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Sample records for contaminacion fecal mensual

  1. Insulator contamination effects; Efectos de la contaminacion en aislamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    Environmental contamination deteriorates the electric insulators, mechanically as well as electrically; the mechanical problems caused by contamination are related basically with materials corrosion and degradation and the electrical problems are related to the deterioration of their dielectric rigidity. From the electrical standpoint, the type of contamination that cause more problems are divided into: marine, desert and industrial. It is not uncommon to find various combinations of these types of contamination. When the electric installations operate in polluted environments, the insulator electric behavior deteriorates, provoking increments in the operation costs for maintenance as well as for replacement. Mexico has large extensions of coasts (marine contamination), where nowadays large cities and productions centers are developed (industrial pollution); also, in some cases for the energy transportation is necessary to go through large land extensions, where no vegetation of any kind exists. For this reason the contamination effect on the electric installations must be considered in order to obtain a reliable and economical energy supply. [Espanol] La contaminacion ambiental deteriora los aisladores electricos tanto mecanica como electricamente; los problemas mecanicos por contaminacion se relacionan en forma basica con la corrosion y degradacion de los materiales, y los electricos se vinculan con el deterioro de su rigidez dielectrica. Desde el punto de vista electrico, los tipos de contaminacion que mas problemas ocasionan se dividen en: marina, desertica e industrial. Es comun encontrar diversas combinaciones de estas. Cuando las instalaciones electricas operan en ambientes contaminados, el comportamiento electrico de los aisladores se deteriora, provocando incrementos en los costos de operacion, tanto por mantenimiento como por reposicion. Mexico cuenta con grandes extensiones de costas (contaminacion marina), donde actualmente se desarrollan ciudades y

  2. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  3. Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control than formed stool, it is an added stress that can lead to fecal incontinence. Diagnosis How will my doctor diagnose the cause of fecal incontinence? Along with a physical exam, your doctor may want to do other tests ...

  4. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasites exam Alternative Names Stool culture; Culture - stool; Gastroenteritis fecal culture Images Salmonella typhi organism Yersinia enterocolitica organism Campylobacter jejuni organism Clostridium difficile organism References Beavis, KG, ...

  5. PRONÓSTICO DE LA DEMANDA MENSUAL DE ELECTRICIDAD CON SERIES DE TIEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Daniel Gil Vera

    Full Text Available La alta volatilidad de los precios de la electricidad ha motivado a diseñar a investigadores y académicos modelos que permitan pronosticar la demanda de la misma en el corto, mediano y largo plazo. Este trabajo presenta un modelo de pronóstico de la demanda mensual de electricidad basado en series de tiempo, el cual toma como base los valores de la demanda de energía eléctrica en el Sistema Interconectado Nacional (SIN de Colombia en el período 2008-2014. Se concluye que las series de tiempo aplicadas al pronóstico de la demanda de electricidad permiten predecir con un alto grado de exactitud demandas futuras de energía eléctrica (GWh, información que puede generar ventajas a productores, distribuidores y grandes consumidores a la hora de establecer estrategias, optimizar su operación y realizar contratos bilaterales.

  6. Construyendo un indicador de actividad mensual para la Región Rosario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Claudio Lapelle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una estimación del Indicador Sintético de Actividad de la Región Rosario (ISARR para el período 1993-2012. La misma representa un aporte a las escasas estadísticas regionales existentes. Además, la exposición detallada de la metodología empleada hace del artículo una guía para la elaboración de indicadores mensuales de actividad en otras áreas o regiones. El ISARR muestra cuatro ciclos completos desde 1993 a diferencia de la nación y provincia que sólo marcan tres, aunque presenta una buena consistencia temporal con éstas. Asimismo, el ISARR exhibe ciertos hechos estilizados de la economía argentina: la crisis del Tequila, el auge durante la Convertibilidad, la profunda crisis socioeconómica de 2001/2, la recuperación y auge postconvertibilidad y la recesión de 2008/9. Estos resultados avalan el uso del ISARR como un indicador apropiado para monitorear la actividad económica de la Región Rosario.

  7. Contribuciones tecnicas para la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica de microondas. Estudio en diversas poblaciones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Garcia, Jaume

    La contaminacion ambiental por campos electromagneticos ha resultado ser en estos ultimos anos uno de los problemas mas acuciantes del panorama tecnologico y de salud publica. En el primero de los casos porque las inversiones realizadas son enormes y en el segundo porque cada vez es mayor el numero de articulos, "technical reports" e informes medicos que afirman la existencia de una cierta causalidad, aunque sea debil, entre los campos electromagneticos y ciertos cuadros sintomatologicos. En nuestro caso, hemos dedicado bastantes esfuerzos a investigar el llamado "sindrome de radiofrecuencia / microondas", denominado asi en la literatura cientifica por presentarse en operarios de estaciones de radar y en trabajadores de potentes emisoras de radio y television. En esta memoria presentamos un resumen del trabajo realizado durante los ultimos anos en la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica ambiental asociado a las comunicaciones inalambricas. En ella se recogen los fundamentos fisicos y propiedades de las ondas electromagneticas, la tecnologia empleada en los sistemas de telefonia celular y los antecedentes relativos a la investigacion de la interaccion de las ondas electromagneticas con organismos vivos. Se desarrolla un procedimiento de medida que ha conducido a la elaboracion de los primeros "mapas de radiofrecuencia" similares, en el aspecto descriptivo, a los mapas de ruido desarrollados en el area de la contaminacion acustica. Por ultimo, se analiza la respuesta subjetiva de los residentes, personas que viven en el entorno de cobertura de las estaciones base de telefonia movil y que se ven sometidos a determinados niveles de radiacion electromagnetica, con el fin de situar este fenomeno al nivel que le corresponde en el ambito de la respuesta subjetiva ciudadana.

  8. Estimación de la demanda energética mensual mediante encuesta aplicada en la provincia de Santa Elena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pavón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el dimensionamiento óptimo de una micro red es de mucha importancia identificar en el lugar de estudio, el potencial energético renovable y la demanda de consumo energético mensual de las familias. El presente trabajo muestra la metodología y resultados de una encuesta de consumo de energía eléctrica que se aplicó in situ a una muestra de la población de hogares de la parroquia rural Atahualpa, provincia de Santa Elena. Luego, estos resultados recopilados fueron tabulados y procesados; y se estimó, mediante estadísticas de muestreo, la demanda de energía eléctrica promedio mensual de viviendas. El consumo mensual de energía eléctrica para viviendas familiares fue de 195 kWh y viviendas de negocio de 446 kWh. El consumo mensual per cápita familiar fue de 39 kWh. Finalmente, este estudio evidencia la importancia de la metodología y resultados obtenidos, los cuales pueden servir para tomar decisiones del ámbito energético tanto a nivel de región, como a nivel de país, mediante políticas públicas adecuadas para abordar el problema de una mejor redistribución energética.

  9. Experimental analysis of the environmental contamination of electrical equipment; Analisis experimental de la contaminacion ambiental en equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Ponce Velez, Marco Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the main causes that originate the contamination problems in insulating materials. This as the result of different studies performed in experimental testing stations, as well as in transmission, distribution and laboratory power lines by the Departamento de Materiales of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra un resumen de los principales factores que originan los problemas de contaminacion en aislamientos. Esto, como resultado de diversos estudios realizados tanto en estaciones de prueba experimentales como en lineas de transmision, distribucion y laboratorio por el Departamento de Materiales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  10. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fecaloccultbloodtestfobt.html Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a Fecal Occult Blood Test? A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at ...

  11. Variación mensual del índice gonadosomatico de Colossoma macropomum relacionado a factores ambientales en Cañas, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la variación mensual en el índice gonadosomático de Colossoma macropomum en estanques, se tomaron muestras mensuales de 10 individuos desde setiembre de 1993 hasta setiembre de 1994. Se midieron además, durante todo el período experimental los siguientes parámetros ambientales: precipitación, temperatura del agua y oxígeno disuelto. El índice gonadosomático (IGS en las hembras presentó un rápido incremento de abril a mayo, permaneciendo alto de junio hasta agosto, decreciendo de setiembre hasta noviembre y mostrando los valores más bajos de diciembre hasta marzo. Esto indica que el desarrollo gonadal inicia un mes después del inicio de las lluvias (finales de abril y que la regresión gonadal esta relacionada con la finalización de esta estación (noviembre, manteniéndose en reposo durante la estación seca (noviembre-marzo. Los valores en el índice gonadosomático para machos, muestran una tendencia similar al de las hembras. Para los otros parámetros obtenidos (temperatura del agua y oxígeno disuelto no se observaron variaciones estacionales que pudieran inducir un cambio en el índice gonadosomático, ya que los valores presentan variaciones muy pequeñas.

  12. Fecal microbiota transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/26344412 . Surawicz CM, Brandt LJ. Probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  13. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  14. Development of an electro-thermal model for ZnO surge arrester under contamination; Desarrollo de un modelo electro-termico para apartarrayos de ZnO bajo contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardado Zavala, J.L.; Moreno Barraza, M.; Zazueta Pena, H.; Venegas Rebollar, V.; Melgoza Vazquez, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: lguarda@prodigy.net.mx; hzazuetapea@yahoo.com; vvenegas@yahoo.com; emelgoza@iimorelia.edu.mx

    2010-01-15

    An electro-thermal model for a Zinc Oxide (ZnO) surge arrester under contamination test is presented. The model is based in three sub-models: electrical, thermal and contamination, which interact in order to obtain the surge arrester performance under contamination tests. The electrical model is obtained from measurements and is based on a capacitance and a non-linear resistor. The thermal model takes into account the heat generated and dissipated by the column of varistors and its surroundings. The contamination is represented by dynamic impedance obtained from measurements in the arrester column during contamination tests. The full model is validated by calculating the temperature increase during contamination tests carried out in a two units ZnO surge arrester, class 190 kV. Finally, the results of the effect of several design and construction parameters in the voltage and temperature distribution in the arrester column during contamination tests are presented. [Spanish] Se presenta el modelo electro-termico para un apartarrayos de Oxido de Zinc (ZnO) durante pruebas de contaminacion. El modelo esta compuesto de tres sub-modelos: electrico, termico y de contaminacion, los cuales interactuan armonicamente para obtener el comportamiento del apartarrayos durante pruebas de contaminacion. El modelo electrico se obtiene de mediciones y esta compuesto de una capacitancia y una resistencia no-lineal. El modelo termico considera el calor generado y disipado en la columna de varistores y su entorno. La contaminacion se representa como una impedancia dinamica, cuyos valores se obtienen de mediciones en la columna del apartarrayos durante pruebas de contaminacion. El modelo se valida determinando el incremento de temperatura durante pruebas de contaminacion en un apartarrayos de ZnO de dos unidades clase 1990 kV. Finalmente, se presentan los resultados del impacto de diversos parametros de diseno y construccion en la distribucion de voltaje y temperatura en el apartarrayos

  15. Options for the solution of the problem of insulators contamination; Alternativas de solucion al problema de contaminacion en aisladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro Chavez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In accordance with Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) statistics, the insulators contamination is cataloged as the second cause of transmission power lines outages. In this article a revision of the different available options for the solution or diminution of this problem, is presented. The application of these options must be made within a technico-economic and cost-benefit frame. [Espanol] De acuerdo con estadisticas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) la contaminacion del aislamiento esta catalogada como la segunda causa de salidas de las lineas de transmision. En este articulo se presenta una revision de las diferentes alternativas disponibles para solucionar o disminuir este problema. La aplicacion de estas alternativas debe hacerse dentro de un marco tecnicoeconomico y de costo-beneficio.

  16. Estimating Monthly Solar Radiation in South-Central Chile Estimación de Radiación Solar Mensual en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez

    2011-12-01

    mensual para la región centro sur de Chile mediante el uso del modelo r.sun y se validó con observaciones de estaciones meteorológicas automáticas. Se analizó el desempeño de los resultados de la irradiación global con los modelos Hargreaves-Samani (HS y Bristol-Campbell (BC. Las estimaciones del modelo calibrado r.sun explican un 89% de la varianza (r² = 0.89 en valores medios mensuales observados. El modelo se comportó muy bien para una amplia zona de las condiciones de Chile, comparados con los modelos HS y BC. Nuestras estimaciones de la radiación global utilizando el modelo r.sun podrían ser mejoradas aún más con una posterior calibración a partir de observaciones y una mejor estimación de la nubosidad en la medida que estén disponibles. Con procedimientos adicionales, el modelo r.sun podría ser utilizado para proporcionar estimaciones espaciales de la radiación solar diaria, semanal, mensual, y anual.

  17. ESTUDIO DE TENDENCIAS DE LA PRECIPITACIÓN MENSUAL EN LA CUENCA ALTA-MEDIA DEL RÍO CAUCA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA L. PUERTAS OROZCO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiar las alteraciones en la oferta hídrica asociadas a la variabilidad o al cambio climático, es importante para ajustar adaptaciones frente a los cambios actuales y futuros, para esto se requiere comprender cambios históricos espacio-temporales en el patrón regional de lluvias. Para esto, se analizaron las tendencias de la precipitación mensual (1975-2006 en escalas de la lluvia total-anual, mensual-multianual y semianual-trimestral; mediante la aplicación de la prueba no-paramétrica de Mann-Kendall en 108 estaciones pluviométricas, ubicadas en la cuenca alta-media del río Cauca. En los resultados, la precipitación anual tuvo tendencias significativas con rango de variación desde -9.3% (-147,3 mm hasta +6.5% (+128,8 mm por decenio con promedio de -0.7% (-7,7 mm, para 24 estaciones. A escala trimestral, en Junio Julio-Agosto como periodo de menor pluviosidad al año, se encontró una disminución significativa de la precipitación, con promedio de -15% (-29 mm por decenio, en el 19% (21 de las estaciones analizadas. Se concluye, que existe cambios en el régimen intranual de la precipitación y, tras comparar las tendencias en la precipitación anual con variables geográficas (altitud, latitud y longitud, por encima de los 1500 msnm y en latitud menor a 3o52'N en la cordillera de los Andes, existe reducción generalizada en la lluvia. Dichos cambios, afectarán negativamente la generación y la disponibilidad de la escorrentía, que representa la oferta hídrica en la cuenca. En futuras investigaciones, deben estudiarse los cambios en la precipitación a escala diaria y vincularse actores locales, para el ajuste de adaptaciones frente a los cambios.

  18. Strategy and technologies for the air pollution active control: The MONIQA system; Estrategia y tecnologias para el control activo de la contaminacion del aire: El sistema MONIQA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozzi, Roberto; Favaron, Maurizio [Servizi Territorio, Cinisello Balsamo, (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    What all the environmental laws of the various nations manifest is to permit a harmonic economical development without creating problems to the environment. This paper states that in order to achieve the former it is needed first to know the air pollution, second, the understanding of the transport phenomena and the dispersion of the pollutants in the air, and third the air pollution control. To confront in an effective manner the air pollution problems it is proposed the use of the MONIQA System. This system will aid the designer, the authorities and the population to respond to their questions in a fast and quick manner [Espanol] Lo que expresan todas las leyes ambientales de las diferentes naciones es permitir un desarrollo economico armonico sin crear problemas al medio ambiente. Esta ponencia propone que para lograr lo anterior es necesario primero el conocimiento de la contaminacion atmosferica, segundo la comprension de los fenomenos del transporte y de la dispersion de los contaminantes en el aire y tercero, el control de la contaminacion del aire. Para confrontar de manera eficaz los problemas de contaminacion atmosferica se propone el uso del sistema MONIQA. Este sistema ayudara a los proyectistas, autoridades y a la poblacion a responder sus preguntas de manera rapida y veloz

  19. Imaging fecal incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsjaeger, Michael H. E-mail: michael.fuchsjaeger@univie.ac.at; Maier, Andrea G

    2003-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is the inability to defer release of gas or stool from the anus and rectum by mechanisms of voluntary control. It is an important medical disorder affecting the quality of life of up to 20% of the population above 65 years. The most common contributing factors include previous vaginal deliveries, pelvic or perineal trauma, previous anorectal surgery, and rectal prolapse. Many physicians lack experience and knowledge related to pelvic floor incontinence disorders, but advancing technology has improved this knowledge. Increased experience with endoanal ultrasound and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging have given us a better understanding not only of the anatomy of the anal canal but also of the underlying morphological defects in fecal incontinence. Current imaging methods are emphasized and recent literature is reviewed.

  20. [Fecal microbiota transplantation: review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, F; Collignon, A; Butel, M-J; Bourlioux, P

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained an increasing medical interest, since the recognition of the role of disturbed microbiota in the development of various diseases. To date, FMT is an established treatment modality for multiple recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI), despite lack of standardization of the procedure. Persisting normalization of the disturbed colonic microbiota associated with RCDI seems to be responsible for the therapeutic effect of FMT. For other diseases, FMT should be considered strictly experimental, only offered to patients in an investigational clinical setting. Although the concept of FMT is appealing, current expectations should be damped until future evidence arises. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fecal microbiota composition and frailty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, SP; Slaets, JPJ; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between fecal microbiota composition and frailty in the elderly was studied. Fecal samples from volunteers with high frailty scores showed a significant reduction in the number of lactobacilli (26-fold). At much higher population levels, both the Bacteroides/Prevotella (threefold)

  2. Economic cost of fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Menees, Stacy B; Zochowski, Melissa K; Fenner, Dee E

    2012-05-01

    Despite its prevalence and deleterious impact on patients and families, fecal incontinence remains an understudied condition. Few data are available on its economic burden in the United States. The aim of this study was to quantify per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. A mail survey of patients with fecal incontinence was conducted in 2010 to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics, fecal incontinence symptoms, and utilization of medical and nonmedical resources for fecal incontinence. The analysis was conducted from a societal perspective and included both direct and indirect (ie, productivity loss) costs. Unit costs were determined based on standard Medicare reimbursement rates, national average wholesale prices of medications, and estimates from other relevant sources. All cost estimates were reported in 2010 US dollars. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution. The analysis included 332 adult patients who had fecal incontinence for more than a year with at least monthly leakage of solid, liquid, or mucous stool. The primary outcome measured was the per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. The average annual total cost for fecal incontinence was $4110 per person (median = $1594; interquartile range, $517-$5164). Of these costs, direct medical and nonmedical costs averaged $2353 (median, $1176; interquartile range, $294-$2438) and $209 (median, $75; interquartile range, $17-$262), whereas the indirect cost associated with productivity loss averaged $1549 per patient annually (median, $0; interquartile range, $0-$813). Multivariate regression analyses suggested that greater fecal incontinence symptom severity was significantly associated with higher annual direct costs. This study was based on patient self-reported data, and the sample was derived from a single institution. Fecal incontinence is associated with substantial economic cost, calling for more

  3. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  4. Application of a Lagrangian modeling to the atmospheric pollution; Aplicacion de una modelizacion Lagrangiana a la contaminacion atmosferica transfronteriza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rua, A.; Hernandez, E. [Departamento de Fisica del Aire, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, L. [Centro de Formacion del Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INM), Madrid (Spain)

    1998-04-01

    In this article, a physical modeling of the atmospheric pollution was considered. The objective was to determine the concentrations of pollutants in a receptor station reproducing the way followed by the air mass and simulating the physical and chemical processes involved during this way. To do that we used a Lagrangian model. To estimate the quality of the model a comparison between the theoretical concentration from the model and the observed concentrations is done. The model uses the air mass trajectories arriving at the receptor station calculated from the Limited Area Model (LAM). These trajectories let us know the air mass position each 6 hours. Once the initial model had been run, several parameters were modified with the aim of reproducing letter the conditions of The Iberian Peninsula. The considered pollutants were the SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2}- and the chosen station was Logrono (Spain). [Spanish] En este articulo se planteo una modelizacion de la contaminacion atmosferica transfronteriza desde un punto de vista fisico. Asi, reproduciendo el camino seguido por las masas de aire que transportan los contaminantes y simulando lo mejor posible los procesos fisico-quimicos existentes durante ese camino, pretendimos determinar cual fue la concentracion final registrada de tales contaminantes en una estacion receptora. Un modelo fisico de tipo Lagrangiano se uso en este trabajo. Para estimar la bondad de tal modelizacion se realizo una comparacion entre la concentracion final estimada mediante la modelizacion y la observada. Se partio de las trayectorias de las masas de aire que llegan hasta esa estacion receptora, calculadas a partir del Modelo de Area Limitada (LAM), y que permite conocer la posicion de la masa de aire cada 6 horas. Fueron modificados algunos parametros del modelo fisico inicialmente propuestos, adecuandolos mas a la realidad fisica de la Peninsula Iberica, lograndose una mejora en los resultados obtenidos en un primer momento. Los

  5. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  6. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Copepod fecal pellets are often degraded at high rates within the upper part of the water column. However, the identity of the degraders and the processes governing the degradation remain unresolved. To identify the pellet degraders we collected water from Oresund (Denmark) approximately every...... second month from July 2004 to July 2005. These water samples were divided into 5 fractions (pellet degradation rate and species composition of the plankton from triplicate incubations of each fraction and a known, added...... amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  7. Harmonic pollution produced by low power nonlinear loads: mathematical model and practical cases; Contaminacion armonica producida por cargas no lineales de baja potencia: modelo matematico y casos practicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Barajas, M.A.; Banuelos Sanchez, P. [Universidad de las Americas Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.morabs@udlap.mx; pedro.banuelos@udlap.mx

    2010-04-15

    Many household electrical appliances like televisions, video recorders and computers are sources of voltage and current harmonics, which increase power losses and contaminate the AC power line. These harmonics can cause serious problems in both, utilities and electrical equipment connected to the same AC line. This paper shows a mathematical analysis of harmonics content on the electrical current for a circuit representing a non linear residential load. A comparative harmonic distortion study produced by the residential loads on the electrical power lines, measured experimentally, is also shown. [Spanish] Muchos de los aparatos electricos que tenemos en casa como televisores, videograbadoras y computadoras, generan armonicos de voltaje y de corriente que incrementan las perdidas de potencia y contaminan las lineas de suministro electrico, pudiendo ocasionar severos danos tanto a las redes de energia como a los equipos que de ellas se alimentan. En este articulo se muestra un analisis matematico del contenido armonico en la corriente de un circuito que representa a una carga residencial no lineal. Ademas, a partir de mediciones electricas realizadas de manera experimental, se presente un estudio comparativo de la contaminacion armonica que este tipo de cargas introduce a las lineas de suministro electrico.

  8. DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC FECAL CONTAMINATION, FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, AND CORRELATION OF BACTEROIDALES HOST-SPECIFIC MARKERS DETECTION WITH FECAL PATHOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution impairs the health and productivity of coastal waters and causes human disease. PCR of host-specific 16S rDNA sequences from anaerobic Bacteroidales bacteria offers a promising method of tracking fecal contamination and identifying its source(s). Before Bacteroida...

  9. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  10. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of marine contamination on the genetic population structure of the bivalve Crassostrea angulata; Efecto de la contaminacion marina sobre la estructura genetica poblacional del bivalvo Crassostrea angulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Ismael; Rebordinos, Laureana [Laboratorio de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    2003-06-15

    de contaminacion por metales pesados, mientras que la otra no estaba contaminada y se utilizo como control. Los siete loci se mostraron muy variables en cuanto a numero de alelos, nivel de polimorfismo y heterocigosidad media. Los Loci Lap y Mdh1 presentaron alelos nulos. Para el hierro se encontro una correlacion positiva significativa entre el numero de alelos y la concentracion que se ajustaba a un modelo de regresion lineal; sin embargo, esta correlacion fue negativa para la heterocigosidad, y significativa para el cadmio y el zinc. Los loci Em, Lap, Mdh1 y Xdh mostraron deficits de heterocigotos en todas las poblaciones. Los valores de deficit de heterocigotos (D) fueron estadisticamente significativos entre las poblaciones contaminadas y el control para el locus Mdh1 y muy proximos al nivel de significacion para el Em. En el locus Pgm aparecio un exceso de heterocigotos en la poblacion control y un deficit, correlacionado con el aumento de niveles de concentracion de metales, en los otros dos. Las diferencias entre los valores de D de las tres poblaciones tambien fueron significativas para este locus. Se obtuvieron relaciones significativas, positivas y negativas entre la concentracion de metales y algunos alelos de los loci Em, Lap y Pgm. Ademas, los genotipos homocigotos de los alelos con valores de correlacion positivos fueron seleccionados en las zonas mas contaminadas, mientras los heterocigotos eran los mas favorecidos en la poblacion control, mostrando un comportamiento adaptativo y corroborando la utilidad de algunos de estos loci como biomarcadores en estudio de dinamica de poblaciones en zonas sometidas a contaminacion ambiental.

  12. Escherichia coli is not a suitable fecal indicator to assess water fecal contamination by otters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The detection of pathogenic microorganisms in aquatic environments is extremely relevant in terms of public health. As these laboratorial methodologies are usually difficult, expensive and time-consuming, they are frequently replaced by the assessment of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. This study aimed to assess the presence of E. coli in fecal samples from Neotropical otters, to evaluate its potential as fecal indicator to be applied to the determination of water microbiological quality in areas where otters’ populations are high. Twenty-six otter fecal samples, collected in Alto Paranapanema river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of E. coli, using conventional bacteriological methods. Only 8 scat samples (30% were E. coli positive, indicating that this microorganism is not a suitable fecal indicator to assess water fecal contamination by Neotropical otters, and should not be used to infer the presence of otter related pathogens in waters.

  13. Escherichia coli is not a suitable fecal indicator to assess water fecal contamination by otters

    OpenAIRE

    M. Oliveira; D. Freire; N. M. Pedroso

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The detection of pathogenic microorganisms in aquatic environments is extremely relevant in terms of public health. As these laboratorial methodologies are usually difficult, expensive and time-consuming, they are frequently replaced by the assessment of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. This study aimed to assess the presence of E. coli in fecal samples from Neotropical otters, to evaluate its potential as fecal indicator to be applied to the determination of water...

  14. Marine and Freshwater Fecal Indicators and Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicators are organisms or chemical constituents found in fecal material or wastewater that can be measured to demonstrate the presence of fecal pollution. Fecal waste from humans and other animals can contaminant surface waters and pose a serious threat to the environmen...

  15. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  16. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  17. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Bouter, Kristien E. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Borody, Thomas J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal

  18. Establishment of fecal bioassay facility at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, H.; Yuvaraj, Ramani; Mohanty, B.N.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of an unusual occurrence, occupational radiation workers employed in fuel reprocessing/fuel fabrication facilities have potential risk of acquiring internal contamination, in spite of implementation of efficient engineering and administrative control measures. Quantification of internally deposited radionuclides is achieved either by (i) direct methods and/or (ii) indirect methods. In general, urinalysis is preferred for moderately absorbing (Type M-compounds of Americium) compounds, while analysis of fecal samples are preferred for slow absorption (Type S - Oxides of Plutonium) compounds. The predicted clearance of Type S and Type M compounds deposited in respiratory tract via fecal is about three to five orders higher than urinary excretion. In view of this, a facility for ashing fecal samples was established and standardization of radioanalytical procedure for quantification of Pu/Am using synthetic fecal (SF) samples was carried out

  19. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  20. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  1. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE LOS PARÁMETROS DEL MODELO DEL NÚMERO DE CURVA Y SU INCERTIDUMBRE MENSUAL EN LA CUENCA ALTA DEL RÍO BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Corredor Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios hidroclimatológicos implican manejar grandes volúmenes de información que pueden presentar interrupciones en la longitud de sus periodos de registro, datos anómalos, datos inconsistentes o errores en la transcripción de los datos en bases informáticas. Así mismo, la red hidroclimatológica no necesariamente presenta la mejor distribución en una región determinada. Además, existen zonas en donde no hay estaciones que permitan una interpretación local de la variación temporal y espacial de las variables climatológicas. Por lo anterior, es necesario acudir a técnicas de exploración de la información para encontrar las series que representen de la mejor manera, el comportamiento de una variable determinada para su aplicación en los procesos de modelación que sean necesarios. En este documento se presenta el alcance de una investigación en el campo de la modelación hidrológica, cuyo eje es la búsqueda para identificar los parámetros del modelo del número de curva y desarrollar un análisis de incertidumbre bajo el marco metodológico Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (Glue, con el propósito final de establecer los niveles de incertidumbre en los protocolos de modelación lluvia-escorrentía mensual sobre sistemas de cuenca con información escasa. Para desarrollar esta investigación, se seleccionó la cuenca alta del río Bogotá como sistema hidrológico de exploración, dado que cuenta con información hidrológica y climatológica suficiente y adecuada para implementar el modelo y el seguimiento de la metodología Glue. Los resultados preliminares mostraron algunas dificultades del modelo para identificar algunos de sus parámetros. Sin embargo, la inclusión de un nuevo término en la base formal del modelo permitió visualizar la posibilidad de describir la dinámica de los sistemas de flujo de agua subterránea con la descripción del tipo, uso y cobertura del suelo con base en la selecci

  2. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-14

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symptoms, histological severity of CD (Marsh grade) and level of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (aTg) in CD patients. Finally, FC level was increased in five CD patients and in four controls (10% vs 8%, P = NS); mean FC concentration of patients and controls were 57.7 (SD ± 29.1) and 45.1 (SD ± 38.4) respectively. Furthermore, no significant correlation was seen between FC levels and symptoms/Marsh grade/aTg. The five CD patients did not show inflammatory lesions (e.g., ulcers, erosions) at upper endoscopy. The four healthy controls with positive FC were followed-up for further six months; in this observational period they did not show clinical signs of any underlying disease. On these bases, we think that FC is not able to investigate the subclinical inflammatory changes of active CD and FC should be considered a useless tool in the diagnostic work-up of uncomplicated CD but it should be accompanied by aTg when ruling out organic disease in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  3. Variabilidad mensual de la velocidad de surgencia y clorofila a en la región del Panama Bight (Monthly rate variation upwelling and chlorophyll a in the region of Panama Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Villegas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas de surgencia y la presencia de clorofila a en la región del Panamá Bight (golfo de Panamá fueron comparadas en una escala mensual. Las variables utilizadas fueron la velocidad vertical de surgencia estimada mediante el software EVA. V.2.0 y la concentración de clorofila a obtenida de imágenes satelitales SeaWifs. El estudio fue realizado para el área costera entre 6° 30’ y 2° N y en los tres principales focos de ascenso de agua, el primero ubicado entre 83-84° W y 1° 30’-2° 30’ N, el segundo entre 81-82° W y 1° 30’-2° 30’ N, y el tercero entre 82-83° W y 2° 30’-3° 30’ N. Los resultados muestran la asociación directa entre la concentración de clorofila a y la surgencia durante todo el año. El estudio también resalta que el desplazamiento de la zona de convergencia intertropical ZCIT determina la variabilidad estacional del proceso de ascenso, atenuándolo cuando pasa sobre el área de estudio y reforzándolo mientras se aleja. El análisis de correlación entre las variables bajo estudio dio como resultado coeficientes estadísticamente significativos entre 0.5 y 0.9 en los tres focos principales y valores no significativos en la zona costera. (Abstract. The influence of the migration of the ITCZ on the climatic variability of the upwelling vertical velocity (Vz and the spatial-temporal behavior of upwelling spots over the CPO was determined. This influence was corroborated by the presence of chlorophyll a in the upwelling zones. Vz values were calculated with EVA . V.2.0 software. The chlorophyll a content was extracted from satellite images for 1997-2000. A comparison between the upwelling zones distribution, the migration of ITCZ and chlorophyll a was made. This comparison was based on the correlation between variables of three upwelling focuses and a coastal upwelling. The first focus was located between 83-84° W and 1° 30’-2° 30’ N, the second one between 81-82° W and 1° 30’- 2° 30

  4. General diagnosis on the control of the pollution by combustion gases of the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL); Diagnostico general del control de la contaminacion de los gases de la combustion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Arce, Efren [Central Termica Gonzalo Zevallos, (Ecuador)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the characteristics of the electric sector of Ecuador, its interconnected system, the principal laws in effect on the prevention and control of the environmental pollution related to the electric sector and an overview of the pollution control in the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan las caracteristicas del Sector Electrico del Ecuador, su Sistema Nacional Interconectado, las principales leyes vigentes en el pais sobre la prevencion y control de la contaminacion ambiental relacionadas con el sector electrico y, un panorama general con respecto al control de la contaminacion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

  5. Fecal microbiota in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaahtovuo, Jussi; Munukka, Eveliina; Korkeamäki, Mika; Luukkainen, Reijo; Toivanen, Paavo

    2008-08-01

    To compare the composition of intestinal microbiota of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or fibromyalgia (FM), fecal samples were collected from 51 patients with RA and 50 with FM. RA patients fulfilled the RA criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, and duration of their disease was etiopathogenesis of RA.

  6. [Constipation and fecal incontinence in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kemseke, C

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of anorectal functions (constipation and fecal incontinence) are very frequent in the elderly. The patient's global evaluation with his past medical history, comorbidities, medications, as well as social environment and physical dependence, is more than ever necessary in this high risk population to guide the explorations and the medical care of these disorders.

  7. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P Bojanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool. Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool, archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool, viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool, fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool, protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component.

  8. Functional nonretentive fecal incontinence in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Marloes E. J.; Tabbers, Merit M.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Fecal incontinence, the loss of feces in the underwear after age 4 years, is a frustrating phenomenon for children and their parents. It is difficult to treat, presenting as a single symptom without any organic cause or signs of constipation. This review addresses the definition of functional

  9. Discovering new indicators of fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Sandra L; Eren, A Murat

    2014-12-01

    Fecal pollution indicators are essential to identify and remediate contamination sources and protect public health. Historically, easily cultured facultative anaerobes such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, or enterococci have been used but these indicators generally provide no information as to their source. More recently, molecular methods have targeted fecal anaerobes, which are much more abundant in humans and other mammals, and some strains appear to be associated with particular host sources. Next-generation sequencing and microbiome studies have created an unprecedented inventory of microbial communities associated with fecal sources, allowing reexamination of which taxonomic groups are best suited as informative indicators. The use of new computational methods, such as oligotyping coupled with well-established machine learning approaches, is providing new insights into patterns of host association. In this review we examine the basis for host-specificity and the rationale for using 16S rRNA gene targets for alternative indicators and highlight two taxonomic groups, Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae, which are rich in host-specific bacterial organisms. Finally, we discuss considerations for using alternative indicators for water quality assessments with a particular focus on detecting human sewage sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 12763 - Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop AGENCY... ``Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to exchange information... fecal microbiota for transplantation (FMT). ] Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on May 2...

  11. Case report: Stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika; Agrawal, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Chronic constipation can lead to fecal impaction. It can also rarely lead to catastrophic complications like perforation, colonic obstruction, and fecal peritonitis. We report a rare case of stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum, which was diagnosed on preoperative CT scan

  12. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nazak AMANIDAZ; Ali ZAFARZADEH; Amir Hossein MAHVI

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks.Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal stre...

  13. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanidaz, Nazak; Zafarzadeh, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (Pcoliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms.

  14. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-01-01

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228

  15. New fecal method for plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Fauth, D.J.; Nichols, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin R (Eichrom Technologies), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin R , which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as 228 Th. (author)

  16. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  17. Sample preparation optimization in fecal metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Fasoula, Stella; Palachanis, Dimitris; Raikos, Νicolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Gika, Helen G

    2017-03-15

    Metabolomic analysis of feces can provide useful insight on the metabolic status, the health/disease state of the human/animal and the symbiosis with the gut microbiome. As a result, recently there is increased interest on the application of holistic analysis of feces for biomarker discovery. For metabolomics applications, the sample preparation process used prior to the analysis of fecal samples is of high importance, as it greatly affects the obtained metabolic profile, especially since feces, as matrix are diversifying in their physicochemical characteristics and molecular content. However there is still little information in the literature and lack of a universal approach on sample treatment for fecal metabolic profiling. The scope of the present work was to study the conditions for sample preparation of rat feces with the ultimate goal of the acquisition of comprehensive metabolic profiles either untargeted by NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS or targeted by HILIC-MS/MS. A fecal sample pooled from male and female Wistar rats was extracted under various conditions by modifying the pH value, the nature of the organic solvent and the sample weight to solvent volume ratio. It was found that the 1/2 (w f /v s ) ratio provided the highest number of metabolites under neutral and basic conditions in both untargeted profiling techniques. Concerning LC-MS profiles, neutral acetonitrile and propanol provided higher signals and wide metabolite coverage, though extraction efficiency is metabolite dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  19. Diagnosis and Management of Fecal Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Arnold

    2018-03-26

    The purpose of this review is to highlight current and newer therapeutic approaches to treat fecal incontinence in patients who do not respond to conservative measures. Neurostimulation techniques, injection of bulking agents, and radiofrequency energy delivery to the anal canal have been proposed and tested for fecal incontinence over the last decade. Sacral stimulation is both effective and durable and is now the most popular of the invasive techniques whereas percutaneous tibial stimulation, radiofrequency energy, and bulking agents are either less effective or their evaluation has been handicapped by suboptimal study designs. The precise indications for the new vaginal control device and anal plugs remain to be established. The magnetic anal sphincter is disappointing. Stem cell therapy is a potentially exciting approach, which is in its infancy. There continues to be an unmet need for innovative approaches to patients with fecal incontinence who do not respond to conservative measures. The efficacy of current and future therapies should be assessed using criteria more stringent than has been used in the past to provide a more realistic assessment of meaningful efficacy.

  20. Fecal microbiota in pouchitis and ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Yu; Wang, Jian-Lin; Wei, Jiang-Peng; Gao, Sen-Yang; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Li-Tian; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the changes in microbiota in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and pouchitis using genomic technology. METHODS Fecal samples were obtained from UC patients with or without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure, as well as healthy controls. The touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify the whole V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which was transcribed from DNA extracted from fecal samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to separate the amplicons. The band profiles and similarity indices were analyzed digitally. The predominant microbiota in different groups was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS Microbial biodiversity in the healthy controls was significantly higher compared with the UC groups (P UC patients in remission and those in the mildly active stage, the predominant species in patients with moderately and severely active UC changed obviously. In addition, the proportion of the dominant microbiota, which was negatively correlated with the disease activity of UC (r = -6.591, P UC. Patients with pouchitis had an altered microbiota composition compared with UC patients. The microbiota from pouchitis patients was less diverse than that from severely active UC patients. Sequencing results showed that similar microbiota, such as Clostridium perfringens, were shared in both UC and pouchitis. CONCLUSION Less diverse fecal microbiota was present in patients with UC and pouchitis. Increased C. perfringens in feces suggest its role in the exacerbation of UC and pouchitis. PMID:27833384

  1. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in adult dogs with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, Aurélien; Heilmann, Romy M; Lecoindre, Patrick; Feugier, Alexandre; Day, Michael J; Peeters, Dominique; Freiche, Valérie; Hernandez, Juan; Grandjean, Dominique; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jorg M

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic diarrhea, to identify cutoff values for fecal calprotectin concentrations for use in differentiating dogs with chronic diarrhea and a canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) chronic diarrhea and a CCECAI ≥ 12, and to evaluate the association between histologic evidence of intestinal mucosal changes and fecal calprotectin concentrations in dogs with chronic diarrhea. Fecal samples from 96 adult dogs (27 dogs with chronic diarrhea and 69 healthy control dogs). Severity of clinical signs was evaluated on the basis of the CCECAI scoring system. Endoscopy was performed in all dogs with chronic diarrhea, and mucosal biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically. Fecal calprotectin concentration was quantified via radioimmunoassay. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea than in healthy control dogs. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were also significantly higher in dogs with a CCECAI ≥ 12, compared with concentrations for dogs with a CCECAI between 4 and 11. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea associated with histologic lesions, compared with concentrations in control dogs, and were significantly correlated with the severity of histologic intestinal lesions. Among dogs with chronic diarrhea, the best cutoff fecal calprotectin concentration for predicting a CCECAI ≥ 12 was 48.9 μg/g (sensitivity, 53.3%; specificity, 91.7%). Fecal calprotectin may be a useful biomarker in dogs with chronic diarrhea, especially dogs with histologic lesions.

  2. Fecal total iron concentration is inversely associated with fecal Lactobacillus in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalipatnapu, Sasank; Kuppuswamy, Sivaraman; Venugopal, Giriprasad; Kaliaperumal, Venkatesh; Ramadass, Balamurugan

    2017-08-01

    Iron deficiency is associated with stunting and poor performance in children. Oral iron supplementation is widely promoted to correct iron deficiency. However, excess iron may be toxic to beneficial luminal gut bacteria and could support growth of pathobionts. The aim of this study is to analyze the fecal total iron concentration and fecal Lactobacillus levels in a cohort of stunted and normal children. The study was undertaken in two different locations. One of them is a rural area, and the other is a semi-urban-slum area; both areas are located in the Vellore district of Tamilnadu state. Twenty children (10 stunted and 10 normal growth) aged 2 to 5 years from each area were recruited. Both groups were nearly identical demographically. Fecal samples were collected. Fecal total iron was estimated, and fecal DNA was extracted and subjected to 16S rDNA-targeted real-time PCR to determine the relative predominance of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The fecal total iron concentration in rural children (3656 μg/g wet wt. of feces) was significantly higher when compared with semi-urban-slum children (114.9 μg/g wet wt. of feces, P Lactobacillus in rural children (median 3.18 × 10 -3 relative difference compared with total bacteria) was significantly lower when compared with semi-urban-slum children (median 59.33 × 10 -3 , p Lactobacillus concentration in children belonging to two different localities independent of their nutritional status. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [ 3 H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate

  4. ESTABLISHING NORMAL FECAL FLORA IN WILD AUSTRALIAN PASSERINE BIRDS BY USE OF THE FECAL GRAM STAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Benjamin; Leishman, Alan; Martin, John; Phalen, David

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal fecal bacterial and fungal flora and parasite prevalence in wild passerine birds found at the Australian Botanic Garden (Mount Annan, New South Wales). Wild passerine birds (n = 186) from 28 species were captured with mist nets. Fecal Gram stains (n = 155) were made from 26 species and analyzed for bacterial density, Gram stain morphology, and the presence of yeast. Fecal wet preparations (n = 139) were made from 24 passerine species and were analyzed for parasites. Our results showed that 81.9% of passerines sampled had bacteria present in their feces. The bacteria found were entirely Gram positive and consisted predominantly of cocci. Individuals that were caught on multiple occasions were found to have stable bacterial populations, apart from the red-browed finch (Neochmia temporalis). Insectivores had higher bacterial densities and cocci proportions than nectarivores had. Yeasts were rare in most species, with the exception of the bell miner (Manorina melanophrys) and noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala). The yeast, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, and parasites were not observed in any fecal samples. These results will help practitioners to assess the health of Australian passerine species submitted for care or housed in zoological collections.

  5. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  6. Evaluation of fecal contamination indicators (fecal coliforms, somatic phages, and helminth eggs) in ryegrass sward farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martha; Moreno, Gerardo; Campos, Claudia

    2009-02-15

    The effect of soil supplementation with biosolids at various ratios on fecal-origin microorganism activity was evaluated in a ryegrass sward farm. Fifteen plots with 3 different soil and biosolid mixture ratios were assessed. Soil and grass were sampled over a period of 4 months (days 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 120) for soil and on days 75 and 120 for grass, corresponding to first and second grass harvest periods. We analyzed fecal coliforms, somatic phages, helminth eggs, and environmental factors, such as rainfall, temperature, and moisture. The fecal coliforms decreased by 2 logarithmic units (LU) in all soils containing biosolids and by 1 LU in the soil alone and in biosolid control plots alone. The concentration of somatic phages decreased to 2 to 3 LU in the soil containing biosolids and to 1 to 2 LU in the control plots. In contrast, however, there was a noticeable increase in helminth eggs on days 75 ad 120, but not in the soil control alone. Maximum concentrations (10(2) CFU/g TS; colony forming units per gram total solids) of fecal coliforms were found on the grass and in other samples, but the concentrations of phages and helminth eggs were below detection limits. Environmental factors did not significantly influence the results, and grass production increased from 35 to 50 Ton/Ha (tons per hectare) with biosolid supplementation, as compared with controls (14 Ton/Ha).

  7. Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

    2013-05-01

    Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use.

  8. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  10. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal Pollution Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, cr...

  11. Assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni Kijichi) and non-sewage impacted (Rasi Dege) mangrove forest sites along the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Most Probable Number method was used for estimating the total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC) and fecal ...

  12. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  13. Effects of supplementing lactic acid bacteria on fecal microbiota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The results indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum strain L.p X3-2B increased fecal lactic acid bacteria(LAB) and Bifidobacterium while resisting the growth of harmful bacteria. Viable counts of LAB and Bifidobacterium reached 8 log cfu/mL after feeding for 14 days. Fecal pH in the control group was high in ...

  14. Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in freshwater and estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been known for some time that substantial populations of fecal coliforms and E. coli are harbored in freshwater bottom sediments, bank soils, and beach sands. However, the relative importance of sediments as bacterial habitats and as a source of water-borne fecal coliforms and E. coli has not...

  15. Release of Sediment-Bound Fecal Coliforms by Dredging1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Fecal coliform concentrations increased significantly (F test) in the immediate vicinity of a maintenance dredging operation in the Mississippi River navigation channel. Increased counts were attributed to the disturbance and relocation of bottom sediments by dredging and a concomitant release of sediment-bound fecal coliforms. PMID:1089160

  16. Distinguishing bovine fecal matter on spinach leaves using field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodbourne illnesses. In this study passive field spectroscopy, mea...

  17. Heavy metal and associated antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed at assessing the resistance pattern to multiple heavy metals by wastewater bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance. Methodology and results: Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate fecal streptococci, fecal coliforms, Vibrio and Salmonella species from raw animal wastewaters ...

  18. Fecal microbial determinants of fecal and systemic estrogens and estrogen metabolites: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High systemic estrogen levels contribute to breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, whereas low levels contribute to osteoporosis risk. Except for obesity, determinants of non-ovarian systemic estrogen levels are undefined. We sought to identify members and functions of the intestinal microbial community associated with estrogen levels via enterohepatic recirculation. Methods Fifty-one epidemiologists at the National Institutes of Health, including 25 men, 7 postmenopausal women, and 19 premenopausal women, provided urine and aliquots of feces, using methods proven to yield accurate and reproducible results. Estradiol, estrone, 13 estrogen metabolites (EM, and their sum (total estrogens were quantified in urine and feces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In feces, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities were determined by realtime kinetics, and microbiome diversity and taxonomy were estimated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Pearson correlations were computed for each loge estrogen level, loge enzymatic activity level, and microbiome alpha diversity estimate. For the 55 taxa with mean relative abundance of at least 0.1%, ordinal levels were created [zero, low (below median of detected sequences, high] and compared to loge estrogens, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzymatic activity levels by linear regression. Significance was based on two-sided tests with α=0.05. Results In men and postmenopausal women, levels of total urinary estrogens (as well as most individual EM were very strongly and directly associated with all measures of fecal microbiome richness and alpha diversity (R≥0.50, P≤0.003. These non-ovarian systemic estrogens also were strongly and significantly associated with fecal Clostridia taxa, including non-Clostridiales and three genera in the Ruminococcaceae family (R=0.57−0.70, P=0.03−0.002. Estrone, but not other EM, in urine correlated significantly with

  19. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fecal Calprotectin Is Not Affected by Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian L.; Gearry, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Noninvasive biomarkers of inflammation for monitoring inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are important in pregnancy. Clinical and laboratory markers are often affected by the physiological adaption that occurs during pregnancy, although, few, if any, data exist on fecal calprotectin (FC......). We investigated FC concentrations in pregnant controls and IBD women, and whether FC correlated with physician global assessment (PGA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI)/Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) before and after pregnancy, as well as during each trimester....../SCCAI before (r = 0.66; P pregnancy (r = 0.47; P pregnancy (P > 0.05). An FC cutoff concentration of 250 g/g significantly correlated with active disease according to PGA in all 5 periods (P ≤ 0.0002). CRP only significantly correlated with FC (P = 0.0007) and PGA...

  1. [Culture, environment and fecal hazards: anthropological observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper was presented as a tribute to André Dodin, formerly director of the Paris Pasteur Institute's cholera department. It was intended to: - recall representations of what is seen as pure, impure, sullied, dirty ... medical and social interventions depend not only on scientific theories but also on unconscious presuppositions linked to their particular history and culture; - to stress the necessity of reexamining epidemiological chains in fecal peril bearing in mind bodily techniques and the material and symbolic behaviour of the populations concerned; - to insist upon the fact that traditional sanitation techniques do exist and should not be neglected, whether it be to make use of them, avoid or combat them. It is not a question of idealizing local culture, but of becoming acquainted with it so as better to appreciate its role.

  2. Effects of fecal sampling on preanalytical and analytical phases in quantitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Stefano; Berardi, Margherita; Cellai, Filippo; Ciattini, Samuele; Chelazzi, Laura; Ognibene, Agostino; Rubeca, Tiziana

    2017-07-24

    Information on preanalytical variability is mandatory to bring laboratories up to ISO 15189 requirements. Fecal sampling is greatly affected by lack of harmonization in laboratory medicine. The aims of this study were to obtain information on the devices used for fecal sampling and to explore the effect of different amounts of feces on the results from the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT-Hb). Four commercial sample collection devices for quantitative FIT-Hb measurements were investigated. The volume of interest (VOI) of the probes was measured from diameter and geometry. Quantitative measurements of the mass of feces were carried out by gravimetry. The effects of an increased amount of feces on the analytical environment were investigated measuring the Hb values with a single analytical method. VOI was 8.22, 7.1 and 9.44 mm3 for probes that collected a target of 10 mg of feces, and 3.08 mm3 for one probe that targeted 2 mg of feces. The ratio between recovered and target amounts of devices ranged from 56% to 121%. Different changes in the measured Hb values were observed, in adding increasing amounts of feces in commercial buffers. The amounts of collected materials are related to the design of probes. Three out 4 manufacturers declare the same target amount using different sampling volumes and obtaining different amounts of collected materials. The introduction of a standard probes to reduce preanalytical variability could be an useful step for fecal test harmonization and to fulfill the ISO 15189 requirements.

  3. Using fecal glucocorticoids for stress assessment in Mourning Doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Schulz, John H.; Jones, Susan B.; Mong, T.

    2003-01-01

    Fecal glucocorticoid assays provide a potentially useful, noninvasive means to study physiological responses of wildlife to various stressors. The objective of our study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) feces. We validated the assay using standard procedures (e.g., parallelism, recovery of exogenous corticosterone) to demonstrate that the assay accurately and precisely measured glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove fecal extracts. We conducted adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) challenge experiments to validate the assay's ability to determine biologically important changes in fecal glucocorticoids. Fecal glucocorticoid levels increased significantly approximately 2-3 hr after administration of ACTH at 50 IU per kg body mass to wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. In contrast, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites did not increase in control birds, birds that received saline injections, or a lower dose of ACTH (1 IU per kg body mass). Variation in overall fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels may have been influenced by season and the length of time birds were held in captivity. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses, in combination with demographic information, may have considerable utility for monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Mourning Dove populations.

  4. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome. Based upon initial screening, two novel crAssphage qPCR assays (CPQ_056 and CPQ_064) were designed and evaluated in reference fecal samples and water matrices. The assays exhibited high specificities (98.6%) when tested against a large animal fecal reference library and were highly abundant in raw sewage and sewage impacted water samples. In addition, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064 assay performance was compared to HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 methods in paired experiments. Findings confirm viral crAssphage qPCR assays perform at a similar level to well established bacterial human-associated fecal source identification technologies. These new viral based assays could become important water quality management and research tools. To inform the public.

  5. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling

  6. Steatorrhea cannot be excluded where there is a fecal weight below 0.200 kg per day and a high fecal consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirup, P

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed one year's results of fecal fat (feces alifatic carboxylates) analyses, which are used in the diagnosis of malabsorption (steatorrhea), by calculating the relationship between fecal fat, fecal weight (fecal mass excretion rate) and fecal consistency (in terms of the volume of water...... used: 7% at 0.180 kg/24 h, 3% at 0.140 kg/24 h and 0% at 0.120 kg/24 h. There was no correlation between fecal fat and consistency. The mean volume of added water was not different in normal and steatorrheic feces. The fat content could be predicted as normal only in the seven specimens (3.5% (1......-7%)) that had more than 3.8 L/kg water added. Thus, an abnormal fecal fat content cannot reliably be excluded, in a routine setting, on the basis of a fecal weight below 0.200 kg/24 h and a high fecal consistency....

  7. Transanal irrigation is effective in functional fecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Modin, Line

    2017-01-01

    Functional fecal incontinence (FFI) is divided into cases related to functional constipation (FC) and cases without concomitant constipation termed functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). Transanal irrigation (TAI) is widely used in children with neurogenic fecal incontinence...... and 35% (n = 25) were titrated to daily sessions. Of the 63 children who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of constipation, 46 (73%) showed full response with complete remission of incontinence episodes. Eleven (17%) showed partial response (≥50% reduction). Of nine children with FNRFI, four (44%) showed...

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF CHICKEN-SPECIFIC FECAL MICROBIAL SEQUENCES USING A METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ between different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (C-P) and between chicken fecal DNA and an ...

  9. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonization associated with fecal microbiota treatment failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal microbiota therapy (FMT) has emerged as the gold standard for treatment of persistent, symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that does not respond to conventional antimicrobial treatment. Probiotics are commonly recommended in addition to antimicrobial treatment for CD...

  11. Torrefaction Processing of Human Fecal Waste, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed to collect, stabilize, safen, recover useful materials, and store human fecal waste for long duration missions. The current SBIR Phase I...

  12. Changes of Cattle Fecal Microbiome Under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to study the microbiome in wastewater, sewage sludge, and feces. Previous microbial survival studies have shown different fecal-associated microbes have different decay rates and regrowth behaviors.

  13. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  14. Digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during gynecologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Farinna L; Fanning, James

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during pelvic examination. We reviewed the data for 232 consecutive women who underwent digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during routine pelvic examination and who had had at least 1-year of follow-up visits: 59% of the women were followed for gynecologic cancer, and 41% of the women were followed for benign gynecologic disease. The median age was 62 years. Patients with positive digital rectal fecal occult blood screening were sent for gastroenterologic examination. Sixteen of 232 patients (7%) had a positive digital rectal fecal occult blood screening result. On gastroenterologic examination, 5 of the 16 patients (31%) were found to have disease (2 polyps, 1 diverticular disease, 2 radiation proctitis). At 1-year follow-up, no patient had colon cancer. Until better compliance can be obtained with home stool sample fecal occult blood testing, we recommend a larger study of digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during gynecologic examination to verify our results.

  15. A rapid fecal bioassay method for Pu/Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.; Leon, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Fecal radiobioassay is a sensitive tool to estimate intake of radionuclides, especially for insoluble or poorly absorbed actinides. To increase efficiency and reduce turnaround time, improvements were introduced in the sample digestion step of a fecal bioassay method to rapidly detect Pu and Am. The acid- and microwave-digestion of the spiked fecal samples (5-10 g) were effectively completed in 1 h. The turnaround time for the sample analysis was minimized to 6 h. The average recoveries for Pu and Am were 35% and 60% for artificial fecal samples, respectively. Much better recoveries for Pu and Am were obtained for natural fecal samples. Observed relative biases for Pu and Am were marginally in the range of -0.25 to +0.50. The relative precision values for both radionuclides were, however, within the performance index of 0.4. This rapid fecal method is a potential candidate for an acceptable quantitative radiobioassay and screening method for the suspected Pu/Am exposures. (author)

  16. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  17. The fecal viral flora of wild rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung G Phan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in

  18. A problemática da elaboração da escala mensal de enfermagem La problemática de la elaboración del rol mensual de enfermería Difficulties of preparing the monthly nursing schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgia Pereira Silveira Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi discutir a complexidade da elaboração da escala mensal de enfermagem no Estágio Curricular de Administração em Enfermagem, em uma unidade de internação de um hospital público de ensino, do Município de São Paulo. Partiu-se da proposição de que a elaboração da escala mensal constituiu-se em uma série de ações articuladas com o reconhecimento do quadro de funcionários, levantamento dos dados necessários para caracterização da clínica, comparação dos dados com a literatura e estruturação de uma proposta de ação, que foram discutidas com as enfermeiras da unidade. Esta vivência possibilitou a reflexão a respeito do empoderamento e compreensão dessas profissionais sobre os fatores intervenientes na realização dessa atividade gerencial. Permitiu, ainda, evidenciar a importância do diagnóstico das necessidades da unidade, confrontando-o com a realidade institucional, visando a possíveis ações resolutivas frente aos problemas identificadosEl objetivo de este estudio fue discutir la complejidad de la elaboración del rol mensual de enfermería en la Práctica Curricular de Administración en Enfermería, en una unidad de internamiento de un hospital público de enseñanza, del Municipio de Sao Paulo. Se partió de la proposición de que la elaboración del rol mensual se constituye en una serie de acciones articuladas con el reconocimiento del cuadro de funcionarios, levantamiento de los datos necesarios para la caracterización de la clínica, comparación de los datos con la literatura y la estructuración de una propuesta de acción, que fueron discutidas con las enfermeras de la unidad. Esta vivencia posibilitó la reflexión respecto al empoderamiento y comprensión de esas profesionales sobre los factores intervinientes en la realización de esa actividad gerencial. Permitió, aun, evidenciar la importancia del diagnóstico de las necesidades de la unidad, confrontándolo con la

  19. Use of an absorbent dressing specifically for fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Use of an absorbent product is a self-care strategy for managing fecal incontinence that protects against visible soiling. The purpose of this study was to examine use of a small surgical dressing that can be placed between the buttocks to absorb leaked feces. Cross-sectional survey. A survey was mailed to 75 randomly selected community-living people in 25 states and the District of Columbia, who ordered the dressing more than once within the past year. Thirty-six people (age = 55 +/- 16 years mean +/- SD), 57% men and 94% white responded. A 48-question survey that included questions asked about demographics and general health, emotional states (eg, anxiety and depression), bowel pattern and incontinence, quality of life, and use of an anorectal dressing was developed for this study. The survey also contained 2 tools, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life instrument. The Fecal Incontinence Severity Index is a tool that enables valid assessment of fecal incontinence severity using patient recall of symptoms of frequency and type of bowel leakage. The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life instrument results in a valid and reliable evaluation of fecal incontinence-specific quality of life using 4 domains of lifestyle, coping/behavior, depression/self-perception, and embarrassment. The fecal incontinence severity score was 28 +/- 14 (mean +/- SD); 79% leaked loose/liquid feces, 50% leaked daily, and leaked feces remained between the buttocks in 64%; 21% also leaked urine. Eighty-five percent experienced incontinence-associated dermatitis. Of those who used the dressing, 50% were men. The anorectal dressing was preferred to a pad by 92%, prevented soiling in 88%, and its ability to stay in place was rated very good or good by 76%. Eighty percent of respondents rated the dressing's comfort very good or good; 85% rated its overall effectiveness very good or good. Use of the dressing lessened anxiety about fecal soiling in 81% and

  20. Factors Affecting Effectiveness of Fecal Microbiota Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Danielle; Mcgraw, Patty; Duffalo, Chad; Drees, Marci; Depalma, Fedele; Herdman, Christine; Myerson, Scott; Bacon, Alfred E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective treatment for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). With more widespread use of this intervention, variable cure rates (70–95%) have been observed. We conducted this study to identify specific patient- and procedure-level factors affecting FMT effectiveness, hypothesizing that those patients with higher comorbidity, inadequate bowel preparation, and shorter retention of transplant would fail more frequently. Methods At our 2-hospital, >1100-bed community-based academic center, we prospectively followed patients pre/post-FMT between June 2014-April 2017. To undergo FMT, patients must have ≥2 CDI relapses and failed vancomycin taper. We entered all FMT patients into a registry and followed them regularly for up to 1 year, collecting age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, number of CDI relapses, Boston bowel prep score, and stool retention time. FMT donor stool was obtained from OpenBiome (Boston, MA). We defined failure as recurrent CDI requiring treatment ≤8 weeks after FMT. We used 1-sided t-tests to test our hypotheses. Results During the study period, 41 patients (mean age 65 years, SD 17.6) underwent FMT. Most (37, 90%) were performed via colonoscopy, 1 via upper endoscopy, and 3 via oral preparation (capsules). FMT failure occurred in 10 patients (24.4%). Nearly half (n = 20) reported adverse events, including constipation, gas, abdominal pain, blood in stool, and fatigue. Three patients expired from comorbid disease, and 3 were lost to follow-up. Patients with higher Charlson scores failed more frequently (P = 0.04), and history of tumor (P = 0.03) and pulmonary disease (P = 0.04) were both associated with failure. No other factors, including age, retention time, and Boston bowel prep score, were associated with failure. Conclusion This study found that patients with multiple comorbid conditions, as defined by the Charlson index, are at risk for FMT failure. However, quality of

  1. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  2. Gut microbiota composition modifies fecal metabolic profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Wu, Junfang; Li, Jia V; Zhou, Ning-Yi; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2013-06-07

    The gut microbiome is known to be extensively involved in human health and disease. In order to reveal the metabolic relationship between host and microbiome, we monitored recovery of the gut microbiota composition and fecal profiles of mice after gentamicin and/or ceftriaxone treatments. This was performed by employing (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint of gut microbiota. The common features of fecal metabolites postantibiotic treatment include decreased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), amino acids and primary bile acids and increased oligosaccharides, d-pinitol, choline and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid). This suggests suppressed bacterial fermentation, protein degradation and enhanced gut microbial modification of bile acids. Barnesiella, Prevotella, and Alistipes levels were shown to decrease as a result of the antibiotic treatment, whereas levels of Bacteroides, Enterococcus and Erysipelotrichaceae incertae sedis, and Mycoplasma increased after gentamicin and ceftriaxone treatment. In addition, there was a strong correlation between fecal profiles and levels of Bacteroides, Barnesiella, Alistipes and Prevotella. The integration of metabonomics and gut microbiota profiling provides important information on the changes of gut microbiota and their impact on fecal profiles during the recovery after antibiotic treatment. The correlation between gut microbiota and fecal metabolites provides important information on the function of bacteria, which in turn could be important in optimizing therapeutic strategies, and developing potential microbiota-based disease preventions and therapeutic interventions.

  3. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in fecal-contaminated ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafai, S.A.; Gijzen, H.J.; Nasr, F.A.; El-Gohary, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial quality of tilapia reared in four fecal-contaminated fishponds was investigated. One of the fishponds (TDP) received treated sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 4x10 3 cfu/100 mL, and feed of fresh duckweed grown on treated sewage was used. The number of fecal coliform bacteria attached to duckweed biomass ranged between 4.1x10 2 and 1.6x10 4 cfu/g fresh weight. The second fishpond (TWP) received treated sewage, and the feed used was wheat bran. The third fishpond (FDP) received freshwater, and the feed used was the same duckweed. Pond 4 (SSP) received only settled sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 2.1x10 8 /100 mL. The average counts in the fishponds were 2.2x10 3 , 1.7x10 3 , 1.7x10 2 , and 9.4x10 3 cfu/100 mL in TDP, TWP, FDP, and SSP, respectively. FDP had a significantly (P gills>skin>liver. Poor water quality (ammonia and nitrite) in SSP resulted in statistically higher fecal coliform numbers in fish organs of about 1 log 10 than in treatments with good water quality. Pretreatment of sewage is therefore recommended

  4. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Li, Yu-Dong; Zhang, He-Min

    2017-01-01

    Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH), EtOH -20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs) and frozen at -20 °C), storage time (one, three and six months), fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci) on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO) and false allele (FA) rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates ( P panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  5. [Parasitic diseases and fecal hazards: diseases due to helminths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1998-01-01

    Ascaris, trichocephalus, hookworm, necator and anguillula--all of which are human parasites--are closely linked to fecal peril and especially prevalent among populations in developing countries, where fecal hygiene is insufficient or lacking. Epidemiological surveys seeking to evaluate the frequency of the various intestinal helminths are usually intermittent, few in number, and especially difficult to compare because of the different coprological techniques used. However this may be, the respective prevalence of these worms depends on geographical, climatic, economic, and human conditions. Their effect on health is not negligible, especially on children's health and in particular when malnutrition also occurs. To fight effectively against these verminoses, education and economic development must be promoted, but the present situation of the economy in most developing countries is postponing indefinitely the fight against fecal peril especially as its control is not seen as a priority.

  6. Media Discourse on the Social Acceptability of Fecal Transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Kim H; O'Doherty, Kieran C; Secko, David M

    2015-10-01

    Advances in human microbiome research have generated considerable interest in elucidating the role of bacteria in health and the application of microbial ecosystem therapies and probiotics. Fecal transplants involve the introduction of gut microbes from a healthy donor's stool to the patient and have been documented as effective for treating Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and some other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the treatment has encountered regulatory hurdles preventing widespread uptake. We examined dominant representations of fecal transplants in Canadian media and found that fecal transplants are often represented as being inherently disgusting or distasteful (the "ick factor"). This "ick factor" is used to construct different messages about the treatment's social acceptability and legitimacy. We conclude that an over-emphasis on the "ick factor" constrains public discourse from a more nuanced discussion of the social challenges, scientific concerns, and regulatory issues surrounding the treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Rapid fusion method for determination of actinides in fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, B.K.; Hutchison, J.B.; Spencer, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of actinides in fecal samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory that can be used for emergency response or routine bioassay analyses. If a radiological dispersive device, improvised nuclear device or nuclear accident occur, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of environmental, food and bioassay matrices. If an inhalation event occurs and there is confirmed radionuclide activity present via urine analyses of individuals, fecal analyses will typically be required to determine the soluble/insoluble fraction of actinides present as a result of the event to allow a more reliable estimate of radiological dose. The new method for actinides in fecal samples uses accelerated furnace heating, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA resin cartridges. The rapid fusion method provides rugged digestion of any refractory particles present, essential for reliable analysis of actinides in fecal samples. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the actinide isotopes, but this method can be adapted for assay by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for actinide isotopes with longer half-lives that have sufficient mass to allow measurement. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of actinides in fecal samples can be performed in less than 12 h in an emergency with excellent quality for emergency samples. The new method, which is much less tedious and time-consuming than other reported methods, can be used for emergency or routine fecal sample analyses. This enables more timely estimates of radiological dose to be performed that utilize soluble/insoluble actinide ratios. (author)

  8. Fractionation of fecal neutral steroids by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, E.M.; Kloss, C.A.; Weintraub, S.T.; Mott, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Fecal neutral steroids were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into three major fractions: 5 beta-H, 3-keto steroids; 5 beta-H, 3 beta-hydroxy steroids; and 5 alpha-H and delta 5-3 beta-hydroxy steroids. This separation was achieved in about 10 minutes, with greater than 97% recovery of standards in each fraction. Gas-liquid chromatographic quantitation of fecal steroids fractionated by either HPLC or thin-layer chromatography gave nearly identical results. A method using both C18 reverse phase and silica HPLC to purify radiolabeled sterols is also described

  9. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Eren, A. Murat; Green, Hyatt C.; Shanks, Orin C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2015-01-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  10. Community dynamics drive punctuated engraftment of the fecal microbiome following transplantation using freeze-dried, encapsulated fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Christopher; Vaughn, Byron P; Graiziger, Carolyn T; Singroy, Stephanie; Hamilton, Matthew J; Yao, Dan; Chen, Chi; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2017-05-04

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment of recurrent and recalcitrant Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). In a recent study oral-delivery of encapsulated, freeze-dried donor material, resulted in comparable rates of cure to colonoscopic approaches. Here we characterize shifts in the fecal bacterial community structure of patients treated for rCDI using encapsulated donor material. Prior to FMT, patient fecal samples showed declines in diversity and abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in members of the Proteobacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, patients who experienced recurrence of CDI within the 2-month clinical follow-up had greater abundances of Enterobacteriaceae and did not show resolution of dysbioses. Despite resolution of rCDI following oral-administration of encapsulated fecal microbiota, community composition was slow to return to a normal donor-like assemblage. Post-FMT taxa within the Firmicutes showed rapid increases in relative abundance and did not vary significantly over time. Conversely, Bacteroidetes taxa only showed significant increases in abundance after one month post-FMT, corresponding to significant increases in the community attributable to the donors. Changes in the associations among dominant OTUs were observed at days, weeks, and months post-FMT, suggesting shifts in community dynamics may be related to the timing of increases in abundance of specific taxa. Administration of encapsulated, freeze-dried, fecal microbiota to rCDI patients resulted in restoration of bacterial diversity and resolution of dysbiosis. However, shifts in the fecal microbiome were incremental rather than immediate, and may be driven by changes in community dynamics reflecting changes in the host environment.

  11. Exposure to human source fecal indicators and self-reported illness among bathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Indicator microorganisms are used to predict the presence of fecal pollution in water and assess associated health risks, usually gastrointestinal illness and diarrhea. Few studies have characterized the health risks associated with human fecal sources using microbi...

  12. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  13. Pudendal Neuropathy Alone Results in Urge Incontinence Rather Than in Complete Fecal Incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meegdenburg, Maxime M.; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M. A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conscious external anal sphincter contraction is mediated by the pudendal nerve. Pudendal neuropathy is, therefore, believed to result in fecal incontinence. Until urge sensation is experienced, fecal continence is maintained by unconscious external anal sphincter contraction, which is

  14. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  15. Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Li, Tianshui; Kim, Inho

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG), and gain : feed ratio (G:F) from days 29 to 42 and the in overall period, dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility, and fecal Lactobacilli counts, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission. Additionally, at weeks 5 and 6, there was a linear decrease in fecal score with xylanase supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, shifted microbiota by increasing fecal Lactobacillus counts, decreased BUN concentration, fecal score, and fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission in weaning pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. F.; Frissen, M. N.; de Clercq, N. C.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2017-01-01

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial

  17. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    ) with fecal tagging may be a method of gaining further patient acceptance and widespread use, but the method has to be optimized. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of a new contrast agent mixture and to validate a new method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents. Materials...

  18. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Girón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33. It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1 UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis; and (2 UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis. Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota.

  19. Concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites in dominant versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of fecal metabolites of corticosterone and to verify if there are differences between dominant and subordinate heifers. The feces of 18 buffalo heifers were collected in the estrous period, to quantify the corticosterone concentrations. The heifers were separated into ...

  20. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    chemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity and nutrients) were measured. ... Kijichi than Rasi Dege). No significant variation was noted on the values of temperature, pH and salinity. A significant correlation between the levels of fecal bacteria indicators and nutrient ... ocean e.g. sewage is discharged directly into.

  1. Human fecal source identification with real-time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterborne diseases represent a significant public health risk worldwide, and can originate from contact with water contaminated with human fecal material. We describe a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method that targets a Bacteroides dori human-associated genetic marker for...

  2. Fecal indicator and Ascaris removal from double pit latrine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Digbijoy; Ridwanul Haque, A T M; Kabir, Babar; Ubaid, Sharmin Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Since May 2006, the BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programme in Bangladesh has enabled more than 30 million people to achieve hygienic sanitation, contributing to an increase in sanitation coverage from 33 to 83% in programme areas and rapid progress towards universal access. In rural areas, most families have single pit latrines that need to be emptied when full. Since 2007, BRAC has promoted the use of hygienic double-pit latrines. Use of double-pit latrines, where appropriate, is also recommended in the Bangladeshi Draft National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy. More than 800,000 double-pit latrines are in use in BRAC WASH areas, delaying the need for emptying and allowing time for the fecal matter to decompose while the resting pit is sealed. This paper focuses on a study undertaken by BRAC WASH to treat and safely use fecal material from double pit latrines as an organic fertilizer for rice and other crops. The study investigated the removal of pathogens from pit waste through simple solar drying and conducted analysis on nutrient properties of fecal sludge. The study showed a significant positive impact on developing organic fertilizer from fecal sludge.

  3. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  4. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    SH terms used were IBS and fecal microbiota transplantation and the abbreviations IBS and FMT. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. RESULTS: A total of six conference abstracts, one case report, one letter to the editor, and one clinical review were...

  5. Schelpdierwaterkwaliteit in Nederlandse kustwatergebieden in maart 2004 (fecale coliformen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van A.C.M.; Poelman, M.

    2004-01-01

    In maart van 2004 is onderzoek gedaan naar de (schelpdier)waterkwaliteit in de Kustwatergebieden. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van indicatormicro-organismen: de fecale coliformen. Er wordt gekeken naar de aanwezigheid in gebieden waar schelpdieren worden gekweekt, waar schelpdieren in het wild voorkomen

  6. Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  7. Chocolate consumption, fecal water antioxidant activity, and hydroxyl radical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Ian R; McInerney, Jennifer K; Noakes, Manny; Bird, Anthony R

    2003-01-01

    As part of a larger study into the effects of polyphenols derived from chocolate on bowel health we have compared the effects of consumption of chocolate containing either 200 mg of flavanols and related procyanidins or a similar chocolate containing less than 10 mg of polyphenols on fecal free radical production and antioxidant activity in 18 volunteers. In a double-blind crossover trail volunteers consumed chocolate for two 4-wk periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. During the time the volunteers consumed the chocolate they also consumed a low-polyphenol diet. Free radical production in the fecal water was lowered from 122 +/- 10 micromol/l/h to 94 +/- 9 micromol/l/h (P = 0.009) when the high procyanidin chocolate diet was consumed and from 117 +/- 14 micromol/l/h to 86 +/- 12 micromol/l/h when the low procyanidin chocolate was consumed (P = 0.014). Fecal water antioxidant capacity measured by either the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity or ferric reducing ability of plasma procedure was not significantly affected. Consumption of either chocolate reduced the production of free radicals in fecal water. This suggests that some component of the chocolate other than the flavanols and related procyanidins may have been effective.

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of the Ferret Fecal Viral Flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); V.S. Raj (Stalin); M. Oduber (Minoushka); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFerrets are widely used as a small animal model for a number of viral infections, including influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus. To further analyze the microbiological status of ferrets, their fecal viral flora was studied using a metagenomics approach. Novel viruses from the families

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal isolates of salmonella and shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis and Shigellosis coupled with increased levels of multidrug resistances are public health problems, especially in developing countries. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of fecal Salmonella and Shigella spp and its antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted on ...

  10. Molecular typing of fecal eukaryotic microbiota of human infants and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The micro-eukaryotic diversity from the human gut was investigated using universal primers directed towards 18S rRNA gene, fecal samples being the source of DNA. The subjects in this study included two breast-fed and two formula-milk-fed infants and their mothers. The study revealed that the infants did not seem to ...

  11. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  12. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  13. FINGERPRINTING OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal enterococci group has been suggested as an indicator of fecal contamination in freshwater and marine water systems and as a potential target for bacterial source tracking of fecal pollution. While many studies have described the diversity of enterococci in environmenta...

  14. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  15. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH, EtOH −20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs and frozen at −20 °C, storage time (one, three and six months, fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO and false allele (FA rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates (P < 0.05. The highest microsatellite amplification success was obtained from either EtOH or the 2-step storage medium at three storage time points. Storage time had a negative effect on the average amplification of microsatellites and samples stored in EtOH and the 2-step storage medium were more stable than the other three storage types. We only detected the effect of repeat motif on ADO and FA rates. The lower ADO and FA rates were obtained from tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci. We suggest that freezing should not be used for giant panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  16. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  17. A predictive model combining fecal calgranulin B and fecal occult blood tests can improve the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chang Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Current fecal screening tools for colorectal cancer (CRC, such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT, are limited by their low sensitivity. Calgranulin B (CALB was previously reported as a candidate fecal marker for CRC. This study investigated whether a combination of the FOBT and fecal CALB has increased sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with CRC (n = 175, and healthy individuals (controls; n = 151 were enrolled into the development (81 cases and 51 controls and validation (94 cases and 100 controls sets. Stool samples were collected before bowel preparation. CALB levels were determined by western blotting. FOBT and fecal CALB results were used to develop a predictive model based on logistic regression analysis. The benefit of adding CALB to a model with only FOBT was evaluated as an increased area under the receiver operating curve (AUC, partial AUC, and reclassification improvement (RI in cases and controls, and net reclassification improvement (NRI. RESULTS: Mean CALB level was significantly higher in CRC patients than in controls (P<0.001. CALB was not associated with tumor stage or cancer site, but positivity on the FOBT was significantly higher in advanced than in earlier tumor stages. At a specificity of 90%, the cross-validated AUC and sensitivity were 89.81% and 82.72%, respectively, in the development set, and 92.74% and 79.79%, respectively, in the validation set. The incremental benefit of adding CALB to the model, as shown by the increase in AUC, had a p-value of 0.0499. RI in cases and controls and NRI all revealed that adding CALB significantly improved the prediction model. CONCLUSION: A predictive model using a combination of FOBT and CALB may have greater sensitivity and specificity and AUC for predicting CRC than models using a single marker.

  18. Metal pollution (Pb, Zn, Ni and Cr) in air, road and soil sediment in a high traffic area; Contaminacion por metales (Pb, Zn, Ni y Cr) en aire, sedimentos viales y suelo en una zona de alto trafico vehicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchado, Anali; Garcia, Neyma; Garcia, Cezar; Acosta, Lorena; Cordova, Alberto; Linares, Maria; Giraldoth, Debora [Centro de Investigaciones CEDEGAS, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)]. E-mail: analimachado@yahoo.com; amachadop@luz.edu.ve; Velasquez, Harvi [Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2008-11-15

    sequia y de lluvia, empleando un muestreador de bajo volumen con filtros de fibra de cuarzo -para las muestras de PM10- con una frecuencia de una muestra cada tres dias para un total de 26; para los sedimentos viales y suelo fueron colectadas tres muestras con una frecuencia de 15 dias para un periodo de medicion de mes y medio en epoca seca. Todas las muestras fueron sometidas a un proceso de digestion y analizadas por espectrometria de absorcion atomica. Las concentraciones de las PM10 resultaron 2 veces mas altas en la zona de emision que en la zona de dispersion durante ambas epocas climatologicas, presentando una mejor correlacion entre las zonas para epoca de sequia. Todos los metales analizados presentaron diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre las zonas de muestreo. Por otra parte, para el periodo global existen diferencias significativas entre las zonas y las epocas climatologicas tanto para PM10 como para la totalidad de los metales. El Pb no excedio el estandar de calidad del aire establecido para Venezuela, pero su concentracion promedio en la zona de emision fue de 1.13 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, muy cercano al limite diario permitido en Venezuela y por la EPA; por su parte, tanto Pb como Ni sobrepasaron el limite permisible de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en ambas zonas durante todo el periodo de muestreo. Para las muestras de sedimento y de suelo se encontraron concentraciones significativamente elevadas de Pb, Zn, Ni y Cr en comparacion con la muestra testigo. Los niveles hallados de Pb y Zn estan por encima de los limites permitidos por el decreto 2635 de la normativa venezolana y la EPA, clasificandose la zona como suelo con alta contaminacion por metales pesados. Adicionalmente, el analisis estadistico demostro la adecuada seleccion de la zona de monitoreo, confirmando que la principal fuente de emision de los contaminantes es el parque automotor.

  19. Fecal 13C analysis for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; MacLean, W.C. Jr.; Watkins, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Use of 14 CO 2 breath tests and fecal analyses for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption has been extensively documented in adult subjects. The use of radioisotopes has extended the range of breath test applications to include pediatric and geriatric subjects. Here we report a fecal 13 C analysis that can be used in conjunction with 14 CO 2 breath tests. Twenty-four-hour fecal samples were collected before and after the administration of a labeled substrate. Simultaneous cholyglycine 13 CO 2 breath tests and fecal assays were performed in five children. One child with bacterial overgrowth had an abnormal breath test and a normal fecal test. Of three children with ileal dysfunction, only one had an abnormal breath test, whereas the fecal test was abnormal in all three. Both the breath test and fecal test were abnormal for a child who had undergone an ileal resection. Both tests were normal for a child with ulcerative colitis

  20. Influence of Breed Size, Age, Fecal Quality, and Enteropathogen Shedding on Fecal Calprotectin and Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Puppies During the Weaning Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, A; Heilmann, R M; Polack, B; Feugier, A; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Grandjean, D; Grützner, N; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2016-07-01

    Fecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. Three hundred and twenty-four puppies. Fecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays. For each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at ≥1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at ≥1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age. Fecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with abnormal feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  2. Analisis Kandungan Bakteri Fecal Coliform pada Sungai Kuin Kota Banjarmasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deasy Ari Santy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Sungai Kuin merupakan anak Sungai Martapura yang yang bermuara di Sungai Barito. Sungai ini terdapat di Kota Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Selatan. Kejadian diare tertinggi di Kota Banjarmasin terjadi di bantaran Sungai Kuin, sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian mengenai kandungan bakteri fecal coliform pada sungai ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis jumlah kandungan bakteri fecal coliform di Sungai Kuin dan menganalisis cara mengatasi penurunan kualitas air Sungai Kuin akibat keberadaan bakteri fecal coliform. Data diambil sepanjang Sungai Kuin dengan panjang 3.909,00 m yang terbagi menjadi 20 segmen (10 segmen berada di bagian kanan sungai dan 10 segmen berada di bagian kiri sungai. Pembagian segmen berdasarkan panjang sungai per 390 meter, dengan sampel sebanyak 5 segmen yang mewakili segmen lainnya. Teknik analisis yang digunakan yaitu dengan menggunakan hasil uji laboratorium, perbandingan terhadap Peraturan Gubernur Kalimantan Selatan No 5 tahun 2007 dan referensi dari katalog informasi pilihan jamban sehat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas air Sungai Kuin adalah berwarna kecoklatan, dan terkadang tercium bau terutama pada saat hujan turun. Jumlah rerata kandungan bakteri fecal coliform di Sungai Kuin adalah 210/100 ml pada saat pasang naik dan 780/100 ml pada saat pasang surut. Kualitas air Sungai Kuin tidak tidak memenuhi baku mutu air minum karena kandungan bakteri fecal coliform berada di atas baku mutu 100/100 ml.  Penurunan kualitas air Sungai Kuin dapat dilakukan dengan pembangunan jamban yang sesuai dengan lingkungan perairan pasang surut. ABSTRACT Kuin River is a tributary of Martapura River, which flows into Barito River. It traverses Banjarmasin City, South Kalimantan Province. The highest diarrhea incidence in this city was found in the banks of Kuin River. Therefore, this research, focusing on fecal coliform bacteria in Kuin River, becomes necessary. Aside from analyzing the concentration of fecal coliform

  3. Treatment strategies in obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaikin, Marat; Wexner, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Obstructed defecation (OD) and fecal incontinence (FI) are challenging clinical problems, which are commonly encountered in the practice of colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists. These disorders socially and psychologically distress patients and greatly impair their quality of life. The underlying anatomical and pathophysiological changes are complex, often incompletely understood and cannot always be determined. As a consequence, many medical, surgical, and behavioral approaches have been described, with no panacea. Over the past decade, advances in an understanding of these disorders together with rational and similar methods of evaluation in anorectal physiology laboratories (ARP), radiology studies, and new surgical techniques have led to promising results. In this brief review, we discuss treatment strategies and recent updates on clinical and therapeutic aspects of obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence. PMID:16718835

  4. Fecal incontinence in older patients. A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cabrera, Ana María; Jiménez Rodríguez, Rosa María; Reyes Díaz, María Luisa; Vázquez Monchul, Jorge Manuel; Ramos Fernández, María; Díaz Pavón, José Manuel; Palacios González, Carmen; Padillo Ruiz, Francisco Javier; de la Portilla de Juan, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    Fecal incontinence is one of the leading causes for the institutionalization of people in the last decades of life, associated with a great psychosocial and economic burden. The literature is scarce in this population group, due to the absence of universally accepted criteria to define "elderly patients" and difficulties in detection and diagnostic. The aim of this article was to conduct a narrative review of the main aspects related to fecal incontinence in older patients, providing management support. Toileting assistance, dietary change, controlling stool consistency and medical treatment can be used to treat these patients. Nevertheless, other therapies, such as biofeedback, neuromodulation or surgical treatment, can be considered in selected patients. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards standards for human fecal sample processing in metagenomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Paul I; Zeller, Georg; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Pelletier, Eric; Alberti, Adriana; Levenez, Florence; Tramontano, Melanie; Driessen, Marja; Hercog, Rajna; Jung, Ferris-Elias; Kultima, Jens Roat; Hayward, Matthew R; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Bertrand, Laurie; Blaut, Michael; Brown, Jillian R M; Carton, Thomas; Cools-Portier, Stéphanie; Daigneault, Michelle; Derrien, Muriel; Druesne, Anne; de Vos, Willem M; Finlay, B Brett; Flint, Harry J; Guarner, Francisco; Hattori, Masahira; Heilig, Hans; Luna, Ruth Ann; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Junick, Jana; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Langella, Philippe; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Mai, Volker; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Martin, Jennifer C; Mery, Clémentine; Morita, Hidetoshi; O'Toole, Paul W; Orvain, Céline; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Penders, John; Persson, Søren; Pons, Nicolas; Popova, Milena; Salonen, Anne; Saulnier, Delphine; Scott, Karen P; Singh, Bhagirath; Slezak, Kathleen; Veiga, Patrick; Versalovic, James; Zhao, Liping; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Dore, Joel; Bork, Peer

    2017-11-01

    Technical variation in metagenomic analysis must be minimized to confidently assess the contributions of microbiota to human health. Here we tested 21 representative DNA extraction protocols on the same fecal samples and quantified differences in observed microbial community composition. We compared them with differences due to library preparation and sample storage, which we contrasted with observed biological variation within the same specimen or within an individual over time. We found that DNA extraction had the largest effect on the outcome of metagenomic analysis. To rank DNA extraction protocols, we considered resulting DNA quantity and quality, and we ascertained biases in estimates of community diversity and the ratio between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We recommend a standardized DNA extraction method for human fecal samples, for which transferability across labs was established and which was further benchmarked using a mock community of known composition. Its adoption will improve comparability of human gut microbiome studies and facilitate meta-analyses.

  6. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Terry T.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  7. Fecal continence following complex anorectal trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Katie W; Soukup, Elizabeth S; Metzger, Ryan R; Zobell, Sarah; Scaife, Eric R; Barnhart, Douglas C; Rollins, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    Complex injuries involving the anus and rectum are uncommon in children. We sought to examine long-term fecal continence following repair of these injuries. We conducted a retrospective review using our trauma registry from 2003 to 2012 of children with traumatic injuries to the anus or rectum at a level I pediatric trauma center. Patients with an injury requiring surgical repair that involved the anal sphincters and/or rectum were selected for a detailed review. Twenty-one patients (21/13,149 activations, 0.2%) who had an injury to the anus (n=9), rectum (n=8), or destructive injury to both the anus and rectum (n=4) were identified. Eleven (52%) patients were male, and the median age at time of injury was 9 (range 1-14) years. Penetrating trauma accounted for 48% of injuries. Three (14%) patients had accompanying injury to the urinary tract, and 6 (60%) females had vaginal injuries. All patients with an injury involving the rectum and destructive anal injuries were managed with fecal diversion. No patient with an isolated anal injury underwent fecal diversion. Four (19%) patients developed wound infections. The majority (90%) of patients were continent at last follow-up. One patient who sustained a gunshot injury to the pelvis with sacral nerve involvement is incontinent, but remains artificially clean on an intense bowel management program with enemas, and one patient with a destructive crush injury still has a colostomy. With anatomic reconstruction of the anal sphincter mechanism, most patients with traumatic anorectal injuries will experience long-term fecal continence. Follow-up is needed as occasionally these patients, specifically those with nerve or crush injury, may require a formal bowel management program. © 2014.

  8. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  9. Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekatz, Anna M; Aas, Johannes; Gessert, Charles E; Rubin, Timothy A; Saman, Daniel M; Bakken, Johan S; Young, Vincent B

    2014-06-17

    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. It is hypothesized that FMT aids in recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, it is not fully understood how this occurs. Here we investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile using a predictive metagenomic tool. Increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria were observed following FMT. The fecal microbiota of recipients following transplantation was more diverse and more similar to the donor profile than the microbiota prior to transplantation. Additionally, we observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were overrepresented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results suggest that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific community members and functions that promote colonization resistance may aid in the development of improved treatment methods for C. difficile infection. Within the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection has surpassed other bacterial infections to become the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota and its capability in providing colonization resistance against C. difficile, is a known risk factor in C. difficile infection. In particular, recurrent C. difficile remains difficult to treat with standard antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has provided a successful treatment method for

  10. Fecal microbiome analysis as a diagnostic test for diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, L; Budding, A E; de Korte, N; Eck, A; Bogaards, J A; Stockmann, H B; Consten, E C; Savelkoul, P H; Boermeester, M A

    2014-11-01

    Disease-specific variations in intestinal microbiome composition have been found for a number of intestinal disorders, but little is known about diverticulitis. The purpose of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of diverticulitis patients with control subjects from a general gastroenterological practice and to investigate the feasibility of predictive diagnostics based on complex microbiota data. Thirty-one patients with computed tomography (CT)-proven left-sided uncomplicated acute diverticulitis were included and compared with 25 control subjects evaluated for a range of gastrointestinal indications. A high-throughput polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based profiling technique (IS-pro) was performed on DNA isolates from baseline fecal samples. Differences in bacterial phylum abundance and diversity (Shannon index) of the resulting profiles were assessed by conventional statistics. Dissimilarity in microbiome composition was analyzed with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on cosine distance measures. To develop a prediction model for the diagnosis of diverticulitis, we used cross-validated partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios and Proteobacteria load were comparable among patients and controls (p = 0.20). The Shannon index indicated a higher diversity in diverticulitis for Proteobacteria (p Diverticulitis patients have a higher diversity of fecal microbiota than controls from a mixed population, with the phylum Proteobacteria defining the difference. The analysis of intestinal microbiota offers a novel way to diagnose diverticulitis.

  11. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: a video demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotouras, Alexander; Allison, Marion; Currie, Ann; Knowles, Charles H; Chan, Christopher L; Thaha, Mohamed A

    2012-06-01

    Fecal incontinence is an increasingly common condition with significant negative impact on quality on life and health care resources. It frequently presents a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. Emerging evidence suggests that percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for fecal incontinence with the added benefit of being minimally invasive and cost effective. Pursuant to the preliminary report of our early experience of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in patients with fecal incontinence published in this journal in 2010, in this dynamic article, we now describe and demonstrate the actual technique that can be performed in a nurse-led clinic or outpatient or community setting. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is a technically simple procedure that can potentially be performed in an outpatient or community setting. The overall early success rate of 68% following its use reported by our unit compares favorably with the success rate following other forms of neuromodulation, including sacral nerve stimulation. When completed, our long-term outcome data will provide further information on the efficacy of tibial nerve stimulation in a larger cohort of patients (n > 100). Future studies, including our currently planned randomized controlled trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation vs sham stimulation, will provide controlled efficacy data and may provide information on its exact mechanism of action.

  12. Fecal estradiol-17β and testosterone in prepubertal domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faya, M; Carranza, A; Miotti, R; Ponchón, T; Furlan, P; Gobello, C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the time course of prepubertal sexual steroids in domestic cats. Fourteen newborn kittens were followed up until puberty (physical, behavioral, and hormonal changes). Fecal testosterone [T; males] and E estradiol 17-β [E2; females] concentrations were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and two consecutive time windows (TWs) were used to compare changes in both male (postnatal weeks 1-4 vs. 5-14) and females (postnatal weeks 1-5 vs. 6-13). Puberty was achieved 14.3 ± 0.3 and 13.3 ± 0.4 weeks after birth in male and female cats, respectively. In both genders, during TW-1 fecal steroids concentrations were similar (males) or even higher (females) to that previously described for mature cats. Fecal T (P cats. It is concluded that in domestic cats there is a sexual steroid surge during the first 4 and 5 postnatal weeks in male and female animals, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Pancreatic exocrine function in diabetes mellitus. Determination of fecal elastase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla A, Carla; Hurtado H, Carmen; Tobar A, Eduardo; Orellana N, Ivonne; Pineda B, Pedro; Castillo M, Iván; Ledezma R, Rodrigo; Berger F, Zoltán

    2006-04-01

    One of the complications of diabetes mellitus is the development of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. To study pancreatic exocrine function in diabetics patients. Seventy two diabetic patients were included in the protocol, but two were withdrawn because an abdominal CAT scan showed a chronic calcified pancreatitis, previously undiagnosed. Fecal elastase was measured by ELISA and the presence of fat in feces was assessed using the steatocrit. Mean age was 60+/-12 years and 67 (96%) patients had a type 2 diabetes. Fecal elastase was normal (elastase >200 microg/g) in 47 (67%) patients, mildly decreased (100-200 microg/g) in 10 (14%) and severely decreased in 13 (19%). There was a significant association between elastase levels and time of evolution of diabetes (p=0.049) and between lower elastase levels and the presence of a positive steatocrit (p=0.042). No significant association was found between elastase levels and other chronic complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, microangiopathy or with insulin requirement. One third of this group of diabetic patients had decreased levels of fecal elastase, that was associated with the time of evolution of diabetes. Patients with lower levels of elastase have significantly more steatorrhea. Among diabetics it is possible to find a group of patients with non diagnosed chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU....../g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could...... be determined, but the lowest spiking levels found positive were 7.75 × 104 CFU/ml in human feces and 103 CFU/g in chicken feces. Eight human clinical fecal samples with estimated Campylobacter infection loads from 9.2 × 104-1.0 × 109 CFU/ml were analyzed using the same methods. It was possible to detect...

  15. Estimation of 239Pu in fecal sample using simulant matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiselvan, S.; Jeevanram, R.K.; Sundararajan, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Estimation of 239 Pu in faeces following accidental exposure to insoluble aerosols like plutonium oxide is the best means of obtaining an indirect assessment of the intake. As part of providing radiological surveillance to plutonium handling workers, a technique has been developed and standardised for analysis of 239 Pu in fecal sample. For developing the technique cow dung and simulant fecal matrices spiked with 239 Pu have been used. The sample was ashed and the silica was eliminated by treating with HF-HNO 3 mixture. 239 Pu was separated on anion exchange and electrodeposited. The interfering elements such as Fe, Si were removed by washing the column. The percent recovery of 239 Pu by this method was 86.14±3% with a minimum detectable activity of 12.6 mBq. Experiments were repeated with a matrix which simulates fecal matter. The percent recoveries and the minimum detectable activities in both cow dung and simulant faeces were comparable. This method can detect activity less than one derived investigation level even on tenth day following exposure of 239 Pu due to inhalation. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Fecal coliforms, caffeine and carbamazepine in stormwater collection systems in a large urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Dorner, Sarah; Payment, Pierre; Deschamps, Guy; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Water samples from streams, brooks and storm sewer outfall pipes that collect storm waters across the Island of Montréal were analyzed for caffeine, carbamazepine and fecal coliforms. All samples contained various concentrations of these tracers, indicating a widespread sanitary contamination in urban environments. Fecal coliforms and caffeine levels ranged over several orders of magnitude with a modest correlation between caffeine and fecal coliforms (R(2) value of 0.558). An arbitrary threshold of 400 ng caffeine L(-1) allows us to identify samples with an elevated fecal contamination, as defined by more than 200 colony-forming units per 100 mL (cfu 100 mL(-1)) of fecal coliforms. Low caffeine levels were sporadically related to high fecal coliform counts. Lower levels of caffeine and fecal coliforms were observed in the brooks while the larger streams and storm water discharge points contained over ten times more. The carbamazepine data showed little or no apparent correlation to caffeine. These data suggest that this storm water collection system, located in a highly urbanized urban environment, is widely contaminated by domestic sewers as indicated by the ubiquitous presence of fecal contaminants as well as caffeine and carbamazepine. Caffeine concentrations were relatively well correlated to fecal coliforms, and could potentially be used as a chemical indicator of the level of contamination by sanitary sources. The carbamazepine data was not significantly correlated to fecal coliforms and of little use in this dataset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fecal Matters: Fate and transport of traditional fecal indicator bacteria and source-tracking targets in septic drainfields

    OpenAIRE

    Billian, Hannah Ellyse

    2016-01-01

    Between 1970 and 2010 almost one-third of drinking water related waterborne disease outbreaks reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were associated with systems dependent on untreated groundwater (i.e., most commonly, household wells). This is unsurprising, given that numerous past efforts to monitor household well water quality have indicated a high prevalence of fecal coliforms and/or E. coli at the point of use. Non-point sources of pollution, including septic tank ...

  18. The impact of long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor on in vitro fecal fermentation properties of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2016-04-01

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr. Res., 2014, 34, 749-759). Stool samples from eighteen individuals that had completed one-year dietary records were used in an in vitro fecal fermentation system with long-chain inulin as substrate. Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation. In contrast, intake of dairy and processed meats that provided cholesterol and little fiber, were associated with ammonia and BCFA production. Comparing results between inulin and whole wheat fermentations, significant correlations were only found for butyrate and BCFA, suggesting that regardless of the type of carbohydrate provided to the microbiota, long-term diet may have a pronounced effect on the propensity of the gut microbiota toward either beneficial metabolism (butyrate production) or detrimental metabolism (BCFA production). These results may help in

  19. Low dietary copper increases fecal free radical production, fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity and cytotoxicity in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cindy D

    2003-02-01

    One possible dietary factor that may increase susceptibility to colon cancer is inadequate copper intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low and adequate copper intakes on copper nutriture and putative risk factors for colon cancer susceptibility in healthy men. Seventeen healthy free-living nonsmoking men aged 21-52 y completed a 13-wk controlled feeding study in a randomized crossover design. The basal diet contained 0.59 mg Cu/13.65 MJ. After a 1-wk equilibration period in which the men consumed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cu/d, they were randomly assigned to receive either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg Cu/d for 6 wk. After the first dietary period, the men immediately began to consume the other level of Cu for the last 6 wk. They collected their feces during the equilibration period and during the last 2 wk of the two dietary periods for free radical and fecal water analysis. Low dietary copper significantly (P alkaline phosphatase activity. Low dietary copper significantly (P dietary treatments. These results suggest that low dietary copper adversely affects fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity, which are putative risk factors for colon cancer.

  20. Contamination of soils. La contaminacion del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Garcia-Delgado, R.A.; Garcia-Herruzo, F.; Gomez-La Hoz, C. (Universidad de Malaga. Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The contamination of soils has received less attention from the public opinion than atmospheric pollution and water pollution. This article makes a review of different transfer pathways and decontamination techniques. Detoxification techniques can be broken down into two different groups. : Those implying excavation and transportation of the soil and those not requiring excavation. At the present time there is an increasing trend of giving up those techniques requiring immobilization or on site treatment. (Author) (32 refs.)

  1. [Changes of fecal flora and its correlation with inflammatory indicators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, Pflora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.

  2. Tracking the Sources of Fecal Contaminations: an Interdisciplinary Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, L.; Jarde, E.; Derrien, M.; Gruau, G.; Solecki, O.; Pourcher, A.; Marti, R.; Wéry, N.; Caprais, M.; Gourmelon, M.; Mieszkin, S.; Jadas-Hécart, A.; Communal, P.

    2011-12-01

    Fecal contaminations of inland and coastal waters induce risks to human health and economic losses. In order to improve water management, it is necessary to identify the sources of contamination, which implies the development of specific markers. In order to be considered as a valuable host-specific marker, one must (1) be source specific, (2) occur in high concentration in polluting matrices, (3) exhibit extra-intestinal persistence similar to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and (4) not grow out of the host. However, up to day no single marker has fulfilled all those criteria. Thus, it has been suggested to use a combination of markers in order to generate more reliable data. This has lead to the development of a Microbial Source Tracking (MST) toolbox including FIB and microbial and chemical specific markers in order to differentiate between human, bovine and porcine fecal contaminations. Those specific markers are, (1) genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, (2) bacterial markers belonging to the Bacteroidales (human-specific HF183, ruminant-specific Rum-2-Bac and pig-specific Pig-2-Bac markers), to the Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and pig-specific Lactobacillus amylovorus, (3) fecal stanols and (4) caffeine. The development of this MST toolbox was composed of four steps, from the molecular scale to the watershed scale. At the molecular scale, the specificity and the concentration of those markers were studied in cattle and pig manures and in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and influents. At the microcosm scale, the transfer of bovine and porcine specific markers was investigated by rainfall simulations on agricultural plots amended with cattle or pig manure. Moreover, the relative persistence of FIB and human, porcine and bovine specific markers was investigated in freshwater and seawater microcosms inoculated with a WWTP influent, pig manure and cow manure. Finally, the aforementioned MST toolbox has been validated at the

  3. Effect of vegetables, tea, and soy on endogenous N-nitrosation, fecal ammonia, and fecal water genotoxicity during a high red meat diet in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roisin; Pollock, Jim R A; Bingham, Sheila

    2002-01-01

    Red meat increases colonic N-nitrosation, and this may explain the positive epidemiological relationship between red meat intake and colorectal cancer risk. Vegetables, tea, and soy have been shown to block N-nitroso compound (NOC) formation and are associated with protection against colorectal cancer. To determine whether these supplements affect fecal NOC excretion during consumption of a high red meat (420 g/day) diet, 11 male volunteers were studied over a randomized series of 15-day dietary periods. Seven of these subjects completed a further dietary period to test the effects of soy (100 g/day). Soy significantly suppressed fecal apparent total NOC (ATNC) concentration (P = 0.02), but supplements of vegetables (400 g/day as 134 g broccoli, 134 g brussels sprouts, and 134 g petits pois) and tea extract (3 g/day) did not affect mean levels of fecal ATNC, nitrogen and ammonia excretion, and fecal water genotoxicity. However, fecal weight was increased (P < 0.001) and associated with reduced transit time (r = 0.594, P < 0.0001), so that contact between ATNC, nitrite, and ammonia and the large bowel mucosa would have been reduced. Longer transit times were associated with elevated fecal ATNC concentrations (r = 0.42, P = 0.002). Fecal nitrite was significantly suppressed during the tea supplement compared with the meat-only (P = 0.0028) and meat + vegetables diets (P = 0.005 for microgram NO2/g).

  4. Household siblings and nasal and fecal microbiota in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Linnemann, Rachel W; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Ajami, Nadim J; Espinola, Janice A; Fiechtner, Lauren G; Petrosino, Joseph F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-04-01

    Early-life exposure to older siblings is associated with a lower risk of asthma. To date, no study has addressed the impact of having siblings on both the airway and fecal microbiota during infancy. The aim of this study was therefore to profile the nasal airway and fecal microbiota in infants, and to examine the association between having siblings and microbiota profile. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 105 healthy infants (aged microbiota profiles and then determined the association between having siblings and microbiome profile. Overall, the median age was 3.4 months (IQR, 2.0-4.7 months); 43% had siblings in the household. Unbiased clustering of nasal airway microbiota identified three profiles: Moraxella dominant (43%), Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum dominant (36%), and mixed (21%). Infants with siblings were more likely to have a Moraxella-dominant profile than Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profile (76% vs 18%), while those without siblings had the opposite pattern (18% vs 50%; P microbiota consisted of three profiles: Bifidobacterium dominant (39%), Escherichia dominant (31%), and Enterobacter dominant (30%). Infants with siblings were more likely to have a Bifidobacterium-dominant profile than Escherichia-dominant profile (49% vs 24%) while those without siblings had the opposite pattern (32% vs 37%; P = 0.04, multivariable-adjusted). In this cross-sectional study, infants with siblings were more likely to have a Moraxella-dominant nasal microbiota profile and Bifidobacterium-dominant fecal microbiota profile. These findings should facilitate further investigation of the interplay between early-life environmental exposure, the microbiome, and childhood asthma. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, Miguel; López Higueras, Antonio; Júdez, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish), sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age) and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis). Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two), psyllium (one), tegaserod (one), prucalopride (one), paraffin oil (one), fiber combinations (one) and Descurainia sophia (one). Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose) and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long-term. They are as efficacious as enemas in fecal

  6. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mínguez

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG, with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Methodology: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish, sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis. Results: Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two, psyllium (one, tegaserod (one, prucalopride (one, paraffin oil (one, fiber combinations (one and Descurainia sophia (one. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long

  7. A proposal to standardize reporting units for fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G; Allison, James E; Halloran, Stephen P; Young, Graeme P

    2012-06-06

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are replacing traditional guaiac fecal occult blood tests in population screening programs for many reasons. However, the many available fecal immunochemical test devices use a range of sampling methods, differ with regard to hemoglobin stability, and report hemoglobin concentrations in different ways. The methods for sampling, the mass of feces collected, and the volume and characteristics of the buffer used in the sampling device also vary among fecal immunochemical tests, making comparisons of test performance characteristics difficult. Fecal immunochemical test results may be expressed as the hemoglobin concentration in the sampling device buffer and, sometimes, albeit rarely, as the hemoglobin concentration per mass of feces. The current lack of consistency in units for reporting hemoglobin concentration is particularly problematic because apparently similar hemoglobin concentrations obtained with different devices can lead to very different clinical interpretations. Consistent adoption of an internationally accepted method for reporting results would facilitate comparisons of outcomes from these tests. We propose a simple strategy for reporting fecal hemoglobin concentration that will facilitate the comparison of results between fecal immunochemical test devices and across clinical studies. Such reporting is readily achieved by defining the mass of feces sampled and the volume of sample buffer (with confidence intervals) and expressing results as micrograms of hemoglobin per gram of feces. We propose that manufacturers of fecal immunochemical tests provide this information and that the authors of research articles, guidelines, and policy articles, as well as pathology services and regulatory bodies, adopt this metric when reporting fecal immunochemical test results.

  8. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  9. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohamed A; Abed, Raeid M M

    2017-07-10

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4±77.1ml CH 4 /g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6±0.25g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9±0.08wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recurrence of fecal coliforms and Salmonella species in biosolids following thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Reza; Cox, Huub H J

    2006-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Part 503 Biosolids Rule requires the fecal coliform (indicator) or Salmonella species (pathogen) density requirements for Class A biosolids to be met at the last point of plant control (truck-loading facility and/or farm for land application). The three Southern Californian wastewater treatment plants in this study produced biosolids by thermophilic anaerobic digestion and all met the Class A limits for both fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp. in the digester outflow biosolids. At two plants, however, a recurrence of fecal coliforms was observed in postdigestion biosolids, which caused exceedance of the Class A limit for fecal coliforms at the truck-loading facility and farm for land application. Comparison of observations at the three plants and further laboratory tests indicated that the recurrence of fecal coliforms can possibly be related to the following combination of factors: (1) incomplete destruction of fecal coliforms during thermophilic anaerobic digestion, (2) contamination of Class A biosolids with fecal coliforms from external sources during postdigestion, (3) a large drop of the postdigestion biosolids temperature to below the maximum for fecal coliform growth, (4) an unknown effect of biosolids dewatering in centrifuges. At Hyperion Treatment Plant (City of Los Angeles, California), fecal coliform recurrence could be prevented by the following: (1) complete conversion to thermophilic operation to exclude contamination by mesophilically digested biosolids and (2) insulation and electrical heat-tracing of postdigestion train for maintaining a high biosolids temperature in postdigestion.

  11. Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens: Towards Diagnostic Metagenomics of Fecal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage...... for data analysis are being developed, and several studies applying diagnostic metagenomics to human clinical samples have been published, detecting, and sometimes, typing bacterial infections. It is possible to obtain a draft genome of the pathogen and to develop methods that can theoretically be applied...... in fecal samples from animals and humans....

  12. Optimal purification and sensitive quantification of DNA from fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Application of reliable, rapid and sensitive methods to laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic infections continues to challenge microbiological laboratories. The recovery of DNA from a swine fecal sample and a bacterial culture extracted by a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compar...... = 0.99 and R-2 = 1.00). In conclusion, silica-membrane, columns can provide a more convenient and less hazardous alternative to the conventional phenol-based method. The results have implication for further improvement of sensitive amplification methods for laboratory diagnosis....

  13. Effects of high- and low-fiber diets on fecal fermentation and fecal microbial populations of captive chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kišidayová, S.; Váradyová, Z.; Pristaš, P.; Piknová, M.; Nigutová, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Profousová, Ilona; Schovancová, Kateřina; Kamler, Jiří; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2009), s. 548-557 ISSN 0275-2565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0009/08; MVTS(SK) SK-CZ-0086-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : chimpanzee * fiber * diet * in vitro fecal fermentation * DGGE * archaea * eubacteria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2009

  14. Gut microbiota modulation: probiotics, antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases. The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings. At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic approaches have been developed in this regard. Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are the best known and commercially available options to overcome gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation is an old procedure that has recently become popular again. It has shown a clear effectiveness in the treatment of C. difficile infection, and now represents a cutting-edge option for the restoration of gut microbiota. Nevertheless, such weapons should be used with caution. Antibiotics can indeed harm and alter gut microbiota composition. Probiotics, instead, are not at all the same thing, and thinking in terms of different strains is probably the only way to improve clinical outcomes. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation has shown promising results, but stronger proofs are needed. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of gut microbiota, especially with regard to the future use in its modulation for therapeutic purposes.

  15. Unsealed Tubewells Lead to Increased Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Sayler, Gary S.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, 6 unsealed) were monitored for cultured E. coli over 18 months. Additionally, two “snap shot” sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (ETEC E. coli), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using qPCR. No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained cultured E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p<0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  16. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  17. Solid-phase microextraction and the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dixon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein.

  18. Fecal incontinence in systemic sclerosis is secondary to neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoua, Nora M; Abdel-Halim, Mostafa; Forbes, Alastair; Denton, Chris P; Emmanuel, Anton V

    2012-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multi-system autoimmune disorder with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement in up to 90% of patients and anorectal involvement occurs in up to 50% of patients. The pathogenesis of gastrointestinal abnormalities may be both myogenic and neurogenic. We aimed to identify which anorectal physiological abnormalities correlate with clinical symptoms and thus understand the pathophysiology of anorectal involvement in SSc. In total, 44 SSc patients (24 symptomatic (Sx) (fecal incontinence) and 20 asymptomatic (ASx)) and 20 incontinent controls (ICs) were studied. Patients underwent anorectal manometry, rectal mucosal blood flow (RMBF), rectal compliance (barostat), and rectoanal inhibitory reflex assessment (RAIR). Anal squeeze pressure was lower in the IC group compared with both the ASx and Sx groups (IC: 46.95 (30-63.9)) vs. ASx: 104.6 (81-128.3) vs. (Sx: 121.4 (101.3-141.6); P ASx: 6.7 (5.7-7.7) vs. IC: 8.5 (6.5-10.4); P ASx and in 1/20 IC patients. Fecal incontinence in SSc is related to neuropathy as suggested by absent RAIR and higher anal sensory threshold and is related less so to sphincter atrophy and rectal fibrosis.

  19. Parasitological diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni: fecal examination and rectal biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with all progress in the search of sensitive and methods for the immunological diagnosis of schistosomiasis, the microscopic detection of eggs of the parasite in the stool still remains the most widely used tool for the actual diagnosis of active infection. Among the coproscopic methods, Kato's technic modified by Katz et al (Kato/Katz has the advantages of higher sensitivity, the possibility of egg quantification, its low operational cost and its feasibility in areas with minimal infra-structure. The oorgram of the rectal mucosa is valuable in initial clinical trials of schistosomicides, when it is needed to observe egg morphology in tissue. It could be an alternative method for individual diagnosis, being more sensitive than a single stool exam in low intensity infection. However, the increased sensitivity of a higher number of fecal exams makes that invasiveprocedure unnecessary. In the assessment of cure of schistosomiasis, Kato/Katz method (three fecal samples in one, three and six months after treatment and the rectal biopsy four months after treatment, are equally reliable.

  20. Control of the gut microbiome by fecal microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the early 90s, microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, have mainly been associated with posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression on a cell-autonomous level. Recent evidence has extended this role by adding inter-species communication to the manifold functional range. In our latest study [Liu S, et al., 2016, Cell Host & Microbe], we identified miRNAs in gut lumen and feces of both mice and humans. We found that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and Hopx+ cells were the two main sources of fecal miRNA. Deficiency of IEC-miRNA resulted in gut dysbiosis and WT fecal miRNA transplantation restored the gut microbiota. We investigated potential mechanisms for this effect and found that miRNAs were able to regulate the gut microbiome. By culturing bacteria with miRNAs, we found that host miRNAs were able to enter bacteria, specifically regulate bacterial gene transcripts and affect bacterial growth. Oral administration of synthetic miRNA mimics affected specific bacteria in the gut. Our findings describe a previously unknown pathway by which the gut microbiome is regulated by the host and raises the possibility that miRNAs may be used therapeutically to manipulate the microbiome for the treatment of disease.

  1. Fecal Microbiota and Diet of Children with Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Gomes de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation (CC, such as a low-fiber diet. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of constipated and nonconstipated children and their intake frequencies of food. Methods. This observational study included 79 children (M/F 43/36 aged six to 36 months divided into two groups: cases (39 constipated children and controls (40 nonconstipated children. We used a structured form to collect demographic variables, conducted anthropometric assessment, and collected food intake frequency data. The fecal microbiota of the stool samples was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the fluorophore SYBR® Green. Results. Constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus per milligram of stool (p=0.015 than nonconstipated children, but the concentration of Bifidobacterium per milligram of stool (p=0.323 and the intake of fruits, vegetables (p=0.563, and junk food (p=0.093 of the two groups did not differ. Constipated children consumed more dairy products (0.45±0.8; p>0.001, were more frequently delivered via caesarean section (69.2%, were weaned earlier (median: 120; 60Q1–240Q3, and had a family history of constipation (71.8%. Conclusions. Children with CC have a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus in their stools and consume more dairy products.

  2. Double-barreled wet colostomy: urinary and fecal diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecmanovic, Dragutin M; Pavlov, Maja J; Ceranic, Miljan S; Masulovic, Dragan M; Popov, Ivan P; Micev, Marjan T

    2008-07-01

    Double-barreled wet colostomy represents simultaneous urinary and fecal surgical diversion performed most commonly after pelvic exenteration as a palliative procedure or after actinic damage. We report the structural and functional results of double-barreled wet colostomy with special attention to surgical technique, morbidity and functional results compared to those described in the available literature. We retrospectively followed 38 patients who underwent double-barreled wet colostomy at our institution from April 2003 to November 2007. The parameters were patient age and gender, the indication for double-barreled wet colostomy, postoperative morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay and functional assessment by excreting excretory urography. A total of 38 double-barreled wet colostomies were performed at our institution, including 24 following total pelvic exenteration, 14 without resection, 9 in inoperable tumor cases and 5 in actinic damage cases. The postoperative morbidity rate was 15.7% with no treatment related mortality. Two patients had late postoperative complications, including stenosis of the ureterocolonic anastomosis and conduit necrosis, respectively. In our experience double-barreled wet colostomy has an acceptable morbidity and mortality rate, is performed without technical difficulties and does not require prolonged operative time. Double-barreled wet colostomy represents the procedure of choice in patients who require concurrent urinary and fecal diversion.

  3. An Investigation of Variables in a Fecal Flotation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, M. R.; Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1980-01-01

    Several variables in a standard vial fecal gravitational flotation technique were investigated. These were the specific gravity of the sodium nitrate flotation solution, duration of flotation and mesh sizes of strainers. The number of eggs which floated and adhered to a coverslip were counted and estimates of the number of eggs remaining in the strained fecal suspension and in the feces trapped on the strainer were made. Eggs from hookworms, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara canis in feces from dogs, Nematodirus spp. from sheep and Parascaris equorum from horses floated equally well in solutions with specific gravities (SpGr) ranging from 1.22-1.38. Taenia spp. from dogs had a slightly narrower range (SpGr 1.27-1.38) for best recovery. Eggs from Haemonchus contortus from sheep appeared to float best between SpGr 1.22- 1.32. Strongyles from one horse floated best with SpGr 1.27-1.32 and from another with SpGr 1.11-1.38. Coccidial oocysts from sheep floated best in a narrow range of SpGr from 1.22-1.27. However, as the SpGr of the solution was increased the recognition of eggs under the coverslip was increasingly difficult and especially so at SpGr 1.38 with sheep feces. This was due to the increasing amount of debris and the more rapid formation of crystals with evaporation with solutions of higher SpGr. It appeared, therefore, that solutions with SpGr of 1.22-1.35 would be best for routine laboratory use. At specific gravity 1.27, there appeared to be no difference in the number of eggs recovered for a four, eight and 12 min flotation period. Only 3-7% of the eggs in 4 g of feces were counted under the coverslip. This poor efficacy resulted first because approximately 50% of the eggs were trapped in the feces and retained on the strainer. Secondly, only one half of the strained fecal suspension, containing approximately 25% of the eggs, was placed in the vial for examination. Thirdly, of those eggs in the vial only 16-29% were counted under the coverslip. When the

  4. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  5. Can the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence be predicted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Terra (Maaike); M. Deutekom (Marije); A.C. Dobben (Annette); C.G.M.I. Baeten; L.W.M. Janssen (Lucas); G.E. Boeckxstaens (Guy); A.F. Engel (Alexander); R.J.F. Felt-Bersma; J.F.W. Slors; M.F. Gerhards (Michael); A.B. Bijnen (Bart); E. Everhardt; W.R. Schouten (Ruud); B. Berghmans; P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); J. Stoker (Jacob)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Pelvic-floor rehabilitation does not provide the same degree of relief in all fecal incontinent patients. We aimed at studying prospectively the ability of tests to predict the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence. Materials and methods: Two

  6. Study of fecal bacterial diversity in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    probably had some link with human obesity (Ley et al.,. 2006). J272 and J278 had 94 and 93% similarity, respectively, with the uncultured bacteria isolated from ... in the microbiota of R. bieti, it reflects the fecal bacterial diversity of R. bieti to a large extent by the use of fecal analysis based on molecular scatology. Analysis of ...

  7. Distinct fecal and oral microbiota composition in human type 1 diabetes, an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Pieter F; Belzer, Clara; Aydin, Ömrüm; Levin, Evgeni; Levels, Johannes H; Aalvink, Steven; Boot, Fransje; Holleman, Frits; van Raalte, Daniël H; Scheithauer, Torsten P; Simsek, Suat; Schaap, Frank G; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Roep, Bart O; Hoekstra, Joost B; de Vos, Willem M; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors driving the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are still largely unknown. Both animal and human studies have shown an association between altered fecal microbiota composition, impaired production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and T1D onset. However, observational evidence on SCFA and fecal and oral microbiota in adults with longstanding T1D vs healthy controls (HC) is lacking. We included 53 T1D patients without complications or medication and 50 HC matched for age, sex and BMI. Oral and fecal microbiota, fecal and plasma SCFA levels, markers of intestinal inflammation (fecal IgA and calprotectin) and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation were measured. Oral microbiota were markedly different in T1D (eg abundance of Streptococci) compared to HC. Fecal analysis showed decreased butyrate producing species in T1D and less butyryl-CoA transferase genes. Also, plasma levels of acetate and propionate were lower in T1D, with similar fecal SCFA. Finally, fecal strains Christensenella and Subdoligranulum correlated with glycemic control, inflammatory parameters and SCFA. We conclude that T1D patients harbor a different amount of intestinal SCFA (butyrate) producers and different plasma acetate and propionate levels. Future research should disentangle cause and effect and whether supplementation of SCFA-producing bacteria or SCFA alone can have disease-modifying effects in T1D.

  8. Development and Testing of Novel Canine Fecal Source-Identification Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent to which dogs contribute to aquatic fecal contamination is unknown despite the potential for zoonotic transfer of harmful human pathogens. Recent method comparison studies have shown that available Bacteroidales 16S rRNA-based methods for the detection of canine fecal ...

  9. Development of Cross-Assembly Phage PCR-Based Methods for Human Fecal Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technologies that can characterize human fecal pollution in environmental waters offer many advantages over traditional general indicator approaches. However, many human-associated methods cross-react with non-human animal sources and lack suitable sensitivity for fecal source id...

  10. Variation in fecal testosterone hormone concentration with season and harem size in Misaki feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ashraf M; Nakahara, Keiko; Tokuriki, Mikihiko; Kaseda, Yujiro; Murakami, Noboru

    2009-08-01

    On Misaki peninsula, Japan, fecal samples were collected from 14 Misaki stallions at monthly intervals for 12 consecutive months. The fecal testosterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. We examined monthly fecal testosterone hormone patterns and the relationship between fecal testosterone concentration and breeding season and later harem size. Marked monthly variations in fecal testosterone concentration were observed. The fecal testosterone concentration began rising in March; the highest mean monthly concentration, 2.87 +/- 0.18 ng/g, was found in April, and the level remained elevated until the end of August and thereafter decreased. A significant correlation was found between the fecal testosterone concentrations and harem size in both the breeding and non-breeding season among the 14 stallions. It is therefore possible that the testosterone levels in feces, instead of blood, correlate very well with harem size in Misaki stallions. Our findings emphasized that the fecal testosterone concentration can be a powerful indicator for monitoring of endocrine status in wild stallions.

  11. Waveband selection and algorithm development to distinguish fecal contamination using multispectral imaging with solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination in fresh produce fields caused by animals or livestock entering the fields can lead to outbreaks of foodbourne illnesses. E.coli O157:H7 originating in the intestines of animals can transfer onto leafy greens via fecal matter. Leafy greens are often eaten fresh without thermal tr...

  12. Relief of fecal incontinence by sacral nerve stimulation linked to focal brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Lilli; Møller, Arne; Buntzen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence.......This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence....

  13. Prevalence and Source of Fecal and Oral Bacteria on Infant, Child, and Adult Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Modern hygienic practices are applied to avoid exposure to pathogens that spread via fecal-oral transmission. Despite this, the gastrointestinal tract is quickly colonized by fecal microbes. The hands are an important vector for the transmission of microbes, but the frequency at which fecal and oral microbes exist on hands and the source of those microbes have not been extensively described. Using data from a previous study that characterized the fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 73 families, we found a significant incidence of fecal and oral microbes on hands. Of palms, 48.9% had fecal signal and 67.2% had oral signal. Fecal, oral, and forehead microbes were tracked to family members and an individual's own palms far more often than to unrelated individuals and showed relationships with age, gender, and parental status. For instance, oral microbes that were specifically sourced to the same individual (oneself) were most common on infant palms; mothers had more infant-child-sourced and oral-sourced microbes on their palms than nonparents. Fecal microbes on palms more often sourced to members of the family than unrelated individuals, but more often to other members of the family than oneself. This study supports that the hands are an important vector for the transfer of fecal and oral microbes within families. IMPORTANCE Bacteria live all around us, and we are constantly exposed to them during our everyday lives. Modern standards of hygiene aim to limit exposure to fecal bacteria, and yet bacteria rapidly colonize the gut in early life and following antibacterial treatment. Exposures to fecal and oral microbes provide risk of disease, but are also necessary since commensal microbes play important roles in health. This work establishes that bacteria of both fecal and oral origins are commonly found on hands. It also establishes that the uniqueness of fecal and oral bacterial communities across people can allow for determination of the likely individual from whom

  14. A longitudinal study of fecal calprotectin and the development of inflammatory bowel disease in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Eva; Strid, Hans; Ståhl, Arne; Deminger, Anna; Carlsten, Hans; Öhman, Lena; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena

    2017-02-02

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are at increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to determine the variation in fecal calprotectin in AS over 5 years in relation to disease activity and medication and also to study the incidence of and predictors for development of IBD. Fecal calprotectin was assessed at baseline (n = 204) and at 5-year follow-up (n = 164). The patients answered questionnaires and underwent clinical evaluations. At baseline and at 5-year follow-up, ileocolonoscopy was performed in patients with fecal calprotectin ≥500 mg/kg and ≥200 mg/kg, respectively. The medical records were checked for diagnoses of IBD during the follow-up period. Fecal calprotectin >50 mg/kg was found in two-thirds of the patients at both study visits. In 80% of the patients, fecal calprotectin changed by Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and fecal calprotectin at 5-year follow-up. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was associated with higher fecal calprotectin, and 3-week cessation of NSAIDs resulted in a drop of a median 116 mg/kg in fecal calprotectin. The use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers was associated with lower fecal calprotectin at both visits, but the users of TNF receptor fusion proteins had significantly higher fecal calprotectin than users of anti-TNF antibodies at 5-year follow-up. The 5-year incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) was 1.5% and was predicted by high fecal calprotectin. Fecal calprotectin was elevated in a majority of the patients and was associated with disease activity and medication at both visits. CD developed in 1.5% of the patients with AS, and a high fecal calprotectin was the main predictor thereof. The results support a link between inflammation in the gut and the

  15. Physical Therapy for Fecal Incontinence in Children with Pelvic Floor Dyssynergia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddasani, Swathi; Moe, Amanda; Semmelrock, Caitlin; Gilbert, Caroyl Luan; Enemuo, Valentine; Chiou, Eric Howard; Chumpitazi, Bruno Pedro

    2017-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of physical therapy (PT) for fecal incontinence in children with pelvic floor dyssynergia (PFD). Retrospective chart review of children with PFD completing >1 PT session for fecal incontinence at a quaternary children's hospital. The frequency of fecal incontinence (primary outcome), constipation-related medication use, number of bowel movements (in those with pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function were captured at baseline and at the final PT visit. Outcomes were categorized as excellent (complete continence), good (>50% decrease in fecal incontinence frequency), fair (not worsening but Pelvic floor PT is effective in the majority of children with fecal incontinence related to PFD. Factors associated with PT efficacy include improved PFM functioning, good compliance with PT, and history of tethered cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  17. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  18. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Fate and Removal in Urban Stormwater at the Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfand, J.; Hogue, T. S.; Luthy, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major cause of water quality impairment, resulting in surface waters that fail to meet water quality standards and support their designated uses. Of the many stormwater pollutants, fecal indicator bacteria are particularly important to track because they are directly linked to pathogens which jeopardize public health; yet, their fate and transport in urban stormwater is poorly understood. Monitoring fecal bacteria in stormwater is possible, but due to the high variability of fecal indicators both spatially and temporally, single grab or composite samples do not fully capture fecal indicator loading. Models have been developed to predict fecal indicator bacteria at the watershed scale, but they are often limited to agricultural areas, or areas that receive frequent rainfall. Further, it is unclear whether best management practices (BMPs), such as bioretention or engineered wetlands, are able to reduce bacteria to meet water quality standards at watershed outlets. This research seeks to develop a model to predict fecal indicator bacteria in urban stormwater in a semi-arid climate at the watershed scale. Using the highly developed Ballona Creek watershed (89 mi2) located in Los Angeles County as a case study, several existing mechanistic models are coupled with a hydrologic model to predict fecal indicator concentrations (E. coli, enterococci, fecal coliform, and total coliform) at the outfall of Ballona Creek watershed, Santa Monica Bay. The hydrologic model was developed using InfoSWMM Sustain, calibrated for flow from WY 1998-2006 (NSE = 0.94; R2 = 0.95), and validated from WY 2007-2015 (NSE = 0.93; R2 = 0.95). The developed coupled model is being used to predict fecal indicator fate and transport and evaluate how BMPs can be optimized to reduce fecal indicator loading to surface waters and recreational beaches.

  19. Accurate diagnosis of Giardia spp and proper fecal examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Smith, V

    2006-01-01

    A series of investigations evaluated the ability of different testing methods - a swing-head centrifugation technique using two flotation solutions (1.18-specific gravity zinc sulfate and 1.27-specific gravity Sheather's sugar solution), a passive commercial flotation technique, and the SNAP Giardia Test Kit from IDEXX Laboratories - to identify Giardia-positive dogs and recover the eggs of other intestinal parasites. It was determined that the SNAP Giardia test can improve a practice's ability to identify Giardia-infected dogs. Because of its higher specific gravity, the sugar solution was better for recovering heavy parasite eggs, such as Taenia spp, and thus is the flotation solution of choice when conducting routine centrifugation fecal examinations.

  20. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Step-up fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bota; Li, Pan; Xu, Lijuan; Peng, Zhaoyuan; Xiang, Jie; He, Zhi; Zhang, Ting; Ji, Guozhong; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut dysbiosis is a characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective strategy to restore intestinal microbial diversity and has been reported to have a potential therapeutic value in IBD. Our recent study reported a holistic integrative therapy called “step-up FMT strategy,” which was beneficial in treating steroid-dependent IBD patients. This strategy consists of scheduled FMTs combined with steroids, anti-TNF-α antibody treatment or enteral nutrition. Herein, we will elaborate the strategy thoroughly, introducing the concept, potential indication, methodology, and safety of “step-up FMT strategy” in detail. PMID:26939622

  2. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  3. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  4. Transient bladder and fecal incontinence following epidural blood patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Palomero-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural blood patch (EBP is the currently accepted treatment of choice for postdural puncture headache because of its high initial success rates and infrequent complications. Many authors recommended a small volume (10-20 mL of blood to be delivered for an effective EBP. Here, we report an obstetric patient who developed a transient bladder and fecal incontinence after 19 mL of blood EBP at L 1 -L 2 level. Since the magnetic resonance image did not demonstrate any definitive spinal cord lesion, the exact mechanism remains unclear. We suggest that accumulation of blood performed at L 1 to L 2 level in a closed relationship with the sacral cord, may have trigger a significant pressure elevation of the epidural space at this level, resulting in a temporal spinal cord-related injury in the sacral cord.

  5. Paraparesis (paraplegia) tetraparesis (tetraplegia), urinary/fecal incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornegay, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    Paraparesis (paraplegia) refers to partial (-paresis) or complete (-plegia) loss of voluntary motor function in the pelvic limbs. Similar involvement of all four limbs is termed tetraparesis (tetraplegia). Paraparesis generally results from spinal cord lesions caudad to the second thoracic spinal cord segment, whereas tetraparesis occurs because of lesions craniad to this segment (see discussion of spinal cord lesion localization in The Neurologic Examination and Lesion Localization, on page 328). The limbs may be affected equally; however, asymmetric lesions cause greater clinical involvement on the ipsilateral side. Strictly unilateral lesions at C1-T2 result in clinical involvement on only the affected side of the body (hemiparesis, hemiplegia). Monoparesis (monoplegia) occurs subsequent to unilateral T2-S1 lesions. Trauma and neoplasia are the most common spinal cord diseases affecting cats. Urinary and fecal incontinence often occur concomitant with paresis. General concepts relating to disorders of micturition are discussed at the conclusion of this chapter

  6. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, P F; Frissen, M N; de Clercq, N C; Nieuwdorp, M

    2017-05-04

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects.

  7. Incontinencia fecal en el adulto: Un desafio permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Claudio Wainstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia fecal (IF es un problema complejo que afecta desde 2% de la población general, hasta un 45% de los pacientes de casas de reposo. Entre los factores etiológicos destacan causas traumáticas, neurológicas, congénitas e iatrogénicas, siendo uno de las principales, el trauma obstétrico. Resulta fundamental en el manejo de estos pacientes un enfoque multidisciplinario, no solo por la etiología multifactorial, sino porque suele asociarse a otras alteraciones del piso pelviano como prolapso ginecológico e incontinencia urinaria entre otros. Por estas razones puede resultar en una patología devastadora por sus consecuencias tanto sociales, psicológicas, de calidad de vida y económicas. La evaluación clínica resulta fundamental para orientar tanto el estudio como su manejo en forma integral. Existen múltiples opciones de tratamiento médico y quirúrgicas para el tratamiento de la incontinencia fecal. La rehabilitación pelviperineal es una de las estrategias más exitosas ya sea como tratamiento exclusivo o coadyuvante a la terapia quirúrgica. Dependiendo de la causa, la cirugía tiene indicaciones precisas, con resultados variables. La IF es un problema de difícil manejo; no hay un algoritmo único de estudio ni tratamiento, razón por la cual resulta fundamental el enfoque multidisciplinario en su tratamiento. El objetivo de este artículo es resumir los avances en el conocimiento de los mecanismos que conducen a la IF, como también la nuevas estrategias en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta patología.

  8. Fecal incontinence decreases sexual quality of life, but does not prevent sexual activity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Laurel R; Brown, Jeanette S; Creasman, Jennifer M; Subak, Leslee L; Van den Eeden, Stephen K; Thom, David H; Varma, Madhulika G; Huang, Alison J

    2012-10-01

    The impact of anal incontinence on women's sexual function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anal incontinence and sexual activity and functioning in women. This is a cross-sectional study. This investigation was conducted in a community-based integrated health care delivery system. Included were 2269 ethnically diverse women aged 40 to 80 years. Self-administered questionnaires assessed accidental leakage of gas (flatal incontinence) and fluid/mucus/stool (fecal incontinence) in the past 3 months. Additional questionnaires assessed sexual activity, desire and satisfaction, as well as specific sexual problems (difficulty with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, or pain). Multivariable logistic regression models compared sexual function in women with 1) isolated flatal incontinence, 2) fecal incontinence (with or without flatal incontinence), and 3) no fecal/flatal incontinence, controlling for potential confounders. Twenty-four percent of women reported fecal incontinence and 43% reported isolated flatal incontinence in the previous 3 months. The majority were sexually active (62% of women without fecal/flatal incontinence, 66% with isolated flatal incontinence, and 60% with fecal incontinence; p = 0.06). In comparison with women without fecal/flatal incontinence, women with fecal incontinence were more likely to report low sexual desire (OR: 1.41 (CI: 1.10-1.82)), low sexual satisfaction (OR: 1.56 (CI: 1.14-2.12)), and limitation of sexual activity by physical health (OR: 1.65 (CI: 1.19-2.28)) after adjustment for confounders. Among sexually active women, women with fecal incontinence were more likely than women without fecal/flatal incontinence to report difficulties with lubrication (OR: 2.66 (CI: 1.76-4.00)), pain (OR: 2.44 (CI: 1.52-3.91)), and orgasm (OR: 1.68 (CI: 1.12-2.51)). Women with isolated flatal incontinence reported sexual functioning similar to women without fecal/flatal incontinence. The cross

  9. Sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence Neuromodulación de raíces sacras en incontinencia fecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pascual

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze short-term outcomes and complications for our first fifty patients with fecal incontinence undergoing sacral root stimulation. Patients: fifty patients with fecal incontinence receiving sacral neuromodulation in 4 hospitals are reviewed. Discussed variables include: age, sex, incontinence duration, incontinence cause, prior surgery for incontinence, Wexner scale score, anorectal manometry parameters, and endoanal ultrasonographic findings. Following the procedure Wexner scale score, anorectal manometry parameters, and associated complications are reviewed. Results: mean age of patients is 59.9 years, with females predominating. Most common causes of incontinence include obstetric procedures, idiopathic origin, and prior anal surgery. Mean follow-up is 17.02 months. Follow-up revealed a statistically significant reduction in Wexner scale score and increase in voluntary anal pressure. Technique-derived minor complications included: 2 surgical wound infections that led to stimulator withdrawal; 2 patients with pain who were managed conservatively; 1 case of externalization in a gluteal stimulator; and 1 broken tetrapolar electrode. Conclusions: sacral nerve stimulation is a simple technique that improves Wexner scores in a statistically significant manner with a low complications rate.Objetivo: analizar los resultados y complicaciones a corto plazo de nuestros primeros cincuenta pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante estimulación de raíces sacras. Pacientes: se revisan cincuenta pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante neuromodulación de raíces sacras en 4 centros hospitalarios. Las variables analizadas son: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la incontinencia, causa de la incontinencia, cirugías previas para tratar la incontinencia, puntuación en la escala de Wexner, parámetros de la manometría anorrectal y los hallazgos en la ecografía endoanal. Tras la intervención se revisa la puntuaci

  10. Reproductive effects on fecal nitrogen as an index of diet quality: an experimental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kyle B.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Leslie,, David M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of fecal nitrogen has been used widely as an indicator of dietary quality for free-ranging ruminants. Differences in digestive function between species of dimorphic ungulates render interspecific comparisons of fecal nitrogen unreliable; however, whether intraspecific sexual differences in digestive function also bias this nutritional index is unknown. Our objective was to compare sex-specific variation in concentration of fecal nitrogen using male, nonlactating female, and lactating female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on high- and low-quality diets. During weekly trials over spring and summer (2008-2009), we monitored intake rates, collected feces twice daily, and used micro-Kjeldahl procedures to determine percent fecal nitrogen. We also determined nitrogen content of feces following a neutral detergent fiber (NDF) rinse during pre-, peak, and postlactation. Fecal nitrogen reflected general differences in dietary quality between diets; however, fecal nitrogen of lactating females in both dietary groups was lower than for males or nonlactating females throughout lactation. Nitrogen concentration following an NDF rinse also was lower for lactating females during peak lactation. We hypothesize that the remodeling of the digestive tract and increased rumination by lactating females may enhance their ability to extract nitrogen from their forage. These adjustments may expand the foraging options of lactating females by increasing their ability to process low-quality foods, but also affects the interpretation of fecal nitrogen during the season of lactation.

  11. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn's disease and in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malíčková, Karin; Francová, Irena; Lukáš, Milan; Kolář, Martin; Králíková, Eva; Bortlík, Martin; Ďuricová, Dana; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Pánková, Alexandra; Zima, Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc). Values were correlated to IBD type, localization and behavior, and smoking. Serum and fecal zonulin were significantly higher in patients with Crohn's disease compared to ulcerative colitis (p = 0.038 for fecal zonulin, and p = 0.041 for serum zonulin concentrations). No association of serum or fecal zonulin was found with respect to IBD localization and behavior. The only difference was found with respect to smoking. Both the IBD cohort and healthy smokers showed significantly higher fecal zonulin levels (median 203 ng/mL) compared to non-smokers (median 35.8 ng/mL), p zonulin levels are elevated in patients with active Crohn's disease but not with ulcerative colitis. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers.

  12. Fecal osmotic gap and pH in experimental diarrhea of various causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eherer, A J; Fordtran, J S

    1992-08-01

    Although the osmotic gap of fecal fluid is often used to distinguish osmotic diarrhea from secretory diarrhea, there has never been a scientific evaluation of the validity of this concept. Similarly, although a low fecal fluid pH value is used to indicate that diarrhea is mediated by carbohydrate malabsorption, the validity of this method is unproven. Therefore, in the present study, diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by different mechanisms and fecal fluid osmotic gap (using an assumed fecal fluid osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg) and pH were measured. In secretory diarrhea caused by phenolphthalein, the osmotic gap was always less than 50 mOsm/kg, whereas in osmotic diarrhea caused by polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, lactulose, and sorbitol, the osmotic gap always exceeded 50 mOsm/kg. In osmotic diarrhea caused by sodium sulfate, the fecal fluid osmotic gap was less than 50 mOsm/kg, but phenolphthalein-induced secretory diarrhea could be distinguished from sodium sulfate-induced osmotic diarrhea by the fecal chloride concentration. When diarrhea was caused by carbohydrate malabsorption (lactulose or sorbitol), the fecal fluid pH was always less than 5.6 and usually less than 5.3; by contrast, other causes of diarrhea rarely caused a fecal pH as low as 5.6 and never caused a pH less than 5.3. It is concluded that measurement of fecal fluid osmotic gap and pH can distinguish various mechanisms of experimental diarrhea in normal subjects. The concepts on which these tests are based are therefore verified experimentally.

  13. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.

    1982-01-01

    In an experiment with 20 15 N-labelled growing rats the excretion of amino acids as well as of metabolic fecal amino acids were investigated after feeding of soybean oil meal as sole protein source. A low, yet statistically significant increase of the excretion of amino acids and metabolic fecal amino acids was ascertained in accordance with a growing quota of soybean oil meal in the ration. The true digestibility of amino acids ascertained according to conventional methods is above 90% and, under consideration of the increase of metabolic fecal amino acids, on the average increases by 3.5 digestibility units (1.4 to 6.2). (author)

  14. Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using fecal microbiota transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rahul Pathak,1 Hill Ambrose Enuh,1 Anish Patel,1 Prasanna Wickremesinghe21Department of Internal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USABackground: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has become a global concern over the last decade. In the United States, CDI escalated in incidence from 1996 to 2005 from 31 to 64/100,000. In 2010, there were 500,000 cases of CDI with an estimated mortality up to 20,000 cases a year. The significance of this problem is evident from the hospital costs of over 3 billion dollars annually. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT was first described in 1958 and since then about 500 cases have been published in literature in various small series and case reports. This procedure has been reported mainly from centers outside of the United States and acceptance of the practice has been difficult. Recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA labeled FMT as a biological drug; as a result, guidelines will soon be required to help establish it as a mainstream treatment. More US experience needs to be reported to popularize this procedure here and form guidelines.Method: We did a retrospective review of our series of patients with relapsing CDI who were treated with FMT over a 3-year period. We present our experience with FMT at a community hospital as a retrospective review and describe our procedure.Results: There were a total of 12 patients who underwent FMT for relapsing C. difficile. Only one patient failed to respond and required a second FMT. There were no complications associated with the transplant and all patients had resolution of symptoms within 48 hours of FMT.Conclusion: FMT is a cheap, easily available, effective therapy for recurrent CDI; it can be safely performed in a

  15. Effect on the performance with the washing of the gas turbines Ruston TB5000 with a system of washing out of line in high contamination conditions; Efecto en el rendimiento con el lavado de las turbinas de gas Ruston TB5000 con un sistema de lavado fuera de linea en condiciones de alta contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Diaz, Carlos Rodolfo; Aboites Davila, Fernando [CIATEQ, A.C., Queretaro (Mexico); Rocha Orozco, Moises [PEMEX Refinacion, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper shows the effects on the gas turbine performance with a washing system out of line, based on liquid detergent and water for the case of 2 Ruston TB5000 gas turbines located in conditions of high contamination in the atmosphere such as ashes, high humidity and temperature. The investigation was realized making periodical measurements of the main parameters of the turbo-pump during 1 year of operation with load conditions without stopping of about 125 mbpd (million of barrels per day) of gas LP. This article suggests how the low performance of the turbines in a hostile atmosphere can be improved and which could be the limitations of the washing systems based on liquid detergents. The data of the washing sessions were collected during a year and studied under statistical methods creating performance curves and comparing them with curves of other machines being washed with other washing systems. [Spanish] Este trabajo muestra los efectos en el rendimiento de la turbina de gas con un sistema de lavado fuera de linea, basado en detergente liquido y agua para el caso de 2 turbinas de gas Ruston TB5000 localizados en condiciones de alta contaminacion en el ambiente como cenizas, alta humedad y temperatura. La investigacion fue realizada haciendo mediciones periodicas de los parametros principales de turbo bomba durante 1 ano de operacion con condiciones de carga sin parar de alrededor de 125 mbpd (millones de barriles por dia) de gas LP. Este articulo sugiere como se puede mejorar el bajo desempeno de las turbinas en un ambiente hostil y cuales podrian ser las limitaciones de los sistemas de lavado basados en detergentes liquidos. Los datos de las sesiones de lavado fueron recolectados durante un ano y estudiados bajo metodos estadisticos creando curvas de rendimiento y comparandolas con curvas de otras maquinas siendo lavadas con otros sistemas de lavado.

  16. The Influence of Household- and Community-Level Sanitation and Fecal Sludge Management on Urban Fecal Contamination in Households and Drains and Enteric Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Kirby, Amy; Clennon, Julie A; Raj, Suraja; Yakubu, Habib; Leon, Juan; Robb, Katharine; Kartikeyan, Arun; Hemavathy, Priya; Gunasekaran, Annai; Ghale, Ben; Kumar, J Senthil; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Moe, Christine

    2017-06-01

    AbstractUrban sanitation necessitates management of fecal sludge inside and outside the household. This study examined associations between household sanitation, fecal contamination, and enteric infection in two low-income neighborhoods in Vellore, India. Surveys and spatial analysis assessed the presence and clustering of toilets and fecal sludge management (FSM) practices in 200 households. Fecal contamination was measured in environmental samples from 50 households and household drains. Enteric infection was assessed from stool specimens from children under 5 years of age in these households. The two neighborhoods differed significantly in toilet coverage (78% versus 33%) and spatial clustering. Overall, 49% of toilets discharged directly into open drains ("poor FSM"). Children in households with poor FSM had 3.78 times higher prevalence of enteric infection when compared with children in other households, even those without toilets. In the neighborhood with high coverage of household toilets, children in households with poor FSM had 10 times higher prevalence of enteric infection than other children in the neighborhood and drains in poor FSM clusters who had significantly higher concentrations of genogroup II norovirus. Conversely, children in households with a toilet that contained excreta in a tank onsite had 55% lower prevalence of enteric infection compared with the rest of the study area. Notably, households with a toilet in the neighborhood with low toilet coverage had more fecal contamination on floors where children played compared with those without a toilet. Overall, both toilet coverage levels and FSM were associated with environmental fecal contamination and, subsequently, enteric infection prevalence in this urban setting.

  17. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  18. The Microbial Fecal Indicator Paradigm: Tools in the Toolbox Applications in Recreational Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of ORD’s recent research to develop tools for assessing microbial water quality in recreational waters. Methods discussed include the development of health associations between microbial fecal indicators and the development of culture, and molecular methods for fec...

  19. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (purban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  1. Impact of exercise on fecal and cecal metabolome over aging: a longitudinal study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Gika, Helen; Panagoulis, Theodoros; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Raikos, Nikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise can reduce adverse conditions during aging, while both exercise and aging act as metabolism modifiers. The present study investigates rat fecal and cecal metabolome alterations derived from exercise during rats' lifespan. Groups of rats trained life-long or for a specific period of time were under study. The training protocol consisted of swimming, 15-18 min per day, 3-5 days per week, with load of 4-0% of rat's weight. Fecal samples and cecal extracts were analyzed by targeted and untargeted metabolic profiling methods (GC-MS and LC-MS/MS). Effects of exercise and aging on the rats' fecal and cecal metabolome were observed. Fecal and cecal metabolomics are a promising field to investigate exercise biochemistry and age-related alterations.

  2. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated

  3. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  4. Fecal Carriage of Extended‑spectrum Beta‑lactamase and AmpC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfamethoxazole, and carbapenems were 31.2%, 33.3%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The relative high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL‑producing bacteria in community warrants further study in this field including developing policies ...

  5. Impact of antimicrobial use during beef production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine the impact of typical antimicrobial use during cattle production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance by culture, quantitative PCR, and metagenomic sequencing. Experimental Design & Analysis: Feces were recovered from colons of 36 lots of "conventional" (CONV) ca...

  6. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated

  7. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Decay of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the decomposition of different human fecal pollution sources is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decay of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fe...

  9. Evaluation of alkali fusion and acid leaching methods for the separation of plutonium in fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational radiation workers of Fuel reprocessing and Fuel fabrication facilities are monitored for the assessment of intakes of actinide radionuclides and evaluation of effective dose. The determination of the internally deposited radionuclides is carried out, by in-vivo technique, by analyzing the bioassay materials like urine and feaces. Urine samples are selected for the analysis of soluble (Type M) Pu/U isotopes while fecal samples are analyzed for the determination insoluble Pu/U isotopes (Type S). The strategy involves the analysis of both fecal as well as urine samples for assessing the possible nature of compound. This paper presents the investigation of analytical methods for fecal sample processing. Generally, separation of Pu isotopes in fecal sample is carried out by alkali fusion followed by standard radioanalytical technique

  10. Sensitivity of fecal occult blood testing in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinsky, Adam J; Guillaumin, Julien; Gilor, Chen

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The impact of dietary factors on fecal occult blood (FOB) testing has been previously evaluated in cats, but the analytical sensitivity of this point-of-care test remains unexamined. The primary goal of this study was to assess the analytical sensitivity of the FOB test in cats. Methods Five cats were used in a repeated measures study. Following oral administration of blood, feces were collected and tested every 12 h for FOB and melena. All cats were fed an animal protein-free diet starting the week before entry into the study. Blood was administered on a milligram of hemoglobin per kilogram of body weight basis, and dosed at 1.5, 3, 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin in series with a wash-out period between each trial. Results FOB was detected in one cat at 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin, three cats at 3 mg/kg hemoglobin and in all five cats at 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin. Melena was noted in one cat at 30 mg/kg and four cats at 45 mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Conclusions and relevance Administration of 15 mg/kg hemoglobin (equivalent to about 1.5 ml blood) was sufficient for positive results in all cats. However, detection occurred with as little as 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin. Thus, FOB has good analytical sensitivity in cats under appropriate clinical situations.

  11. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

    2013-06-01

    Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine.

  12. Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens: Towards Diagnostic Metagenomics of Fecal Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Christine Andersen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage. Studies show that metagenomic methods, from sample storage and DNA extraction to library preparation and shotgun sequencing, have a great influence on data output. To construct protocols that extract the complete metagenome but with minimal bias is an ongoing challenge. Many different software strategies for data analysis are being developed, and several studies applying diagnostic metagenomics to human clinical samples have been published, detecting, and sometimes, typing bacterial infections. It is possible to obtain a draft genome of the pathogen and to develop methods that can theoretically be applied in real-time. Finally, diagnostic metagenomics can theoretically be better geared than conventional methods to detect co-infections. The present review focuses on the current state of test development, as well as practical implementation of diagnostic metagenomics to trace foodborne bacterial infections in fecal samples from animals and humans.

  13. Weight Changes in Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussam, Dina; Drees, Marci; Myerson, Scott; Duffalo, Chad; Mosby, Danielle; Herdman, Christine; Depalma, Fedele; Mcgraw, Patty; Bacon, Alfred E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for relapsing Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) allows for rapid repopulation of the colonic microbiome and may prevent future relapses. FMT is considered safe, however subsequent impact on weight and metabolism are incompletely understood. Animal studies have shown that alterations in microbiota lead to changes in weight; this is also suggested in humans, based on limited anecdotal evidence. This study explores changes in weight associated with FMT. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent FMT at our 1100-bed community-based academic healthcare system. FMT protocol requires 2 documented CDI relapses and failed vancomycin taper. FMT methods include colonoscopy, EGD and oral capsules. Of note, donor stool (OpenBiome, Boston, Massachusetts) criteria include BMI 5% gain 11 (65) >10% gain 6 (35) >5% loss 6 (50) >10% loss 2 (17) Average % of body weight change (among those with changes) - Gain 7.7 Loss 5.5 Conclusion In this limited population, it appears FMT may predispose to weight gain, which may reflect improved health with CDI cure. However, effects of FMT on patient’s microbiomes must also be considered. As this intervention becomes more widely used we must be increasingly aware of possible metabolic side effects and ensure documentation of weight changes as part of FMT protocols. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  14. Colite de derivação fecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto Júnior

    Full Text Available A colite de derivação fecal (CD é um processo inflamatório que ocorre no segmento colorretal desfuncionalizado, após uma cirurgia de desvio do trânsito intestinal. As principais características dessa entidade clínica são: apresenta-se na desfuncionalização do cólon ou reto; não há doença inflamatória intestinal preexistente; nunca acomete o sítio proximal à colostomia e ocorre resolução do processo após a restauração do trânsito intestinal. Diversas são as hipóteses postuladas para explicar o seu aparecimento; todavia, a deficiência nutricional do epitélio colônico, pela ausência dos ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC, no segmento desfuncionalizado, é a mais aceita na atualidade. Os autores fazem uma revisão da literatura enfocando os aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e terapêuticos desta doença.

  15. Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Barger, Kathryn; Fu, Xueyan; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B; Meydani, Simin N; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined. Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation. Design: Fecal and serum menaquinone concentrations, fecal microbiota composition, and plasma and fecal cytokine concentrations were measured in 80 men and postmenopausal women (48 men, 32 women, age 40-65 y) enrolled in a randomized, parallel-arm, provided-food trial. After consuming a run-in diet for 2 wk, participants were randomly assigned to consume a whole grain-rich (WG) or a refined grain-based (RG) diet for 6 wk. Outcomes were measured at weeks 2 and 8. Results: The median total daily excretion of menaquinones in feces was 850 nmol/d but was highly variable (range: 64-5358 nmol/d). The total median (IQR) fecal concentrations of menaquinones decreased in the WG diet compared with the RG diet [-6.8 nmol/g (13.0 nmol/g) dry weight for WG compared with 1.8 nmol/g (12.3 nmol/g) dry weight for RG; P < 0.01)]. However, interindividual variability in fecal menaquinone concentrations partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups based on interindividual differences in concentrations of different menaquinone forms rather than the diet group or the time point. The relative abundances of several gut bacteria taxa, Bacteroides and Prevotella in particular, differed between these groups, and 42% of identified genera were associated with ≥1 menaquinone form. Menaquinones were not detected in serum, and neither fecal concentrations of individual menaquinones nor the menaquinone group was associated with any marker of inflammation

  16. Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations.

  17. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water sa...

  18. Fecal calprotectin levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa, Rehab; Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Kamel, Noha; Elsharqawy, Sonia Elsharqawy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the level of fecal calprotectin in preterm neonates with feeding intolerance, as well as to evaluate it as a marker of feeding intolerance and to determine a cut-off level of fecal calprotectin in feeding intolerance. Methods: Analytical, multicenter, case-control study, which was carried out in neonatal intensive care units in Egypt, in a period from August 1, 2014 to March 1, 2015 on 52 preterm neonates. Neonates were classified into two groups; a study grou...

  19. Microbiota transplantation restores normal fecal bile acid composition in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Chen, Chi; Bobr, Aleh; Yao, Dan; Lu, Yuwei; Nelson, Valerie M; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander

    2014-02-15

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapy for refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which develops following antibiotic treatments. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the metabolism of bile acids in the colon, which in turn have major effects on the lifecycle of C. difficile bacteria. We hypothesized that fecal bile acid composition is altered in patients with recurrent CDI and that FMT results in its normalization. General metabolomics and targeted bile acid analyses were performed on fecal extracts from patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT and their donors. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to determine the bacterial composition of pre- and post-FMT fecal samples. Taxonomic bacterial composition of fecal samples from FMT recipients showed rapid change and became similar to the donor after the procedure. Pre-FMT fecal samples contained high concentrations of primary bile acids and bile salts, while secondary bile acids were nearly undetectable. In contrast, post-FMT fecal samples contained mostly secondary bile acids, as did non-CDI donor samples. Therefore, our analysis showed that FMT resulted in normalization of fecal bacterial community structure and metabolic composition. Importantly, metabolism of bile salts and primary bile acids to secondary bile acids is disrupted in patients with recurrent CDI, and FMT corrects this abnormality. Since individual bile salts and bile acids have pro-germinant and inhibitory activities, the changes suggest that correction of bile acid metabolism is likely a major mechanism by which FMT results in a cure and prevents recurrence of CDI.

  20. Sticholonche zanclea (Protozoa, Actinopoda in fecal pellets of copepods and Euphausia sp. in Brazilian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Eskinazi-Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Fecal pellets produced by mesozooplanktonic copepods (Centropages velificatus and Paracalanus parvus and macrozooplanktonic Euphausiacea (Euphausia sp. were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Fragments of the protozoan Sticholonche zanclea were found in both copepod and in Euphausia sp. fecal pellets, even when the abundance of the protozoan in the water was low. The results suggest that S. zanclea is an important food resource for different trophic levels, including meso- and macrozooplankton, in Brazilian coastal waters.

  1. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Shira R; Ly, Melissa; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances.

  2. Fecal calprotectin levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Rehab; Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Kamel, Noha; Elsharqawy, Sonia Elsharqawy

    2016-01-01

    To assess the level of fecal calprotectin in preterm neonates with feeding intolerance, as well as to evaluate it as a marker of feeding intolerance and to determine a cut-off level of fecal calprotectin in feeding intolerance. Analytical, multicenter, case-control study, which was carried out in neonatal intensive care units in Egypt, in a period from August 1, 2014 to March 1, 2015 on 52 preterm neonates. Neonates were classified into two groups; a study group including 26 neonates who met inclusion criteria and a control group including 26 neonates for comparison. Fecal calprotectin levels ranged from 3.9μg/g to 971.8μg/g, and there was a significant increase in fecal calprotectin in the study group when compared to the control group (334.3±236.6μg/g vs. 42.0±38.2μg/g, respectively) with moderate inverse significant correlation between fecal calprotectin and birth weight. Furthermore, there was moderate, significant correlation between fecal calprotectin and duration of breastfeeding range. On the other hand, there was no correlation between fecal calprotectin and post-natal age, gestational age, or volume of feeding. A cut-off at the 67.0μg/g level, with 100.0% sensitivity and 76.9% specificity, was considered. Fecal calprotectin level increased significantly in neonates with feeding intolerance; it can be used to detect early cases with necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates, but this subject still needs more investigations on more patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn’s disease and in cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Malíčková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Design and methods: Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc. Values were correlated to IBD type, localization and behavior, and smoking. Results: Serum and fecal zonulin were significantly higher in patients with Crohn’s disease compared to ulcerative colitis (p = 0.038 for fecal zonulin, and p = 0.041 for serum zonulin concentrations. No association of serum or fecal zonulin was found with respect to IBD localization and behavior. The only difference was found with respect to smoking. Both the IBD cohort and healthy smokers showed significantly higher fecal zonulin levels (median 203 ng/mL compared to non-smokers (median 35.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Fecal and serum zonulin levels are elevated in patients with active Crohn’s disease but not with ulcerative colitis. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers. Keywords: Zonulin, Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis, Smoking

  4. Fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and intestinal permeability are elevated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M

    2018-02-12

    Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of a fecal scoring scale in puppies during the weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, Aurélien; Feugier, Alexandre; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie; Carrez, Bruno; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Casseleux, Gregory; Grandjean, Dominique

    2012-10-01

    In puppies weaning is a high risk period. Fecal changes are frequent and can be signs of infection by digestive pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) and indicators of nutritional and environmental stress. The aim of this study was to define a pathological fecal score for weaning puppies, and to study the impact on that score of two intestinal viruses (canine parvovirus type 2 and canine coronavirus). For this, the quality of stools was evaluated on 154 puppies between 4 and 8 weeks of age (100 from small breeds and 54 from large breeds). The scoring was performed immediately after a spontaneous defecation based on a 13-point scale (from 1; liquid to 13; dry and hard feces). Fecal samples were frozen for further viral analysis. Each puppy was weighed once a week during the study period. The fecal score regarded as pathological was the highest score associated with a significant reduction in average daily gain (ADG). Fecal samples were checked by semi-quantitative PCR or RT-PCR for canine parvovirus type 2 and canine coronavirus identification, respectively. The quality of feces was affected by both age and breed size. In small breeds, the ADG was significantly reduced under a fecal score of 6 and 7 for puppies at 4-5 and 6-8 weeks of age, respectively. In large breeds, the ADG was significantly reduced under a fecal score of 5 whatever the age of the puppy. Whereas a high viral load of canine parvovirus type 2 significantly impacted feces quality, no effect was recorded for canine coronavirus. This study provides an objective threshold for evaluation of fecal quality in weaning puppies. It also emphasizes the importance to be given to age and breed size in that evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli canine isolates from pyometra, cystitis and fecal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Luisa; Henriques, Sofia; Merino, Carolina; Pomba, Constança; Lopes da Costa, Luís; Silva, Elisabete

    2013-10-25

    Pyometra is the most common diestrual uterine disease of bitches. Escherichia coli is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the uterine content of pyometra uteri and it is associated with the most severe clinical signs, leading to endotoxemia and sepsis. In this study, canine E. coli isolates from pyometra (n=31), cystitis (n=23) and fecal (n=26) origin were compared regarding the prevalence of 23 potential virulence traits (15 virulence factor (VF) genes and 8 pathogenicity associated islands-PAIs), detected by PCR assays. Overall, there was a considerable overlap between pyometra, cystitis and fecal isolates regarding the phylogenetic grouping and virulence traits. Virulence traits more prevalent in pyometra than in cystitis and fecal isolates included two PAIs (PAI IV536 and PAI ICFT073) and three VF genes (sfa/focDE, fyuA and chuA). Regardless the isolates' origin, the average number of virulence traits per strain was higher in B2 than in the other phylogenetic groups (A, B1 and D). The prevalence of phylogenetic group B2 was significantly higher in pyometra (94%) than in cystitis (48%) and fecal (39%) isolates. In conclusion, pyometra isolates have a high potential of virulence and a broad virulence genotype, although being similar to a subset of cystitis and fecal isolates. This leads to the suggestion that cystitis and fecal isolates may be able to induce pyometra in receptive hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fecal calprotectin as a biomarker of inflammatory lesions of the small bowel seen by videocapsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Egea-Valenzuela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The levels of calprotectin in the stools are proportional to neutrophil activity in the enteric lumen, so fecal calprotectin is a useful intestinal inflammatory biomarker. It is an extended tool as predictor of colonic pathology but there is scare evidence about its utility in the small bowel. Objective: To test the yield of fecal calprotectin to detect lesions in the small bowel. Material and methods: We have retrospectively included 71 patients sent for small bowel capsule endoscopy in study for suspected inflammatory bowel disease. All of them had a determination of fecal calprotectin and had been sent to colonoscopy with no findings. Patients have been divided in groups: A, fecal calprotectin 100 µg/g, and we have analyzed which of them presented inflammatory lesions in capsule endoscopy studies. Results: The rate of patients with signi ficative lesions was 1 out of 10 (10% in group A, 6 out of 24 (25% in group B, and 21 out of 34 (62% in group C. If we consider levels over 50 µg/g pathologic, fecal calprotectin presents sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 23%, NPV: 90% and PPV: 56%. If we consider levels over 100 µg/g pathologic these values are sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 67%, NPV: 79% and PPV: 62%. Conclusions: Fecal calprotectin has high sensitivity but not so good specificity for predicting small bowel lesions after a normal colonoscopy. In daily practice it will be more useful to establish in 100 µg/g the limit to indicate capsule endoscopy studies.

  8. Standard compared with mnemonic counseling for fecal incontinence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowski, Sara B; Dunivan, Gena C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Murrietta, Ambroshia M; Komesu, Yuko M

    2015-05-01

    To estimate whether women who underwent mnemonic counseling had better recall of fecal incontinence therapies at 2 months and if mnemonic counseling resulted in greater satisfaction with physician counseling and improvement in quality of life when compared with a group who underwent standard counseling. Counseling-naive women with fecal incontinence were recruited from an academic urogynecology clinic. Women underwent physical examinations, completed the Quality of the Physician-Patient Interaction, recorded fecal incontinence treatment options they recalled, and completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Manchester Health Questionnaire immediately after counseling and again at 2 months. Ninety women consented to participate, were randomized, and completed baseline questionnaires. At baseline, women did not differ in age, ethnicity, education, Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, or Manchester Health Questionnaire scores. After counseling, the mnemonic group reported higher satisfaction on Quality of the Physician-Patient Interaction (66.4±6.5 compared with 62.2±10.7, P=.03). Ninety percent (81/90) of women followed up at 2 months. Our primary endpoint, 2-month recall of fecal incontinence treatments, was not different between groups (2.3±1.6 mnemonic counseling compared with 1.8±1.0 standard counseling; P=.08). Secondary endpoints for the mnemonic group reported greater improvement on total Manchester Health Questionnaire (P=.02), emotional (P=.03), sleep (0.045), role limitations (Pmnemonic aid did not improve recall at 2 months but improved patient satisfaction and quality of life at 2 months.

  9. Prevalence of bacterial contamination with antibiotic-resistant and enterotoxigenic fecal coliforms in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S P; Gopal, K

    2008-01-01

    Pollution indicator bacteria such as coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were enumerated using a multiple-tube fermentation method in 100 treated drinking-water samples from 20 locations in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of a tropical city during summer. Thirty-four percent of the samples were bacteriologically nonpotable. Maximum coliform-contaminated (27%) samples were derived from industrial areas, while samples contaminated with fecal coliform (23%) and fecal streptococci (20%) originated from commercial areas. Coliforms identified as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp. were present in 29%, 26%, 24%, and 15% of samples, respectively. Fecal coliforms were examined for antibiotic susceptibility with disc diffusion method. All test isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) for kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. Escherichia coli isolates were examined for enterotoxigenicity using the suckling mice bioassay and 60% of the isolates displayed enterotoxigenicity. Data indicate that drinking water contaminated with antibiotic-resistant enterotoxigenic fecal bacteria may be responsible for presence of waterborne diarrheal diseases attributed to therapeutic agents used by urban populations in the tropics.

  10. Application of phylogenetic microarray analysis to discriminate sources of fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Esmaili, Laleh; Hulls, John R; Cao, Yiping; Griffith, John F; Andersen, Gary L

    2012-04-17

    Conventional methods for fecal source tracking typically use single biomarkers to systematically identify or exclude sources. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis can potentially identify all sources of microbial contaminants in a single test by measuring the total diversity of fecal microbial communities. In this study, we used phylogenetic microarray analysis to determine the comprehensive suite of bacteria that define major sources of fecal contamination in coastal California. Fecal wastes were collected from 42 different populations of humans, birds, cows, horses, elk, and pinnipeds. We characterized bacterial community composition using a DNA microarray that probes for 16S rRNA genes of 59,316 different bacterial taxa. Cluster analysis revealed strong differences in community composition among fecal wastes from human, birds, pinnipeds, and grazers. Actinobacteria, Bacilli, and many Gammaproteobacteria taxa discriminated birds from mammalian sources. Diverse families within the Clostridia and Bacteroidetes taxa discriminated human wastes, grazers, and pinnipeds from each other. We found 1058 different bacterial taxa that were unique to either human, grazing mammal, or bird fecal wastes. These OTUs can serve as specific identifier taxa for these sources in environmental waters. Two field tests in marine waters demonstrate the capacity of phylogenetic microarray analysis to track multiple sources with one test.

  11. Modified technique of bilateral gluteus maximus transposition for reconstruction of sphincter for pediatric traumatic fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feiteng; Wu, Yang; Chen, Yongmei; Liu, Juxian; Li, Fuyu; Xiang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to report our 13-year experience of 14 children with gluteus maximus muscular transposition to treat post-trauma fecal incontinence and discuss our technical modifications to this surgical procedure. Fourteen children (median age: 9.9years) with complete fecal incontinence after traumas received this procedure from December 1998 to February 2011. The major modification of the surgery was that we transposed two thick muscular bundles about 2cm in diameter bilaterally. They surrounded the middle portion of rectum to act as sphincters. We used dynamic defecography and anorectal endosonography to observe the functions of the transposed muscles. Wexner scores, fecal incontinence quality of life questionnaire and self-rated health measurement scale scores had been used to evaluate their life quality. The median follow-up time was 6.3years. Twelve children reported prominently improved fecal controls with reduced stool frequency. Postoperative dynamic defecography and anorectal endosongraphy vividly demonstrated the satisfactory voluntary contractile and relaxed states of the reconstructed muscle. Wexner scores were significantly improved both 1year and 2years after the procedure (Pgluteus maximus transposition for reconstruction of sphincter efficiently improved fecal control and life quality for pediatric patients with traumatic fecal incontinence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of fecal contamination indicator sterols in an Australian water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Malik A; Ford, Rebecca; Hill, Julian

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance survey of the concentrations of sterol compounds (as indicators of fecal contamination) in a large water supply system in southeast Australia comprising a network of rivers, channels, and drains. Levels of coprostanol and cholestanol were determined in surface water and bottom sediment using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis across 17 strategic sampling sites and over 12 months. Clear differences in the levels of fecal contamination were observed among sites. Four sites routinely contained high levels of the fecal indicator sterols indicated from surface water and sediment sample analysis. Coprostanol concentrations at each location varied from 0 ng/L at the reference site to 11,327 ng/L in a surface water sample of a drain directly downstream of a knackery. The majority of the sites contained coprostanol in the range of 500 to 800 ng/L. Since no fecal-associated sterol compounds were detected at the external reference sites, these were assumed to be free from fecal contamination. Sewage water discharge and/or substantial water runoff maybe the principal factors contributing to fecal contamination of the supply drains and channels.

  13. Hands, water, and health: fecal contamination in Tanzanian communities with improved, non-networked water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Walters, Sarah P; Horak, Helena M; Keymer, Daniel P; Mushi, Douglas; Strickfaden, Rachelle; Chynoweth, Joshua S; Liu, Jessie; Blum, Annalise; Rogers, Kirsten; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2010-05-01

    Almost half of the world's population relies on non-networked water supply services, which necessitates in-home water storage. It has been suggested that dirty hands play a role in microbial contamination of drinking water during collection, transport, and storage. However, little work has been done to evaluate quantitatively the association between hand contamination and stored water quality within households. This study measured levels of E. coli, fecal streptococci, and occurrence of the general Bacteroidales fecal DNA marker in source water, in stored water, and on hands in 334 households among communities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where residents use non-networked water sources. Levels of fecal contamination on hands of mothers and children were positively correlated to fecal contamination in stored drinking water within households. Household characteristics associated with hand contamination included mother's educational attainment, use of an improved toilet, an infant in the household, and dissatisfaction with the quantity of water available for hygiene. In addition, fecal contamination on hands was associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms within a household. The results suggest that reducing fecal contamination on hands should be investigated as a strategy for improving stored drinking water quality and health among households using non-networked water supplies.

  14. Microbiological quality in the Zacatepec's aquifer, Morelos, Mexico; Calidad microbiologica del acuifero de Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Elizabeth; Robles, Esperanza; Sainz, Ma. Guadalupe; Ayala, Reynaldo; Campoy, Emelia [Facultad de Estudios Superiores, Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Tlalnepantla, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: erf@servidor.unam.mx

    2009-11-15

    .3, temperature was in a range of 25.1 to 28 degrees Celsius and dissolved oxygen of 2.9 to 4.8 mg/L. The average values of the physicochemical parameters among the wells were very similar. The presence of coliforms indicates human pollution in the aquifer, and together with the presence of pathogenic free-living amoebae, stand out the significance of water disinfection before it being used as drinking water. [Spanish] Los mantos subterraneos constituyen una de las principales fuentes de abastecimiento de agua potable en Mexico. Por lo general, albergan solo a ciertos organismos debido a su bajo contenido en materias nutritivas. Sin embargo, las actividades humanas y el crecimiento urbano son los principales factores para la contaminacion de los acuiferos. De esta forma, el agua puede contener contaminantes quimicos o biologicos que causan diversas enfermedades, entre los que estan algunas amibas de vida libre (AVL). El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la calidad microbiologica (coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y amibas de vida libre) del acuifero de Zacatepec, Morelos. Para ello se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un ano en trece pozos del acuifero; se midieron en el lugar los siguientes parametros fisicoquimicos: pH, oxigeno disuelto y temperatura. Se determinaron los coliformes totales y fecales utilizando la tecnica de filtro de membrana; para las amibas se utilizo el medio selectivo agar no nutritivo con Enterobacter aerogenes (NNE) y la identificacion se realizo tomando en cuenta sus caracteristicas morfologicas. Todos los pozos presentaron contaminacion por coliformes totales, uno de ellos con una media geometrica de 107 UFC/100 mL. En cambio, los coliformes fecales estuvieron ausentes en cuatro de los pozos, pero en uno se presento contaminacion alta con una media geometrica de 107 UFC/100 mL. El pozo mas contaminado con bacterias fue el numero 3 y la contaminacion de coliformes totales y fecales mas alta se presento en los meses de abril y julio. Se

  15. Effect of Coexisting Pelvic Floor Disorders on Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scores: A Prospective, Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeianou, Liliana; Hicks, Caitlin W; Olariu, Adriana; Savitt, Lieba; Pulliam, Samantha J; Weinstein, Milena; Rockwood, Todd; Sylla, Patricia; Kuo, James; Wakamatsu, May

    2015-11-01

    The association between an objective measure of fecal incontinence severity and patient-reported quality of life is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with various degrees of fecal incontinence to determine whether their quality of life as measured by the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale is affected by coexisting pelvic floor disorders. This was a prospective, survey-based study. The study was conducted at a tertiary pelvic floor disorders center. Included patients were all of those presenting between January 2007 and March 2014. Survey data were analyzed to determine the association between Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, as well as scores from the Constipation Severity Instrument, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Pelvic Organ Distress Inventory, and Urinary Distress Inventory. A total of 585 patients reported fecal incontinence ranging from none (n = 191) to mild/moderate (n = 159) to severe (n = 235). As expected, patients with severe fecal incontinence have worse scores on all fecal incontinence quality-of-life subscales (lifestyle, coping/behavior, depression/self-perception, and embarrassment) and worse colorectal/anal symptoms than those with mild/moderate or no fecal incontinence (p Pelvic organ prolapse and constipation symptoms were similar between groups (p ≥ 0.61). After correcting for baseline differences in patient comorbidities and bladder/urinary symptoms, a significant association persisted between Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and all of the subscales of the fecal incontinence quality-of-life instrument (p measuring both fecal and urinary incontinence. This underscores the importance of quantifying the presence or absence of coexistent urinary leakage in studies where a drop in fecal incontinence quality of life is considered a primary end point.

  16. Fecal Collection and Stabilization Methods for Improved Fecal DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer in a Screening Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Maria Carozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of CRC and adenomas reduces CRC-related mortality. The optimal screening test for CRC is still a subject of debate, and molecular stool sample analysis could provide a valid alternative to conventional methods in terms of compliance and practicability. Seven fecal DNA storage systems were evaluated in two successive phases. In the first phase of the study was selected the preservative buffer able to ensure the best human DNA recovery. In the second phase was evaluated human DNA stability, amplificability and integrity in DNA extracted from selected buffer. Results showed that the best performance was obtained in samples stored in 100 mM EDTA buffer and Genefec buffer. Likewise buffer addition yielded a significant increase in DNA stability and integrity without PCR inhibition, compared to the matched aliquots with no buffer added. Our study shows that samples collected in stabilization solution stabilize DNA so that intact nucleic acids, are more effectively detectable in the molecular assay. DNA buffer preservation and storage conditions could be useful to guarantee the most consistent yield in human DNA. Stabilization buffer addition to stool samples prior to transport presents an easily implemented solution that appears to be highly effective. Overall DNA extracted from faeces preserved in preservative buffer can feasibility been used for molecular analysis leading to an increase of assay sensitivity.

  17. Neonatal exposure to fecal antigens reduces intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; McFarlane, Sarah M; Doyle, Jason S G; Fedorak, Richard N

    2011-04-01

    A role for bacterial antigens in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been established in enhanced humoral and cellular immune response to ubiquitous antigens of the enteric flora. However, we have recently shown that bacterial antigens in the absence of live bacteria cannot initiate an intestinal inflammation in IBD-prone interleukin (IL)-10 gene-deficient mice. The objective was to investigate whether neonatal exposure to antigens of their own endogenous flora can tolerize mice to bacterial antigens. IL-10 gene-deficient neonates were injected intraperitoneally within 72 hours of birth with a sterile solution of bacterial lysates prepared from fecal material of either conventionally raised mice (contains bacterial antigens) or axenic mice (lacks bacterial antigens). The onset of intestinal inflammation was monitored as the appearance of occult blood in the stool in weekly hemoccult analysis. Mice were sacrificed between age 15 and 19 weeks and tested for histopathologic injury, intestinal inflammation, and systemic response to bacterial antigens. In mice neonatally exposed to bacterial antigens the onset of intestinal inflammation was delayed and the incidence of histopathologic injury at age 18 weeks was reduced. In addition, mice injected with lysates from conventionally raised mice exhibited decreased release of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma [IFN-γ] and IL-17) in intestinal tissue and demonstrated reduced bacteria-stimulated systemic responses when compared to mice injected with lysates derived from bacteria-free, axenic mice. Neonatal intraperitoneal injection of antigens from the commensal flora causes long-lasting changes in systemic and mucosal immune responses resulting in delayed onset of intestinal inflammation and injury in IBD-prone IL-10 gene-deficient mice. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  18. Clinical efficacy maintains patients’ positive attitudes toward fecal microbiota transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Ting; Cui, Bota; He, Zhi; Xiang, Jie; Long, Chuyan; Peng, Zhaoyuan; Li, Pan; Huang, Guangming; Ji, Guozhong; Zhang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have been conducted on the attitudes of patients seeking fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). This study aimed to investigate the reasons for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) seeking FMT and their attitude changes after FMT. In this prospective study, all included patients were diagnosed with CD for at least 6 months and intended to receive FMT. A questionnaire was designed to investigate the history of medical visits and patients’ attitudes toward FMT. Only refractory patients who failed to clinically respond to previous treatment were selected for undergoing FMT. Three months after the first FMT, patients were required to complete the second questionnaire on attitudes toward the first FMT. A total of 207 patients with CD were included for questionnaire survey. In 118 refractory patients, 94.07% sought FMT because they had no other choice. In 89 nonrefractory patients, 78.65% sought FMT for the reason that they wanted to achieve better clinical results or even a cure, although the current treatment was effective for them. In all, 118 refractory patients received FMT. Three months after the first FMT, 88.98% (105/118) patients completed the questionnaire on patients’ attitudes toward FMT. Of these 105 patients, 56.19% reported to have satisfactory clinical efficacy and 74.29% were willing to receive the second FMT. Moreover, 89.52% (94/105) showed their willingness to recommend FMT to other patients. In conclusion, this study at least first time demonstrated that patients with CD were willing to accept FMT due to its efficacy. PMID:27472679

  19. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Use of Fecal Calprotectin Levels in the Fontan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos; Taqatqa, Anas; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Holton, Jacob P; Awad, Sawsan M

    2018-03-01

    The Fontan procedure was first performed in the seventies as a palliation for patients with single ventricle physiology. A feared complication after a Fontan procedure is the development of protein losing enteropathy (PLE). Systemic inflammation has a negative effect on the intestinal barrier integrity, which has supported the use of steroids in this setting. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies linking intestinal inflammation in patients with PLE after Fontan. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of intestinal inflammation measured by FC in patients with PLE after a Fontan procedure. A cross-sectional analysis was performed examining 23 stool samples from 23 Fontan patients for both Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (FA1AT) and FC with and without PLE. The median FC was 21 mcg/gm of stool (IQR: 15.7-241 mcg/gm of stool), and the median FA1AT was 40 mg/dL (IQR: 30-220 mg/dL). The median FC and FA1AT were significantly higher in the PLE group than in the Non-PLE group (p = 0.002 and p PLE, which correlated with the elevated levels of FA1AT. Inversely, levels of FC in Fontan patients without suspected PLE were within the normal range. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate intestinal inflammation using FC in the setting of PLE within this cohort, and may prove to be useful as a diagnostic tool in its treatment.

  1. Introducing fecal stable isotope analysis in primate weaning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2012-10-01

    This research investigates the potential of a new, noninvasive method for determining age of weaning among primates using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in feces. Analysis of stable isotope ratios in body tissues is a well-established method in archeology and ecology for reconstructing diet. This is the first study to investigate weaning in primates using fecal stable isotope ratios. Diets of a single François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) mother-infant pair at the Toledo Zoo are reconstructed using this technique to track changes in infant suckling behavior over the weaning period. Stable isotope ratios in feces are sampled instead of more traditional samples such as bone or hair to enable daily, noninvasive snapshots of weaning status. Isotopic assessments of weaning status are compared to visual assessments to identify any discordance between the two. Three measurements documented the transition from breast milk to solid foods: stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C), stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N), and nitrogen content of feces (%N). It appears that solid foods were introduced at approximately 2 months of infant age, but that nursing continued into the 12th month, when sample collection ceased. Stable isotope data exposed a much longer weaning period than what was expected based on previously published data for captive langurs, and clarified visual estimates of weaning status. This reflects the method's sensitivity to suckling at night and ability to distinguish actual nursing from comfort nursing. After testing this method with zoo animals, it can readily be applied among wild populations. An isotopic approach to weaning provides a new, accurate, and biologically meaningful assessment of interbirth intervals, and facilitates a better understanding of mother-infant interactions. Both of these outcomes are critical for developing successful conservation strategies for captive and wild primates. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  3. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P < 0.05) during the breeding season, and brief spikes were associated with estrus and mating. A postovulatory increase in PdG was not always detected, but sustained baseline T after mating appeared consistent with ovulation. Parturient bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P < 0.05) during expected time of embryo implantation in Fall, and a late gestational rise in fecal T occurred 30 days prepartum. Many nonparturient bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P < 0.05) fecal T during summer months, whereas parturient bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Naramura, H; Fujiwara, H; Takashima, Y; Fukuda, H

    1997-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence among a community-residing older population in Japan. Population-based cross-sectional study. A randomly selected sample of 1473 people aged 65 years and older living in the City of Settsu, Osaka, in 1992. Data collected via in-home visits were used to estimate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and to provide information regarding potential risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Data were obtained from 1405 older adults, a response rate of 95.4%. The prevalence of any degree of urinary incontinence was 98/1000 in both sexes, and 87/ 1000 men and 66/1000 women admitted to some degree of fecal incontinence. Daily, 34/1000 and 20/1000 of the population were incontinent of urine and feces, respectively. There was an increasing prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence with age in both sexes, but the expected greater prevalence in women was not found. By univariate analyses, age older than 75 years, poor general health as measured by Activities of Daily Living, stroke, dementia, no participation in social activities, and lack of life worth living (Ikigai) were associated significantly with both urinary and fecal incontinence. In the multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age older than 75 years, poor general health, and stroke were independent risk factors for any type of incontinence. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for isolated fecal incontinence, and dementia and no participation in social activities were independent risk factors for double incontinence. Incontinence of urine and feces is a prevalent condition among very old people living in the community in Japan and is associated highly with health and psychosocial conditions.

  6. State of the art molecular markers for fecal pollution source tracking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslev, Peter; Bukh, Annette S

    2011-03-01

    Most environmental waters are susceptible to fecal contamination from animal and/or human pollution sources. To attenuate or eliminate such contamination, it is often critical that the pollution sources are rapidly and correctly identified. Fecal pollution source tracking (FST) is a promising research area that aims to identify the origin(s) of fecal pollution in water. This mini-review focuses on the potentials and limitations of library independent molecular markers that are exclusively or strongly associated with fecal pollution from humans and different animals. Fecal-source-associated molecular markers include nucleic acid sequences from prokaryotes and viruses associated with specific biological hosts, but also sequences such as mitochondrial DNA retrieved directly from humans and animals. However, some fecal-source-associated markers may not be absolutely specific for a given source type, and apparent specificity and frequency established in early studies are sometimes compromised by new studies suggesting variation in specificity and abundance on a regional, global and/or temporal scale. It is therefore recommended that FST studies are based on carefully selected arrays of markers, and that identification of human and animal contributions are based on a multi-marker toolkit with several markers for each source category. Furthermore, future FST studies should benefit from increased knowledge regarding sampling strategies and temporal and spatial variability of marker ratios. It will also be important to obtain a better understanding of marker persistence and the quantitative relationship between marker abundance and the relative contribution from individual fecal pollution source types. A combination of enhanced pathogen screening methods, and validated quantitative source tracking techniques could then contribute significantly to future management of environmental water quality including improved microbial risk assessment.

  7. Fecal impaction: a cause of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigian, Drew A.; Levine, Marc S.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs in patients with colonic fecal impaction and also to elucidate the cause of this finding. Methods: A computerized search of radiology files revealed 515 patients with colonic fecal impaction on abdominal radiographs. The radiologic reports described isolated small bowel dilatation not related to other known causes of ileus or obstruction in 18 (3.5%) of the 515 patients. The films were reviewed to determine the distribution of fecal impaction and the degree and extent of small bowel dilatation. In 16 cases, medical records were reviewed to determine the clinical presentation, treatment, and course. Finally, follow-up radiographs were reviewed in four cases to determine the response to treatment of the impaction. Results: All 16 patients with available medical records had abdominal symptoms. The average diameter of the dilated small bowel on abdominal radiographs was 3.7 cm. Fourteen patients (78%) had a diffuse colonic fecal impaction (nine) or a predominantly right-sided fecal impaction (five) that involved the cecum, and the remaining four (22%) had a left-sided colonic fecal impaction. All 12 patients with clinical follow-up had resolution of symptoms and all four with follow-up radiographs had resolution of small bowel dilatation after treatment of the underlying impaction. Conclusion: Fecal impaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs, as treatment of the underlying impaction usually produces a dramatic clinical response with resolution of the small bowel dilatation on follow-up radiographs

  8. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2013-05-01

    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  10. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Doni Marisi Sinaga; Mark Gregory Robson; Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Adonia Getse Halel; Dian Pertiwi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC), mercury conce...

  11. Removal of fecal indicators and pathogens in a waste stabilization pond system treating municipal wastewater in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Kazmi, A A; Chopra, A K

    2008-11-01

    This study assess the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, and pathogens [Salmonella sp. and helminth eggs]) in a full-scale facultative and maturation pond system with primary screening and manual grit removal facility. The capacity of the plant is 6 ML/d. The results showed that the system was able to remove approximately 2.0 to 3.5 log units of fecal indicators and almost 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella was not eliminated significantly, as only 1.26 log units removal was found. Removal efficiency of fecal indicator bacteria was reported maximum during summers (3.4 to 4.0 log units) and minimum (1.9 to 2.0 log units) in winters. Further efforts were made to seek the correlation between key physicochemical wastewater quality parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and suspended solids) and indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci). Among all these parameters, suspended solids showed the highest correlation coefficient (r2) with total coliforms (0.79), fecal coliforms (0.78), and fecal streptococci (0.75). These correlations manifest that the improvement of microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of suspended solids.

  12. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Michaelsen, Kim F; Forssten, Sofia D; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-12-01

    This study is a part of the clinical trials with probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 conducted in obese adolescents. Previously reported clinical studies showed no effect of Ls-33 consumption on the metabolic syndrome in the subject group. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of L. salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents. The study was a double-blinded intervention with 50 subjects randomized to intake of L. salivarius Ls-33 or placebo for 12 weeks. The fecal microbiota was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR before and after intervention. Concentrations of fecal short chain fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group to Firmicutes belonging bacteria, including Clostridium cluster XIV, Blautia coccoides_Eubacteria rectale group and Roseburia intestinalis, were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after administration of Ls-33. The cell numbers of fecal bacteria, including the groups above as well as Clostridium cluster I, Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, the Lactobacillus group and Bifidobacterium were not significantly altered by intervention. Similarly, short chain fatty acids remained unaffected. L. salivarius Ls-33 might modify the fecal microbiota in obese adolescents in a way not related to metabolic syndrome. NCT 01020617. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-08

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a (13)C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity.

  14. Prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, B R; Atchley, D H; DeFusco, R P; Ferris, K E; Zicarelli, J C; Lee, J H; Angulo, F J

    1998-07-01

    To determine prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Cohort study. 12 captive green iguanas. Iguanas were isolated in an environmental chamber, and fecal samples were collected weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. Samples were incubated aerobically in tetrathionate broth for 18 to 24 hours. Aliquots were then transferred to Hektoen and Salmonella-Shigella agar plates and incubated for an additional 18 to 24 hours. Isolated colonies were subcultured on nutrient agar slants, and Salmonella isolates were serogrouped and serotyped. All 12 iguanas were found to be shedding Salmonella organisms at least once during the study, and multiple serotypes were isolated from 7 of the 12. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 88 of 106 (83%) fecal samples; 21 samples contained multiple Salmonella serotypes. Overall, 11 Salmonella serotypes were identified. In 74 of 100 instances, when a particular Salmonella serotype was isolated from an individual iguana, the same serotype was also isolated from a subsequent fecal sample from that iguana. Results suggested that most iguanas have a stable mixture of Salmonella serotypes in their intestinal tracts and intermittently or continuously shed Salmonella organisms in their feces. Veterinarians should advise their clients on precautions for reducing the risk of acquiring these organisms from their pets. Public health officials trying to determine whether an iguana is the source of a specific Salmonella serotype that caused infection in human patients should submit at least 3 fecal samples collected from the iguana 1 week apart for bacterial culture.

  15. Clinical meaning of age-related expression of fecal cytokeratin 19 in colorectal malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Chao; Wu, Yih-Yiing; Yang, Ruey-Neng; Huang, Chi-Jung; Yang, Shung-Haur; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Shu-Hung; Pan, Shiann; Lee, Chia-Long; Lin, Chih-Ming; Sun, Hsiao-Lun; Huang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of malignant death worldwide. Because young age of onset is often considered a poor prognostic factor for CRC, it is important to identify the poor outcomes of CRC in a younger population and to consider an aggressive approach by implementing early treatment. Our aim was to specifically quantify the fecal cytokeratin 19 (CK19) transcript from CRC patients and investigate its correlation with clinical stage, tumor malignancy, and age. The quantitation of fecal CK19 transcript was determined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain in 129 CRC patients (45 younger than 60 years at diagnosis) and 85 healthy controls. The levels of CK19 protein were examined both in colonic cell lines and tissues. The analysis of 45 younger CRC patients (age ≤ 60 years) revealed that patients at the M1 stage had significantly higher expression levels of fecal CK19 mRNA when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001) and patients at the M0 stage (p = 0.004). Additionally, the degree of consistency between the mean level of fecal CK19 mRNA and the distant metastatic rate in each age interval was up to 89% (p = 0.042). These results indicate that high levels of fecal CK19 mRNA represent a potential marker for colorectal malignancy and for aggressive treatment of younger CRC patients

  16. Clinical meaning of age-related expression of fecal cytokeratin 19 in colorectal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hsiao-Lun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of malignant death worldwide. Because young age of onset is often considered a poor prognostic factor for CRC, it is important to identify the poor outcomes of CRC in a younger population and to consider an aggressive approach by implementing early treatment. Our aim was to specifically quantify the fecal cytokeratin 19 (CK19 transcript from CRC patients and investigate its correlation with clinical stage, tumor malignancy, and age. Methods The quantitation of fecal CK19 transcript was determined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain in 129 CRC patients (45 younger than 60 years at diagnosis and 85 healthy controls. The levels of CK19 protein were examined both in colonic cell lines and tissues. Results The analysis of 45 younger CRC patients (age ≤ 60 years revealed that patients at the M1 stage had significantly higher expression levels of fecal CK19 mRNA when compared with healthy controls (p p = 0.004. Additionally, the degree of consistency between the mean level of fecal CK19 mRNA and the distant metastatic rate in each age interval was up to 89% (p = 0.042. Conclusion These results indicate that high levels of fecal CK19 mRNA represent a potential marker for colorectal malignancy and for aggressive treatment of younger CRC patients.

  17. Association of dietary type with fecal microbiota in vegetarians and omnivores in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič; Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Grabnar, Iztok; Avguštin, Gorazd; Rogelj, Irena

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover differences in the human fecal microbiota composition driven by long-term omnivore versus vegan/lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern. In addition, the possible association of demographic characteristics and dietary habits such as consumption of particular foods with the fecal microbiota was examined. This study was conducted on a Slovenian population comprising 31 vegetarian participants (11 lacto-vegetarians and 20 vegans) and 29 omnivore participants. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the frozen fecal samples by Maxwell 16 Tissue DNA Purification Kit (Promega). Relative quantification of selected bacterial groups was performed by real-time PCR. Differences in fecal microbiota composition were evaluated by PCR-DGGE fingerprinting of the V3 16S rRNA region. Participants' demographic characteristics, dietary habits and health status information were collected through a questionnaire. Vegetarian diet was associated with higher ratio (% of group-specific DNA in relation to all bacterial DNA) of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Clostridium clostridioforme and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but with lower ratio (%) of Clostridium cluster XIVa. Real-time PCR also showed a higher concentration and ratio of Enterobacteriaceae (16S rDNA copies/g and %) in female participants (p yoghurt, other dairy products, fish and seafood) and vegetarian type of diet explained the largest share of variance in microbial community structure. Fecal microbiota composition was also associated with participants' age, gender and body mass.

  18. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  19. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  20. Evaluation and optimization of microbial DNA extraction from fecal samples of wild Antarctic bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Per; Mourkas, Evangelos; González-Acuna, Daniel; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction : Advances in the development of nucleic acid-based methods have dramatically facilitated studies of host-microbial interactions. Fecal DNA analysis can provide information about the host's microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogen burden. Numerous studies have been conducted in mammals, yet birds are less well studied. Avian fecal DNA extraction has proved challenging, partly due to the mixture of fecal and urinary excretions and the deficiency of optimized protocols. This study presents an evaluation of the performance in avian fecal DNA extraction of six commercial kits from different bird species, focusing on penguins. Material and methods : Six DNA extraction kits were first tested according to the manufacturers' instructions using mallard feces. The kit giving the highest DNA yield was selected for further optimization and evaluation using Antarctic bird feces. Results : Penguin feces constitute a challenging sample type: most of the DNA extraction kits failed to yield acceptable amounts of DNA. The QIAamp cador Pathogen kit (Qiagen) performed the best in the initial investigation. Further optimization of the protocol resulted in good yields of high-quality DNA from seven bird species of different avian orders. Conclusion : This study presents an optimized approach to DNA extraction from challenging avian fecal samples.

  1. Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-12-01

    Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Disparities in the receipt of fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy among Filipino American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Crespi, Catherine M; Antonio, Cynthia; Garcia, Gabriel M; Bastani, Roshan

    2008-08-01

    This report examines disparities associated with the type of colorectal screening test, fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy, within a particular racial/ethnic group, Filipino American immigrants. Between July 2005 and October 2006, Filipino Americans aged 50 to 75 years from 31 community organizations in Los Angeles completed a 15-minute survey in English (65%) or Filipino (35%). Of the 487 respondents included in this analysis, 257 (53%) had never received any type of colorectal cancer screening. Among the 230 subjects who had ever received a routine screening test, 78 had fecal occult blood test only (16% of the total sample), and 152 had endoscopy with or without fecal occult blood test (31% of the total sample). After controlling for access to care and key demographic variables in a multivariate analysis, only two characteristics distinguished between respondents who had fecal occult blood test only versus those who had endoscopy: acculturation, assessed by percent lifetime in the United States and language of interview, and income. Our data suggest a two-tier system, fecal occult blood test for less acculturated Filipino Americans with lower income versus endoscopy for Filipino immigrants with higher levels of acculturation and income. The disparity persists after adjusting for access to care. Instead of treating minority groups as monolithic, differences within groups need to be examined so that interventions can be appropriately targeted.

  3. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  4. The association of fecal incontinence with institutionalization and mortality in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAmeel, Turki; Andrew, Melissa K; MacKnight, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is a growing problem in the aging population. Little is known about the association of fecal incontinence with institutionalization and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fecal incontinence among older adults in Canada and whether it is associated with increased risk of institutionalization and mortality, independent of the effect of potential confounders. This study consisted of a secondary analysis of data from 9,008 community-dwelling participants in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, aged 65 years or older. The measures used in the study are age, gender, self-reported loss of bowel control, cognition, impairment in activities of daily living (ADL), and self-reported health. Outcomes were death or institutionalization over the 10 years of follow-up. Fecal incontinence was found in 354 (4%) of the 8,917 subjects. Those with incontinence were older, with a mean age of 75.5 years, compared with 72.9 years in the continent group (Pinstitutionalization independent of age and sex (odds ratio 1.79, 95% CI: 1.00-3.20, P=0.05), this association was not statistically significant after adjusting for cognition, ADL dependence, and self-reported health. Although fecal incontinence was associated with increased mortality and institutionalization, independent of age and gender, these associations were largely explained by other potential confounders such as poor self-assessed health, cognitive impairment, and ADL dependence.

  5. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  6. Improved multi-element measurement of absorption via the fecal monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; Gibson, I.L.; Weber, C.E.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The fecal monitoring technique for measuring the absorption of Mn, Se and Fe was studied in eight piglets using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Four day old piglets were fed a complete liquid diet for five days prior to the administration of an isotope dose ( 75 Se, 54 Mn, 59 Fe) equilibrated with the milk feeding. 51 CrCl 3 was used as a fecal marker. Subsequently stool and urine samples were collected daily for 15-21 days. Following counting, the % fecal excretion of the administered dose was calculated. As 0 to 33% of the administered 51 CrCl 3 was absorbed this fecal marker is inappropriate for piglets. Results indicate that endogenous excretion for each of the isotopes was not constant but decreased exponentially with time. An improved method for calculating the endogenous excretion was therefore developed. This method is based on the pattern of endogenous excretion in comparable piglets injected intravenously with the same isotopes, and on the level of endogenous excretion in the orally fed animals in the post-absorptive phase of excretion. These findings have important implications for the estimation of endogenous excretion in future fecal monitoring absorption studies. Previous results using the latter technique have frequently underestimated true absorption

  7. Design aspects of automation system for initial processing of fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.; Prabhu, Supreetha P.; Suja, A.; Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Das, A.P.; Badodkar, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    The procedure for initial handling of the fecal samples at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is as follows: overnight fecal samples are collected from the worker in a kit consisting of a polythene bag placed in a wide mouth polythene container closed with an inner lid and a screw cap. Occupational worker collects the sample in the polythene bag. On receiving the sample, the polythene container along with the sample is weighed, polythene bag containing fecal sample is lifted out of the container using a pair of tongs placed inside a crucible and ashed inside a muffle furnace at 450℃. After complete ashing, the crucible containing white ash is taken-up for further radiochemical processing. This paper describes the various steps in developing a prototype automated system for initial handling of fecal samples. The proposed system for handling and processing of fecal samples is proposed to automate the above. The system once developed will help eliminate manual intervention till the ashing stage and reduce the biological hazard involved in handling such samples mentioned procedure

  8. Immunoreactive insulin and insulin-degrading activity in rat fecal extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillion, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The insulin-degrading activity and insulin content of aqueous extracts of rat fecal material isolated from the proximal colon were measured by radioimmunoassay in the presence and absence of various inhibitors of proteolysis. In the absence of protease inhibitors, up to 40% of the [ 125 I]-insulin present in radioimmunoassay tubes was degraded to a form that was not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. In the presence of bacitracin, EDTA or a mixture of protease inhibitors, insulin degradation was diminished to 125 I]-insulin by the aqueous fecal extract was time- and temperature-dependent. Fecal samples obtained from streptozotocin-diabetic rats contained reduced amounts of insulin, suggesting that the fecal insulin was produced partially, but not exclusively, in the pancreas. These results indicate that fecal material in the rat proximal colon contains small amounts of insulin, as well as a rich supply of insulinase activity, and that insulin receptors located on the mucosal surface of proximal colon epithelial cells may be exposed to insulin in vivo

  9. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of fecal streptococci for rapid assessment of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M.T.; Beauvais, E.; Brezenski, F.T.; Litsky, W.

    1975-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF) techniques were employed in an attempt to develop a rapid test for the identification of fecal streptococci. Fresh isolates were obtained from river waters and raw sewage. Identification to species were made by the conventional physiological, biochemical, and serological tests. Both whole and disrupted cells of representative strains of each species were used for the preparation of the fecal streptococcal vaccine. Globulin fractions of individual and pooled antisera were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and the resulting conjugates were tested with homologous and heterologous antigens. The present findings suggest that the immunofluorescence techniques can be employed in the determination of the presence and source of fecal pollution in water employing the fecal streptococci as indicator organisms. By using this method it was determined that fecal streptococci can be identified from water and sewage samples within 20 hours. Parenthetically it should be noted that the identification procedures using the routine biochemical and serological tests may take as long as 7 to 14 days. The procedure may be automated for continual monitoring.

  10. Vertical oceanic transport of alpha-radioactive nuclides by zooplankton fecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.; Beasley, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives the results of research to explain the role played by marine plankton metabolism in the vertical oceanic transport of the alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, was selected as the typical zooplanktonic species that is the focus of this work. Measurements of 239 240 Pu, 238 U, 232 Th, and 210 Po are reported in whole euphausiids and in euphausiid fecal pellets and molts. The resulting data are inserted into a simple model that describes the flux of an element through a zooplanktonic animal. Concentrations of the nuclides concerned are high in fecal pellets, at levels which are typical of geological rather than biological material. It is suggested that zooplanktonic fecal pellets play a significant role in the vertical oceanic transport of plutonium, thorium, and polonium

  11. Lack of correlation between fecal blood loss and drug-induced gastric mucosal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenbro, J.L.; Wetterberg, P.; Vallgren, S.; Bergqvist, L.

    1988-01-01

    Increased fecal blood loss was produced in healthy volunteers by the administration of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), naproxen or fenflumizole. Basal as well as drug-induced gastrointestinal blood loss was measured using 51 Cr erythrocyte labeling. Median rise in daily fecal blood loss was 432%. All subjects were endoscoped at the initiation and at the completion of the study. Endoscopic findings were assessed quantitatively by two observers in two different ways. All subjects but three had gastric mucosal lesions at follow-up endoscopy. There was a good correlation between the endoscopic assessments but no statistical correlation between the endoscopic assessment and the increase in fecal blood loss. The data suggest that factors other than gastric mucosal lesions have to be taken into account when investigating NSAID-induced gastrointestinal bleeding

  12. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.

    2015-01-01

    in each watershed) over 18 months. The human Bacteroidales marker (HF183) occurred in 9-10% of the water samples at nine sampling sites; while a forested site in the urban watershed tested negative. Ruminant/cow Bacteroidales markers (BacR and CowM2) only appeared in the rural watershed (6%). The mt......DNA markers (HcytB and AcytB) showed the same pattern but were less sensitive due to lower fecal concentrations. Higher prevalences (Purban watershed, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (12 vs. 3%) were observed in the rural watershed, while Salmonella...... and fecal marker concentrations in the waterways. The employment of multiple FST methods suggested failing onsite wastewater systems contribute to human fecal pollution in both watersheds....

  13. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Using host-associated genetic markers to investigate sources of fecal contamination in two Vermont streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Matthews, Leslie J.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of host-associated Bacteroidales-based 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genetic markers was investigated as a tool for providing information to managers on sources of bacterial impairment in Vermont streams. The study was conducted during 2009 in two watersheds on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 303(d) List of Impaired Waters, the Huntington and the Mettawee Rivers. Streamwater samples collected during high-flow and base-flow conditions were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, Human qHF183 and BacHum, Ruminant BoBac, and Canid BacCan) to identify humans, ruminants, and canids as likely or unlikely major sources of fecal contamination. Fecal reference samples from each of the potential source groups, as well as from common species of wildlife, were collected during the same season and from the same watersheds as water samples. The results were combined with data from other states to assess marker cross reaction and to relate marker results to E. coli, the regulated water-quality parameter, with a higher degree of statistical significance. Results from samples from the Huntington River collected under different flow conditions on three dates indicated that humans were unlikely to be a major source of fecal contamination, except for a single positive result at one station that indicated the potential for human sources. Ruminants (deer, moose, cow, or sheep) were potential sources of fecal contamination at all six stations on the Huntington River during one high-flow event and at all but two stations during the other high-flow event. Canids were potential sources of fecal contamination at some stations during two high-flow events, with genetic-marker concentrations in samples from two of the six stations showing consistent positive results for canids for both storm dates. A base-flow sample showed no evidence of major fecal contamination in the Huntington River from humans

  15. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... specimens before slaughter is therefore vital to prevent disease transmission. By combining two techniques – immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study developed a reliable and specific method for rapid detection of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. The specificity...... of the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific selection...

  16. Factors associated with fecal incontinence in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Chen; Chang, Shiow-Ru; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsiao, Chin-Fen; Chen, Chi-Hau; Lin, Ho-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with fecal incontinence in female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.   Data regarding clinical and urodynamic parameters and history of fecal incontinence of 1334 women with lower urinary tract symptoms who had previously undergone urodynamic evaluation were collected and subjected to univariate, multivariate, and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis to identify significant associations between these parameters and fecal incontinence.   Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [OR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.05, P=0.005), presence of diabetes (OR=2.10, 95%CI=1.22-3.61, P=0.007), presence of urodynamic stress incontinence (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.24-2.91, P=0.003), pad weight (OR=1.01, 95%CI=1.00-1.01, P=0.04), and detrusor pressure at maximum flow (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03, P=0.003) as independent risk factors for fecal incontinence. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis identified age≥55years, detrusor pressure at maximum flow≥35 cmH(2) O, and pad weight≥15g as having positive predictive values of 11.4%, 11.5%, and 12.4%, respectively, thus indicating that they are the most predictive values in concomitant fecal incontinence.   Detrusor pressure at maximum flow and pad weight may be associated with fecal incontinence in female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, but require confirmation as indicators by further study before their use as screening tools. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Isern, Nancy G; Hoyt, David W; Howsmon, Daniel P; Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine A; Hahn, Juergen; Adams, James B; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites-caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate-may potentially function as a modest biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of phylotypes most closely related to Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further

  18. Treatment of fecal retention is important in the management of overactive bladder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You Jin; Seo, Bo Seon; Lee, Jun Ho; Jeong, Su Jin

    2017-02-01

    The investigation of fecal retention using objective and patient-friendly tools, rather than the diagnosis of constipation, might be important in the management of overactive bladder (OAB) in children. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and grade of fecal retention in children with OAB and to determine the effectiveness of laxative treatment for fecal retention in the management of OAB in children. This study included 88 children with OAB aged 5-15 years. Fecal retention was defined as type 1/2 feces (Bristol stool form scale) or a Leech score above eight points, and constipation was determined according to the ROME III criteria. Among the 88 children, 71 with fecal retention or constipation were treated with oral laxatives (polyethylene glycol 3,350/4,000 or lactulose) for 2 weeks, and the responses to the treatment were assessed. Among the 88 children, 63 (71.6%) had a Leech score above eight points as assessed by plain abdominal radiography, 52 (59.1%) had type 1/2 feces (Bristol stool form scale), 24 (27.3%) had functional constipation and only 6 (6.8%) had none of either. Among the 71 children who received laxative treatment for 2 weeks, 58 (81.7%) reported an improvement in OAB symptoms. Additionally, the number of children with a Leech score above eight points was significantly higher in the good response group than in the poor response group (P = 0.014). Investigation of fecal retention with the Leech scoring system and laxative treatment might be helpful in the management of OAB in children. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:490-494, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Probabilistic assessment of compliance with the numerical criteria for fecal coliforms in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, YoonKyung

    2017-04-01

    Most guidelines for assessing fecal contamination in surface waters suggest that a waterbody is impaired if a certain percent or the geometric mean of samples exceeds the numerical criteria for fecal indicator organisms. However, this raw score approach is not able to account for the uncertainty and variability in the sample statistics. In a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, the uncertainty in the mean parameter is expressed as a posterior distribution, and the probability of not violating the criterion is referred to as the confidence of compliance (COC). Further, the spatiotemporal variability in the mean parameter can be quantified by imposing the hierarchical structure on the model. The monitoring data spanning 91 sites across the four major rivers (the Han, Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong) of South Korea for the years 2007-2016 were used. The Bayesian hierarchical model was developed for each river to predict the COC with the criteria for fecal coliforms. The established criteria for fecal coliforms are less than 10, 100, 200, and 1,000 CFU/100mL in the river whose water quality goal corresponds to Class Ia, Ib, II, and III, respectively. The model results suggested that the COC varied significantly by site, ranging from 0.0 to 98.9 percent across the four rivers. In the Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong Rivers, COC values in the upper river sections were substantially lower than those in the upper river sections. The model suggested that for all four rivers the spatial component, compared with annual and seasonal components, made the largest contribution to the variability in mean fecal coliforms. In all four rivers, mean levels for fecal coliform during the summer (July to September) were distinctly higher than those during other seasons. A decreasing pattern was clearly shown in the Yeongsan River over the recent decade, while monotonic increases or decreases were not shown in other three rivers.

  20. Adaptation to Spanish language and validation of the fecal incontinence quality of life scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Miguel; Garrigues, Vicente; Soria, Maria Jose; Andreu, Montserrat; Mearin, Fermin; Clave, Pere

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale in the Spanish language. Eleven hospitals in Spain participated in the study, which included 118 patients with active fecal incontinence. All the patients filled out a questionnaire on the severity of their incontinence, a general questionnaire of health (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form), and a Spanish translation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal), which consists of 29 items in four domains: lifestyle, behavior, depression, and embarrassment. On a second visit, patients repeated the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. For each domain, an evaluation was made of temporal reliability, internal reliability, the convergent validity with the generic questionnaire of health, and the discriminant validity correlating the domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal with the severity of fecal incontinence. For cultural adaptation, the answer alternatives for 14 items were modified. A total of 111 patients (94 percent) completed the study adequately. Temporal reliability (test-retest) was good for all domains except for embarrassment, which showed significant differences (P 0.80, between 0.84 and 0.96). The four domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal significantly correlated with the domains of the generic questionnaire on health (P de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal correlated negatively with the need to wear pads (P de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal incorporates sufficient requirements of reliability and validity to be applied to patients with fecal incontinence.

  1. Neuromodulation for fecal and urinary incontinence: functional results in 57 consecutive patients from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheron, Jean-Luc; Chodez, Marine; Boillot, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is a recognized treatment for fecal and urinary incontinence. Few articles have been published about patients presenting with both types of incontinence. The aim of this study was to report the functional results in patients operated on for simultaneous fecal and urinary incontinence by the use of sacral nerve stimulation. This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The investigation was conducted in the academic departments of colorectal surgery and urology. Between January 2001 and March 2010, 57 consecutive patients (54 women) with a mean age of 58 years (range, 16-76) were included. Two-stage sacral nerve modulation (test and implant) was performed. Functional study before testing, at 6 months, and at the end of follow-up after implantation included the use of the Cleveland Clinic incontinence score, Urinary Symptoms Profile, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life score, and the Ditrovie score. Patient satisfaction with the technique was evaluated at a median follow-up of 62.8 months. : Fecal incontinence improved from 14.1/20 to 7.2/20 at 6 months and 6.9/20 at the end of follow-up. Urinary incontinence, mainly urge incontinence (47% of patients), and urgency frequency (34% of patients) improved at 6 months and end of follow-up, but not retention and dysuria. Specific quality of life was improved for fecal and urinary incontinence at 6 months and end of follow-up. At the end of follow-up, 73% patients were highly satisfied with the technique, but 9% felt their condition had deteriorated. The reoperation rate was 29%, of which 12% were indicated because of a complication. This study was limited by its retrospective nature and the multiple causes of incontinence. Fecal and urinary incontinence, studied by symptoms scores and specific quality-of-life scores, are improved in patients receiving sacral nerve stimulation for double incontinence.

  2. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Isern, Nancy G.; Hoyt, David W.; Howsmon, Daniel P.; Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine A.; Hahn, Juergen; Adams, James B.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites- caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate- may potentially function as a biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further investigation of metabolites in larger cohorts.

  3. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  4. Delayed gastric emptying in children with chronic constipation and fecal impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, M.L.C.M.; Daher, S.F.; Brunetto, S.Q.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Santos, A.O.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Pinto, E.A.L.C.; Silva, J.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms such as nausea, fullness and early satiety in constipated children may be associated with delayed gastric emptying. Aim: To evaluate the gastric emptying in children with post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms. Materials and Methods: Gastric emptying studies were performed in 12 children with functional constipation (mean age 9 years; mean duration of symptoms: 5.5 years), fecal impaction and soiling. In 12 of them the studies were performed only before fecal impaction removal and in 7 of them the study was repeated after impaction removal and recovery from constipation. After an overnight fast, the patients received 300 ml/m 2 of water added to 37 MBq of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid. Images were acquired in a camera-computer system with a low energy all purpose collimator. Images were acquired at 1 minute per frame for 30 minutes. When gastric emptying was delayed for more than 30 minutes, additional static images with 500,000 counts were performed for no more than 1 hour until a T1/2 was obtained. Results: Gastric emptying was delayed (21.4 ± 7 minutes; normal 12 ± 3 minutes) in 10/12 patients studied prior to fecal impaction removal. In the group of seven patients who repeated the study after fecal impaction removal, gastric emptying remained prolonged (22 ±7.9 minutes). There was no statistically significant difference between the gastric emptying time before and after fecal impaction removal (p 0,612; Wilcoxon test). Conclusion: The gastric emptying time of a liquid test meal was delayed in constipated children before and after fecal impaction removal. Maintenance of prolonged emptying time after impaction removal and recovery from constipation may indicate an alteration in gastrointestinal motility

  5. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  7. Fecal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the Hospital and Community Setting: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen-Weitz, Shantelle; Shittu, Adebayo O.; Ngwarai, Michelle R.; Thabane, Lehana; Nicol, Mark P.; Kaba, Mamadou

    2016-01-01

    Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus fecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus [including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA)] fecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings. Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA fecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies. Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA fecal carriage were 26% (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.8–36.3%), 86% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65.9–97.9%) and 10% (95% CI: 0.7–27.0%), respectively. Fecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 to 65% during the first 8 weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64% at 6 months and 46% at 1 year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus fecal strains in diarrhea (n = 2) and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4). Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus fecal isolates. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus fecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be conducted and sequence-based genotyping

  8. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Tomson, Katrin; Talve, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry....... Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, changes in pH and microbiota composition, concentrations of produced and consumed metabolites during the growth...

  9. Comparison of fecal and cecal microbiotas reveals qualitative similarities but quantitative differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dragana; Geier, Mark S; Chen, Honglei; Hughes, Robert J; Moore, Robert J

    2015-02-27

    The majority of chicken microbiota studies have used the ceca as a sampling site due to the specific role of ceca in chicken productivity, health and wellbeing. However, sampling from ceca and other gastrointestinal tract sections requires the bird to be sacrificed. In contrast, fecal sampling does not require sacrifice and thus allows the same bird to be sampled repeatedly over time. This is a more meaningful and preferred way of sampling as the same animals can be monitored and tracked for temporal studies. The commonly used practice of selecting a subset of birds at each time-point for sacrifice and sampling introduces added variability due to the known animal to animal variation in microbiota. Cecal samples and fecal samples via cloacal swab were collected from 163 birds across 3 replicate trials. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified and pyrosequenced to determine and compare the phylogenetic profile of the microbiota within each sample. The fecal and cecal samples were investigated to determine to what extent the microbiota found in fecal samples represented the microbiota of the ceca. It was found that 88.55% of all operational taxonomic units (OTUs), containing 99.25% of all sequences, were shared between the two sample types, with OTUs unique for each sample type found to be very rare. There was a positive correlation between cecal and fecal abundance in the shared sequences, however the two communities differed significantly in community structure, represented as either alpha or beta diversity. The microbial populations present within the paired ceca of individual birds were also compared and shown to be similar. Fecal sample analysis captures a large percentage of the microbial diversity present in the ceca. However, the qualitative similarities in OTU presence are not a good representation of the proportions of OTUs within the microbiota from each sampling site. The fecal microbiota is qualitatively similar to cecal microbiota but

  10. Isotopic nitrogen in fecal fiber as an indicator of winter diet in caribou and muskoxen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Addison, Jennifer; Shively, Rachel; Oliver, Lola

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: The ratios of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N values) in excreta have been used to examine aspects of trophic and nutritional ecology across taxa. Nitrogen fractions in feces of herbivores include endogenous (e.g., sloughed intestinal cells, unresorbed digestive secretions, and microbial debris) and dietary sources. For animals such as large herbivores, that have diets and feces with high concentrations of indigestible fiber, endogenous 15N may constrain the use of fecal δ15N values to estimate dietary δ15N values and reconstruct diets. METHODS: We compared two techniques (detergent and detergent-free) to isolate fractions of plant fibers in the forages of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus); estimated the discrimination factors between the δ15N values of fecal fiber residues and of the diets of captive animals; and used the more effective isotopic tracer of dietary δ15N values to examine the relationships between the δ15N values of fecal residues and diet composition in several populations of wild caribou and muskoxen throughout North America in winter. RESULTS: The detergent-based approach contaminated the fractions of plant fibers in forages and feces with 14N, whereas the detergent-free method was a good proxy to estimate δ15N values of plant fibers (r2= 0.92) and provided a better estimate of the fecal-fiber to diet discrimination factor for both species (caribou = 3.6‰; muskoxen = 2.8‰). In wild populations, the δ15N values of fecal fibers reflected diet composition in muskoxen (adjusted R2= 0.43) but not caribou (adjusted R2= 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Contamination from detergent residues prohibited the use of detergent extraction in isolating forage 15N from endogenous 15N in the feces of herbivores. Although δ15N values in fecal fibers can be used to track dietary δ15N values in wild herbivores, discrimination between fecal extracts and diet may vary with the contribution of endogenous nitrogen (N), and

  11. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network (France): sources, fate and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; George, Isabelle; Billen, Gilles

    2007-04-01

    The Seine river watershed (France) is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program (PIREN Seine program). This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network. The more common indicator of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms) was mainly used; some complementary works used E. coli and intestinal enterococci as alternative fecal indicators. Point sources (outfall of wastewater treatment plants) and non point sources (surface runoff and soil leaching) of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified. Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources (especially surface runoff of pastured fields) can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed (Seine, Marne, Oise rivers) was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters. The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality (protozoan grazing, lysis) or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions (sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature). Mortality rates of E. coli were studied

  12. The use of the radioimmunoassay for detection of diethylstilbestrol in fecal samples of fattened calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agthe, O.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fecal samples of fattened calves is described. The antibody used in this test showed no cross reactions with natural estrogens or other steroids. Blank values (fecal samples without DES) varied between 0 an 4,9 ng DES-equivalent/g sample. The distribution of blank values shows the significant proof of existence of DES in concentrations above 10 ng/g sample. The method has been applied for the control of living calves at the producer. Examples of illegal DES applications are given. The described radioimmunoassay is suitable for routine analysis as a control for illegal estrogen treatment. (orig.) [de

  13. A budget impact analysis comparing use of a modern fecal management system to traditional fecal management methods in two canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langill, Mike; Yan, Songkai; Kommala, Dheerendra; Michenko, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that fecal management systems (FMS) offer advantages, including potential cost savings, over traditional methods of caring for patients with little or no bowel control and liquid or semi-liquid stool. A budget impact model accounting for material costs of managing fecal incontinence was developed, and 1 year of experiential data from two hospitals' ICUs were applied to it. Material costs were estimated for traditional methods (ie, use of absorbent briefs/pads, skin cleansers, moisturizers) and compared with material costs of using a modern FMS for both average (normal-range weight) and complex (bariatric with wounds) ICU patients at hospital 1 and any ICU patient at hospital 2. Reductions in daily material costs per ICU patient using FMS versus traditional methods were reported by hospital 1 ($93.74 versus $143.89, average patient; $150.55 versus $476.41, complex patient) and by hospital 2 ($61.15 versus $104.85 per patient). When extrapolated to the total number of patients expected to use FMS at each institution, substantial annual cost savings were projected (hospital 1: $57,216; hospital 2: $627,095). In addition, total nursing time per day for managing fecal incontinence (ie, changing, cleaning, repositioning patients, changing pads, linens, and the like) was estimated at hospital 1, showing substantial reductions with FMS (120 minutes versus 348 minutes for average patients; 240 minutes versus 760 minutes for complex). Nursing time was not included in cost calculations to keep the analysis conservative. Results of this study suggest the materials cost of using the FMS in ICU patients was substantially lower than the cost of traditional fecal incontinence management protocols of care in both hospitals. Comparative studies using patient level data, materials, and nursing time costs, as well as complication rates, are warranted.

  14. Correlação entre achados manométricos e sintomatologia na incontinência fecal Correlation between manometric findings and symptomatology in fecal incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Balsamo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 92 pacientes com sintomatologia de incontinência fecal, no período de julho de 2005 a fevereiro de 2009. Os sintomas de incontinência foram classificados de acordo com o Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score e os pacientes foram submetidos à manometria anorretal. Foram avaliados: idade, sexo, cirurgia prévia, sintomatologia e achado manométrico. Observou-se que o aumento da intensidade da sintomatologia de incontinência fecal está relacionado à diminuição progressiva das pressões de repouso. O mesmo não foi constatado com as pressões de contração na amostra estudadaWe have studied 92 patients with fecal incontinence symptoms, from July 2005 to February 2009. They were classified on the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score and all of them have undergone on manometric examination. Sex, age, previous surgery, symptomatology, and manometric findings were analyzed. We have concluded that the increase of incontinence symptoms is related to the progressive decrease on resting pressures. The same was not found with squeeze pressures in the studied sample

  15. Denitrification on internal carbon sources in RAS is limited by fibers in fecal waste of rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Busscher, J.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification on internal carbon sources offers the advantage to control nitrate levels in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) by using the fecal carbon produced within the husbandry system. However, it is not clear to which extent fecal carbon can be utilized by the microbial community within

  16. Glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor AMP-DNM lowers plasma cholesterol levels by promoting fecal cholesterol excretion without inhibiting cholesterol absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Bietrix, Florence; Lombardo, Elisa; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis with iminosugar N-(5'-adamantane-1'-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) increases fecal neutral sterol output in mice. To investigate which pathways were involved in this increase, C57BI/6J mice were treated with AMP-DNM and/or ezetimibe. Fecal

  17. A human fecal contamination index for ranking impaired recreational watersusing the HF183 quantitative real-time PCR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human fecal pollution of surface water remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for recreational water quality risk managem...

  18. Influence of Seasonal Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Presumptive Fecal Coliforms around an Antarctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A.

    2003-01-01

    Factors affecting fecal microorganism survival and distribution in the Antarctic marine environment include solar radiation, water salinity, temperature, sea ice conditions, and fecal input by humans and local wildlife populations. This study assessed the influence of these factors on the distribution of presumptive fecal coliforms around Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer and winter of February 1999 to September 1999. Each factor had a different degree of influence depending on the time of year. In summer (February), although the station population was high, presumptive fecal coliform concentrations were low, probably due to the biologically damaging effects of solar radiation. However, summer algal blooms reduced penetration of solar radiation into the water column. By early winter (April), fecal coliform concentrations were high, due to increased fecal input by migrant wildlife, while solar radiation doses were low. By late winter (September), fecal coliform concentrations were high near the station sewage outfall, as sea ice formation limited solar radiation penetration into the sea and prevented wind-driven water circulation near the outfall. During this study, environmental factors masked the effect of station population numbers on sewage plume size. If sewage production increases throughout the Antarctic, environmental factors may become less significant and effective sewage waste management will become increasingly important. These findings highlight the need for year-round monitoring of fecal coliform distribution in Antarctic waters near research stations to produce realistic evaluations of sewage pollution persistence and dispersal. PMID:12902283

  19. Effect of Sunlight on the Divergence of Community Structure of Fecal Bacteria in Cowpats Collected from Three Different Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies applied next generation sequencing to understand the shift...

  20. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATIONS RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable emphasis has been placed on developing watershed-based strategies with the potential to reduce non-point-source fecal contamination. Molecular methods applied used 16S-ribosomal-deoxyribonucleic-acid (rDNA) to try to determine sources of fecal contamination. Objectiv...

  1. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séraphin C. Atidégla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot. Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens.

  2. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  3. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  4. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition.......Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition....

  5. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally

  6. Fecal Microbiota Therapy for Clostridium difficile Infection: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota therapy is increasingly being used to treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection. This health technology assessment primarily evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fecal microbiota therapy compared with the usual treatment (antibiotic therapy). We performed a literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database. For the economic review, we applied economic filters to these search results. We also searched the websites of agencies for other health technology assessments. We conducted a meta-analysis to analyze effectiveness. The quality of the body of evidence for each outcome was examined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. Using a step-wise, structural methodology, we determined the overall quality to be high, moderate, low, or very low. We used a survey to examine physicians' perception of patients' lived experience, and a modified grounded theory method to analyze information from the survey. For the review of clinical effectiveness, 16 of 1,173 citations met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of two randomized controlled trials found that fecal microbiota therapy significantly improved diarrhea associated with recurrent C. difficile infection versus treatment with vancomycin (relative risk 3.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85-5.68) (GRADE: moderate). While fecal microbiota therapy is not associated with a significant decrease in mortality compared with antibiotic therapy (relative risk 0.69, 95% CI 0.14-3.39) (GRADE: low), it is associated with a significant increase in adverse events (e.g., short-term diarrhea, relative risk 30.76, 95% CI 4.46-212.44; abdominal cramping, relative risk 14.81, 95% CI 2.07-105.97) (GRADE: low). For

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of modified zinc oxide on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial shedding and fecal score in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Ho; Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc, 21 day of age) with an initial weight of 6.50 ± 0.71 kg, were randomly allotted into four treatments to determine the effects of a modified form of zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial shedding and fecal score in weanling pigs. Dietary treatments were: (i) NC, negative control, basal diet containing zinc (Zn) from the premix; (ii) PC, positive control, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 3000 ppm ZnO; (iii) H1, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 3000 ppm ZnO (phase 1, days 1 to 14)/200 ppm modified ZnO (phase 2, days 15 to 42); (iv) H2, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 300 ppm modified ZnO (phase 1)/200 ppm modified ZnO (phase 2). During days 1 to 14, average daily gains (ADG) were higher (P = 0.04) in PC, H1 and H2 groups than that in NC group. Overall, H1 treatment increased the ADG compared with NC (P = 0.05). On day 14, the alkaline phosphatase and plasma Zn concentration were increased (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) in PC, H1 and H2 treatments compared with NC treatment. On days 14 and 42, the fecal Lactobacillus counts in NC group were lowest (P = 0.01, P = 0.04 respectively) among treatments. All supplemented groups showed lower (P = 0.03) fecal score than NC treatment on days 21 and 28. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with modified ZnO increased growth rates and reduced fecal scores in weanling pig. Modified ZnO could be used as a substitute to ZnO as a growth promoter and reduce Zn excretion to the environment because of the lower dosage. [Correction added on 3 February 2015, after first online publication: the initial weight of '6.50 ± 1.11 kg' has been replaced with '6.50 ± 0.71 kg' in the abstract.]. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( Digestibility of DM, OM, and energy did not differ from the control at any inclusion rate, except for a decrease ( digestibility was not affected by treatment and ranged from 82.9 to 86.2%. Fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations were greater ( < 0.01) in dogs fed 24

  9. Temperature-Controlled Delivery of Radiofrequency Energy in Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Arjan P; Lam, Tze J; Meurs-Szojda, Maria M; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F

    2017-08-01

    Controlled delivery of radiofrequency energy has been suggested as treatment for fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical response to the radiofrequency energy procedure is superior to sham in patients with fecal incontinence. This was a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial from 2008 to 2015. This study was conducted in an outpatient clinic. Forty patients with fecal incontinence in whom maximal conservative management had failed were randomly assigned to receiving either radiofrequency energy or sham procedure. Fecal incontinence was measured using the Vaizey incontinence score (range, 0-24). The impact of fecal incontinence on quality of life was measured by using the fecal incontinence quality-of-life score (range, 1-4). Measurements were performed at baseline and at 6 months. Anorectal function was evaluated using anal manometry and anorectal endosonography at baseline and at 3 months. At baseline, Vaizey incontinence score was 16.8 (SD 2.9). At t = 6 months, the radiofrequency energy group improved by 2.5 points on the Vaizey incontinence score compared with the sham group (13.2 (SD 3.1), 15.6 (SD 3.3), p = 0.02). The fecal incontinence quality-of-life score at t = 6 months was not statistically different. Anorectal function did not show any alteration. Patients with severe fecal incontinence were included in the study, thus making it difficult to generalize the results. Both radiofrequency energy and sham procedure improved the fecal incontinence score, the radiofrequency energy procedure more than sham. Although statistically significant, the clinical impact for most of the patients was negligible. Therefore, the radiofrequency energy procedure should not be recommended for patients with fecal incontinence until patient-related factors associated with treatment success are known. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A373.

  10. Effect of Sweetened Dried Cranberry Consumption on Urinary Proteome and Fecal Microbiome in Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiares, Nell; Krueger, Christian G; Meudt, Jennifer J; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Reed, Jess D

    2018-02-01

    The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) changes the urinary proteome and fecal microbiome, as determined in a prospective sample of 10 healthy individuals. Baseline urine and fecal samples were collected from the subjects in the fasted (8-12 h) state. The subjects then consumed one serving (42 g) of SDC daily with lunch for 2 weeks. Urine and fecal samples were collected again the day after 2 weeks of SDC consumption. Orbitrap Q-Exactive mass spectrometry of urinary proteins showed that consumption of SDC resulted in changes to 22 urinary proteins. Multiplex sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes in fecal samples indicated changes in relative abundance of several bacterial taxonomic units after consumption of SDC. There was a shift in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, increases in commensal bacteria, and decreases or the absence of bacteria associated with negative health effects. A decrease in uromodulin in all subjects and an increase in Akkermansia bacteria in most subjects were observed and warrant further investigation. Future larger clinical studies with multiomics and multitissue sampling designs are required to determine the effects of SDC consumption on nutrition and health.

  11. Caffeine as an indicator of human fecal contamination in the Sinos River: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Linden

    Full Text Available The preservation of hydric resources is directly related to fecal contamination monitoring, in order to allow the development of strategies for the management of polluting sources. In the present study, twenty-five water samples from six water public supply collection sites were used for the evaluation of the presence of caffeine, total and fecal coliforms. Caffeine was detected in all samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.15 ng mL–1 to 16.72 ng mL–1. Total coliforms were detected in all samples, with concentrations in the range of 52 NMP/100 mL to higher than 24196 NMP/100 mL, whether the concentration range for fecal coliforms was in the range of below 1 NMP/100 mL to 7800 NMP/100 mL. No significant correlation was found between total coliforms and caffeine concentrations (rs = 0.35, p = 0.09. However, a moderate correlation between fecal coliforms and caffeine concentrations was found (rs = 0.412, p

  12. Modeling seasonal variability of fecal coliform in natural surface waters using the modified SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Kim, Minjeong; Pyo, JongCheol; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Young Mo; Kim, Jung-Woo; Kim, Joon Ha

    2016-04-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators of pathogens and thereby, understanding of their fate and transport in surface waters is important to protect drinking water sources and public health. We compiled fecal coliform observations from four different sites in the USA and Korea and found a seasonal variability with a significant connection to temperature levels. In all observations, fecal coliform concentrations were relatively higher in summer and lower during the winter season. This could be explained by the seasonal dominance of growth or die-off of bacteria in soil and in-stream. Existing hydrologic models, however, have limitations in simulating the seasonal variability of fecal coliform. Soil and in-stream bacterial modules of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are oversimplified in that they exclude simulations of alternating bacterial growth. This study develops a new bacteria subroutine for the SWAT in an attempt to improve its prediction accuracy. We introduced critical temperatures as a parameter to simulate the onset of bacterial growth/die-off and to reproduce the seasonal variability of bacteria. The module developed in this study will improve modeling for environmental management schemes.

  13. Foliar uptake of nitrogen from ant fecal droplets: an overlooked service to ant plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkalski, Christian Alexander Stidsen; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2018-01-01

    and subsequently deposited fecal droplets on the seedlings, coffee leaves showed increased levels of 15N and total N compared to control plants without ants. This was evident for both exposed leaves and leaves covered in plastic bags (i.e. not directly exposed to ants). Thus, N from ant excretions was absorbed...

  14. Fecal steroid analysis for monitoring reproduction in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarzenberger, F.; Schaller, K.; Kolter, L.; Fredriksson, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Fecal steroid analyses were conducted on captive (n 1/4 10) and free-ranging (n 1/4 2) sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in order to establish a noninvasive technique for monitoring endocrine profiles during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Secondly, the effect of the contraceptive porcine zona

  15.  Fecal Incontinence and Constipation in Children: A Clinical Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Constipation is the infrequent passage of hard stools with pain and difficulty. It is one of the most common pediatric problems parents and healthcare providers face. A significant number of children, especially of the younger age group, are referred to specialists because of constipation. Fecal incontinence is almost always associated with constipation, which leads to marked loss of self esteem among children. The majority of cases of constipation and fecal incontinence are secondary to functional disorders, rather than organic causes and result in behavioral problems, which affect the social life of the child, as well as the family. Previously, it was believed that constipation and fecal incontinence were actually secondary to underlying psychological problems. Studies have failed to prove that psychological abnormalities are etiological factors for constipation among children; chronic constipation probably leads to behavioral abnormalities and also affects the family dynamics. The important causes of constipation and fecal incontinence, their impact on the child and the family, as well as various treatment modalities available are discussed in this article, which also emphasizes the importance of history and physical examination.

  16. Screening for fecal carriage of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans and primary care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Zurfluh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of the occurrence of the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 among humans is currently sparsely studied in Western Europe. Objectives To determine the occurrence of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of healthy humans with high occupational exposure to food and primary care patients in Switzerland. Methods Stool samples from 1091 healthy individuals and fecal swabs from 53 primary care patients were screened for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using LB agar containing 4 mg/L colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of colistin were determined for non-intrinsic colistin-resistant isolates. Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes. Results The fecal carriage rate of colistin resistant (MIC value >2 mg/l Enterobacteriaceae was 1.5% for healthy people and 3.8% for primary care patients. Isolates included Hafnia alvei (n = 9, Escherichia coli (n = 3, Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. None of the isolates harbored the mcr-1 or mcr-2 genes. Conclusions There is no evidence for the presence of MCR-producers in the fecal flora of healthy people or primary care patients. Therefore, the risk of transfer of mcr genes from animals, food or the environment to humans is likely to be low in Switzerland.

  17. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Zutphen, L.; Hoek, D.; Yaya, F.O.; Roelfsema, J.; Pinelli, E.; van Knapen, F.; Kortbeek, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in The Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human a...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for urinary and fecal incontinence in brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao L. Amaro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate prevalence and risk factors of fecal and urinary incontinence (UI in Brazilian women. Material and Methods: 685 women older than 20 years of age answered a questionnaire about urinary and fecal symptoms, clinical and obstetric antecedents. They were grouped according to presence or absence of UI. Results: Urinary and fecal incontinence was reported in 27% and 2% of cases, respectively. Mean age of incontinent women was significantly higher than continent ones. Incontinent women had a mean number of micturitions significantly higher than the continent ones. On average, incontinent women had higher rate of pregnancies and vaginal delivery when compared to the continent ones. Body mass index (BMI was significantly higher in incontinent participants and in women with no UI complaints (27.35 vs. 24.95, p < 0.05. Fecal incontinence prevalence was 2% and occurred exclusively in patients with UI. Conclusions: Vaginal delivery and high BMI have been identified as risk factors for UI development while aging and number of pregnancies may be correlated factors.

  20. Diagnosis and management of urinary incontinence and functional fecal incontinence (encopresis) in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Rien J. M.

    The ability to maintain normal continence for urine and stools is not achievable in all children by a certain age. Gaining control of urinary and fecal continence is a complex process, and not all steps and factors involved are fully understood. While normal development of anatomy and physiology are

  1. Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sediment of Local Open Channels Receiving Johkasou Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Aldilla Fajri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment system named Johkasou has been widely applied in the Japanese rural areas, which the effluent is mainly discharged into stream channels. However, Johkasou effluent would potentially be a source of contamination that can deteriorate water and sediment quality of the receiving downstream network. In order to identify the effect of Johkasou effluent particularly in sediment, a study on the distribution of fecal indicators (F-RNA bacteriophages, total coliform (TC, and Escherichia coli [E. coli] in several sediment spots of local open channels receiving Johkasou effluent was conducted. The results showed that the contents of F-RNA bacteriophages, TC and E. coli in the sediment of open channels were detected in high levels while those contents in the sediment of Johkasou drainage channel were up to two orders magnitude higher than in the open channel. A high number of fecal bacteria in the receiving open channels was majorly influenced by the number of domestic households. Moderate correlations of fecal bacteria indicator with solid sediment and volatile sediment indicate that the sediment particles can be carriers of microbes to the downstream water networks. Therefore, water flushing and hydraulic events are suggested to reduce sediment depth that contained fecal bacteria indicator in the open channel.

  2. Effects of vendor and genetic background on the composition of the fecal microbiota of inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Aaron C; Davis, J Wade; Spollen, William; Bivens, Nathan; Givan, Scott; Hagan, Catherine E; McIntosh, Mark; Franklin, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    The commensal gut microbiota has been implicated as a determinant in several human diseases and conditions. There is mounting evidence that the gut microbiota of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) similarly modulates the phenotype of mouse models used to study human disease and development. While differing model phenotypes have been reported using mice purchased from different vendors, the composition and uniformity of the fecal microbiota in mice of various genetic backgrounds from different vendors is unclear. Using culture-independent methods and robust statistical analysis, we demonstrate significant differences in the richness and diversity of fecal microbial populations in mice purchased from two large commercial vendors. Moreover, the abundance of many operational taxonomic units, often identified to the species level, as well as several higher taxa, differed in vendor- and strain-dependent manners. Such differences were evident in the fecal microbiota of weanling mice and persisted throughout the study, to twenty-four weeks of age. These data provide the first in-depth analysis of the developmental trajectory of the fecal microbiota in mice from different vendors, and a starting point from which researchers may be able to refine animal models affected by differences in the gut microbiota and thus possibly reduce the number of animals required to perform studies with sufficient statistical power.

  3. Development of Rapid Canine Fecal Source Identification PCR-based Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent to which dogs contribute to aquatic fecal contamination is unknown despite the potential for zoonotic transfer of harmful human pathogens. We used Genome Fragment Enrichment (GFE) to identify novel non-ribosomal microbial genetic markers potentially useful for detectin...

  4. The Effects of Water Matrix on Decay of Human Fecal Molecular Markers and Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although molecular source tracking for human fecal contamination is used on a wide range of sample types, little is known about comparative decay of proposed molecular markers under different conditions, or correlation with pathogen decay. Our purpose was to measure correlations ...

  5. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Manoj; Gupta, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obta...

  6. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  7. Watervogels en fecale bacteriën in de plassen van het Park van Luna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Het in dit rapport beschreven onderzoek heeft tot doel om vast te stellen of de slechte zwemwaterkwaliteit (te hoge concentraties door watervogels uitgescheiden fecale bacteriën) in de plassen van het Park van Luna, Heerhugowaard, gerelateerd is aan de hoge concentraties onopgeloste bestanddelen in

  8. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from animal waste applied fields: model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial quality of surface waters warrants attention because of associated food- and waterborne-disease outbreaks, and fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used to evaluate levels of microbial pollution. Models that predict the fate and transport of FIOs are required for designing and...

  9. The influence of certain molecular descriptors of fecal elimination of angiotensin II receptor antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trbojević-Stanković Jasna B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs modulate the function of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and are commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs, especially in patients with renal failure. In this study, the relationship between several molecular properties of seven ARBs (candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, telmisartan, valsartan and their fecal elimination data obtained from the literature were investigated. The ARB molecular descriptors were calculated using three software packages. Simple linear regression analysis showed the best 2 correlation between fecal elimination data and lipophilicity descriptor, ClogP values (R2 = 0.725. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the correlation of ARBs’ fecal elimination data with their lipophilicity and one additional, calculated descriptor. The best correlation (R2 = 0.909 with an acceptable probability value, P <0.05 was established between the ARB fecal elimination data and their lipophilicity and aqueous solubility data. Applying computed molecular descriptors for evaluating drug elimination is of great importance in drug research.

  10. The influence of sacral nerve stimulation on gastrointestinal motor function in patients with fecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, M; Thomsen, F G; Sørensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a well-established treatment for fecal incontinence of various etiologies. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether SNS affects gastric emptying, small intestinal transit or colonic transit times....

  11. The fecal microbiota composition of boar Duroc, Yorkshire, Landrace and Hampshire pigs

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    Yingping Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire, and Yorkshire. Methods The V3–V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. Results A total of 783 operational taxonomic units were shared by all breeds, whereas others were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli, and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids. Some bacteria can secrete cellulase to aid fiber digestion by the host. Butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acid levels were highest in Landrace pigs, whereas acetic and propionic acid were highest in the Hampshire breed. Heatmap was used to revealed breed-specific bacteria. Principal coordinate analysis of fecal bacteria revealed that the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds had high similarity and were clearly separated from the Duroc and Hampshire breeds. Conclusion Overall, this study is the first time to compare the fecal microbiomes of four breeds of boar pig by high-throughput sequencing and to use Spearman’s rank correlation to analyze competition and cooperation among the core bacteria.

  12. Comparative analysis of fecal microflora of healthy full-term Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, CB infant's fecal microbiota was dominated with Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium difficile. The intestinal microbiota of cesarean ... S Patole1 Yogesh S Shouche1. Insect Molecular Biology Unit, National Centre for Cell Science, Pune 411 007; Department of Paeditrics, KEM Hospital, Pune 411 011 ...

  13. [Fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. Framework and pharmaceutical preparation aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, R; Kapel, N; Megerlin, F; Chaumeil, J-C; Barbut, F; Bourlioux, P; Chast, F

    2015-09-01

    The fecal microbiota transplantation consists in introducing a preparation constituted by a dilution of stools of a healthy donor in the digestive tract of a patient recipient, to restore his intestinal physiological balance. This therapeutic approach was the subject of numerous studies showing its efficiency in the treatment of the recurrent infections with Clostridium difficile. The fecal microbiota transplantation has now a high level of clinical evidence, which explains that it appears in various international recommendations. In France, the fecal microbiota transplantation responds to the definition of a medication and can be executed as a pharmaceutical preparation or as an experimental drug for clinical trials under the responsibility of a hospital pharmacy. The objective of this paper is to propose a definition of a framework and to describe the methods of preparation of the fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of the recurrent infections with C. difficile and the interactions to consider for hospital pharmacies that do not have technical means to operate this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Plutonium fecal and urinary excretion functions: Derivation from a systematic whole-body retention function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Liver-bile secretion directly influences the content of plutonium in feces. To assess the reliability of plutonium metabolic models and to improve the accuracy of interpreting plutonium fecal data, the authors developed a compartmental model that simulates the metabolism of plutonium in humans. With this model, they can describe the transport of plutonium contaminants in the systemic organs and tissues of the body, including fecal and urine excretions, without using elaborate kinetic information. The parameter values of the models, which describe the translocation rates and recycling of plutonium in the body, can be derived from a multi-term exponential systemic function for whole-body retention. The analytical derivations and algorithms for solving translocation parameter values are established for the model and illustrated by applying them to the biokinetics and bioassay of plutonium. This study describes how to (1) design a physiological model for incorporating liver biliary secretion and for obtaining a fecal-excretion function, (2) develop an analytical solution for identifying the translocation-parameter values incorporating the recycling of plutonium in the body, and (3) derive a set of urinary and fecal excretion-functions from a published systemic whole-body retention function, generally acknowledged to be accurate, as a real and practical example

  15. A molecular analysis of fecal and mucosal bacterial communities in irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Codling, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this study were, firstly, to determine the diversity of the host\\'s gut microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using a culture-independent method (DGGE of the 16S rRNA gene) and, secondly, to examine mucosal biopsies of IBS patients and compare them to their own fecal microbiota.

  16. Análisis de la continencia fecal en 83 pacientes operados de malformaciones anorrectales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruperto Llanes Céspedes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo de 83 pacientes operados de malformaciones anorrectales en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "William Soler" (46 varones y 37 hembras en el período de enero de 1984 a diciembre de 1997, donde se analiza la continencia fecal según el método evaluativo de Kelly después de realizada la anorrectoplastia sagital posterior como técnica quirúrgica. Se relaciona la continencia fecal según variedad anatómica de la malformación y sexo, tiempo de seguimiento y relación con las alteraciones del hueso sacro, y se hallaron mejores resultados en las hembras con defectos bajos, con mayor tiempo de evolución y en aquellos niños donde el hueso sacro es normal.We made a retrospective study of 83 patients operated on for anorectal malformations( 46 males and 37 females in "William Soler" University Pediatric Hospital from January 1984 to December 1997. This research work analyzed fecal continence using Kelly´s evaluation method after the posterior sagital anorectoplasty. Fecal continence per anatomical variety of malformation and sex, follow up time and association with sacro bone alterations were shown. The best results were achieved in low defects, longer period of recovery and in those children with normal sacro bone.

  17. Genome Sequence of Bacillus simplex Strain P558, Isolated from a Human Fecal Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Olivier; Hugon, Perrine; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Bibi, Fehmida; Robert, Catherine; Azhar, Esam Ibraheem; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-12-11

    Bacillus simplex strain P558 was isolated from a fecal sample of a 25-year-old Saudi male. We sequenced the 5.98-Mb genome of the strain and compared it to that of B. simplex strain 1NLA3E. Copyright © 2014 Croce et al.

  18. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Zutphen, van L.; Hoek, D.; Yaya, F.O.; Roelfsema, J.; Pinelli, E.; Knapen, van F.; Kortbeek, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in the Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples

  19. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P≤.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

  20. Lack of direct effects of agrochemicals on zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Senkbeil, Jacob K; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect.

  1. Pattern of fecal endogenous nitrogen excretion in rats fed leguminous diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, S M; de Oliveira, A C

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to establish the pattern in relation to time of the rat fecal endogenous nitrogen excretion by continuous feeding of balanced diets containing common peas, cowpeas or common beans as the protein sources (10% protein), labeled with 1.000 atoms % of 15N-excess. Nitrogen of endogenous origin was measured by the isotope dilution method in a 6-day experiment. Fecal excretion of endogenous nitrogen of rats fed the leguminous diets was roughly twice that of rats fed the non-protein diet (88 mg, 42 mg), and the excretion of total fecal nitrogen did not differ among leguminous diets. From the third to the sixth day of the experiment, the endogenous nitrogen excretion, either as a percentage of quantity (mg), attained a statistically non different value (p > 0.05). A common pattern of excretion of fecal endogenous nitrogen as a function of time was expressed by a strong negative (r nitrogen did not show a common pattern as a function of time for all experimental diets.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Targeting Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) Fecal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the microbial water quality in the Platte River is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. Here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gen...

  3. Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) using DNA from fecal pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd J. Brinkman; David K. Person; Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kevin E. Colson; Kris J. Hundertmark

    2010-01-01

    We tested a protocol for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated genotyping performance of previously developed microsatellite markers as well as a suite of new markers designed specifically for this study. We screened 30 microsatellites, and identified 7 (23%) loci including 4 new markers, that fit...

  4. Estimating abundance of Sitka black-tailed deer using DNA from fecal pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd J. Brinkman; David K. Person; F. Stuart Chapin; Winston Smith; Kris J. Hundertmark

    2011-01-01

    Densely vegetated environments have hindered collection of basic population parameters on forest-dwelling ungulates. Our objective was to develop a mark-recapture technique that used DNA from fecal pellets to overcome constraints associated with estimating abundance of ungulates in landscapes where direct observation is difficult. We tested our technique on Sitka black...

  5. Radiocarbon dating of American pika fecal pellets provides insights into population extirpations and climate refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Katherine Heckman; Christopher Swanston; Karena Schmidt; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany

    2014-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) has become a species of concern for its sensitivity to warm temperatures and potential vulnerability to global warming. We explored the value of radiocarbon dating of fecal pellets to address questions of population persistence and timing of site extirpation. Carbon was extracted from pellets collected at 43...

  6. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in fecal droppings from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heddema, Edou R.; ter Sluis, Sietske; Buys, Jan A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; van Wijnen, Joop H.; Visser, Caroline E.

    2006-01-01

    In many cities, the feral rock dove is an abundant bird species that can harbor Chlamydophila psittaci. We determined the prevalence and genotype of C. psittaci in fresh fecal samples from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The prevalence was 7.9% overall (26/331; 95% confidence interval,

  7. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarel Adamberg

    Full Text Available The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry. Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, changes in pH and microbiota composition, concentrations of produced and consumed metabolites during the growth were determined. The composition of fecal microbiota and profile of metabolites changed in response to substrate (levan and amino acids availability. The main products of levan metabolism were acetic, lactic, butyric, propionic and succinic acids and carbon dioxide. Associated growth of levan-degrading (e.g. Bacteroides and butyric acid-producing (e.g. Faecalibacterium taxa was observed in levan-supplemented media. The study shows that the capacity of levan and possibly also other dietary fibers/prebiotics to modulate the composition and function of colon microbiota can be predicted by using isothermal microcalorimetry of fecal samples linked to metabolite and consortia analyses.

  8. Enterococci vs coliforms as a possible fecal contamination indicator: baseline data for Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mushtaq; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz; Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Wajid, Abdul

    2007-04-01

    Fecal contamination of drinking water is the major cause of water borne illnesses. For long time coliforms are exploited as fecal contamination indicator. However, recent studies indicate low survival rate of coliforms in stress conditions, hence it's use as indicator of fecal pollution is being abandoned in many parts of the developed world. Implementation of such strategy demands availability of local data in the cities like Karachi. The present study provides a comparison between coliforms and enterococcal load and its variation in sewage samples collected (June, August and November, 2006) from eighteen towns of Karachi. All the diluted samples were selective media to obtain colony-forming units (CFU) mainly for coliforms and enterococci. The bacteria isolated were identified on the basis of conventional microbiological methods. Observations thus obtained were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. The total load of enterococci was found in range of 1.27-8.47 X 10(7) as compared to coliforms (3.03-13.9 X 10(7)). However, segregation of data reveals greater inter town variability in CFU/ml both in coliforms and enterococci as suggested by their cumulative standard deviation +/-1.5 X 107. Furthermore, CFU/ml of both coliforms and enterococci also varies to variable scale when collected at different time intervals and at intra town level. Conclusively, the studies suggest high survival rate and lower variability of Enterococci compared to escherichia hence indicating its potential advantage to be used as fecal contamination indicator.

  9. Clinical presentation of fecal incontinence and anorectal function: what is the relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom, Marije; Dobben, Annette C.; Terra, Maaike P.; Engel, Alexander F.; Stoker, Jaap; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fecal incontinence is classified into various types: passive, urge, and combined. Its clinical presentation is thought to be related to the underlying physiological or anatomical abnormality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the frequency of clinical

  10. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods for the identification of fecal microorganisms in surface waters has the potential to revolutionize water quality monitoring worldwide. Unlike traditional cultivation methods, qPCR estimates the concentration of gen...

  11. Limitations of fecal calprotectin at diagnosis in untreated pediatric Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaoul, Ron; Sladek, Marlgozata; Turner, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Fecal Calprotectin (FC) is a validated screening test for intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD). The objective of the study was to prospectively evaluate the limitations of FC for identifying CD in newly diagnosed untreated pediatric patients and to assess the association of FC levels w...

  12. [Gluteus maximus transplantation for fecal incontinence after surgery of high anal atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feiteng; Li, Fuyu; Liu, Juxian; Chen, Yongmei; Wu, Yang; Yang, Xiaodong; Xiang, Bo

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the application of gluteus maximus transplantation for fecal incontinence after surgery of high anal atresia. Between December 2002 and November 2010, 25 patients with fecal incontinence were treated with gluteus maximus transplantation, which was caused by surgery of high anal atresia. There were 11 males and 14 females with an average age of 10.2 years (range, 3-22 years). Preoperative radiography, anorectal manometer, and electromyogram showed abnormality or deficiency of anal sphincter function. Wexner score, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) questionnaire, and Self-rated Health Measurement Scale Version 1.0 (SRHMS) score were used to evaluate life quality of the patients. The anorectal manometer, intra-rectal ultrasound examination, and defecation radiography were performed. Healing of incision by first intention was achieved in 23 cases and rectal-wound fistula occurred in 2 cases. The follow-up time was 1 to 9 years (mean, 6.3 years). Defecation frequency was decreased from more than 10 times to 4-6 times every day. Wexner score and SRHMS were significantly improved at 1 or 2 years after surgery when compared with preoperative socres (P Gluteus maximus transplantation can improve defecation controls in the patients with fecal incontinence after surgery of high anal atresia.

  13. Endoscopic Follow-Up of Positive Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario FOBT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ontario FOBT Project is a pilot study of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for colorectal cancer screening conducted among age-eligible volunteers (50 to 75 years in 12 of 37 public health regions in Ontario.

  14. The Value of Fecal Markers in Predicting Relapse in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca J. Galgut

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are lifelong chronic illnesses that place an immense burden on patients. The primary aim of therapy is to reduce disease burden and prevent relapse. However, the occurrence of relapses is often unpredictable. Current disease monitoring is primarily by way of clinical indices, with relapses often only recognized once the inflammatory episode is established with subsequent symptoms and gut damage. The window between initial upregulation of the inflammatory response and the recognition of symptoms may provide an opportunity to prevent the relapse and associated morbidity. This review will describe the existing literature surrounding predictive indicators of relapse of IBD with a specific focus on fecal biomarkers. Fecal biomarkers offer promise as a convenient, non-invasive, low cost option for disease monitoring that is predictive of subsequent relapse. To exploit the potential of fecal biomarkers in this role, further research is now required. This research needs to assess multiple fecal markers in context with demographics, disease phenotype, genetics, and intestinal microbiome composition, to build disease behavior models that can provide the clinician with sufficient confidence to intervene and change the long-term disease course.

  15. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: Model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evalu...

  16. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  17. INFLUENCE OF EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    As monitoring of watershed water quality is directly related to proposed uses, it is important for our Naton's water systems that the d4etemrination of and distinction between fecal contamination source is made. The most common water quality monitoring approach is to screen for f...

  18. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  19. Salmonella fecal excretion control in broiler chickens by organic acids and essential oils blend feed added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is an important disease with economic impact as it may affect animal performance and may result in foodborne disease in humans through the eggs and carcass contamination. Regarding the Salmonella control, it is possible to decrease its fecal excretion and the contamination of chicken carcasses by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. The aim of this study was to test a blend of organic acids and essential oils in broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, and to verify the fecal excretion of Salmonella. Sixty broilers were placed in four groups. One group was the negative control. Another group was orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE as a positive SE control. Two groups (T3 and T4 were orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE and their feed was separately treated with 0.5 and 1% of organic acids and essential oils, respectively. To assess the fecal excretion of SE, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days after inoculation. The T3 and T4 groups showed a reduction in fecal excretion of SE at 6 and 20 days after inoculation.

  20. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mühlbauer

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  1. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears.

  2. TURKEY FECAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS REVEALED BY 16S RDNA AND METAGENOME SEQUENCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey feces are an important source of fecal waste in the United States. With the exception of isolated studies on bacterial pathogens, little is known about the type of bacteria inhabiting the turkey gut. In order to understand the microbial diversity and functional genes assoc...

  3. On the prevalence of constipation and fecal incontinence, and their co-occurrence, in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinds, Rob J.; van Meegdenburg, Maxime M.; Trzpis, Monika; Broens, Paul M. A.

    Purpose Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of constipation and fecal incontinence (FI) in the general population and, even though these disorders are known to cooccur, they were studied independently of each other. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of constipation and FI, and

  4. Fecal Calprotectin Predicts Relapse and Histological Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Holck, Susanne; Ibsen, Per

    2016-01-01

    . Fecal calprotectin (FC) was measured 2 to 3 days before the sigmoidoscopy. The tissue samples were evaluated for neutrophilic inflammation. We aimed at testing the predictive performance of FC and histological inflammatory activity on disease relapse. RESULTS: A baseline FC level of more than 321 mg...

  5. Fecal contamination in child day care centers: cloth vs paper diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, B; Waugh, G; Moukaddem, V E; West, J; Harshman, S

    1995-01-01

    Cloth diapers with front closure and all-in-one design were compared with paper diapers containing absorbent gel material for their influence on fecal contamination of the environment in licensed child day care centers. One infant room and two toddler rooms in each of four day care centers were monitored for the presence of fecal bacteria. Microbial samples were taken from the play/sleep area, the diaper-changing area, and the hands of the caregivers and the children. Sampling was done twice weekly for two 4-week periods. Each center used either cloth or paper diapers during the first period, changing to the other diaper type during the second period. A total of 1722 samples were cultured, 881 during the first 4 weeks and 841 during the second 4 weeks. The frequency of isolation of fecal organisms ranged from a low of 12% of the total bacteria isolates at a center using cloth diapers, to highs of 46% and 45%, respectively, at a center using first paper and then cloth diapers. Sink faucets and the hands of the caregivers and the children were often contaminated. Analysis of the results of comparisons between cloth and paper diapers showed no significant difference in the frequency (F = .380, P < .535) or the intensity of fecal contamination in child day care centers.

  6. Computer modeling of fecal coliform contamination of an urban estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatos, P D

    2001-01-01

    This study is focused on the investigation of the sources, distribution and fate of fecal coliform populations in the North Fork of the New River that flows through the City of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. The dynamics of this brackish river are driven by weak tides, regulated freshwater discharges, overland runoff, storm water drainage from sewers, and groundwater exchange. Extensive field studies failed to document any alleged source(s) of contamination, including birds, domesticated and undomesticated mammals, humans, septic tank leakage, urban runoff, non-point discharges from agricultural lands, waste disposal from live-aboard vessels and/or in situ re-growth of fecal coliform. In order to facilitate field sampling, and support the data analyses efforts, computer simulations were applied to assess the likelihood of the various possible pollution scenarios. The physically based computer model used is the WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program Modeling System) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the Neural Network MATLAB Toolbox was utilized for data analysis. WASP was able to accurately simulate the water hydrodynamics and coliform concentrations within the North Fork, while the neural network assisted in identifying correlations between fecal coliform and the various parameters involved. The numerical results supported the conclusion that fecal coliform were introduced by the animal populations along the riverbanks and by storm water washout of the adjacent drainage basins and the banks. The problem is exaggerated due to the low flashing capacity of the river.

  7. Regional Assessment of Human Fecal Contamination in Southern California Coastal Drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiping; Raith, Meredith R.; Smith, Paul D.; Griffith, John F.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Schriewer, Alexander; Sheldon, Andrew; Crompton, Chris; Gregory, Jason; Guzman, Joe; Othman, Laila; Manasjan, Mayela; Choi, Samuel; Rapoport, Shana; Steele, Syreeta; Nguyen, Tommy; Yu, Xueyuan

    2017-01-01

    Host-associated genetic markers that allow for fecal source identification have been used extensively as a diagnostic tool to determine fecal sources within watersheds, but have not been used in routine monitoring to prioritize remediation actions among watersheds. Here, we present a regional assessment of human marker prevalence among drainages that discharge to the U.S. southern California coast. Approximately 50 samples were analyzed for the HF183 human marker from each of 22 southern California coastal drainages under summer dry weather conditions, and another 50 samples were targeted from each of 23 drainages during wet weather. The HF183 marker was ubiquitous, detected in all but two sites in dry weather and at all sites during wet weather. However, there was considerable difference in the extent of human fecal contamination among sites. Similar site ranking was produced regardless of whether the assessment was based on frequency of HF183 detection or site average HF183 concentration. However, site ranking differed greatly between dry and wet weather. Site ranking also differed greatly when based on enterococci, which do not distinguish between pollution sources, vs. HF183, which distinguishes higher risk human fecal sources from other sources, indicating the additional value of the human-associated marker as a routine monitoring tool. PMID:28777324

  8. Genetic parameters for fecal egg count and body weight in Katahdin lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fecal egg count at weaning (WFEC) and post weaning (PWFEC), and weights at birth (BW), weaning (WW) and post weaning (PWW) in Katahdin lambs by investigating direct additive, maternal additive, maternal permanent environmental and ma...

  9. Applicability of fecal estrogenic metabolites estimation for assessment of reproductive activities in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, S.Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out at the sheep experimental farm belonging to Animal Nutrition Unit, Department of Applied Radiobiology, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. Inshas, Sharkia Governorate.Hormonal radioimmunological assay of serum estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), estrone sulphate (E 1 S) and estrone sulphate (E 1 S) in fecal samples was performed in the laboratories of the Endocrinology Research Unit, Applied Radiobiology Department, Applied Radioisotope Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority.It was aimed to point out the ovarian estrogens (E 1 , E 2 ) and estrogen metabolite (E 1 S) in both serum and fecal samples, as indicator for reproductive activity in hybrid ewes (Ossimi x Rahmani x Barki, with equal genetic proportion), during estrus cycle, pregnancy and post-partum periods. A total number of 62 ewes were randomly selected according to reproductive farm records and subjected to the study. Estradiol-17β, Estrone and Estrone sulfate were estimated in blood serum. Estrogen sulfate was estimated in fecal samples, estimations were carried out in the various stages of estrus cycle, pregnancy (every 10 days up to the time of parturition) and Postpartum (every 10 days up to 60 days).Fecal samples were collected 24 hours after blood collection to reflect the level of serum estrogenic hormones levels in blood circulation.

  10. Characterization of Train-Induced Vibration and its Effect on Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Nicholas A; Sargent, Jennifer L; Parmigiani, John P; Palme, Rupert; Diggs, Helen E

    2015-11-01

    Excessive environmental vibrations can have deleterious effects on animal health and experimental results, but they remain poorly understood in the animal laboratory setting. The aims of this study were to characterize train-associated vibration in a rodent vivarium and to assess the effects of this vibration on the reproductive success and fecal corticosterone metabolite levels of mice. An instrumented cage, featuring a high-sensitivity microphone and accelerometer, was used to characterize the vibrations and sound in a vivarium that is near an active railroad. The vibrations caused by the passing trains are 3 times larger in amplitude than are the ambient facility vibrations, whereas most of the associated sound was below the audible range for mice. Mice housed in the room closest to the railroad tracks had pregnancy rates that were 50% to 60% lower than those of mice of the same strains but bred in other parts of the facility. To verify the effect of the train vibrations, we used a custom-built electromagnetic shaker to simulate the train-induced vibrations in a controlled environment. Fecal pellets were collected from male and female mice that were exposed to the simulated vibrations and from unexposed control animals. Analysis of the fecal samples revealed that vibrations similar to those produced by a passing train can increase the levels of fecal corticosterone metabolites in female mice. These increases warrant attention to the effects of vibration on mice and, consequently, on reproduction and experimental outcomes.

  11. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of

  12. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of

  13. Impact of consumption of oligosaccharide-containing biscuits on the fecal microbiota of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tannock, G.W.; Munro, K.; Bibiloni, R.; Simon, M.A.; Hargreaves, P.; Gopal, P.; Harmsen, H.J.M.; Welling, Gjalt

    Human subjects consumed biscuits containing either galacto-oligosaccharides or fructo-oligosaccharides in a double-blinded, crossover study. The impact of supplementing the diet with three biscuits per day on the fecal microbiota was evaluated by selective culture of particular bacterial groups,

  14. Sustained fecal-oral human-to-human transmission following a zoonotic event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Miranda; Beck, Relja; Caccio, Simone M; Duim, Birgitta; Fraaij, Pieter LA; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Lecuit, Marc; Le Pendu, Jacques; de Wit, Emmie; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial, viral and parasitic zoonotic pathogens that transmit via the fecal-oral route have a major impact on global health. However, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of such pathogens from the animal reservoir and their persistence in the human population are poorly understood. Here, we

  15. Fecal calprotectin is equally sensitive in Crohn's disease affecting the small bowel and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Kjeldsen, Jens; Nathan, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The utility of fecal calprotectin (fCal) in small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) remains to be clarified. The primary aim of this study was to determine levels of fCal in CD restricted to the small bowel compared with CD affecting the colon, in patients undergoing their first diagnostic work...

  16. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  17. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal

  18. A Nation-Wide Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Fecal Impaction in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Barcelo, Marta; Jiménez Cebrián, Maria Jose; Alvarez-Sanchez, Angel; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel; Rocha, Alberto Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. Objective Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. Design Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: national multi-center cross-sectional study. Setting 34 randomly selected nursing homes. Measurements The presence of fecal impaction and associated factors were evaluated using three different tools: data collected from medical records; a self-completion questionnaire filled out by the subjects or a proxy; and a rectal examination. Subjects Older subjects living in nursing homes. Results The prevalence of chronic constipation was 70.7% (95%CI: 67.3–74.1%), of which 95.9% of patients were properly diagnosed and 43.1% were properly controlled. The prevalence of FI according to patient history was 47.3% (43.6–51.0%) and 6.6% (4.7–8.5%) according to rectal examination. Controlled constipation (OR: 9.8 [5.2–18.4]) and uncontrolled constipation (OR: 37.21 [19.7–70.1]), the number of medications (OR: 1.2 [1.1–1.3]), reduced functional capacity (OR: 0.98 [0.97–0.99]) and the occasional use of NSAIDs were independent risk factors for fecal impaction. Conclusions Constipation affects more than 70% of people living in nursing homes. Although it is properly diagnosed in more than 95% of cases, the disease is only controlled in less than 50%. Constipation, especially when not controlled, is the most significant risk factor leading to fecal impaction, which is prevalent in almost 50% of this population. PMID:25148393

  19. Assessment of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Potential Pathogen Co-Occurrence at a Shellfish Growing Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, Andrew K.; Crump, Byron C.; Hood, Raleigh R.

    2018-01-01

    Routine monitoring of shellfish growing waters for bacteria indicative of human sewage pollution reveals little about the bacterial communities that co-occur with these indicators. This study investigated the bacterial community, potential pathogens, and fecal indicator bacteria in 40 water samples from a shellfish growing area in the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Bacterial community composition was quantified with deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, and absolute gene abundances were estimated with an internal standard (Thermus thermophilus genomes). Fecal coliforms were quantified by culture, and Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus with quantitative PCR. Fecal coliforms and V. vulnificus were detected in most samples, and a diverse assemblage of potential human pathogens were detected in all samples. These taxa followed two general patterns of abundance. Fecal coliforms and 16S rRNA genes for Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Staphylococcus, and Bacteroides increased in abundance after a 1.3-inch rain event in May, and, for some taxa, after smaller rain events later in the season, suggesting that these are allochthonous organisms washed in from land. Clostridiaceae and Mycobacterium 16S rRNA gene abundances increased with day of the year and were not positively related to rainfall, suggesting that these are autochthonous organisms. Other groups followed both patterns, such as Legionella. Fecal coliform abundance did not correlate with most other taxa, but were extremely high following the large rainstorm in May when they co-occurred with a broad range of potential pathogen groups. V. vulnificus were absent during the large rainstorm, and did not correlate with 16S rRNA abundances of Vibrio spp. or most other taxa. These results highlight the complex nature of bacterial communities and the limited utility of using specific bacterial groups as indicators of pathogen presence. PMID:29593669

  20. Assessment of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Potential Pathogen Co-Occurrence at a Shellfish Growing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Leight

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Routine monitoring of shellfish growing waters for bacteria indicative of human sewage pollution reveals little about the bacterial communities that co-occur with these indicators. This study investigated the bacterial community, potential pathogens, and fecal indicator bacteria in 40 water samples from a shellfish growing area in the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Bacterial community composition was quantified with deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, and absolute gene abundances were estimated with an internal standard (Thermus thermophilus genomes. Fecal coliforms were quantified by culture, and Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus with quantitative PCR. Fecal coliforms and V. vulnificus were detected in most samples, and a diverse assemblage of potential human pathogens were detected in all samples. These taxa followed two general patterns of abundance. Fecal coliforms and 16S rRNA genes for Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Staphylococcus, and Bacteroides increased in abundance after a 1.3-inch rain event in May, and, for some taxa, after smaller rain events later in the season, suggesting that these are allochthonous organisms washed in from land. Clostridiaceae and Mycobacterium 16S rRNA gene abundances increased with day of the year and were not positively related to rainfall, suggesting that these are autochthonous organisms. Other groups followed both patterns, such as Legionella. Fecal coliform abundance did not correlate with most other taxa, but were extremely high following the large rainstorm in May when they co-occurred with a broad range of potential pathogen groups. V. vulnificus were absent during the large rainstorm, and did not correlate with 16S rRNA abundances of Vibrio spp. or most other taxa. These results highlight the complex nature of bacterial communities and the limited utility of using specific bacterial groups as indicators of pathogen presence.

  1. Early fecal microbiota composition in children who later develop celiac disease and associated autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Anniina; Riikonen, Iiris; Toivonen, Anne; Pietilä, Sami; Munukka, Eveliina; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Elo, Laura L; Arikoski, Pekka; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Schwab, Ursula; Uusitupa, Matti; Heinonen, Seppo; Savilahti, Erkki; Eerola, Erkki; Ilonen, Jorma

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have reported that the intestinal microbiota composition of celiac disease (CD) patients differs from healthy individuals. The possible role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease is, however, not known. Here, we aimed to assess the possible differences in early fecal microbiota composition between children that later developed CD and healthy controls matched for age, sex and HLA risk genotype. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the fecal microbiota of 27 children with high genetic risk of developing CD. Nine of these children developed the disease by the age of 4 years. Stool samples were collected at the age of 9 and 12 months, before any of the children had developed CD. The fecal microbiota composition of children who later developed the disease was compared with the microbiota of the children who did not have CD or associated autoantibodies at the age of 4 years. Delivery mode, early nutrition, and use of antibiotics were taken into account in the analyses. No statistically significant differences in the fecal microbiota composition were found between children who later developed CD (n = 9) and the control children without disease or associated autoantibodies (n = 18). Based on our results, the fecal microbiota composition at the age of 9 and 12 months is not associated with the development of CD. Our results, however, do not exclude the possibility of duodenal microbiota changes or a later microbiota-related trigger for the disease.

  2. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Manoj; Gupta, Shashank; Ahmed, Vasim; Bhambi, Manu; Pandey, Rajesh; Chauhan, Nar Singh

    2016-12-01

    Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23kb) metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8) with a good yield (55.8±3.8ng/mg of feces). We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes=2 27.9 :1) in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp among cattle admitted to a veterinary medical teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Divers, Thomas J; McDonough, Patrick L; Warnick, Lorin D

    2009-06-15

    OBJECTIVE- To estimate the prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella spp among bovine patients at a veterinary teaching hospital, to identify risk factors for fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms, and to characterize the serotypes. DESIGN- Retrospective cohort study. SAMPLE POPULATION- 5,398 hospitalized cattle. PROCEDURES- Data were collected for all cattle admitted during an 11-year period. Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp was determined by means of standard bacteriologic culture. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for shedding of Salmonella spp among patients. RESULTS- The prevalence of Salmonella shedding among clinical suspects was 6.5% (50/768), whereas that among nonsuspects tested through routine surveillance was 2.5% (50/2,020). Among clinical suspect calves, fecal shedding of Salmonella spp was more likely for those admitted in the fall (odds ratio [OR], 5.9), those with septicemia (OR, 3.3), or those with an umbilical hernia (OR, 8.6). Among clinical suspect adult cattle, those with enteritis (OR, 9.9) or metritis (OR, 5.2) were more likely to be shedding Salmonella spp. Among nonsuspect cattle, none of the variables were significant predictors of shedding status. Twenty-one serotypes were detected during the study period, with the most common being Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium (33%), Newport (23%), and Agona (12%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE- Seasonal and disease risk factors for fecal shedding of Salmonella spp were evident among clinical suspect cattle admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. In contrast, lack of significant associations among nonsuspect cattle would suggest that targeted screening within this population is not warranted.

  4. Phosphorus balance and fecal losses in growing Standardbred horses in training fed forage-only diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, G; Holtenius, K; Jansson, A

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the P balance and fecal P losses in growing Standardbred horses in training fed a forage-only diet with or without P supplementation and assessed the magnitude and proportion of the soluble, inorganic P (Pi) fraction in feces. Fourteen Standardbred horses (aged 20.0 ± 0.3 mo) adapted to ad libitum intake of grass forage containing 0.25% P were used in a crossover experiment investigating 2 dietary treatments with (high-P) and without (low-P) mineral supplementation for 6 d. Daily feed intake and refusals were weighed. Spot samples of feces were collected twice daily on d 4 to 6 and analyzed for total P and Pi. Acid-insoluble ash was used as a marker for total fecal output. Spot samples of urine were collected once on d 4 to 6 and analyzed for P and creatinine. Daily P intake was greater (P urine was less than 0.2 g/d on both diets. Using simple regression analysis, fecal endogenous P losses were estimated to be less than 10 mg/kg BW. Phosphorus retention was 1.6 ± 0.6 and 0.3 ± 0.6 g/d on the high- and low-P diets, respectively, but only that for the high-P diet was greater (P Phosphorus was mainly excreted in feces and both total fecal P and Pi excretion had a strong relationship to P intake. More than 80% of total P appeared to be soluble. Fecal endogenous P losses were similar to those described previously in growing horses.

  5. A nation-wide study of prevalence and risk factors for fecal impaction in nursing homes.

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    Enrique Rey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. DESIGN: Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: national multi-center cross-sectional study. SETTING: 34 randomly selected nursing homes. MEASUREMENTS: The presence of fecal impaction and associated factors were evaluated using three different tools: data collected from medical records; a self-completion questionnaire filled out by the subjects or a proxy; and a rectal examination. SUBJECTS: Older subjects living in nursing homes. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic constipation was 70.7% (95%CI: 67.3-74.1%, of which 95.9% of patients were properly diagnosed and 43.1% were properly controlled. The prevalence of FI according to patient history was 47.3% (43.6-51.0% and 6.6% (4.7-8.5% according to rectal examination. Controlled constipation (OR: 9.8 [5.2-18.4] and uncontrolled constipation (OR: 37.21 [19.7-70.1], the number of medications (OR: 1.2 [1.1-1.3], reduced functional capacity (OR: 0.98 [0.97-0.99] and the occasional use of NSAIDs were independent risk factors for fecal impaction. CONCLUSIONS: Constipation affects more than 70% of people living in nursing homes. Although it is properly diagnosed in more than 95% of cases, the disease is only controlled in less than 50%. Constipation, especially when not controlled, is the most significant risk factor leading to fecal impaction, which is prevalent in almost 50% of this population.

  6. Effect of preservation method on spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) fecal microbiota over 8 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Vanessa L; Tan, Chia L; Knight, Rob; Amato, Katherine R

    2015-06-01

    Studies of the gut microbiome have become increasingly common with recent technological advances. Gut microbes play an important role in human and animal health, and gut microbiome analysis holds great potential for evaluating health in wildlife, as microbiota can be assessed from non-invasively collected fecal samples. However, many common fecal preservation protocols (e.g. freezing at -80 °C) are not suitable for field conditions, or have not been tested for long-term (greater than 2 weeks) storage. In this study, we collected fresh fecal samples from captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) at the Columbian Park Zoo (Lafayette, IN, USA). The samples were pooled, homogenized, and preserved for up to 8 weeks prior to DNA extraction and sequencing. Preservation methods included: freezing at -20 °C, freezing at -80 °C, immersion in 100% ethanol, application to FTA cards, and immersion in RNAlater. At 0 (fresh), 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks from fecal collection, DNA was extracted and microbial DNA was amplified and sequenced. DNA concentration, purity, microbial diversity, and microbial composition were compared across all methods and time points. DNA concentration and purity did not correlate with microbial diversity or composition. Microbial composition of frozen and ethanol samples were most similar to fresh samples. FTA card and RNAlater-preserved samples had the least similar microbial composition and abundance compared to fresh samples. Microbial composition and diversity were relatively stable over time within each preservation method. Based on these results, if freezers are not available, we recommend preserving fecal samples in ethanol (for up to 8weeks) prior to microbial extraction and analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fecal lipocalin 2, a sensitive and broadly dynamic non-invasive biomarker for intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Delgado, Maria A; Young, Andrew N; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation has classically been defined histopathologically, especially by the presence of immune cell infiltrates. However, more recent studies suggest a role for "low-grade" inflammation in a variety of disorders ranging from metabolic syndrome to cancer, which is defined by modest elevations in pro-inflammatory gene expression. Consequently, there is a need for cost-effective, non-invasive biomarkers that, ideally, would have the sensitivity to detect low-grade inflammation and have a dynamic range broad enough to reflect classic robust intestinal inflammation. Herein, we report that, for assessment of intestinal inflammation, fecal lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2), measured by ELISA, serves this purpose. Specifically, using a well-characterized mouse model of DSS colitis, we observed that fecal Lcn-2 and intestinal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, CXCL1, TNFα) are modestly but significantly induced by very low concentrations of DSS (0.25 and 0.5%), and become markedly elevated at higher concentrations of DSS (1.0 and 4.0%). As expected, careful histopathologic analysis noted only modest immune infiltrates at low DSS concentration and robust colitis at higher DSS concentrations. In accordance, increased levels of the neutrophil product myeloperoxidase (MPO) was only detected in mice given 1.0 and 4.0% DSS. In addition, fecal Lcn-2 marks the severity of spontaneous colitis development in IL-10 deficient mice. Unlike histopathology, MPO, and q-RT-PCR, the assay of fecal Lcn-2 requires only a stool sample, permits measurement over time, and can detect inflammation as early as 1 day following DSS administration. Thus, assay of fecal Lcn-2 by ELISA can function as a non-invasive, sensitive, dynamic, stable and cost-effective means to monitor intestinal inflammation in mice.

  8. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

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    Jitendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23 kb metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8 with a good yield (55.8 ± 3.8 ng/mg of feces. We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes = 227.9:1 in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies.

  9. Correlations of Fecal Metabonomic and Microbiomic Changes Induced by High-fat Diet in the Pre-Obesity State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; An, Yanpeng; Hao, Fuhua; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Obesity resulting from interactions of genetic and environmental factors becomes a serious public health problem worldwide with alterations of the metabolic phenotypes in multiple biological matrices involving multiple metabolic pathways. To understand the contributions of gut microbiota to obesity development, we analyzed dynamic alterations in fecal metabonomic phenotype using NMR and fecal microorganism composition in rats using pyrosequencing technology during the high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 81 days (pre-obesity state). Integrated analysis of these two phenotypic datasets was further conducted to establish correlations between the altered rat fecal metabonome and gut microbiome. We found that one-week HFD feeding already caused significant changes in rat fecal metabonome and such changes sustained throughout 81-days feeding with the host and gut microbiota co-metabolites clearly featured. We also found that HFD caused outstanding decreases in most fecal metabolites implying enhancement of gut absorptions. We further established comprehensive correlations between the HFD-induced changes in fecal metabonome and fecal microbial composition indicating contributions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis and progression of the HFD-induced obesity. These findings provided essential information about the functions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of metabolic disorders which could be potentially important for developing obesity prevention and treatment therapies.

  10. [Validation of questionnaires to assess quality of life related to fecal incontinence in children with anorectal malformations and Hirschsprung's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Arthur Loguetti; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Ferreira, Mariana Aparecida Elisei; Santos, Maria Mercês; Tannuri, Uenis

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) leads to alterations in bowel habits and fecal incontinence, with consequent quality of life impairment. The objectives were to create and validate a Questionnaire for the Fecal Incontinence Index (FII) based on the Holschneider score, as well as a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Quality of Life Related to Fecal Incontinence in Children and Adolescents (QQVCFCA), based on the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life. The questionnaires were applied to 71 children submitted to surgical procedure, in two stages. Validity was tested by comparing the QQVCFCA and a generic quality of life questionnaire (SF-36), and between QQVCFCA and the FII. A group of 59 normal children was used as control. At two stages, 45.0% (32/71) and 42.8% (21/49) of the patients had fecal incontinence. It was observed that the QQVCFCA showed a significant correlation with the SF-36 and FII (Pearson's correlation 0.57), showing that the quality of life is directly proportional to improvement in fecal incontinence. Quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence is still globally impaired, when compared with control subjects (pde Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Colesevelam on Fecal Bile Acids and Bowel Functions in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene; Boldingh, Amy; Dyer, Roy B.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Lueke, Alan; Gray, Amber; Donato, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Background About one-third of patients with IBS-diarrhea (IBS-D) have evidence of increased bile acid (BA) synthesis or excretion. Aims To assess effects of the BA sequestrant, colesevelam, on fecal excretion of BAs, hepatic BA synthesis and diarrhea in IBS-D; to appraise whether individual or random stool samples accurately reflect 48-hour total fecal BA excretion and proportions of the main BAs excreted; to study the fecal fat excretion in response to colesevelam. Methods Study design: A single-center, unblinded, single-dose trial of effects of colesevelam, 1875mg [3 tablets (625mg tablets)] orally, twice daily, for 10 days on total 48-hour fecal BA excretion and fasting serum C4 (surrogate of hepatic BA synthesis). Stool diaries documented bowel functions for 8 days prior and 8 days during colesevelam treatment. Stool 48-hour samples and fasting serum were collected for fecal fat, fecal BA and serum C4. Results Colesevelam was associated with significantly increased fecal total BA excretion and deoxycholic acid excretion, increased serum C4, and more solid stool consistency. There was a significant inverse correlation between number of bowel movements per week and the total BA sequestered into stool during the last 48 hours of treatment. Random stool samples did not accurately reflect 48-hour total or individual fecal BA excretion. Sequestration of BAs by colesevelam did not increase fecal fat. Conclusions Colesevelam increases delivery of BAs to stool while improving stool consistency, and increases hepatic BA synthesis, avoiding steatorrhea in patients with IBS-D. Overall effects are consistent with luminal BA sequestration by colesevelam. PMID:25594801

  12. Bifidobacterium-Rich Fecal Donor May Be a Positive Predictor for Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Shinta; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Naganuma, Makoto; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Kitazawa, Momoko; Kurokawa, Shunya; Nakashima, Moeko; Takeshita, Kozue; Suda, Wataru; Mimura, Masaru; Hattori, Masahira; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Dysbiosis is associated with various systemic disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) might restore intestinal microbial balance. The study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of FMT in IBS patients, as well as also positive predictors for FMT. This was a single-arm, open-label study. Eligible patients were diagnosed based on Rome III Diagnostic Criteria. Fecal materials were administered to the patient via colonoscopy. The primary end point was a change in the Bristol stool form scale at 4 weeks after FMT. Recovery to types 3-4 was considered a clinical response. The secondary end point was a change in intestinal microbiota and psychological status using the Hamilton Rating Scale. Ten patients were enrolled. Six patients achieved a clinical response. The diversity of patients 4 weeks after FMT increased significantly compared with patients before FMT, and that of responding patients was significantly higher than non-responder patients. The abundance of Bifidobacterium in effective donors was significantly higher than in ineffective donors and patients. Psychological status of all patients was significantly improved after FMT. FMT for patients with IBS is safe, and relatively effective. Bifidobacterium-rich fecal donor may be a positive predictor for successful FMT. Key Summary: (1) Dysbiosis is associated with various gastrointestinal disorders including IBS. (2) FMT has potential to restore intestinal microbial balance. (3) We showed that FMT improved stool form and psychological status of IBS patients. (4) Bifidobacterium-rich donor efficiently induced symbiosis in IBS patients. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Fecal progestins during pregnancy and postpartum periods of captive red brocket deer (Mazama americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepschi, V G; Polegato, B F; Zanetti, E S; Duarte, J M B

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to validate the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for fecal progestin quantification of the species Mazama americana, define its excretion profile during periods of gestation and postpartum and determine the gestation period and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity in this species in captivity. Fecal samples were collected twice a week during gestation and every day in the postpartum period, and analyzed using EIA. The mean concentrations (±SEM) of fecal progestins during gestation were 2180.0±299.1ng/g in early pregnancy (week 1-11), 3271.4±406.9ng/g in middle pregnancy (week 12-22) and 5592.0±1125.8ng/g in late pregnancy (week 23-32). The gestation period determined for the species was 220.9±1.2 days. The concentration of progestins reached its peak prior to parturition and returned to baseline levels in 4±0.31 days after parturition. In the postpartum period, the mean concentrations of fecal progestins were 1564.2±182.6ng/g in the interval between parturition and resumption of ovarian activity, 469.8±24.5ng/g in the inter-luteal phase and 2401.7±318.5ng/g during the luteal phase, such that the postpartum period and the luteal phase differed from the inter-luteal phase. Fecal progestin profiling permitted the detection of ovulation 26.9±3.4 days after parturition in all the hinds studied and estimation of the mean duration of the estrous cycle, 21.3±1.1 days. Analysis established that concentrations of progestins above 3038.76ng/g diagnosed pregnancy, a value determined from the week 12 of gestation. Moreover, the quantification of fecal progestins by EIA proved to be an important tool for noninvasive endocrine monitoring and to obtain reproductive data on the species M. americana in captivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of composite fecal samples for detection of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa M; Paras, Kelsey L; Howell, Sue B; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-06-15

    Recent reports indicate that anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Presently, the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the only means available for detection of resistance to anthelmintics in cattle herds at the farm level. However, the FECRT is labor and cost intensive, and consequently is only rarely performed on cattle farms unless for research purposes. If costs could be reduced, cattle producers might be more likely to pursue drug resistance testing on their farms. One approach to reducing the cost of the FECRT, is the use of composite fecal samples for performing fecal egg counts (FEC), rather than conducting FEC on fecal samples from 15 to 20 individual animals. In this study FECRT were performed on 14 groups of cattle using both individual and composite FEC methods To measure how well the results of composite sampling reproduce those of individual sampling, Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient was utilized to describe both the linear relationship between methods and the slope and y-intercept of the line relating the data sets. There was little difference between the approaches with 98% agreement in mean FEC found between methods Mean FEC based on individual counts ranged between 0 and 670.6 eggs per gram of feces, indicating that the results of this study are applicable to a wide range of FEC levels. Standard error of the mean FEC and range of FEC are reported for each group prior to and following treatment to describe the variability of the data set. There was greater than 95% agreement in drug efficacy between individual and composite sampling methods, demonstrating composite sampling is appropriate to evaluate drug efficacy. Notably, for all groups tested the efficacy calculated by composite sampling was within the 95% confidence interval for efficacy calculated using individual sampling. The use of composite samples was shown to reduce the number of FEC required by 79

  15. A case of rectal stricture associated with the use of a fecal management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Chatterjee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal management systems are widely used to prevent complications of fecal incontinence such as skin breakdown and pressure ulcers. However they are occasionally associated with complications such as bleeding and pressure necrosis of rectal mucosa. We present a patient with Clostridium difficile colitis with a prolonged hospital stay requiring the use of Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System who developed abdominal pain and distention with obstipation. Computed tomography of abdomen showed dilatation of small and large bowel loops with a transition point at rectosigmoid junction. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed the presence of a severe stricture at the rectosigmoid junction that was not amenable to endoscopic dilation. Surgical resection with an end-colostomy was performed to relieve the obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a high-grade stricture due to use of bowel management system that needed bowel resection surgery. Resumo: Sistemas de manejo fecal são amplamente utilizados com o objetivo de evitar as complicações da incontinência fecal, além de avarias à pele e úlceras de decúbito. No entanto, ocasionalmente esses sistemas estão associados a complicações, como sangramento e necrose por pressão da mucosa retal. Apresentamos um paciente com colite por Clostridium difficile com prolongada permanência no hospital e que necessitou do uso do Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System; esse paciente veio a sofrer dores e distensão abdominal, juntamente com obstipação. A tomografia computadorizada do abdome revelou dilatação de alças de intestine delgado e grosso, com um ponto de transição na junção retossigmóidea. A sigmoidoscopia flexível revelou presença de grande constrição na junção retossigmóidea, que não permitia dilatação endoscópica. Realizamos ressecção cirúrgica com colostomia terminal, com o objetivo de aliviar a obstrução. Até onde vai nosso conhecimento, este é o

  16. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Kim, In H

    2014-06-01

    A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91 ± 1.06 kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P  0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. MODELO AUTORREGRESIVO BILINEAL APLICADO A LA PREDICCIÓN MENSUAL DE CAUDALES EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Cadavid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un modelo estocástico bilineal, el cual inicialmente es propuesto para análisis de retornos financieros y otros sistemas complejos combinando la alta no linealidad y multiplicidad del ruido. Este modelo, por su carácter aleatorio, no tiene componente determinística que permita considerar la persistencia de los caudales en una aplicación a la Hidrología. Por lo tanto, se propone el acoplamiento entre la parte determinística de un modelo autorregresivo de orden 2 y el modelo estocástico bilineal como componente aleatorio, y se obtiene un modelo autorregresivo bilineal (MAB. El MAB se empleó para la predicción de caudales en ventanas de 3, 6 y 12 meses en 12 ríos de Colombia de diferentes regiones del país. El MAB tiene una estructura simple y muestra una mejora sustancial en la disminución de los errores para los caudales máximos y mínimos en el período de validación respecto de los modelos estocásticos tradicionales.

  18. Comparison of three commercial fecal calprotectin ELISA test kits used in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Bachmann Holmetoft, Ulla; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fecal calprotectin is a noninvasive marker of intestinal inflammation used to distinguish between functional and organic bowel diseases and to evaluate disease activity among patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to compare three different ELISA tests...... and 18 to 67 years, respectively. Disease activity in the patients was established using the following clinical activity indices: the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI), the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI) and the Modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (MPDAI). Three ELISA calprotectin tests...... (EK-CAL, CALPRO and HK325) were performed on fecal specimens and results compared. RESULTS: The CALPRO calprotectin ELISA test was shown to have the best specificity of 96% compared to the HK325 and the EK-CAL calprotectin ELISA tests with 28% specificity and 74% specificity, respectively...

  19. An empirical model to quantify fecal bacterial loadings to coastal areas: Application in a Mediterranean context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Marlène; Salles, Christian; Rodier, Claire; Cantet, Franck; Marchand, Pierre; Mosser, Thomas; Cernesson, Flavie; Monfort, Patrick; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2017-10-01

    In coastal catchments, rainfall events primarily drive bacterial inputs to the sea by causing land runoff, surface leaching and sewer overflow. Under semi-arid climate, extensive dry periods are interspersed with extreme precipitation. This paper aims to assess the impact of intense summer rainstorms events on Fecal Indicator Bacteria loadings to Mediterranean seawaters. Firstly, explanatory relationships were derived between an Antecedent Precipitation Index and the loads of thermo-tolerant coliforms and intestinal enterococci measured at three catchment outlets in the Gulf of Aigues-Mortes (southern France). Secondly, fecal bacterial loadings were simulated during summer season from 2006-2016, with a confidence interval arising from measurements uncertainties. On average, more than two rainstorms per summer season elevate bacterial loads at least by one order of magnitude, potentially leading to the degradation of bathing and fishing water quality observed in regulatory monitoring data. The results highlight the crucial importance of considering hydrological conditions in coastal water quality management.

  20. The Impact of Handling and Storage of Human Fecal Material on Bacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatza, Eleni; Vertzoni, Maria; Muenster, Uwe; Reppas, Christos

    2016-11-01

    Fecal material prepared from human stools is frequently used for the assessment of bacterial degradation of active pharmaceutical ingredients as relevant data are useful for evaluating the potential for colonic drug delivery. The impact of handling and storage of human fecal material on bacterial activity was assessed by evaluating the degradation characteristics of metronidazole and olsalazine. Multiple freeze (-70°C)-thaw cycles should be avoided. Incubation of frozen material for about 2 h in the anaerobic workstation ensures regeneration of the highest possible bacterial activity. Material could be stored at -70°C for at least 12 months. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [New devices of fecal diversion and collection: adverse effects described in the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez López, M I

    2014-01-01

    Among products for the management and control of faeces in patients with fecal incontinence, there are new devices that allow the diversion and collection of fecal matter. This study has aimed to know the complications related to these new devices described in the literature. A search was made in the main bibliographic databases, obtaining publications on the new devices. The relevant documents were selected, these being those that described complications. After these were described. A total of 13 relevant documents were recovered. There were 45 adverse events 36 patients. Those having the greatest incidence were rectal bleeding (10 patients) and abdominal distension (6 patients). In order to provide the best patient care, it is essential to know the possible complications in order to be able to prevent them. The cares given these patients need to be reevaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Fecal analysis of ovarian cycles in female black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C J; Shideler, S E; Todd, H E; Lasley, B L

    2001-06-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was applied to characterize the reproductive endocrinology of adult female black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Analysis of paired urine and fecal samples, collected from two females housed at San Diego Zoo, confirmed that the EIAs employed provided quantitative measurements of ovarian sex steroid hormones. Fecal metabolite levels were significantly correlated with those in urine, confirming that feces are a valid source of steroid metabolites in this species. The excretion of these metabolites in feces lagged urinary excretion by 1-2 days. The ovarian cycle profiles of the two captive females and five free-ranging females are comparable, with an average length of approximately 20-23 days. Cyclical bleeding, as previously reported, was observed in one of the two captive females. Pregnancy was detected in four free-ranging females, and early fetal loss for one female was indicated by hormonal data.

  3. Point of care testing of fecal calprotectin as a substitute for routine laboratory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejl, Julie; Theede, Klaus; Møllgren, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Fecal calprotectin (FC) is widely used to monitor the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to tailor medical treatment to disease activity. Laboratory testing of fecal samples may have a turnaround time of 1–2 weeks, whereas FC home testing allows results within hours...... and thus enables a rapid response to clinical deterioration. Design and methods Fifty-five stool samples were analyzed by the IBDoc® Calprotectin Home Testing kit and the BÜHLMANN fCAL® turbo assay on a Roche Cobas 6000 c501. The correlation between the assays was assessed using Spearman's Rho correlation...... coefficient and the intermediate imprecision of both assays was calculated. Results We found a strong correlation coefficient of 0.887 between FC measured on IBDoc® and the laboratory assay BÜHLMANN fCAL® turbo. The coefficients of variation (CVs) at three different FC levels were in the range 2...

  4. Effects of 4-week continuous ingestion of champignon extract on halitosis and body and fecal odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nishihira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This was placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-group comparative clinical trial targeting 80 men and women aged 50–79 years with halitosis and body and fecal odor. We investigated whether daily champignon extract ingestion for 4 weeks improved these conditions. Subjects were divided into four groups: a placebo group and 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day ingestion groups. No severe adverse events or side effects were noted during the study period. Compared with the placebo group, all champignon extract ingestion groups showed improvement or tendency toward improvement in halitosis and body and fecal odor. Furthermore, our results suggested that the effectiveness of champignon extract in alleviating odors is dose-dependent, i.e., it increases with the dosage.

  5. Bio-feedback treatment of fecal incontinence: where are we, and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Ferri, Barbara; Morelli, Antonio; Iantorno, Guido; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2005-08-21

    Fecal incontinence is a disabling disease, often observed in young subjects, that may have devastating psycho-social consequences. In the last years, numerous evidences have been reported on the efficacy of bio-feedback techniques for the treatment of this disorder. Overall, the literature data claim a success rate in more than 70% of cases in the short term. However, recent controlled trials have not confirmed this optimistic view, thus emphasizing the role of standard care. Nonetheless, many authors believe that this should be the first therapeutic approach for fecal incontinence due to the efficacy, lack of side-effects, and scarce invasiveness. Well-designed randomized, controlled trial are eagerly awaited to solve this therapeutic dilemma.

  6. Diurnal Patterns of Testosterone and Cortisol Metabolites in Fecal of Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch in Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUDJI ASTUTI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine diurnal patterns of testosterone and cortisol metabolites to predict the testis functional status. In this study, fecal testosterone and cortisol were quantified in 77 samples from three male Hylobates moloch during a course of three months period. These data showed that the highest concentration of fecal testosterone occured at 18.00-06.00 (23.61 ng/g dried feces, then declined gradually. The lowest concentration was in the evening (5.54 ng/g dried feces. Our tests showed that there was a decrease in the mean testosterone concentration from 06.00-10.00 to 10.00-14.00 to 14.00-18.00. For cortisol, the highest concentration occured at 06.00-10.00 (597.84 ng/g dried feces, then decline gradually in the evening (225.73 ng/g dried feces.

  7. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Nordentoft, Steen; Pedersen, Karl

    2004-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. DNA was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by PCR with a prealiquoted PCR mixture, which had been stored at -18degreesC. Campylobacter could be detected...... in less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 100 to 150 CFU/ml, in a fecal suspension. A bacterial internal control was added before DNA extraction to control both DNA isolation and the presence of PCR inhibitors in the samples. The assay was performed on 111 swab samples from a Danish surveillance program...... and compared to conventional culturing using selective enrichment. There was no statistically significant difference in performance between real-time PCR and culture by selective enrichment, and the diagnostic specificity was 0.96 with an agreement of 0.92. Therefore, the assay should be useful for screening...

  8. Fecal examination of the equids of Tabriz from the viewpoint of gastrointestinal helminthes infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eslami

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available From July to October 2006, fecal samples were collected from 242 horses and ponies of Tabriz jockey clubs and 119 local equids in order to determine their EPG and parasitic fauna of gastrointestinal helminthes. After performing the Clayton- laen method of floatation test using zinc chloride and saturated sodium chloride solutions, it was determined that the feces of 40% of jockey club horses and 78.15% of local equids were infected by the eggs of parasitic gastrointestinal helminthes. Trichuris eggs were observed in 4.2% of the feces of local equids. Fecal culture revealed that all the eggs in the feces of jockey club horses were small strongyles while 2 of the local equids were infected by Strongyles vulgaris and the rest by small strongyles. Based on independent t-test, the differences between males and females and different age groups were insignificant.

  9. Metabonomics of human fecal extracts characterize ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Wang, Yulan; Hao, Fuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study employs spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of fecal extracts from healthy subjects and patients with active or inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) to substantiate the potential use of spectroscopy as a non-invasive diagnostic tool and to characterize the fecal...... metabolome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Stool samples from 113 individuals (UC 48, CD 44, controls 21) were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (Bruker 600 MHz, Bruker BioSpin, Rheinstetten, Germany). Data were analyzed with principal component analysis and orthogonal......-projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis using SIMCA-P + 12 and MATLAB. Significant differences were found in the metabolic profiles making it possible to differentiate between active IBD and controls and between UC and CD. The metabolites holding differential power primarily belonged to a range of amino...

  10. Interacting effects of sunlight, agriculturally derived dissolved organic matter and reactive oxygen species on fecal indicator bacteria growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial survival in agriculturally impacted surface waters is dependent on resource availability and also on potential resource transformations, mediated by biotic and abiotic processes. In this study, we focused on the effect of sunlight irradiated cattle fecal extract (CFE) a...

  11. Fecal microbiota in sensitized wheezy and non-sensitized non-wheezy children : a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, CS; Tannock, GW; Simon, MA; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW; Custovic, A; Woodcock, A

    Background It has been suggested that intestinal microbiota of allergic and non-allergic children differs in composition, and that microbiota - immune system interactions may predispose children to develop sensitization. Previous studies have examined fecal microbiota of allergic children with

  12. USE OF COMPETITIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION TO ENRICH FOR GENOME-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO CLOSELY RELATED HUMAN FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococci are frequently used as indicators of fecal pollution in surface waters. To accelerate the identification of Enterococcus faecalis-specific DNA sequences, we employed a comparative genomic strategy utilizing a positive selection process to compare E. faec...

  13. Occurrence and seasonal variation in distribution of fecal indicator bacteria in Tapi estuary along the West coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borade, S.; Dhawde, R.; Maloo, A.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Dastager, S.G.

    occurrence for the enteric bacteria in water and sediment were maximum accounted for fecal coliforms (64%), and moderate for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.2%). Higher microbial populations were recorded in stations close to coastal areas and inner estuarine...

  14. Comparison of bile acid synthesis determined by isotope dilution versus fecal acidic sterol output in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, W.C.; Holloway, D.E.; Hutton, S.W.; Corcoran, P.J.; Haas, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Fecal acidic sterol output has been found to be much lower than bile acid synthesis determined by isotope dilution. Because of this confusing discrepancy, we compared these 2 measurements done simultaneously on 13 occasions in 5 normal volunteers. In contrast to previous findings, bile acid synthesis by the Lindstedt isotope dilution method averaged 16.3% lower than synthesis simultaneously determined by fecal acidic sterol output (95% confidence limit for the difference - 22.2 to -10.4%). When one-sample determinations of bile acid pools were substituted for Lindstedt pools, bile acid synthesis by isotope dilution averaged 5.6% higher than synthesis by fecal acidic sterol output (95% confidence limits -4.9 to 16.1%). These data indicate that the 2 methods yield values in reasonably close agreement with one another. If anything, fecal acidic sterol outputs are slightly higher than synthesis by isotope dilution

  15. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced.

  16. Fecal Bacterial Community Changes Associated with Isoflavone Metabolites in Postmenopausal Women after Soy Bar Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Armstrong, Arthur; Clavijo, Andrea P.; Martin, Berdine R.; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M.

    2014-01-01

    Soy isoflavones and their metabolism by intestinal microbiota have gained attention because of potential health benefits, such as the alleviation of estrogen/hormone-related conditions in postmenopausal women, associated with some of these compounds. However, overall changes in gut bacterial community structure and composition in response to addition of soy isoflavones to diets and their association with excreted isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine fecal bacterial community changes in 17 postmenopausal women after a week of diet supplementation with soy bars containing isoflavones, and to determine correlations between microbial community changes and excreted isoflavone metabolites. Using DGGE profiles of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) to compare microbial communities in fecal samples collected one week before and one week during soy supplementation revealed significant differences (ANOSIM psoy supplementation in all subjects. However, between subjects comparisons showed high inter-individual variation that resulted in clustering of profiles by subjects. Urinary excretion of isoflavone (daidzein) metabolites indicated four subjects were equol producers and all subjects produced O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA). Comparison of relative proportions of 16S rRNA genes from 454 pyrosequencing of the last fecal samples of each treatment session revealed significant increases in average proportions of Bifidobacterium after soy consumption, and Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium were significantly greater in equol vs non-S-(-)equol producers. This is the first in vivo study using pyrosequencing to characterize significant differences in fecal community structure and composition in postmenopausal women after a week of soy diet-supplementation, and relate these changes to differences in soy isoflavones and isoflavone metabolites. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00244907 PMID:25271941

  17. Analysis of the Microbial Diversity in the Fecal Material of Giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jessica M; Henken, Susan; Dowd, Scot E; McLaughlin, Richard William

    2018-03-01

    Using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing, the microbiota of the fecal material of seven giraffes living in captivity at the Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, Jacksonville, FL was investigated. In all samples, the most predominant bacterial phylum was the Firmicutes followed by Bacteroidetes. The most predominant fungi were members of the phylum Ascomycota followed by Neocallimastigomycota in five of seven samples. The reverse was true in the other two samples.

  18. Performance of viruses and bacteriophages for fecal source determination in a multi-laboratory, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Stewart, Jill R; Fong, Theng-Theng; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Converse, Reagan R; Diston, David; Ebdon, James; Fuhrman, Jed A; Gourmelon, Michele; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Griffith, John F; Kashian, Donna R; Noble, Rachel T; Taylor, Huw; Wicki, Melanie

    2013-11-15

    An inter-laboratory study of the accuracy of microbial source tracking (MST) methods was conducted using challenge fecal and sewage samples that were spiked into artificial freshwater and provided as unknowns (blind test samples) to the laboratories. The results of the Source Identification Protocol Project (SIPP) are presented in a series of papers that cover 41 MST methods. This contribution details the results of the virus and bacteriophage methods targeting human fecal or sewage contamination. Human viruses used as source identifiers included adenoviruses (HAdV), enteroviruses (EV), norovirus Groups I and II (NoVI and NoVII), and polyomaviruses (HPyVs). Bacteriophages were also employed, including somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH) as general indicators of fecal contamination. Bacteriophage methods targeting human fecal sources included genotyping of FRNAPH isolates and plaque formation on bacterial hosts Enterococcus faecium MB-55, Bacteroides HB-73 and Bacteroides GB-124. The use of small sample volumes (≤50 ml) resulted in relatively insensitive theoretical limits of detection (10-50 gene copies or plaques × 50 ml(-1)) which, coupled with low virus concentrations in samples, resulted in high false-negative rates, low sensitivity, and low negative predictive values. On the other hand, the specificity of the human virus methods was generally close to 100% and positive predictive values were ∼40-70% with the exception of NoVs, which were not detected. The bacteriophage methods were generally much less specific toward human sewage than virus methods, although FRNAPH II genotyping was relatively successful, with 18% sensitivity and 85% specificity. While the specificity of the human virus methods engenders great confidence in a positive result, better concentration methods and larger sample volumes must be utilized for greater accuracy of negative results, i.e. the prediction that a human contamination source is absent. Copyright

  19. Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission. PMID:23018024

  20. QMRAcatch: Human-Associated Fecal Pollution and Infection Risk Modeling for a River/Floodplain Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Zoufal-Hruza, Christa M; van Driezum, Inge H; Reischer, Georg; Ixenmaier, Simone; Kirschner, Alexander; Frick, Christina; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-07-01

    Protection of drinking water resources requires addressing all relevant fecal pollution sources in the considered catchment. A freely available simulation tool, QMRAcatch, was recently developed to simulate concentrations of fecal indicators, a genetic microbial source tracking (MST) marker, and intestinal pathogens in water resources and to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). At the same time, QMRAcatch was successfully applied to a region of the Danube River in Austria, focusing on municipal wastewater emissions. Herein, we describe extension of its application to a Danube River floodplain, keeping the focus on fecal sources of human origin. QMRAcatch was calibrated to match measured human-associated MST marker concentrations for a dry year and a wet year. Appropriate performance characteristics of the human-associated MST assay were proven by simulating correct and false-positive marker concentrations, as determined in human and animal feces. With the calibrated tool, simulated and measured enterovirus concentrations in the rivers were compared. Finally, the calibrated tool allowed demonstrating that 4.5 log enterovirus and 6.6 log norovirus reductions must be achieved to convert current surface water to safe drinking water that complies with a health-based target of 10 infections person yr. Simulations of the low- and high-pollution scenarios showed that the required viral reductions ranged from 0 to 8 log. This study has implications for water managers with interests in assessing robust catchment protection measures and water treatment criteria by considering the fate of fecal pollution from its sources to the point of abstraction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Use of Anal Acoustic Reflectometry in the Evaluation of Men With Passive Fecal Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, Benjamin R; Telford, Karen J; Carlson, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Men with passive fecal leakage represent a distinct clinical entity in which the pathophysiology remains unclear. Standard anorectal investigations fail to demonstrate consistent abnormalities in this group. Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new test of anal sphincter function with gre...... is a sensitive test of anal sphincter function and, unlike anal manometry, can discriminate male leakers from continent subjects. An identifiable abnormality has been detected using anal acoustic reflectometry, which may further our understanding of the pathogenesis in this group....

  2. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) by measurement of fecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Clauss, M; Lechner-Doll, M; Meyer, H H; Palme, R

    2001-07-01

    A method for measuring glucocorticoids noninvasively in feces of roe deer was established and validated. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) measures 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA), a group of cortisol metabolites. Such measurement avoids blood sampling and reflects a dampened pattern of diurnal glucocorticoid secretion, providing an integrated measure of adrenocortical activity. After high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of at least three different immunoreactive 11,17-DOA in the feces of roe deer was demonstrated. The physiological relevance of these fecal cortisol metabolites to adrenocortical activity was evaluated with an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge test: cortisol metabolite concentrations exceeded pretreatment levels (31-78 ng/g) up to 13-fold (183-944 ng/g) within 8-23 h. Starting from basal levels between 13 and 71 ng/g, a suppression of adrenocortical activity after dexamethasone administration, indicated by metabolite levels close to the detection limit, was obtained 36-81 h after treatment, whereas unmetabolized dexamethasone was detectable in feces 12 h after its injection. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assessment via EIA is therefore of use in the monitoring of adrenocortical activity in roe deer. In a second experiment, capture, veterinary treatment, and transportation of animals were used as experimental stresses. This resulted in a 7.5-fold increase of fecal metabolites (1200 +/- 880 ng/g, mean +/- SD) compared to baseline concentrations. The administration of a long-acting tranquilizer (LAT), designed to minimize the physiological stress response, 2 days prior to a similar stress event led to a reduced stress response, resulting in only a 4-fold increase of fecal metabolites (650 +/- 280 ng/g; mean +/- SD). Therefore, LATs should be further investigated for their effectiveness in reducing stress responses in zoo and wild animals, e.g., when translocations are necessary.

  3. Feeding on copepod fecal pellets: a new trophic role of dinoflagellates as detritivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Moldrup, M.; Berge, T.

    2011-01-01

    in this study were: dinoflagellate concentration, the dinoflagellate-to-pellet size ratio, the feeding mechanism, pellet food source, and pellet age. This study reveals a new trophic role for dinoflagellates as detritivores, and shows that large (>20 µm) heterotrophic dinoflagellates alone can account...... for reported pellet degradation rates in field studies. Thus, dinoflagellates can function as an effective ‘protozoan filter’ for fecal pellets in the water column...

  4. Fecal microbiome in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    OMORI, Marie; MAEDA, Shingo; IGARASHI, Hirotaka; OHNO, Koichi; SAKAI, Kosei; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; HORIGOME, Ayako; ODAMAKI, Toshitaka; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2017-01-01

    Although alteration of commensal microbiota is associated with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs, the microbiota composition in intestinal lymphoma, an important differential diagnosis of canine IBD, has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota in dogs with IBD, dogs with intestinal lymphoma, and healthy dogs. Eight dogs with IBD, eight dogs with intestinal lymphoma, and fifteen healthy dogs we...

  5. Human fecal flora: variation in bacterial composition within individuals and a possible effect of emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, L V; Good, I J; Moore, W E

    1976-03-01

    Data are presented on the distribution of 101 bacterial species and subspecies among 1,442 isolates from 25 fecal specimens from three men on: (i) their normal diet and normal living conditions, (ii) normal living conditions but eating the controlled metabolic diet designed for use in the Skylab simulation and missions, and (iii) the Skylab diet in simulated Skylab (isolation) conditions. These bacteria represent the most numerous kinds in the fecal flora. Analyses of the kinds of bacteria from each astronaut during the 5-month period showed more variation in the composition of the flora among the individual astronauts than among the eight or nine samples from each person. This observation indicates that the variations in fecal flora reported previously, but based on the study of only one specimen from each person, more certainly reflect real differences (and not daily variation) in the types of bacteria maintained by individual people. The proportions of the predominant fecal species in the astronauts were similar to those reported earlier from a Japanese-Hawaiian population and were generally insensitive to changes from the normal North American diet to the Skylab diet; only two of the most common species were affected by changes in diet. However, one of the predominant species (Bacteroides fragilis subsp. thetaiotaomicron) appeared to be affected during confinement of the men in the Skylab test chamber. Evidence is presented suggesting that an anger stress situation may have been responsible for the increase of this species simultaneously in all of the subjects studied. Phenotypic characteristics of some of the less common isolates are given. The statistical analyses used in interpretation of the results are discussed.

  6. Fecal androgen levels in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus males living in captive family groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In captive common marmoset groups, the reproductive inhibition observed in subordinate female seems to be a result of olfactory, visual and behavioral cues from the dominant female. However, few studies have examined the relationship among adult males living in the same social group. These studies have shown that reproductive failure among peer males seems to be based on hormonal and behavioral mechanisms. New insights on sexual strategies in primates have been shown using fecal steroids, but so far no information is available for common marmoset males. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of light-dark cycle, age and reproductive condition on the profile of fecal androgens in males living in the same family group. Feces were collected from six fathers and six sons for androgen determination during the light phase of the 24-h cycle for eight days randomly distributed over a 4-week period. Androgen levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay technique. Adult sons showed higher androgen levels (166.97 ± 22.95 ng/g than fathers (80.69 ± 44.38 ng/g and juveniles (49.06 ± 23.15 ng/g; P 0.05 in fecal androgen profile was observed in adults or juveniles. No indication of androgen-mediated social competition between fathers and adult sons was demonstrable. These results provide basic information on fecal androgen profile useful to investigate the socioendocrinology of free-ranging common marmoset males and verify that, in contrast to daughters, the reproductive suppression of sons is not based on physiological inhibition of their gonads.

  7. The Effect of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on a Child with Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood. New therapies are needed to effectively manage and treat this condition. Gut microbiota can affect central physiology and function via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Here, we report a case in which fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is used to treat a child with Tourette syndrome, whose symptoms ameliorated dramatically in the following eight weeks.

  8. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Williams

    Full Text Available Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety.To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands.A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141. Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1 and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7 times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58 and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22. Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62 compared to other water sources used for consumption.Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.

  9. THE POWER OF POOP: FECAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANTATION FOR CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    EDMOND, MICHAEL B.

    2016-01-01

    The human gut is colonized with 200 to 1,000 bacterial species. Administration of antibiotics reduces the diversity of the intestinal microbiota, reduces colonization resistance, and can lead to infection with Clostridium difficile. These infections have become more prevalent and increasingly patients are experiencing multiple recurrences that are incurable with standard treatment. Although fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used for centuries in human and veterinary medicine, on...

  10. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn’s disease and in cigarette smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Malíčková, Karin; Francová, Irena; Lukáš, Milan; Kolář, Martin; Králíková, Eva; Bortlík, Martin; Ďuricová, Dana; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Pánková, Alexandra; Zima, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Design and methods: Forty IBD patients and ...

  11. Prevalence of Genes Encoding Outer Membrane Virulence Factors Among Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rashki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Escherichia coli is commensal bacterium of human intestine. The gut is a common pool of E. coli isolates causing urinary tract infections (UTIs. Some of fecal E. coli (FeEC by the possession of certain virulence factors is able to cause diseases in human and other mammalian models. To evaluate the health threats coordinated with a given fecal source of E. coli strains, we determined the frequency of genes expressing virulence determinants in fecal E. coli isolates collected from human feces in Zabol, southeast of Iran. Methods: Escherichia coli isolates (n = 94 were separated from the feces of patients attending teaching hospitals, and screened for various virulence genes: fimH, his, hlyA, ompT, irp2, iucD, iroN, and cnf1 by using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Results: The prevalence of virulence genes was as follows: adhesins (fimH, 98% and iha, 26%, alpha-hemolysins (hlyA, 10%, outer membrane protease (ompT, 67%, aerobactin (iucD, 67%, iron-repressible protein (irp2, 91% and salmochelin (iroN, 33% and cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1. According to the diversity of different virulence genes, the examined isolates exhibited 29 different patterns. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that most of the assessed isolates harbored several virulence factors. Our findings propose possibility of human feces serving as a source for pathogenic organisms, supporting the notion that fecal materials of humans play a role in the epidemiological chain of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. This is the first report of the frequency of virulence factors among E. coli isolates collected from human feces in Iran.

  12. Patient acceptance of MR colonography with improved fecal tagging versus conventional colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M P; Løgager, V; Chabanova, E

    2010-01-01

    Conventional colonoscopy (CC) is the gold standard for colonic examinations. However, patient acceptance is not high. Patient acceptance is influenced by several factors, notably anticipation and experience. This has led to the assumption that patient acceptance would be higher in non-invasive ex......-invasive examinations such as MR/CT colonography (MRC/CTC) and perhaps even higher without bowel preparation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient acceptance of MRC with fecal tagging versus CC....

  13. Molecular characterization of the fecal microbiota in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis--a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Wai-Sun Wong

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota has profound influence on host metabolism and immunity. This study characterized the fecal microbiota in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The relationship between microbiota changes and changes in hepatic steatosis was also studied.Fecal microbiota of histology-proven NASH patients and healthy controls was analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing. NASH patients were from a previously reported randomized trial on probiotic treatment. Proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to monitor changes in intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG.A total of 420,344 16S sequences with acceptable quality were obtained from 16 NASH patients and 22 controls. NASH patients had lower fecal abundance of Faecalibacterium and Anaerosporobacter but higher abundance of Parabacteroides and Allisonella. Partial least-square discriminant analysis yielded a model of 10 genera that discriminated NASH patients from controls. At month 6, 6 of 7 patients in the probiotic group and 4 of 9 patients in the usual care group had improvement in IHTG (P=0.15. Improvement in IHTG was associated with a reduction in the abundance of Firmicutes (R(2=0.4820, P=0.0028 and increase in Bacteroidetes (R(2=0.4366, P=0.0053. This was accompanied by corresponding changes at the class, order and genus levels. In contrast, bacterial biodiversity did not differ between NASH patients and controls, and did not change with probiotic treatment.NASH patients have fecal dysbiosis, and changes in microbiota correlate with improvement in hepatic steatosis. Further studies are required to investigate the mechanism underlying the interaction between gut microbes and the liver.

  14. Comparison of two fecal egg recovery techniques and larval culture for cyathostomins in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Thomas R; Allen, Tammy M

    2009-05-01

    To compare the McMaster and centrifugal flotation techniques and larval culture for recovery of cyathostomin (small strongyle) eggs from the feces of horses. Fecal samples from 101 horses. In experiment I, homogenized fresh feces from a single horse were randomly subsampled by use of each technique for 10 replicates. In experiment II, samples from 43 horses that had no anthelmintic treatment were analyzed by use of McMaster, centrifugal flotation, and larval culture techniques. In experiment III, 57 horses were treated with an anthelmintic by owners, and fecal samples were analyzed as for experiment II. In experiment I, use of the McMaster technique recovered 72% of the eggs obtained by use of centrifugal flotation from paired subsamples. In experiment II, use of the McMaster technique recovered 81% of the eggs obtained by use of centrifugal flotation. Only cyathostomins resulted from individual larval cultures. In experiment III, 24 samples had negative results for all 3 tests, 18 samples had positive results only with larval cultures, and 15 samples had positive results of centrifugal flotation (only 5 of which had positive results via the McMaster technique). Centrifugal flotation consistently was superior to the McMaster technique, especially at low fecal egg numbers. The combination of centrifugal flotation and larval culture may provide the best accuracy for evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy.

  15. Parasite prevalence in fecal samples from shelter dogs and cats across the Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Alain; Polley, Lydden; Jenkins, Emily; Schurer, Janna; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Conboy, Gary; Benoit, Donald; Seewald, Wolfgang; Gagné, France

    2015-05-21

    In Canada, surveys of enteric parasites in dogs and cats have been reported sporadically over the past 40 years, mostly focusing on a specific region. The present work was performed to determine the current prevalence of various parasites in fecal samples from shelter dogs and cats across the Canadian provinces. A total of 1086 dog and 636 cat fecal samples from 26 shelters were analysed using a sugar solution double centrifugal flotation technique. Prevalences (national, regional, provincial, age and parasite-specific), were calculated and compared using the Fisher-Exact test. A multiplex PCR was performed to distinguish Taenia spp, Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis on samples positive for taeniid eggs. Overall, 33.9% of dogs and 31.8% of cats were positive for at least one parasite. Toxocara canis and T. cati were the most prevalent parasite present in fecal samples followed by Cystoisospora spp. Prevalence in dogs was similar across the Atlantic, East, West and Pacific regions, while prevalence in cats varied regionally. Eggs of E. granulosus/E. canadensis were detected in samples from dogs from BC, AB, and ON. Data from this study will help in the development of strategies, based on the level of risk per geographic location for the prevention and response to these parasites in pets and free-roaming and shelter animals in Canada.

  16. [Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hua-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Dan; Hong, Xian-Lin; Hu, Sheng-Zhu; Lan, Wei-Min; Chen, Yi-Yang

    2012-10-01

    To explore the relationship between fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumbricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41% and 23.75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher the probability to got egg in the feces. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.

  17. Clinical Practice and Infrastructure Review of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan J; Tebas, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    A substantial proportion of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) cases recur after completion of antibiotic therapy, and antibiotic cure rates diminish with each recurrence of CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent FMT, which otherwise requires prolonged or indefinite antibiotic treatment. FMT is performed by introducing the fecal microbial community obtained from a healthy donor or pool of donors into the stomach, small intestine, or colon of a patient with CDI. Multiple clinical trials support the usefulness of FMT in treating recurrent CDI, and CDI treatment guidelines now include consideration of FMT at the third CDI recurrence. However, there remain challenges to incorporating FMT into clinical practice. First, methods of fecal bacterial community processing vary, as do methods of FMT administration. Second, the optimal dosing strategy and expected benefit of FMT for refractory CDI, particularly for severe and severe complicated cases, are uncertain. Third, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers FMT an investigational treatment. Fourth, insurance reimbursement for FMT usually falls short of FMT administration costs. In the setting of rising C difficile incidence and growing evidence for FMT efficacy, the demand for FMT has increased. However, uncertainty surrounding optimal FMT preparation and administration methods, FDA oversight, and insurance reimbursement presently limits the clinical practice of FMT. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of crowding and sex on fecal cortisol levels of captive forest musk deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Restricted space and close contact with conspecifics in captivity may be stressful for musk deer, as they are highly territorial and solitary in the wild. So we tested the effects of crowding on stress of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii in heterosexual groups, using fecal cortisol analysis as a non-invasive method. 32 healthy adults during non-breeding seasons were chose as our experimental objects. Group 1 was defined as higher crowding condition, with 10-15 m²/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂; group 2 was defined as lower crowding condition, with 23-33 m²/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂. Every enclosure contained 1 male and 3 female. These patterns had been existed for years. RESULTS: The results showed that females in lower crowding condition (217.1 ± 9.5 ug/g had significantly higher fecal cortisol levels than those in higher crowding condition (177.2 ± 12.1 ug/g. Interestingly, crowding seemed have no effect on male fecal cortisol levels (148.1 ± 9.1 ug/g and 140.5 ± 13.3 ug/g, respectively. At both groups, cortisol was significantly lower in males than in females. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that chronic crowding may affect stress status of captive forest musk deer. The captive environment should consider the space need for musk deer.

  19. Quantification of exposure to fecal contamination in open drains in four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretsch, Stephanie R; Ampofo, Joseph A; Baker, Kelly K; Clennon, Julie; Null, Clair A; Peprah, Dorothy; Reese, Heather; Robb, Katharine; Teunis, Peter; Wellington, Nii; Yakubu, Habib; Moe, Christine L

    2016-04-01

    In low-income countries, rapid urbanization adds pressure to already stressed water and sanitation systems that are critical to the health of communities. Drainage networks, designed for stormwater but commonly used for disposing of waste, are rarely covered completely, allowing residents to easily come into contact with their contents. This study used spatial mapping, documentation of physical drain characteristics, microbiological analysis of drain samples, and behavioral observation to comprehensively examine drains as a route of exposure to fecal contamination in four low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. A stochastic model of six likely exposure scenarios was constructed to estimate children's exposure to drain water. Regardless of the age of the child, any exposure scenario considered resulted in exposure to a high level of fecal contamination. Fecal contamination levels in drains were high (Escherichia coli: geometric mean (GM), 8.60 cfu log(10)/100 mL; coliphage: GM, 5.56 pfu log(10)/100 mL), and did not differ by neighborhood or physical drain characteristics, indicating that frequency of contact with drains, and not drain type or location, drives exposure risk. To mitigate health risks associated with this exposure, drains should be covered, with priority given to large concrete and small to medium dirt-lined drains that children were most commonly observed entering.

  20. Effects of crowding and sex on fecal cortisol levels of captive forest musk deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Wang, Wen-Xia; Li, Lin-Hai; Liu, Bao-Qing; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shu-Qiang; Qi, Lei; Hu, De-Fu

    2014-09-29

    Restricted space and close contact with conspecifics in captivity may be stressful for musk deer, as they are highly territorial and solitary in the wild. So we tested the effects of crowding on stress of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) in heterosexual groups, using fecal cortisol analysis as a non-invasive method. 32 healthy adults during non-breeding seasons were chose as our experimental objects. Group 1 was defined as higher crowding condition, with 10-15 m2/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂); group 2 was defined as lower crowding condition, with 23-33 m2/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂). Every enclosure contained 1 male and 3 female. These patterns had been existed for years. The results showed that females in lower crowding condition (217.1 ± 9.5 ug/g) had significantly higher fecal cortisol levels than those in higher crowding condition (177.2 ± 12.1 ug/g). Interestingly, crowding seemed have no effect on male fecal cortisol levels (148.1 ± 9.1 ug/g and 140.5 ± 13.3 ug/g, respectively). At both groups, cortisol was significantly lower in males than in females. These results showed that chronic crowding may affect stress status of captive forest musk deer. The captive environment should consider the space need for musk deer.

  1. MR colonography with fecal tagging: comparison between 2D turbo FLASH and 3D FLASH sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Grammatikakis, John; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Lauenstein, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare inversion recovery turbo 2D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) and 3D FLASH sequences for fecal-tagged MR colonography studies. Fifteen consecutive patients with indications for colonoscopy underwent MR colonography with fecal tagging. An inversion recovery turbo-FLASH sequence was applied and compared in terms of artifacts presence, efficiency for masking residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity with a fat-saturated 3D FLASH sequence. Both sequences were acquired following administration of paramagnetic contrast agent. Contrast-to-noise ratio and relative contrast between colonic wall and lumen were calculated and compared for both sequences. Turbo 2D FLASH provided fewer artifacts, higher efficiency for masking the residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity equivalent to 3D FLASH. An inversion time of 10 ms provided homogeneously low signal intensity of the colonic lumen. Contrast to noise between colonic wall and lumen was significantly higher in the 3D FLASH images, whereas differences in relative contrast were not statistically significant. An optimized inversion-recovery 2D turbo-FLASH sequence provides better fecal tagging results and should be added to the 3D FLASH sequence when designing dark-lumen MR colonography examination protocols. (orig.)

  2. Enterotoxigenic and non-enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis from fecal microbiota of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF is an important part of the human and animal intestinal microbiota and is commonly associated with diarrhea. ETBF strains produce an enterotoxin encoded by the bft gene located in the B. fragilispathogenicity island (BfPAI. Non-enterotoxigenic B. fragilis(NTBF strains lack the BfPAI and usually show two different genetic patterns, II and III, based on the absence or presence of a BfPAI-flanking region, respectively. The incidence of ETBF and NTBF strains in fecal samples isolated from children without acute diarrhea or any other intestinal disorders was determined. All 84 fecal samples evaluated were B. fragilis-positive by PCR, four of them harbored the bft gene, 27 contained the NTBF pattern III DNA sequence, and 52 were considered to be NTBF pattern II samples. One sample was positive for both ETBF and NTBF pattern III DNA sequences. All 19 B. fragilis strains isolated by the culture method were bft-negative, 9 belonged to pattern III and 10 to pattern II. We present an updated overview of the ETBF and NTBF incidence in the fecal microbiota of children from Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

  3. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance in fecal Enterobacteriaceae from patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duytschaever, Gwen; Huys, Geert; Boulanger, Linda; De Boeck, Kris; Vandamme, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The present study set out to detect and identify amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of two patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and their respective siblings. Fecal Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated onto EMB agar containing amoxicillin (AMX). A total of 173 CF isolates and 41 sibling isolates were grouped into seven Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) clusters and identified through 16S rRNA and rpoB sequence analysis. The fecal microbiota of patients with CF revealed a higher prevalence of AMX resistant Enterobacteriaceae compared to that of their healthy siblings. Whereas all selected isolates of healthy siblings were assigned to Escherichia coli, isolates of patients with CF belonged to Klebsiella oxytoca (58.4%), E. coli (28.3%), Klebsiella variicola (7.5%) or Citrobacter sp. (5.8%). All tested CF isolates showed a high resistance rate to AMX, and a lower level of resistance to the combination with clavulanic acid. In contrast, all tested sibling isolates were susceptible for both AMX and AMC. The higher abundance of AMX resistance in the investigated patients with CF suggests that frequent AMC administration may be one of the major contributing factors in the proliferation of Enterobacteriaceae and the development of resistant strains in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal microbiota pathogenesis and fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Yang, Yun-Sheng; Chen, Ye; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Gang; Peng, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The pathogenesis of IBD involves inappropriate ongoing activation of the mucosal immune system driven by abnormal intestinal microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there are still no definitive microbial pathogens linked to the onset of IBD. The composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites are indeed disturbed in IBD patients. The special alterations of gut microbiota associated with IBD remain to be evaluated. The microbial interactions and host-microbe immune interactions are still not clarified. Limitations of present probiotic products in IBD are mainly due to modest clinical efficacy, few available strains and no standardized administration. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may restore intestinal microbial homeostasis, and preliminary data have shown the clinical efficacy of FMT on refractory IBD or IBD combined with Clostridium difficile infection. Additionally, synthetic microbiota transplantation with the defined composition of fecal microbiota is also a promising therapeutic approach for IBD. However, FMT-related barriers, including the mechanism of restoring gut microbiota, standardized donor screening, fecal material preparation and administration, and long-term safety should be resolved. The role of intestinal microbiota and FMT in IBD should be further investigated by metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses combined with germ-free/human flora-associated animals and chemostat gut models. PMID:25356041

  5. New Insights into Polychaete Traces and Fecal Pellets: Another Complex Ichnotaxon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kantimati G; Panchang, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Neoichnological observations help refine paleoichnological records. The present study reports extensive observations on the distribution, morphology, occurrence and association of burrows and fecal pellets of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in the Kundalika Estuary on the west coast of India. Our holistic study of these modern-day traces suggests it to be a complex trace arising from domichnial, fodinichnial and possibly pascichnial behavior of polychaetes. The study for the first time reports extensive fecal pellet production, distribution and their preservation as thick stacks in modern estuarine environment. These observations testify the fossilization potential of pellets and provide an explanation to their origin in the geological record. Their occurrence as strings associated with mounds not only suggests pascichnial behaviour of polychaetes but also allows the assignment of post-Paleozoic Tomaculum to the activity of polychaete worms. The production of fecal pellets in such large quantities plays a major role in increasing the average grain size of the substrate of these estuarine tidal flats, thereby improving aeration within the substrate.

  6. New Insights into Polychaete Traces and Fecal Pellets: Another Complex Ichnotaxon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantimati G Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Neoichnological observations help refine paleoichnological records. The present study reports extensive observations on the distribution, morphology, occurrence and association of burrows and fecal pellets of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in the Kundalika Estuary on the west coast of India. Our holistic study of these modern-day traces suggests it to be a complex trace arising from domichnial, fodinichnial and possibly pascichnial behavior of polychaetes. The study for the first time reports extensive fecal pellet production, distribution and their preservation as thick stacks in modern estuarine environment. These observations testify the fossilization potential of pellets and provide an explanation to their origin in the geological record. Their occurrence as strings associated with mounds not only suggests pascichnial behaviour of polychaetes but also allows the assignment of post-Paleozoic Tomaculum to the activity of polychaete worms. The production of fecal pellets in such large quantities plays a major role in increasing the average grain size of the substrate of these estuarine tidal flats, thereby improving aeration within the substrate.

  7. Soap Suds Enemas Are Efficacious and Safe for Treating Fecal Impaction in Children With Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2016-07-01

    Constipation is a common cause of pediatric abdominal pain and emergency department (ED) presentation. Despite the high prevalence, there is a dearth of clinical information and wide practice variation in childhood constipation management in the ED. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of soap suds enema (SSE) in the therapy for fecal impaction in children with abdominal pain within the pediatric ED setting. The primary outcome was stool output following SSE. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, admissions, and return visits within 72 hours. The present study is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in the ED at a quaternary care children's hospital of patients seen during a 12-month period who received an SSE for fecal impaction. Five hundred twelve patients (53% girls, median age 7.8 years, range: 8 months-23 years) received SSE therapy during a 1-year period. Successful therapy (bowel movement) following SSE occurred in 419 (82%). Adverse events included abdominal pain in 24 (5%) and nausea/vomiting in 18 (4%). No SSE-related serious adverse events were identified. Following SSE, 405 (79%) were subsequently discharged, of which 15 (3.7%) returned to the ED for re-evaluation within 72 hours. SSE is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option for the acute treatment of childhood fecal impaction in the ED setting.

  8. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  9. Fecal corticosterone concentrations and reproductive success in captive female southern white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrione, Lara C; Harder, John D

    2011-05-01

    Prolonged or frequent secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids in response to aversive stimuli can negatively impact reproduction. Because female southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) reproduce poorly in captivity, we compared fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations among parous, nulliparous, and adolescent females and examined social and physical aspects of the captive environment that might be related to differences in corticosterone metabolite concentrations. Aggression, dominance, sexual and play interactions, social group size and composition, enclosure size, and other housing characteristics were assessed though behavioral observations and review of historical and institution records. Concentrations of metabolized corticosterone in fecal samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. The proportion of nulliparous females did not differ (p>0.05) between subordinate and dominant animals, and subordinates did not have a higher mean fecal corticosterone concentration than dominants (p>0.05). Of the behaviors examined, only the frequency of sexual play behaviors differed (p0.05) for females housed in most of the environmental conditions assessed. Housing with a female companion known from adolescence, however, tended to be associated (p=0.06) with a lower mean corticosterone concentration than that when housing with a female companion introduced during adulthood or no female companion. Wild-caught females had a higher (p0.05) between acyclic and cycling, or nulliparous and parous females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of pigs before and after inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus O Costa

    Full Text Available "Brachyspira hampsonii" causes disease indistinguishable from swine dysentery, and the structure of the intestinal microbiome likely plays a role in determining susceptibility of individual pigs to infection and development of clinical disease. The objectives of the current study were to determine if the pre-inoculation fecal microbiota differed between inoculated pigs that did (INOC MH or did not (INOC non-MH develop mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea following challenge with "B. hampsonii", and to quantify changes in the structure of the microbiome following development of clinical disease. Fecal microbiota profiles were generated based on amplification and sequencing of the cpn60 universal target sequence from 89 samples from 18 pigs collected at -8, -5, -3 and 0 days post-inoculation, and at termination. No significant differences in richness, diversity or taxonomic composition distinguished the pre-inoculation microbiomes of INOC MH and INOC non-MH pigs. However, the development of bloody diarrhea in inoculated pigs was associated with perturbation of the microbiota relative to INOC non-MH or sham-inoculated control pigs. Specifically, the fecal microbiota of INOC MH pigs was less dense (fewer total 16S rRNA copies per gram of feces, and had a lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio. Further investigation of the potential long-term effects of Brachyspira disease on intestinal health and performance is warranted.

  11. Comparison of Diverting Colostomy and Bowel Management Catheter Applications in Fournier Gangrene Cases Requiring Fecal Diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eray, Ismail Cem; Alabaz, Omer; Akcam, Atilgan Tolga; Ulku, Abdullah; Parsak, Cem Kaan; Sakman, Gurhan; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2015-12-01

    In some patients of Fournier gangrene originated from perianal region, it is important to prevent fecal contamination in order to provide healing without wound infection. For this purposes, diverting colostomy or bowel management catheter methods were performed. In this study, it is aimed to carry out a comparison of prognosis and cost efficiency between diverting colostomy and bowel management catheter methods applied for preventing fecal contamination in Fournier's gangrene patients. Fourty-eight patients with diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene, serious perianal infections, and preserved sphincters and without rectum injury after debridement were included in the study. The cases were divided into two groups as patients who were subjected to colostomy for fecal diversion and who were subjected to bowel management catheter without colostomy. Then, the groups were compared in terms of age, predisposing factors, duration of hospital stay, mortality, additional surgery requirements, and cost. Fourty-eight patients were included the study. Sixteen patients were treated without colostomy. Decreased duration of total hospital stay, additional surgery requirements, and hospital expense in bowel management catheter group has determined. It is thought that preferring bowel management catheter method instead of colostomy in patients without rectum injury, who require diverting colostomy and have undamaged anal sphincters, can relieve patients, patients' relatives, healthcare organizations, and the national economy of a serious burden. In addition, although patients' satisfaction and workforce loss factors are not taken into consideration in this study, the bowel management catheter method is thought to have positive effects also on these parameters.

  12. Long-term fecal diverting device for the prevention of sepsis in case of colorectal anastomotic leakage: an animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hwang; Jung, Sang Hun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Park, Se-ll; Kim, Dae-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Background A new fecal diverting device (FDD) was fabricated for fecal diversion from the proximal colon above the anastomosis to outside the anus for protecting the rectal anastomosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the FDD. Methods After a pilot study, a prospective observational trial was performed in 34 mongrel dogs. The experiment comprised of segmental resection and anastomosis of the colon, fixation of the FDD, and observation for 3?weeks (n?=?15) a...

  13. Semiquantitative fecal calprotectin test in postinfectious and non-postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome: cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    David, Liliana-Elisabeta; Surdea-Blaga, Teodora; Dumitrascu, Dan-Lucian

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:The presence of a certain degree of inflammation in the gut wall is now accepted in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Fecal calprotectin is considered to be a reliable test for detecting intestinal inflammation. Our aim was to assess the presence of inflammation in postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS), compared with non-postinfectious IBS (NPI-IBS). A secondary objective was to determine the usefulness of a rapid fecal calprotectin test in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).DESIGN A...

  14. Comparison of methods and animal models commonly used for investigation of fecal microbiota: Effects of time, host and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Nørrung, Birgit; Saadbye, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and plating on selective agars were used to study variation in the fecal microbiota of rats over time as well as variation between individuals. Investigated rats were either conventional...... and specific pathogen free (SPF). or human flora associated (HFA). A higher variation (p animals. Analysis of DGGE and T-RFLP profiles of fecal microbiota from SPF and HFA rats revealed that variation over time was less significant than...

  15. Impacts of feeding preweaned calves milk containing drug residues on the functional profile of the fecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Carroll, Laura M.; Lima, Svetlana; Foditsch, Carla; Siler, Julie D.; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho; Warnick, Lorin D.

    2018-01-01

    Feeding drug residue-containing milk to calves is common worldwide and no information is currently available on the impact on the functional profile of the fecal microbiota. Our objective was to characterize the functional profile of the fecal microbiota of preweaned dairy calves fed raw milk with residual concentrations of antimicrobials commonly found in waste milk from birth to weaning. Calves were assigned to a controlled feeding trial being fed milk with no drug residues or milk with ant...

  16. Validation of questionnaires to assess quality of life related to fecal incontinence in children with anorectal malformations and Hirschsprung's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Loguetti Mathias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Surgical treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs and Hirschsprung's disease (HD leads to alterations in bowel habits and fecal incontinence, with consequent quality of life impairment. The objectives were to create and validate a Questionnaire for the Fecal Incontinence Index (FII based on the Holschneider score, as well as a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Quality of Life Related to Fecal Incontinence in Children and Adolescents (QQVCFCA, based on the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life. Methods: The questionnaires were applied to 71 children submitted to surgical procedure, in two stages. Validity was tested by comparing the QQVCFCA and a generic quality of life questionnaire (SF-36, and between QQVCFCA and the FII. A group of 59 normal children was used as control. Results: At two stages, 45.0% (32/71 and 42.8% (21/49 of the patients had fecal incontinence. It was observed that the QQVCFCA showed a significant correlation with the SF-36 and FII (Pearson's correlation 0.57, showing that the quality of life is directly proportional to improvement in fecal incontinence. Quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence is still globally impaired, when compared with control subjects (p<0.05, Student's t-test. There were also significant differences between the results of children with ARMs and children with HD. Conclusions: QQVCFCA and FII are useful tools to assess the quality of life and fecal incontinence in these groups of children. Children with ARMs submitted to surgical procedure and HD have similar quality of life impairment.

  17. Gene and genome-centric analyses of koala and wombat fecal microbiomes point to metabolic specialization for Eucalyptus digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Shiffman, Miriam E.; Soo, Rochelle M.; Dennis, Paul G.; Morrison, Mark; Tyson, Gene W.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The koala has evolved to become a specialist Eucalyptus herbivore since diverging from its closest relative, the wombat, a generalist herbivore. This niche adaptation involves, in part, changes in the gut microbiota. The goal of this study was to compare koala and wombat fecal microbiomes using metagenomics to identify potential differences attributable to dietary specialization. Several populations discriminated between the koala and wombat fecal communities, most notably S24-7 and Synergist...

  18. Trail Creek I: Assessing the Water Quality of Streams using Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Kannan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators for disease-causing pathogens. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US. EPA) recommends the use of E. coli and Enterococci because they are highly correlated with pathogenic organisms in recreational waters. This standard method helps to determine the overall water quality and the potential health risks. Studies have shown that it is difficult to estimate the exact sources of fecal contamination because both human and certain animal species contain E. coli and Enterococci in their waste. Certain strains of E. coli and Enterococci are also able to survive outside of their hosts, which should not be the case for an appropriate fecal indicator. As a result, microbial source tracking (MST) studies use gene specific markers to identify the possible contributors to water pollution whether human or animal. Trail Creek is a second-order stream located in Athens-Clarke County, GA. The 33-km2 watershed is approximately 64% forests, 18% pastures and 16% residential communities. Trail Creek is on the TMDL list and an extended study on the relationships between the different factors causing elevated fecal bacteria is needed. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions at six locations. Storm sampling events (> 8 mm) were captured using automated samplers at two locations. These samplers were equipped with pressure transducers which record stage at 30-minute intervals. The samples were analyzed for fecal coliform, E. Coli and Enterococci. Water quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity were also recorded. Relationships between the parameters and fecal indicator bacteria show inconsistent patterns and high variability. Using quantitative PCR and MST techniques, the human specific marker (HF183) and ruminant marker (Rum2Bac) were used to identify the fecal sources in both baseflow and storm samples. The presence and abundance of the different markers at

  19. Fecal Bacteriotherapy: A Case Report in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Ulcerative Colitis and Recurrent  Clostridium difficile Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Zainah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ulcerative colitis (UC and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI where the patient was on immunomodulatory therapy and had successful CDI eradication after fecal transplantation. This is the first case report in the literature documenting successful C. difficile eradication in an immunosuppressed patient. We feel that fecal transplantation should be studied as a treatment option in these patients.

  20. Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Morato

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca. Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20ºC until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites before and after the procedure were determined by solid phase cortisol and testosterone radioimmunoassay and feces dry weight was determined by drying at 37ºC for 24 h under vacuum. On four occasions, fecal cortisol metabolite levels were elevated above baseline (307.8 ± 17.5 ng/g dry feces in the first fecal sample collected after the procedure (100 to 350% above baseline. On one occasion, we did not detect any variation. Mean (± SEM fecal androgen concentration did not change after chemical restraint and electroejaculation (before: 131.1 ± 26.7, after: 213.7 ± 43.6 ng/g dry feces. These data show that determination of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolites can be very useful for a noninvasive assessment of animal well-being and as a complement to behavioral, physiological, and pathological studies. It can also be useful for the study of the relationship between adrenal activity and reproductive performance in the jaguar.

  1. Effects of season, sex, and sample collection on concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S; Palme, R; Arnold, W

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal variation, sex differences, and invasive sample collection may confound glucocorticoid measures as indices of stress. We investigated the effects of sex and season on glucocorticoid production on a non-invasive basis by measuring concentrations of cortisol metabolites in feces of undisturbed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Although feces can be collected easily, assignment to individuals is difficult. Anonymous fecal samples may cause overrepresentation of particular individuals thus introducing a source of error when estimating mean hormone levels within a population. We therefore examined the effects of collecting anonymous fecal samples on mean fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Neither sex nor sample collection mode significantly affected mean fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations in the studied population of red deer. Fecal glucocorticoid excretion varied seasonally with a peak during December and January. Out of several potential predictor variables investigated, minimum ambient temperature and snow proved to be the only factors exerting a significant effect on fecal glucocorticoid excretion. We suggest that high winter glucocorticoid levels may act via catabolic function during adaptation of deer to cold winter month when resources are limited.

  2. [Isolation methods and diversity of culturable fecal actinobacteria associated with Panthera tigris tigris in Yunnan Safari Park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanru; Jiang, Yi; Li, Youlong; Chen, Xiu; Jin, Rongxian; He, Wenxiang

    2012-07-04

    We studied the isolation methods and diversity of culturable fecal actinobacteria associated with Panthera tigris tigris by using culture-dependent approaches. Fresh fecal samples of healthy Panthera tigris tigris were collected from Yunnan Safari Park. Pretreatment of the samples, isolation media and inhibitors were tested for actinobacteria isolation. 16S rRNA genes of actinobacteria were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The abundance of culturable actinobacteria was 1.10 x 10(8) cfu/g colony forming units (CFU) per gram of feces (wet weight). We obtained 110 purified cultural actinobacterium strains. The analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains were distributed in 10 different families and 12 genera of actinobacteria at least, and most of them were non-filamentous, such as Arthrobacter, Dietzia, Kocuria, Corynebacterium and Microbacterium. Streptomyces was the mainly classical filamentous actinobacteria, and up to 64% of total. Drying and heating up the fecal samples can greatly increase the rate of the actinobacteria. Many kinds of inhibitors and chemical defined media are suitable for isolation of fecal actinobacteria. The culturable actinobacteria are abundant in Panthera tigris tigris feces. Our study found an effective method to isolate animals' fecal actinobacteria and it's useful for studying and exploiting animals' fecal actinobacteria.

  3. Decay of Bacteroidales genetic markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators for water quality modeling of drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Ekaterina; Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Bergstedt, Olof; Hermansson, Malte

    2012-01-17

    The implementation of microbial fecal source tracking (MST) methods in drinking water management is limited by the lack of knowledge on the transport and decay of host-specific genetic markers in water sources. To address these limitations, the decay and transport of human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) fecal Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers in a drinking water source (Lake Rådasjön in Sweden) were simulated using a microbiological model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The microbiological model was calibrated using data from outdoor microcosm trials performed in March, August, and November 2010 to determine the decay of BacH and BacR markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators. The microcosm trials indicated that the persistence of BacH and BacR in the microcosms was not significantly different from the persistence of traditional fecal indicators. The modeling of BacH and BacR transport within the lake illustrated that the highest levels of genetic markers at the raw water intakes were associated with human fecal sources (on-site sewers and emergency sewer overflow). This novel modeling approach improves the interpretation of MST data, especially when fecal pollution from the same host group is released into the water source from different sites in the catchment.

  4. Fecal and Molecular Survey of Neospora caninum in Farm and Household Dogs in Mashhad Area, Khorasan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dog is the definitive host for N. caninum and can infect dairy cattle. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Neospora oocysts in feces of dogs from dairy farms. A total of 174 fecal samples was collected from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs during 2006 and 2008. Fecal samples of dogs were microscopically examined for detecting Hammondia Neospora-like oocysts (HNLO) by Mini Parasep®SF fecal parasite concentrator. HNLO were microscopically detected in 4 fecal samples (2.2%). The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum-specific PCR. Two of the samples were positive for N. caninum. The 2 positive fecal samples were selected for inoculation to calves. Two inoculated calves were seronegative by ELISA for 4 months post-infection. This is the first report of finding N. caninum DNA in feces of farm dogs in Mashhad area, Iran. PMID:19967094

  5. Dansylation isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for parallel profiling of human urinary and fecal submetabolomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xiaoling; Wang, Nan; Chen, Deying; Li, Yunong; Lu, Yingfeng; Huan, Tao; Xu, Wei; Li, Liang; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Human urine and feces can be non-invasively collected for metabolomics-based disease biomarker discovery research. Because urinary and fecal metabolomes are thought to be different, analysis of both biospecimens may generate a more comprehensive metabolomic profile that can be better related to the health state of an individual. Herein we describe a method of using differential chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for parallel metabolomic profiling of urine and feces. Dansylation labeling was used to quantify the amine/phenol submetabolome changes among different samples based on 12 C-labeling of individual samples and 13 C-labeling of a pooled urine or pooled feces and subsequent analysis of the 13 C-/ 12 C-labeled mixture by LC-MS. The pooled urine and pooled feces are further differentially labeled, mixed and then analyzed by LC-MS in order to relate the metabolite concentrations of the common metabolites found in both biospecimens. This method offers a means of direct comparison of urinary and fecal submetabolomes. We evaluated the analytical performance and demonstrated the utility of this method in the analysis of urine and feces collected daily from three healthy individuals for 7 days. On average, 2534 ± 113 (n = 126) peak pairs or metabolites could be detected from a urine sample, while 2507 ± 77 (n = 63) peak pairs were detected from a fecal sample. In total, 5372 unique peak pairs were detected from all the samples combined; 3089 and 3012 pairs were found in urine and feces, respectively. These results reveal that the urine and fecal metabolomes are very different, thereby justifying the consideration of using both biospecimens to increase the probability of finding specific biomarkers of diseases. Furthermore, the CIL LC-MS method described can be used to perform parallel quantitative analysis of urine and feces, resulting in more complete coverage of the human metabolome. - Highlights: • A method

  6. Dansylation isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for parallel profiling of human urinary and fecal submetabolomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xiaoling [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Wang, Nan [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Chen, Deying [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Li, Yunong [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Lu, Yingfeng [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Huan, Tao [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Xu, Wei [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Li, Lanjuan, E-mail: ljli@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Human urine and feces can be non-invasively collected for metabolomics-based disease biomarker discovery research. Because urinary and fecal metabolomes are thought to be different, analysis of both biospecimens may generate a more comprehensive metabolomic profile that can be better related to the health state of an individual. Herein we describe a method of using differential chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for parallel metabolomic profiling of urine and feces. Dansylation labeling was used to quantify the amine/phenol submetabolome changes among different samples based on {sup 12}C-labeling of individual samples and {sup 13}C-labeling of a pooled urine or pooled feces and subsequent analysis of the {sup 13}C-/{sup 12}C-labeled mixture by LC-MS. The pooled urine and pooled feces are further differentially labeled, mixed and then analyzed by LC-MS in order to relate the metabolite concentrations of the common metabolites found in both biospecimens. This method offers a means of direct comparison of urinary and fecal submetabolomes. We evaluated the analytical performance and demonstrated the utility of this method in the analysis of urine and feces collected daily from three healthy individuals for 7 days. On average, 2534 ± 113 (n = 126) peak pairs or metabolites could be detected from a urine sample, while 2507 ± 77 (n = 63) peak pairs were detected from a fecal sample. In total, 5372 unique peak pairs were detected from all the samples combined; 3089 and 3012 pairs were found in urine and feces, respectively. These results reveal that the urine and fecal metabolomes are very different, thereby justifying the consideration of using both biospecimens to increase the probability of finding specific biomarkers of diseases. Furthermore, the CIL LC-MS method described can be used to perform parallel quantitative analysis of urine and feces, resulting in more complete coverage of the human metabolome

  7. Contaminación fecal canina en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires, 1991-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rubel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar y analizar los datos de contaminación fecal canina y parasitaria en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires obtenidos entre 1991 y 2006 por la Cátedra Parasitología General (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se censaron las heces en varias plazas cada año en un único día entre 1991-2006. A partir del año 2000 se censaron heces en veredas circundantes. En cada plaza se seleccionaron al azar 30 heces frescas que se conservaron en formol 5% para su análisis parasitológico por el método de flotación de Willis con solución saturada de ClNa. Los 51 censos presentaron una mediana de heces de 288; un 82% de las heces se observaron en los canteros de tierra o pasto. La contaminación fecal en las plazas fue mayor en el período 2000-06 que en el anterior (p = 0.0000. La contaminación fecal de las plazas aumentó con la densidad humana en las manzanas lindantes (p = 0.0076. Las veredas mostraron un patrón inverso, ya que la contaminación fecal fue mayor en las áreas menos densamente pobladas (p = 0.0000. Se detectaron parásitos en un número variable de las heces colectadas en todas las plazas. Los géneros más frecuentes fueron Ancylostoma (20.47%, Trichuris (2.59% y Toxocara (1.70%. Nuestros resultados indican un aumento en la contaminación fecal de las plazas, posiblemente asociado con el aumento del número de perros en la ciudad combinado con las deficiencias en la implementación y el seguimiento de las medidas de control.

  8. Evaluation of fecal mRNA reproducibility via a marginal transformed mixture modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Laurie A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing and evaluating new technology that enables researchers to recover gene-expression levels of colonic cells from fecal samples could be key to a non-invasive screening tool for early detection of colon cancer. The current study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to investigate and report the reproducibility of fecal microarray data. Using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC as a measure of reproducibility and the preliminary analysis of fecal and mucosal data, we assessed the reliability of mixture density estimation and the reproducibility of fecal microarray data. Using Monte Carlo-based methods, we explored whether ICC values should be modeled as a beta-mixture or transformed first and fitted with a normal-mixture. We used outcomes from bootstrapped goodness-of-fit tests to determine which approach is less sensitive toward potential violation of distributional assumptions. Results The graphical examination of both the distributions of ICC and probit-transformed ICC (PT-ICC clearly shows that there are two components in the distributions. For ICC measurements, which are between 0 and 1, the practice in literature has been to assume that the data points are from a beta-mixture distribution. Nevertheless, in our study we show that the use of a normal-mixture modeling approach on PT-ICC could provide superior performance. Conclusions When modeling ICC values of gene expression levels, using mixture of normals in the probit-transformed (PT scale is less sensitive toward model mis-specification than using mixture of betas. We show that a biased conclusion could be made if we follow the traditional approach and model the two sets of ICC values using the mixture of betas directly. The problematic estimation arises from the sensitivity of beta-mixtures toward model mis-specification, particularly when there are observations in the neighborhood of the the boundary points, 0 or 1. Since beta-mixture modeling

  9. Omeprazole Minimally Alters the Fecal Microbial Community in Six Cats: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Schmid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although they have historically been thought of as safe medications, proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole have been associated with an increased risk of enteric, particularly Clostridium difficile, infections in people. In cats, omeprazole is often the first choice acid suppressant prescribed for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal (GI ulceration and bleeding. Despite this, no studies to date have explored the effect of omeprazole on the feline fecal microbiome and metabolome. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged omeprazole administration on the fecal microbiome and metabolome in healthy cats to identify targets for analysis in a larger subset of cats with GI disease. A within-subjects, before and after, pilot study was performed whereby six healthy adult cats received 60 days of placebo (250 mg lactose PO q 12 h followed by 5 mg (0.83–1.6 mg/kg PO q 12 h omeprazole. On days 0, 30, and 60 of placebo and omeprazole therapy, the fecal microbiome and metabolome were characterized utilizing 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing by Illumina and untargeted mass spectrometry-based methods, respectively. Omeprazole administration resulted in no significant changes in the global microbiome structure or richness. However, transient changes were noted in select bacterial groups with omeprazole administration resulting in an increased sequence percentage of Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Faecalibacterium spp. and a decreased sequence percentage of Bifidobacterium spp. Significance was lost for all of these bacterial groups after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The fecal concentration of O-acetylserine and aminomalonate decreased with omeprazole therapy, but significance was lost after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The results of this pilot study conclude that omeprazole has a mild and transient impact on the fecal microbiome and metabolome when orally administered to

  10. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella

  11. The effect of age and carbohydrate and protein sources on digestibility, fecal microbiota, fermentation products, fecal IgA, and immunological blood parameters in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, A P J; Ayane, L; Putarov, T C; Loureiro, B A; Neto, B P; Casagrande, M F; Gomes, M O S; Glória, M B A; Carciofi, A C

    2017-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet). Data were evaluated using the MIXED procedure and considering the effects and interactions of block, animal, diets, and age. Means were compared using Tukey's test ( dogs had a reduced coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of DM, which was explained by the age and diet interaction of CP and fat digestibility that was lower for old than for adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs fed the NFF diet had increased DM content ( dogs fed the FF and SM diets compared with dogs fed the NFF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs ( dogs fed the SM diet regardless of age ( dogs had reduced peripheral T and B lymphocytes ( dogs fed the SM diet had increased IgA in feces compared with animals fed the NFF and FF diets ( dogs, both the FF and SM diets induced increased IgA compared with the NFF diet ( dogs. The protein and oligosaccharides of soybean meal are digestible by dogs, induce the production of SCFA and spermidine, and increase fecal IgA. Old dogs had increased putrecine, cadaverine, and spermine fecal concentrations.

  12. Comparative methods of quantifying fecal neutral sterols in rats and humans after intravenous [14C]-, [3H] or [2H]cholesterol labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferezou, J; Chevallier, F

    1982-12-13

    Several methods used to estimate the fecal elimination of neutral sterols and of cholesterol having a plasmatic origin (called 'excreted cholesterol') were compared in rats and humans according to the tracer intravenously administered: 14-14C], [1,2-3H]- or octadeuterated cholesterol. In both species, octadeuterated cholesterol had no isotopic effect and the chance occurrence of epicoprostanol in fecal sterols induced an error in the calculation of the fecal excretion of cholesterol. In humans, the use of [1,2-3H]cholesterol appeared to be inaccurate in measuring the fecal flows of cholesterol, because of a loss of 3H radioactivity during the bacterial transformation of cholesterol in the digestive tract. Consequently, the reference method needed to calculate the proportion of excreted cholesterol in fecal cholesterol consisted in dividing the isotopic concentration measured in purified fecal cholesterol by that measured in the appropriate plasma cholesterol sample.

  13. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of north Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiello, M; Mikell, A T; Moore, M T; Cooper, C M

    2014-08-01

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree of fecal contamination, it is important that standard methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency are designed to determine the presence of E. coli in a water supply, and distinguish E. coli from other coliform bacteria (e.g. Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter). These genera of bacteria are present not only in fecal matter, but also in soil and runoff water and are not good indicators of fecal contamination. There is also ambiguity in determining a positive result for fecal coliforms on M-FC filters by a blue colony. When all variations of blue, including light blue or glossy blue, were examined, confirmation methods agreed with the positive M-FC result less often than when colonies that the technician would merely call "blue", with no descriptors, were examined. Approximately 48 % of M-FC positive colonies were found to be E. coli with 4 methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (MUG), and only 23 % of samples producing a positive result on M-FC media were found to be E. coli using API-20E test strips and current API-20E profiles. The majority of other M-FC blue colonies were found to be Klebsiella or were unidentifiable with current API-20E profiles. Two positive M-FC colonies were found to be Kluyvera with API-20E, both of which cleaved MUG and produced fluorescence under UV light, a characteristic used to differentiate E. coli from other fecal coliforms.

  14. A Cross Sectional Study of the Association between Sanitation Type and Fecal Contamination of the Household Environment in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Tarique Md Nurul; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Pickering, Amy J; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Rahman, Md Sajjadur; Luby, Stephen P; Biran, Adam

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study to assess 1) the association between access to basic sanitation and fecal contamination of sentinel toy balls and 2) if other sanitation factors such as shared use and cleanliness are associated with fecal contamination of sentinel toy balls. We assessed sanitation facilities in 454 households with a child aged 6-24 months in rural Bangladesh. We defined "basic" sanitation as access to improved sanitation facilities (pit latrine with a slab or better) not shared with other households. In each household, an identical toy ball was given to the target child. After 24 hours, the balls were rinsed to enumerate fecal coliforms as an indicator of household fecal contamination. Households with basic sanitation had lower fecal coliform contamination than households with no access to basic sanitation (adjusted difference in means: -0.31 log 10 colony forming units [CFU]/toy ball; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.61, -0.01). Shared sanitation facilities of otherwise improved type were more likely to have visible feces on the latrine slab compared with private facilities. Among households with access to improved sanitation, households with no visible feces on the latrine slab had less toy ball contamination than households with visible feces on the latrine slab (adjusted difference in means: -0.38 log 10 CFU/toy ball; 95% CI: -0.77, 0.02). Access to basic sanitation may prevent fecal contamination of the household environment. An Improved sanitation facility used by an individual household may be better in preventing household fecal contamination compared with improved facilities shared with other households.

  15. Effects of leuprolide acetate on selected blood and fecal sex hormones in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventrais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaphake, Eric; Fecteau, Kellie; DeWit, Martine; Greenacre, Cheryl; Grizzle, Judith; Jones, Michael; Zagaya, Nancy; Abney, L Kim; Oliver, Jack

    2009-12-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide acetate is used commonly to anage reproductive problems in pet birds. To determine the effect of leuprolide acetate on plas a and fecal hormone levels in a psittacine species, a single 800 microg/kg dose of the 30-day depot form of leuprolide acetate was administered IM in 11 healthy, nonbreeding adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and plasma and fecal hormone levels were measured before and after leuprolide administration. At pooled baseline to 21 days postleuprolide acetate administration, sample collection day was significantly associated with plasma 17beta-estradiol and androstenedione levels and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels (evaluated in females only). Both plasma androstenedione and plasma 17beta-estradiol levels decreased significantly from baseline to a nadir at 7 days postleuprolide acetate administration but did not differ significantly 14 days later from that nadir or from pooled baseline samples, suggesting that the effect of leuprolide on hormone levels remained about 2 weeks. Fecal 17beta-estradiol levels increased significantly from the nadir at 7 days postleuprolide to 21 days postleuprolide administration, with trends of the level at 21 days postleuprolide being higher than the pooled baseline level and of decreasing levels from pooled baseline to 7 days postleuprolide administration. Plasma luteinizing hormone and fecal testosterone levels did not change significantly from baseline levels after leuprolide administration over the 2-day period. No significant correlations were found between plasma hormone and fecal hormone levels. These results suggest that measurement of plasma androstenedione, plasma 17beta-estradiol, and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels might be useful in assessing the effects of 30-day depot leuprolide acetate in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  16. Animal Feces Contribute to Domestic Fecal Contamination: Evidence from E. coli Measured in Water, Hands, Food, Flies, and Soil in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J.; Kwong, Laura H.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Parvez, Sarker Masud; Alam, Mahfuja; Sen, Debashis; Islam, Sharmin; Kullmann, Craig; Chase, Claire; Ahmed, Rokeya; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P.; Colford, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Fecal-oral pathogens are transmitted through complex, environmentally mediated pathways. Sanitation interventions that isolate human feces from the environment may reduce transmission but have shown limited impact on environmental contamination. We conducted a study in rural Bangladesh to (1) quantify domestic fecal contamination in settings with high on-site sanitation coverage; (2) determine how domestic animals affect fecal contamination; and (3) assess how each environmental pathway affec...

  17. Quantification of fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelini M.O.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to the utilization of laboratory animal blood and its by-products are particularly attractive, especially regarding hamsters due to their small size and difficulties in obtaining serial blood samples. Steroid hormone metabolite quantification in feces, widely used in studies of free-ranging or intractable animals, is a non-invasive, non-stressor, economical, and animal saving technique which allows longitudinal studies by permitting frequent sampling of the same individual. The present study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for laboratory animals. Estradiol and progesterone metabolites were quantified by radioimmunoassay in feces of intact, sexually mature female Syrian hamsters during the estrous cycle (control and in feces of superovulated females. Metabolites were extracted by fecal dilution in ethanol and quantified by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations were 9.703 and 180.74 ng/g feces in the control group, respectively. Peaks of estrogen (22.44 ± 4.54 ng/g feces and progesterone (655.95 ± 129.93 ng/g feces mean fecal concentrations respectively occurred 12 h before and immediately after ovulation, which is easily detected in this species by observation of a characteristic vaginal postovulatory discharge. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations (28.159 and 586.57 ng/g feces, respectively were significantly higher in superovulated animal feces (P < 0.0001. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to monitor ovarian activity in Syrian hamsters non-invasively by measuring fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites. This technique appears to be a quite encouraging method for the development of new endocrinologic studies on laboratory animals.

  18. Related antimicrobial resistance genes detected in different bacterial species co-isolated from swine fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jonathan G; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Meinersmann, Richard J; Berrang, Mark E; Jackson, Charlene R; Englen, Mark D; Turpin, Jennifer B; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2011-06-01

    A potential factor leading to the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in bacteria is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes between bacteria in animals or their environment. To investigate this, swine fecal samples were collected on-farm and cultured for Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., and Enterococcus spp. which are all commonly found in swine. Forty-nine of the samples from which all four bacteria were recovered were selected yielding a total of 196 isolates for analysis. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility followed by hybridization to a DNA microarray designed to detect 775 AR-related genes. E. coli and Salmonella isolated from the same fecal sample had the most AR genes in common among the four bacteria. Genes detected encoded resistance to aminoglycosides (aac(3), aadA1, aadB, and strAB), β-lactams (ampC, ampR, and bla(TEM)), chloramphenicols (cat and floR), sulfanillic acid (sul1/sulI), tetracyclines (tet(A), tet(D), tet(C), tet(G), and tet(R)), and trimethoprim (dfrA1 and dfh). Campylobacter coli and Enterococcus isolated from the same sample frequently had tet(O) and aphA-3 genes detected in common. Almost half (47%) of E. coli and Salmonella isolated from the same fecal sample shared resistance genes at a significant level (χ², p genes between these bacteria or there may be a common source of AR genes in the swine environment for E. coli and Salmonella.

  19. Microbiota dynamics in patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

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    Yang Song

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis and is responsible for a large and increasing fraction of hospital-acquired infections. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is an alternate treatment option for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI refractory to antibiotic therapy. It has recently been discussed favorably in the clinical and scientific communities and is receiving increasing public attention. However, short- and long-term health consequences of FMT remain a concern, as the effects of the transplanted microbiota on the patient remain unknown. To shed light on microbial events associated with RCDI and treatment by FMT, we performed fecal microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of 14 pairs of healthy donors and RCDI patients treated successfully by FMT. Post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples collected up to one year after FMT were studied longitudinally, including one post-FMT patient with antibiotic-associated relapse three months after FMT. This analysis allowed us not only to confirm prior reports that RCDI is associated with reduced diversity and compositional changes in the fecal microbiota, but also to characterize previously undocumented post-FMT microbiota dynamics. Members of the Streptococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, or Enterobacteriaceae were significantly increased and putative butyrate producers, such as Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were significantly reduced in samples from RCDI patients before FMT as compared to post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples. RCDI patient samples showed more case-specific variations than post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples. However, none of the bacterial groups were invariably associated with RCDI or successful treatment by FMT. Overall microbiota compositions in post-FMT patients, specifically abundances of the above-mentioned Firmicutes, continued to change for at least 16 weeks after FMT, suggesting that

  20. Dominant Fecal Microbiota in Newly Diagnosed Untreated Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

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    Lill Therese Thorkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the microbiota associated with the onset of IBD is limited. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between IBD and the fecal microbiota for early diagnosed untreated patients. The fecal samples used were a part of the Inflammatory Bowel South-Eastern Norway II (IBSEN II study and were collected from CD patients (n=30, UC patients (n=33, unclassified IBD (IBDU patients (n=3, and from a control group (n=34. The bacteria associated with the fecal samples were analyzed using a direct 16S rRNA gene-sequencing approach combined with a multivariate curve resolution (MCR analysis. In addition, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was prepared for the construction of bacteria-specific gene-targeted single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE probes. The MCR analysis resulted in the recovery of five pure components of the dominant bacteria present: Escherichia/Shigella, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, and two components of unclassified Clostridiales. Escherichia/Shigella was found to be significantly increased in CD patients compared to control subjects, and Faecalibacterium was found to be significantly reduced in CD patients compared to both UC patients and control subjects. Furthermore, a SNuPE probe specific for Escherichia/Shigella showed a significant overrepresentation of Escherichia/Shigella in CD patients compared to control subjects. In conclusion, samples from CD patients exhibited an increase in Escherichia/Shigella and a decrease in Faecalibacterium indicating that the onset of the disease is associated with an increase in proinflammatory and a decrease in anti-inflammatory bacteria.