in humans. However, results showed that indoor air of sampling locations contains a complex mixture of VOCs. Further multicenter studies are required to compare these results. A full understanding of the exposure of healthcare workers and patients

  6. Initial hospital management of irradiated and radio-contaminated victims in case of accidental exposure of populations; Prise en charge hospitaliere initiale de victimes irradiees et contaminees dans un contexte d'exposition accidentelle de populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehrenbach; Mantzarides, M.; Bonardel, G.; Gontier, E. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Laroche, P.; Carbonnieres, H. de [Hopital des Armees Percy, Service de Protection Radiologique, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-08-15

    The current risk of radiologic exposure of the population occurs in many circumstances. The industrial accident is remarkably illustrated by the Tchernobyl event. Another kind is still virtual but the international situation does not allow to turn this hypothesis down. It is terrorist utilization of radioactive material. In these situations, medical problems are specific and require particular knowledge about the two forms of exposure which are external irradiation and external and internal contamination. Pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation effects concerning biological tissues are similar in these situations but care actions are dedicated. These elements are mandatory for the elaboration of procedures for the reception of irradiated or contaminated victims, being wounded or not, in a first-aid department. These procedures must comprise two aspects: the recognition of the radiologic exposition and the therapeutic actions taking into account the severity of associated injuries. Diagnosis of a radioactive contamination is rather simple by external detection. Conversely, to estimate the reality of an external irradiation is much more difficult but necessary for dosimetric evaluation. This latter is of the highest importance for the prevision of delayed clinical manifestations. At the hospital level, despite the training effort for first aid departments staff, the nuclear medicine physician, specialist for radioactive contamination, can play a specific role for the preparation of the equipment, the procedures and during intervention after a radiologic event has happened. This emphasizes the obligation for him to update his knowledge about this subject. (author)

  7. Modeling human exposure to hazardous-waste sites: a question of completeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.I.; McKone, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    In risk analysis, we use human-exposure assessments to translate contaminant sources into quantitative estimates of the amount of contaminant that comes in contact with human-environment boundaries, that is, the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin surface of individuals within a specified population. An assessment of intake requires that we determine how much crosses these boundaries. Exposure assessments often rely implicitly in the assumption that exposure can be linked by simple parameters to ambient concentration in air, water, and soil. However, more realistic exposure models require that we abandon such simple assumptions. To link contaminant concentrations in water, air, or soil with potential human intakes, we constrict pathway-exposure factors (PEFs). For each PEF we combine information in environmental partitioning as well as human anatomy, physiology, and patterns into an algebraic term that converts concentrations of contaminants (in mg/L water, mg/m 3 air, and mg/kg soil) into a daily intake per unit body weight in mg/kg-d for a specific rout of exposure such as inhalation, ingestion, or dermal uptake. Using examples involving human exposure to either a radionuclide (tritium, 3 H) or a toxic organic chemical (tetrachloroethylene, PCE) in soil, water, and air, we illustrate the use of PEFs and consider the implications for risk assessment. (au)

  8. From dermal exposure to internal dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Dellarco, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Exposure scenarios form an essential basis for chemical risk assessment reports under the new EU chemicals regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). In case the dermal route of exposure is predominant, information on both exposure and dermal

  9. Oral chlorhexidine and microbial contamination during endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Arpi, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial contamin......BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial...... contamination of the endoscope. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial the effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinse was evaluated. As a surrogate for the risk of intra-abdominal contamination during transgastric surgery, microbial contamination of the endoscope during upper endoscopy...... microbial contamination of the endoscope, but micro-organisms with abscess forming capabilities were still present. PPI treatment significantly increased CFU and should be discontinued before transgastric surgery....

  10. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  11. Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganser, L.R.; Hopkins, W.A.; O' Neil, L.; Hasse, S.; Roe, J.H.; Sever, D.M. [St Marys College, Notre Dame, IN (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, strontium, and vanadium in livers of Southern Watersnakes fed fish from a coal-ash contaminated site. Our study is the first to investigate effects of trace element accumulation on cytology of snake liver. Snakes were born in the laboratory and raised for one or two years on diets consisting of varying proportions of contaminated fish. The majority (71%) of snakes fed contaminated prey did not exhibit any differences in liver histology when compared to control snakes fed an uncontaminated diet. In the remaining contaminant-exposed snakes, some aberrations were noted. The most prevalent pathology involved the proliferation of collagen fibers that resulted in narrowing or occlusion of sinusoids and increasing the mass of the intersinsuoidal parenychma. Fibrosis of the liver as a result of chronic injury has been reported previously in reptiles, but this is the first report that links such tissue damage to dietary contamination.

  12. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  13. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  14. Oral-to-inhalation route extrapolation in occupational health risk assessment: A critical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, M.A.J.; Bouwman, T.; Wilschut, A.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Heer, C.de

    2004-01-01

    Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, the health risks resulting from occupational exposure are frequently assessed by route-to-route (RtR) extrapolation based on oral toxicity data. Insight into the conditions for and the uncertainties connected with the application of RtR extrapolation

  15. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  16. Reconstruction of local fallout composition and gamma-ray exposure in a village contaminated by the first USSR nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawai, Kenta; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Apsalikov, Kazbek

    2010-11-01

    After the disintegration of the USSR in end of 1991, it became possible for foreign scientists to visit Kazakhstan, in order to investigate the radiological consequences of nuclear explosions that had been conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Since the first visit in 1994, our group has been continuing expeditions for soil sampling at various areas around SNTS. The current level of local fallout at SNTS was studied through γ-spectrometry for (137)Cs as well as α-spectrometry for (239,240)Pu. Average values of soil inventory from wide areas around SNTS were 3,500 and 3,700 Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu, respectively, as of January 1, 2000. The average level of (137)Cs is comparable to that in Japan due to global fallout, while the level of (239,240)Pu is several tens of times larger than that in Japan. Areas of strong contamination were found along the trajectories of radioactive fallout, information on which was declassified after the collapse of the USSR. Our recent efforts of soil sampling were concentrated on the area around the Dolon village heavily affected by the radioactive plume from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949 and located 110 km east from ground zero of the explosion. Using soil inventory data, retrospective dosimetry was attempted by reconstructing γ-ray exposure from fission product nuclides deposited on the ground. Adopting representative parameters for the initial (137)Cs deposition (13 kBq m(-2)), the refractory/volatile deposition ratio (3.8) and the plume arrival time after explosion (2.5 h), an absorbed dose in air of 600 mGy was obtained for the 1-year cumulative dose in Dolon village, due to the first bomb test in 1949. Considering possible ranges of the parameters, 350 and 910 mGy were estimated for high and low cases of γ-ray dose in air, respectively. It was encouraging that the deduced value was consistent with other estimations using thermal luminescence and archived monitoring data. The present

  17. Redispersion of indoor surface contamination: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansone, E.B.; Slein, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of surface contamination as a potential source of exposure to hazardous materials is discussed. Data from the literature concerning the resuspension of indoor surface contamination are presented. Reported procedures for quantitating surface contamination are compared. It is suggested that, despite its limitations, surface contamination monitoring may be useful in estimating potential risks from hazardous materials. (Auth.)

  18. Factory-discharged pharmaceuticals could be a relevant source of aquatic environment contamination: review of evidence and need for knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Olivier; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2014-11-01

    Human and veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are involved in contamination of surface water, ground water, effluents, sediments and biota. Effluents of waste water treatment plants and hospitals are considered as major sources of such contamination. However, recent evidences reveal high concentrations of a large number of APIs in effluents from pharmaceutical factories and in receiving aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, laboratory exposures to these effluents and field experiments reveal various physiological disturbances in exposed aquatic organisms. Also, it seems to be relevant to increase knowledge on this route of contamination but also to develop specific approaches for further environmental monitoring campaigns. The present study summarizes available data related to the impact of pharmaceutical factory discharges on aquatic ecosystem contaminations and presents associated challenges for scientists and environmental managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  20. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  1. Case definitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, A; Durando, P; Del Favero, G; Ansaldi, F; Icardi, G; Deeds, J R; Sosa, S

    2011-03-01

    A series of case reports and anecdotal references describe the adverse effects on human health ascribed to the marine toxin palytoxin (PLTX) after different exposure routes. They include poisonings after oral intake of contaminated seafood, but also inhalation and cutaneous/systemic exposures after direct contact with aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing cnidarian zoanthids. The symptoms commonly recorded during PLTX intoxication are general malaise and weakness, associated with myalgia, respiratory effects, impairment of the neuromuscular apparatus and abnormalities in cardiac function. Systemic symptoms are often recorded together with local damages whose intensity varies according to the route and length of exposure. Gastrointestinal malaise or respiratory distress is common for oral and inhalational exposure, respectively. In addition, irritant properties of PLTX probably account for the inflammatory reactions typical of cutaneous and inhalational contact. Unfortunately, the toxin identification and/or quantification are often incomplete or missing and cases of poisoning are indirectly ascribed to PLTXs, according only to symptoms, anamnesis and environmental/epidemiological investigations (i.e. zoanthid handling or ingestion of particular seafood). Based on the available literature, we suggest a "case definition of PLTX poisonings" according to the main exposure routes, and, we propose the main symptoms to be checked, as well as, hemato-clinical analysis to be carried out. We also suggest the performance of specific analyses both on biological specimens of patients, as well as, on the contaminated materials responsible for the poisoning. A standardized protocol for data collection could provide a more rapid and reliable diagnosis of palytoxin-poisoning, but also the collection of necessary data for the risk assessment for this family of toxins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping microbial ecosystems and spoilage-gene flow in breweries highlights patterns of contamination and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry; Mills, David A

    2015-03-10

    Distinct microbial ecosystems have evolved to meet the challenges of indoor environments, shaping the microbial communities that interact most with modern human activities. Microbial transmission in food-processing facilities has an enormous impact on the qualities and healthfulness of foods, beneficially or detrimentally interacting with food products. To explore modes of microbial transmission and spoilage-gene frequency in a commercial food-production scenario, we profiled hop-resistance gene frequencies and bacterial and fungal communities in a brewery. We employed a Bayesian approach for predicting routes of contamination, revealing critical control points for microbial management. Physically mapping microbial populations over time illustrates patterns of dispersal and identifies potential contaminant reservoirs within this environment. Habitual exposure to beer is associated with increased abundance of spoilage genes, predicting greater contamination risk. Elucidating the genetic landscapes of indoor environments poses important practical implications for food-production systems and these concepts are translatable to other built environments.

  3. A cross-study analysis of prenatal exposures to environmental contaminants and the epigenome: support for stress-responsive transcription factor occupancy as a mediator of gene-specific CpG methylation patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth M.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A biological mechanism by which exposure to environmental contaminants results in gene-specific CpG methylation patterning is currently unknown. We hypothesize that gene-specific CpG methylation is related to environmentally perturbed transcription factor occupancy. To test this hypothesis, a database of 396 genes with altered CpG methylation either in cord blood leukocytes or placental tissue was compiled from 14 studies representing assessments of six environmental contaminants. Subsequently, an in silico approach was used to identify transcription factor binding sites enriched among the genes with altered CpG methylation in relationship to the suite of environmental contaminants. For each study, the sequences of the promoter regions (representing −1000 to +500 bp from the transcription start site) of all genes with altered CpG methylation were analyzed for enrichment of transcription factor binding sites. Binding sites for a total of 56 unique transcription factors were identified to be enriched within the promoter regions of the genes. Binding sites for the Kidney-Enriched Krupple-like Factor 15, a known responder to endogenous stress, were enriched ( P  contaminants. These data support the transcription factor occupancy theory as a potential mechanism underlying environmentally-induced gene-specific CpG methylation. PMID:27066266

  4. Reproduction, embryonic development, and maternal transfer of contaminants in the amphibian Gastrophryne carolinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, W.A.; DuRant, S.E.; Staub, B.P.; Rowe, C.L.; Jackson, B.P. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Fisheries & Wildlife Science

    2006-05-15

    Although many amphibian populations around the world are declining at alarming rates, the cause of most declines remains unknown. Environmental contamination is one of several factors implicated in declines and may have particularly important effects on sensitive developmental stages. We examined maternal transfer of contaminants in eastern narrow-mouth toads (Gastrophryne carolinensis) collected from a reference site and near a coal-burning power plant. Adult toads inhabiting the industrial area transferred significant quantities of selenium and strontium to their eggs, but Se concentrations were most notable (up to 100 {mu} g/g dry mass). Compared with the reference site, hatching success was reduced by 11% in clutches from the contaminated site. In surviving larvae, the frequency of developmental abnormalities and abnormal swimming was 55-58% higher in the contaminated site relative to the reference site. Craniofacial abnormalities were nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent in hatchlings from the contaminated site. When all developmental criteria were considered collectively, offspring from the contaminated site experienced 19% lower viability. Although there was no statistical relationship between the concentration of Se or Sr transferred to eggs and any measure of offspring viability, our study demonstrates that maternal transfer may be an important route of contaminant exposure in amphibians that has been overlooked.

  5. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: why sea ice matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pućko, Monika; Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Jantunen, Liisa M; Bidleman, Terry F; Wong, Fiona; Barber, David G; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-02-15

    For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical-chemical properties (e.g. 2-3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical-chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibrium based on Henry's law constants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical 'pump' delivering contaminants from the atmosphere to the ocean under ice-covered conditions, with 2-10% of CUPs annually entering the Beaufort Sea via this input route compared to the standing stock in the Polar Mixed Layer of the ocean. The abovementioned processes are strongly favored in first-year ice compared to multi-year ice and, therefore, the dynamic balance between contaminant inventories and contaminant deposition to the surface ocean is being widely affected by the large-scale icescape transition taking place in the Arctic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Health risk evaluation of certain compounds found in contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dock, L.; Victorin, K.; Vahter, M.; Ahlborg, U.G.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a redevelopment plan for an old gas works site in Stockholm, the Institute of Environmental Medicine (IEM) at the Karolinska Institute was asked to evaluate the health risks associated with exposure to coal tar, containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenols, cyanides, sulfur compounds, arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury in soil and to suggest guide line values for these compounds in residential areas. Our health risk evaluation was limited to possible effects following direct exposure to contaminated soil. Indirect exposure, i.e. through contaminated ground water or home-grown vegetables, was not considered, nor were effects on building material. The routes of exposure considered were ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil dust. Small children were considered the primary risk group. The critical health effect associated with dermal exposure to PAH in soil is skin cancer. Ingestion of phenols, cyanides and sulphur compounds may cause acute health effects. Recommended guide line values for these contaminants were generally obtained by dividing the lowest observed effect levels with appropriate safety factors. The metals considered may cause both acute and chronic health effects. The guide line values for cadmium and mercury in soil were set based on a maximum intake through ingestion of soil corresponding to 10% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels (PTWI) set by FAO/WHO. For arsenic, the guide line value corresponds to 5% of the PTWI-value for a child. The suggested guide line level for lead was based on studied on the association between soil lead concentration and blood lead levels in children. The suggested guide line level for lead in soil may increase the blood-lead in a child by less than 10%. (31 refs.) (au)

  7. Neonicotinoid-contaminated puddles of water represent a risk of intoxication for honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Samson-Robert

    Full Text Available In recent years, populations of honey bees and other pollinators have been reported to be in decline worldwide. A number of stressors have been identified as potential contributing factors, including the extensive prophylactic use of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are highly toxic to bees, in agriculture. While multiple routes of exposure to these systemic insecticides have been documented for honey bees, contamination from puddle water has not been investigated. In this study, we used a multi-residue method based on LC-MS/MS to analyze samples of puddle water taken in the field during the planting of treated corn and one month later. If honey bees were to collect and drink water from these puddles, our results showed that they would be exposed to various agricultural pesticides. All water samples collected from corn fields were contaminated with at least one neonicotinoid compound, although most contained more than one systemic insecticide. Concentrations of neonicotinoids were higher in early spring, indicating that emission and drifting of contaminated dust during sowing raises contamination levels of puddles. Although the overall average acute risk of drinking water from puddles was relatively low, concentrations of neonicotinoids ranged from 0.01 to 63 µg/L and were sufficient to potentially elicit a wide array of sublethal effects in individuals and colony alike. Our results also suggest that risk assessment of honey bee water resources underestimates the foragers' exposure and consequently miscalculates the risk. In fact, our data shows that honey bees and native pollinators are facing unprecedented cumulative exposure to these insecticides from combined residues in pollen, nectar and water. These findings not only document the impact of this route of exposure for honey bees, they also have implications for the cultivation of a wide variety of crops for which the extensive use of neonicotinoids is currently promoted.

  8. British Dance: Black Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, C.; Burt, Ramsay, 1953-

    2016-01-01

    British Dance: Black Routes re-examines the distinctive contributions made to British dance by dancers who are Black. Covering the period 1946 to the present, it presents a radical re-reading of dancers and their companies, placing their achievements within a broader historical, cultural and artistic context. The result of a two year research project, British Dance and the African Diaspora, led by editors Christy Adair and Ramsay Burt, the collection looks at artists working with contempor...

  9. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  10. CalTOX, a multimedia total exposure model for hazardous-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-06-01

    CalTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in health-risk assessments that address contaminated soils and the contamination of adjacent air, surface water, sediments, and ground water. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify and reduce uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure models. This report provides an overview of the CalTOX model components, lists the objectives of the model, describes the philosophy under which the model was developed, identifies the chemical classes for which the model can be used, and describes critical sensitivities and uncertainties. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a dynamic model that can be used to assess time-varying concentrations of contaminants introduced initially to soil layers or for contaminants released continuously to air or water. This model assists the user in examining how chemical and landscape properties impact both the ultimate route and quantity of human contact. Multimedia, multiple pathway exposure models are used in the CalTOX model to estimate average daily potential doses within a human population in the vicinity of a hazardous substances release site. The exposure models encompass twenty-three exposure pathways. The exposure assessment process consists of relating contaminant concentrations in the multimedia model compartments to contaminant concentrations in the media with which a human population has contact (personal air, tap water, foods, household dusts soils, etc.). The average daily dose is the product of the exposure concentrations in these contact media and an intake or uptake factor that relates the concentrations to the distributions of potential dose within the population

  11. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Julian

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data. Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  12. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Pickering, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing) to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  13. Identifying important life stages for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to environmental contaminants: results of a World Health Organization review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; de Wet, Thea; Du Toit, Lilo; Firestone, Michael P; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Vickers, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we summarize exposure-related issues to consider in determining the most appropriate age ranges and life stages for risk assessment. We then propose a harmonized set of age bins for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to chemicals for global use. The focus is on preconception through adolescence, though the approach should be applicable to additional life stages. A two-tiered set of early life age groups is recommended. The first tier involves the adoption of guidance similar to the childhood age groups recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, whereas the second tier consolidates some of those age groups to reduce the burden of developing age-specific exposure factors for different regions. While there is no single "correct" means of choosing a common set of age groups to use internationally in assessing early life exposure and risk, use of a set of defined age groups is recommended to facilitate comparisons of potential exposures and risks around the globe, the collection of data and analyses of aggregate exposure and cumulative risk. Application of these age groups for robust assessment of exposure and risk for specific populations will require region-specific exposure factors as well as local environmental monitoring data. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Alberta Oil Sands Community Exposure and Health Effects Assessment Program : methods report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Alberta Oil Sands Community Exposure and Health Effects Assessment Program involved the development of a holistic approach to the study of personal exposure and the potential health impacts of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ) and particulates (both PM10 and PM2.5). Volunteer residents from Fort McMurray, Alberta were recruited to participate in neurocognitive tests and a health and nutrition survey. In addition, the local community identified several priority contaminants which were highlighted during a public hearing of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board in relation to Syncrude's Mildred Lake Development Project. The approach to the study was based on the direct measurement of all routes of exposure to the contaminants (breathing, ingestion and skin contact), direct measurement of biomarkers, and daily logs of participant's activities. The choice of biomarkers was based on the ability of the laboratory to measure low levels of relevant biological markers, the most appropriate media for measuring the markers, and the burden placed on each volunteer. The final set of biological measures of exposure included trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium) nicotine, and metabolites of the BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes). The objective was to determine if chronic or occupational exposure to these contaminants cause structural alterations in the respiratory system that compromise oxygen absorption and lung elasticity. 82 refs., 14 tabs., 15 figs., 3 appendices

  15. Potential for occupational and environmental exposure to ten carcinogens in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, P. [ToxProbe Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted in which several contaminants were assessed for their toxicological properties, potencies and occupational and environmental exposures in the city of Toronto. The contaminants included 1,3-butadiene, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, chromium, dioxins, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Canada have classified 9 of the 10 substances as human carcinogens. Tetrachloroethylene was classified as a probable human carcinogen. It was noted that there is no level of exposure for these chemicals that is without some risk. The information on the levels of selected contaminants in the workplace were obtained from existing literature. The sectors with the highest number of potentially exposed workers to these contaminants include the textiles industry, footwear manufacturing, wood products manufacturing, rubber products manufacturing, non-metallic mineral products manufacturing, fabricated metal products manufacturing, construction, land transport, and household services. The report discussed sources of emissions, routes and pathways of exposures and environmental levels, including outdoor air levels water concentrations, soil concentrations, and food concentrations. The report does not estimate the actual risk to Toronto residents due to environmental exposure to these carcinogens because data are insufficient to conduct such an assessment. However, some previous studies have indicated that exposure from ambient and indoor air has the greatest impact on human health. It is recommended that the city of Toronto remain up to date on the regulatory status of these chemicals. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  16. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Suski, Jamie G; Salice, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  18. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedde, Mickaël; Oort, Folkert van; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. - Highlights: ► We linked pollution, exposure routes and impacts on soil invertebrates. ► Proportions of exposed animals accurately depicted pollution effects. ► Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than exposure by contact. ► Geophages decline reflected changes in soil organic matter. ► Soft-body proportions were mainly influenced by TM pools. - A trait-based approach hierarchized impacts of soil pollution on soil invertebrate communities following ways of exposure

  19. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  20. Radiation surveys in contaminated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of γ exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

  1. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  2. Elisabeth Badinter, Fausse route

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Juchat, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Elisabeth Badinter, philosophe de formation, est l’auteure de nombreux ouvrages sur la condition féminine et les rapports hommes/femmes dans la société. Avec Fausse route, elle signe une vision polémique du féminisme occidental. Son ouvrage a suscité de nombreuses critiques de femmes dans diverses revues destinées au grand public. Hélène Strohl, recenseur de la revue Culture en mouvement, conclut que cet ouvrage est peu scientifique, sujet à caution : « Argument contre argument, amalgame cont...

  3. Emergency measures and treatment in the event of accidental aver exposure to radiation or of radioactive contamination; Mesures d'urgence et traitement en cas de surexposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ou en cas de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In the first part the author presents an overall view of emergency measures to be applied in the case of internal or external radioactive contamination. He states in particular, in these two cases, the methods by which it is possible to eliminate the contaminating radioactive substances from the organism. The author then considers the therapeutic methods to be adopted in the case of an accident of overexposure to radiation, distinguishing between the case of a partial irradiation and that of an acute total irradiation. There will be essentially three methods used depending on the physical measures carried out (irradiation, conditions, estimation of the dose received) and of the clinical data collected: particular treatments, treatment for helping the organism during its return to normal activity, temporary or permanent replacement of the organs affected. (author) [French] L'auteur presente, en une premiere partie, une vue d'ensemble des mesures d'urgence a appliquer en cas de contamination radioactive externe ou interne. Il fait etat en particulier, dans ces deux cas, des methodes permettant de debarrasser l'organisme des substances radioactives contaminantes. L'auteur envisage, ensuite, la therapeutique a adopter lors d'un accident de surexposition aux rayonnements, distinguant le cas d'une irradiation partielle et celui d'une irradiation totale aigue. Trois traitements seront essentiellement mis en oeuvre en fonction des mesures physiques effectuees (conditions d'irradiation, evaluation de la dose recue) et des donnees cliniques recueillies: traitements specifiques, traitement de soutien de l'organisme preparant la restauration, suppleance temporaire ou definitive d'organes defaillants. (auteur)

  4. Emergency measures and treatment in the event of accidental aver exposure to radiation or of radioactive contamination; Mesures d'urgence et traitement en cas de surexposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ou en cas de conta