WorldWideScience

Sample records for containment studies key

  1. Key differentiators influencing the choice of robust shielded containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Jenny; Wickham, Stephen [Galson Sciences Limited Oakham, Rutland (United Kingdom); Nicholls, David [AREVA Risk Management Consulting Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Walsh, Ciara [NDA RWMD, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); McKinney, James [NDA Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The NDA's Upstream Optioneering project has examined the potential implications of using an alternative type of waste package and its influence on the waste management lifecycle across the NDA estate. Robust Shielded Containers (RSCs) are radioactive waste packages that provide integral radiological shielding, reducing the need for remote handling. The robustness of the container could remove the need to immobilise waste by cement encapsulation. RSCs are routinely used to package ILW for interim storage in Germany and have fairly recently been considered for use in the UK because RSCs have the potential to simplify the waste management lifecycle and enable risk and hazard reduction. In particular, the current baseline (included in Magnox Limited lifetime plans) follows the strategy set out in the Magnox Operating Decommissioning Programme (MODP), in which Type II MOSAIK and Type VI Ductile Cast Iron Containers (DCICs) are used to package (in non-encapsulated form) most Magnox ILW arising prior to 2050. By considering representative types of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and exploring potential packaging options for these wastes, this paper identifies the factors that could differentiate between cases in which RSCs would, or would not, be an appropriate option. The potential role of RSCs across the waste management lifecycle is examined, from retrieval of waste through to emplacement at a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF), including consideration of other potential uses of RSCs, such as temporary storage of raw wastes for which appropriate treatment and conditioning measures have yet to be developed. (authors)

  2. Key Concepts in Family Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ribbens McCarthy, Jane; Edwards, Rosalind

    2011-01-01

    Taken from the book to be published by Sage in December 2010, this document provides the Introduction to the book, in which the authors discuss issues in Family Studies as a contemporary field of academic and professional work. Their discussion includes: some of the different positions adopted by researchers towards the use of the language of 'family'; the broad themes generally included in this field of study; and dilemmas in evaluations of, and interventions in, family lives.\\ud

  3. Reducing Communication Overhead For Authentication Using Self Contained Public Key Management Scheme In MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundala Swathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have seen a rapid increase in important application fields of Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET. Hence, many industrial and academic researchers have been conducted. Because, these applications are closely related to human beings and their physical environment, the usage of MANET on a large scale depends on whether we can provide proper dependability. Particularly, security is the most important issue in MANET because of the limitation in resources. Management of keys is the most necessary activity for providing security for the network. MANETs have resource limitations. Thus using public-key based solutions is not feasible. Thus, we use symmetric key establishment. In this paper, a key management scheme which is self contained and public is represented.This scheme achieves near zero communication overhead while providing security services. Cryptographic keys in small numbers are inputted at all nodes prior to the deployment in network. Mathematical Combinations of pairs of keys, both public and private is used for better utilization of storage space. This means a combination of more than one key pair is utilized by nodes for the encryption and the decryption of messages. A secure communication algorithm for forwarding the packets in MANET is also proposed.

  4. Research on and design of key circuits in RFID tag chip for container management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design of semi-passive RFID tag chip capable of monitoring container safety. A system framework complying with requirements by ISO/IEC 18000-6C is firstly presented, and then differences from the key units of common passive chip, such as switch-state monitoring circuit, power management unit and anti-shake design in baseband processor, are elaborated. The main function of such a chip is to record the container opening frequency during transportation. Finally, the realizations of each unit’s function are simulated.

  5. Composite-flywheel burst-containment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapowith, A D; Handy, W E

    1982-04-08

    A key component impacting total flywheel energy storage system weight is the containment structure. This report addresses the factors that shape this structure and define its design criteria. In addition, containment weight estimates are made for the several composite flywheel designs of interest so that judgements can be made as to the relative weights of their containment structure. The requirements set down for this program were that all containment weight estimates be based on a 1 kWh burst. It should be noted that typical flywheel requirements for regenerative braking of small automobiles call for deliverable energies of 0.25 kWh. This leads to expected maximum burst energies of 0.5 kWh. The flywheels studied are those considered most likely to be carried further for operational design. These area: The pseudo isotropic disk flywheel, sometimes called the alpha ply; the SMC molded disk; either disk with a carbon ring; the subcircular rim with cruciform hub; and Avco's bi-directional circular weave disk. The flywheel materials for the disk are S-glass; the subcircular rim is Kevlar over S-glass. Test data on flywheel bursts and containment failures were analyzed. Recommendations are made for further testing.

  6. 含碳球团转底炉直接还原的关键技术%Study on key technologies of rotary hearth furnace for direct reduction process to deal with carbon containing pellet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦洁

    2012-01-01

    介绍了国内外转底炉直接还原工艺发展现状,提出含碳球团造块技术、转底炉装料机设计、转底炉出料机设计、转底炉炉温、炉压及炉内气氛的控制以及金属化球团防氧化技术等是保障转底炉连续稳定顺行的关键技术。合理的水分、压力及粘结剂种类可以获得较好的压球效果;振动给料机和装有硬质耐磨合金的螺旋出料机是目前转底炉装、出料机的主流;根据原料的不同,各厂家已摸索出适宜的炉温、炉压等工艺参数,并对金属化球团采取冷却或隔绝空气的保护措施。%The current development of rotary hearth furnace (RHF) technologies for direct reduction is introduced in this paper. The cold-pressing technology, the design of charging and discharging machines of RHF, the controlling of temperature, pressure and atmosphere in the furnace, and the antioxidation of metallized pellet are the key technologies for ensuring stable and continuous operation of RHF. Reasonable water content, pressure and binder categories could obtain preferable briquetting results. Vibration feeder and spiral discharging machine with hard alloy on the surface of the blades are the major facilities in RHF system. According to the supply of raw materials in different plants, suitable technological parameters of RHF, such as temperature, pressure atmosphere in the furnace have been investigated. In addition, cooling or air isolation measures to protect metallized pellet are also developed.

  7. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  8. Summary reports for key Hoodia clinical studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, VJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR has acquired the reports to 14 clinical studies in which Hoodia has been assesses, using crude extracts and concentrated active ingredients formulated in a number of different ways. In many of the studies Hoodia was found to be generally...

  9. User-Centric Key Entropy: Study of Biometric Key Derivation Subject to Spoofing Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela Dinca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric data can be used as input for PKI key pair generation. The concept of not saving the private key is very appealing, but the implementation of such a system shouldn’t be rushed because it might prove less secure then current PKI infrastructure. One biometric characteristic can be easily spoofed, so it was believed that multi-modal biometrics would offer more security, because spoofing two or more biometrics would be very hard. This notion, of increased security of multi-modal biometric systems, was disproved for authentication and matching, studies showing that not only multi-modal biometric systems are not more secure, but they introduce additional vulnerabilities. This paper is a study on the implications of spoofing biometric data for retrieving the derived key. We demonstrate that spoofed biometrics can yield the same key, which in turn will lead an attacker to obtain the private key. A practical implementation is proposed using fingerprint and iris as biometrics and the fuzzy extractor for biometric key extraction. Our experiments show what happens when the biometric data is spoofed for both uni-modal systems and multi-modal. In case of multi-modal system tests were performed when spoofing one biometric or both. We provide detailed analysis of every scenario in regard to successful tests and overall key entropy. Our paper defines a biometric PKI scenario and an in depth security analysis for it. The analysis can be viewed as a blueprint for implementations of future similar systems, because it highlights the main security vulnerabilities for bioPKI. The analysis is not constrained to the biometric part of the system, but covers CA security, sensor security, communication interception, RSA encryption vulnerabilities regarding key entropy, and much more.

  10. A Comparative Study of Group Key Management in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Bashary,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a self organized network, with no fixed infrastructure, limited resources and limited physical security. Security in such an environment is an essential requirement. Key management is a salient element in MANET security. It is responsible for key generation, storage, distribution, updating, revocation, deleting, and archiving. Key management protocols are classified into symmetric, asymmetric, group, and hybrid. Group key management is a point of interest for researchers with the growing usage of mobile devices and the rising of multicast communication. This paper surveys different approaches in group key management schemes. A comparative study is demonstrated in terms of reliability, computational complexity, storage cost, communication overheads, pre-requirements, security levels, robustness, vulnerabilities, scalability, energy and mobility. Finally, the study concludes the pros and cons of each protocol.

  11. Subsoil drain sumps are a key container for Aedes aegypti in Cairns, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brian L; Ritchie, Scott A; Hart, Alistair J; Long, Sharron A; Walsh, Ian D

    2004-12-01

    The contribution of subterranean drain sumps to pupal and adult populations of Aedes aegypti is reported for the 1st time in Cairns, Australia. Pupal surveys were used to quantify the relative contribution of drain sumps to the total population of Ae. aegypti by concurrent survey of sump and water-bearing containers in yards of inner-city premises. A total of 854 mosquito pupae were collected, predominantly Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (26.3 and 69.8%, respectively). Drain sumps provided a relatively uncommon (n = 4) but productive source for pupal Ae. aegypti, producing 14.7% of the combined yard and drain sump population. Drain sumps in inner-city Cairns most commonly occurred in parking lots (52.6%). Subsequently, a sticky emergent adult trap (SEAT) was developed to provide a pragmatic method to assess production of Ae. aegypti by drain sumps. A total of 866 adult mosquitoes were trapped from 162 drain sumps over a 48-h exposure period, comprising Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus (21 and 79%, respectively). Advantages of the SEAT are an ability to rapidly count, identify, and sex mosquitoes and to provide specimens for molecular analysis where necessary. The treatment of water-bearing drain sumps is a critical element of control campaigns against Ae. aegypti.

  12. Waste injection risk identification: keys to control waste containment and procure a safe waste injection operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, Adriana P.; Ronderos, Julio R. [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States); Francisco, Francisco F.

    2008-07-01

    As the world faces new challenges to protect the environment from all human-generated wastes, self-imposed industry standards as well as governmental regulations support new green politics to prevent environmental damage due to spillage during the course of operations. As such, the oil industry produces wastes from the drilling and production phases which ultimately are required to be disposed of in a safe manner. Waste Injection (WI) has been selected as the sound engineering and cost-effective final disposal methodology by many operators and legislators based on the capability to achieve zero discharge in a safe and efficient manner when compared to other existing proven technologies. This is particularly true for large-scale projects where WI has been strategically implemented as an integral component in field developments because of the commitment to the environment and the acceptance of subsurface engineering by local legislation. With the view of an assured process, the project development and implementation of WI technology is carefully designed using risk-based analysis that comprehends fracturing studies of the area of injection, logistics, equipment specification, and operation monitoring with the objective to perform a seamless and risk-free job. This paper addresses WI planning and implementation methodology and cites real examples to demonstrate the value of proper preparation of the injection operation to attain maximum efficiency under QHSE standards. (author)

  13. Spectroscopic studies of microwave plasmas containing hexamethyldisiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-10-01

    Low-pressure microwave discharges containing hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with admixtures of oxygen and nitrogen, used for the deposition of silicon containing films, have been studied spectroscopically. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS). The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and gas mixture at relatively low pressures, up to 50 Pa, and power values, up to 2 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, and of seven stable molecules, HMDSO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CO and CO2, was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ IRLAS using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. To achieve reliable values for the gas temperature inside and outside the plasma bulk as well as for the temperature in the plasma hot and colder zones, which are of great importance for calculation of species concentrations, three different methods based on emission and absorption spectroscopy data of N2, CH3 and CO have been used. In this approach line profile analysis has been combined with spectral simulation methods. The concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in the range between 1011 to 1015 cm-3, are in the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power, pressure and gas mixture on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the HMDSO precursor gas including its fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products was analyzed in detail.

  14. Study on Key 750-kV Transmission Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shirong; Liu Bencui; Jin Wen

    2006-01-01

    According to the special environment conditions and characteristics of high altitude in Northwest China, the study on key technologies of 750-Kv transmission and substation projects has gained fruitful results which are imperative not only to the construction of 750-Kv transmission demonstrative project first in China, but also has laid a solid foundation for future UHV transmission constructions.

  15. Good Study Habits-The key to learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Learning a language is slow and cumulative. No one can learn a language in 24 hours as many advertisements promise you. In fact, people work all their lives to learn languages. So it is important for all the people to develop study habits because de⁃veloping good habits in learning English will greatly increase studying efficiency and give twice the result with half the effort. In other words, good study habits are the keys to learning English.

  16. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  17. The Limits of Containment: Text-as-Container in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Darsie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses similarities among writing, texts, and containers. Claims that containerization is a central metaphor in composition studies. Argues that this metaphor constrains the way texts are understood and treated. Examines alternatives to the text-as-container metaphor. (HB)

  18. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  19. China:a key region for marine biodiversity studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ There are nearly 24,000 validated marine species in China,accounting for one sixth of the world total,which makes the country a key area for studies of marine biodiversity in the world,says Dr.lan Poiner,chair of the International Scientific Steering Committee of the Census of Marine Life (CoML),the largestever global marine biology research project.

  20. Studies on the key parameters in segmental lining design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenchang Guan; Tao Deng; Gang Wang; Yujing Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The uniform ring model and the shell-spring model for segmental lining design are reviewed in this article. The former is the most promising means to reflect the real behavior of segmental lining, while the latter is the most popular means in practice due to its simplicity. To understand the relationship and the difference between these two models, both of them are applied to the engineering practice of Fuzhou Metro Line I, where the key parameters used in both models are described and compared. The effective ratio of bending rigidity h reflecting the relative stiffness between segmental lining and surrounding ground and the transfer ratio of bending moment x reflecting the relative stiffness between segment and joint, which are two key parameters used in the uniform ring model, are especially emphasized. The reasonable values for these two key parameters are calibrated by comparing the bending moments calculated from both two models. Through case studies, it is concluded that the effective ratio of bending rigidity h increases significantly with good soil properties, increases slightly with increasing overburden, and decreases slightly with increasing water head. Meanwhile, the transfer ratio of bending moment x seems to only relate to the properties of segmental lining itself and has a minor relation with the ground conditions. These results could facilitate the design practice for Fuzhou Metro Line I, and could also provide some references to other projects with respect to similar scenarios.

  1. Pareter Study of Some Key Structures for Cylinder Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张儒华; 左正兴; 曹丽亚; 廖日东

    2004-01-01

    Using the method of the pareter study, some important dimensions of the cylinder head of an internal-combustion engine are analyzed. Under the mechanical load, the variational rules of the von Mises maximum stress on cylinder head are obtained, which are influenced by the thickness of the floor plate, head plate, jobbing sheet, standing partition board, and side plate of inlet port and exhaust port. A hypothesis is verified that there is an ideal matching point ong those above-mentioned main pareters. The quantificational proportion relations, between these key structural pareters and von Mises maximum stress of cylinder head, can provide a good help for the cylinder head's structural design.

  2. Studies of phthalocyanine-containing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pui Sze Priscilla

    This thesis reports the synthesis, spectroscopic and photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of phthalocyanine-containing polymers including poly(norbornene), poly(anhydride), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone). Chapter 1 gives a general overview of phthalocyanines including their synthesis and applications. Special emphasis has been placed on hydrophilic and non-aggregated phthalocyanines and their use in photodynamic therapy. In addition, different classes of phthalocyanine-containing polymers will also be mentioned. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties of a series of poly(norbornene)s with zinc(II) phthalocyanine and amino acid moieties. The copolymers were prepared by copolymerization of 2-(2-norbornenylmethoxy)phthalocyaninatozinc(II) with 5-norbornenes substituted with phenylalanine and tyrosine. As shown by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, phthalocyanines in this series of polymer exhibit a rather strong aggregation tendency. Chapter 3 presents the synthesis, characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of a related series of amino acid- and sugar-containing poly(norbornene)s connected axially to a silicon(IV) phthalocyanine core. These polymers exhibit a good solubility in common organic solvents. Due to the axial polymeric substituents, these compounds are free from aggregation and give a high singlet oxygen quantum yield. These polymers in Cremophor EL emulsions also show a high photodynamic activity against HepG2 cells, in particular the polymer with protected galactose moieties. Chapter 4 reports a series of silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted with two poly(sebacic anhydride) chains as the axial ligands. The polymers form nanoparticles in water in the presence of surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). The degradation of the nanoparticles was carried out in alkaline media and was

  3. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  4. Key Parameter Study of 65Mn Steel in Warm Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jie Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For study warm rolling process, warm compression experiment of ferrite combined with pearlite colony was conducted using the Gleeble-3500 thermal/mechanical simulator system. The warm deformation was carried out at temperature (500~700°C and the strain rate (0.001~10/sec. Based on the flow stress data, the key parameter was calculated. The results show that the warm-working process of carbon steel conforms to hyperbolic sine equation. The relationship of and T could be described by parameter Z (temperature compensation of strain rate factor. The value of apparent n (stress index and Q (deformation activation energy was calculated, the draught pressure calculated was 1.87×104 t during warm rolling process at 600°C.

  5. Studies on yttrium-containing smart alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Felix; Wegener, Tobias; Litnovsky, Andrey; Rasinski, Marcin; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany); Mayer, Joachim [Ernst Ruska-Centrum, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Tungsten is the main candidate as plasma-facing armour material for future fusion reactors, like DEMO. Advantages of tungsten include high melting point, high thermal conductivity, low tritium retention, and low erosion yield. A problem is oxide volatilisation under accidental conditions where the temperature of the first wall can reach 1200 K to 1450 K and air ingress occurs. Therefore smart tungsten alloys are developed. Smart alloys are supposed to preserve properties of tungsten during plasma operation coupled with suppressed tungsten oxide formation in case of an accident. Lab-scale tungsten-chromium-yttrium (W-Cr-Y) samples prepared by magnetron sputtering are used as model system. The mechanisms of oxidation and its dynamics are studied using a thermogravimetric system, focussed ion beam, and electron microscopy. A composition scan was conducted: The new material composition featuring W, ∝ 12 wt.% Cr, ∝ 0.3 wt.% Y showed strongest suppression of oxidation, no pores, and least internal oxidation. At 1273 K in argon-oxygen atmosphere an oxidation rate of 3 . 10{sup -6} mg{sup 2}cm{sup -4}s{sup -1} was measured. At 1473 K ternary W-Cr-Y alloys suppressed evaporation up to 20 min while for W-Cr evaporation was already evident after 5 min. Comparison of passivation in dry and humid atmosphere, at temperatures of 1073 K to 1473 K is performed.

  6. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  7. A Comparative Study of Key Management Protocols for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased employment of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network in real life applications and their hostile and remote locations accelerate demand of security in WSN. Publicly accessible wireless communication channel also makes WSN vulnerable to numerous security attacks. Scarcity of resources acquaints new sort of challenges and difficulties during implementation of effective security mechanisms. In this paper, we evaluate and compare performance of three different security mechanisms (ECRKS, CKP and AP scheme. ECRKS (Energy-efficient, Connected, Resilient Key pre-distribution Scheme is based upon multi hop communication architecture specifically designed for homogeneous WSN. Clustering based protocols, AP (Asymmetric pre-distribution scheme and CKP (Clustering based Key management Protocol are proposed for heterogeneous WSN. All the above mentioned schemes are simulated in MATLAB to evaluate their effectiveness and suitability for WSN. Simulation result shows that CKP outperforms other two schemes in terms of transmission distance, memory burden, energy dissipation and resilience.

  8. Performance study on Gossip-based group key distribution protocal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yan; Ma Jiaqing; Zhong Yiping; Zhang Shiyong

    2006-01-01

    Group key distribution is faced with two important problems, i.e. reliability and scalability, to support security multicast for large and dynamic groups. With group member increasing, traditional reliable multicast protocol can not deal with them fully. Gossip-based group key distribution idea for wide-area dissemination was provided. It is based on an gossip-based loss recovery control mechanism. It can provide a probabilistic reliable guarantee for a information dissemination to reach every group member, which can achieve scalability and reliability. To achieve full reliability, three layers protocol model in group key distribution was provided. One is best effect layer, which provides unreliable dissemination. Other is gossip-based loss recovery layer, which provides probabilistic reliable guarantee. Last is vsync-based layer, which provide deterministic loss recovery. We integrate probabilistic loss recovery method with deterministic one. The model possess scalability that probabilistic method has and full reliability prosthesis by vsync-based. To evaluate the effectiveness of gossip technique in scalable and reliable multicast protocols. We have compared gossip protocol with other reliable multicast protocols. Experimental result shows that gossip protocol has better scalability than other.

  9. Case study: flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbring, Lori C

    2006-03-17

    This paper describes the case study of a portable plastic gasoline container explosion and fire. While working at home on a science project to determine the burn rates of different types of wood fuel, a 14-year-old boy was severely burned after flames traveled back up into the portable gasoline container and exploded. A witness heard the explosion and reports that the flames went perhaps 10 ft in the air. It is shown by experimentation that a flame arrester installed in the pour opening of the portable gasoline container would have prevented an explosion inside the gasoline container.

  10. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  11. It’s Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-energize Key Acquisition Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Lockheed Martin ? ? ? ? ZCORE Cost Oriented Resource  Estimating Model USAF ? ? ? ? ACEIT Automated Cost  Estimating  Integrated  Tools  (USAF, USA...and Logistics) Milestone III chair LCCH Criticisms of high cost, ASD (Acquisition and Logistics) Milestone III chair ACEIT (86 USAF at Hanscom...w/Tecolote Research) ACEIT (86 USAF at Hanscom w/Tecolote Research) ?? It’s Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-energize a

  12. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  13. Revisiting Style, a Key Concept in Literary Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, J. Berenike; van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; Schöch, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Language and literary studies have studied style for centuries, and even since the advent of ›stylistics‹ as a discipline at the beginning of the twentieth century, definitions of ›style‹ have varied heavily across time, space and fields. Today, with increasingly large collections of literary texts

  14. Revisiting Style, a Key Concept in Literary Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, J. Berenike; van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; Schöch, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Language and literary studies have studied style for centuries, and even since the advent of ›stylistics‹ as a discipline at the beginning of the twentieth century, definitions of ›style‹ have varied heavily across time, space and fields. Today, with increasingly large collections of literary texts

  15. Academic Social Climate--A Key Aspect in Architectural Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Casakin, Hernan

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigates academic social climate in architectural studies as perceived by students. It studies the importance that the various measures of academic social climate have in the studio and in architectural classes. It also investigates the relation between the personal background of students and their sense of academic social…

  16. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  17. 31P NMR Study on Some Phosphorus-Containing Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    31P NMR has become a widely applied spectroscopic probe of the structure of phosphorus-containing compounds. Meanwhile, the application of 31P NMR has been rapidly expanded to biochemistry and medicinal chemistry of phosphorus-containing compounds because the growing importance of the phosphorus compounds is now widely realized. We report here the results of 31P NMR study on some phosphorus-containing compounds, namely, O-alkyl O-4-nitrophenyl methyl phosphonates with different alkyl chain-length (MePO-n), 4-nitrophenyl alkylphenylphosphinates with different alkyl chain-length (PhP-n), diethyl phosphono- acetonitrile anion and diethyl phosphite anion . Our results indicate that 31P NMR can not only be applied to not only the study of the hydrolytic reactions of MePO-8 and PhP-8 but also be applied to the study of the presence of the anions of diethylphosphonoacetonitrile and diethyl phosphite in nucleophilic reactions.

  18. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  19. The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

  20. The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

  1. The Keys to Success in Doctoral Studies: A Preimmersion Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salani, Deborah; Albuja, Laura Dean; Azaiza, Khitam

    2016-01-01

    This article will review an innovative on-line preimmersion course for a hybrid doctor of nursing practice (DNP) program and a traditional face-to-face doctor of philosophy nursing program. The doctoral candidates include both postbaccalaureate and postmaster's students. The authors of the preimmersion course developed and initiated the course in order to address various issues that have surfaced in discussions between students and faculty. Examples of common themes identified include writing skills, statistics, life-work-school balance, and navigating instructional technology. Doctoral studies may pose challenges to students studying nursing, in regard to academic rigor and experiencing on-line education for the first time, especially for students who have been out of school for an extended amount of time or are not accustomed to a nontraditional classroom; thus, having a preimmersion course established may facilitate a smooth transition to rigorous academic studies in a hybrid program. The course, which was developed and delivered through Blackboard, a learning management system, includes the following 9 preimmersion modules: academic strategies (learning styles, creating an effective PowerPoint presentation), library support (introduction to the university library, literature review tutorial, and citation styles), mindfulness, wellness, statistics essentials, writing express, DNP capstone, netiquette, and DNP/doctor of philosophy mentorship. Each module consists of various tools that may promote student success in specific courses and the programs in general. The purpose of designing the preimmersion course is to decrease attrition rates and increase success of the students. While the majority of students have succeeded in their coursework and been graduated from the program, the authors of this article found that many students struggled with the work, life, and school balance. Future work will include the evaluation of results from graduate students enrolled in

  2. Pupal-productivity surveys to identify the key container habitats of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Barranquilla, the principal seaport of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Vivas, C M E; Arango-Padilla, P; Falconar, A K I

    2006-04-01

    Surveys were conducted in three neighbourhoods of Barranquilla, the main seaport of Colombia, to identify, using counts of pupae in water containers during the wet and dry seasons, the most productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites. Overall, 3,433 premises were investigated in the wet season and 3,563 in the dry, representing, respectively, 82.3% and 84.6% of the total numbers of premises in the study areas. Despite a reasonably reliable supply of piped water, there were still some large storage containers for domestic water (cement ground tanks and plastic, metal and cement drums) in the area. Although such containers represented only 1.8%-16.3% of the total number of containers observed, they contributed 72.0%-78.2% and 65.0%-95.8% of the total Ae. aegypti pupal population in the three study neighbourhoods during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. In contrast, bottles represented 23.0%-88.9% of the total number of containers but produced no more than 0.1% of the total Ae aegypti pupal populations in these neighbourhoods. Other containers (tyres, vases, 'other discarded' and 'other used') generally produced only low numbers of pupae. In some settings, however, containers in the 'other discarded' category could contribute up to 19% of the total pupal population, and in one survey of one neighbourhood a single container in this category held 9.1% of all the pupae collected. These results, from a city where dengue fever is endemic, will help to focus local campaigns for Ae. aegypti source-reduction on the most productive categories of container.

  3. Communicating Culture: An Exploratory Study of the Key Concepts in Maori Culture on Maori Web Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko J Kovacic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine how accurately the belief system or cultural concepts of Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, is reconstructed in the virtual world of the Internet. Nine Maori web sites were searched using a list of 44 key concepts in Maori culture. We registered how many pages within a particular web site contain each of the key concepts. These numbers were set up in a data matrix for further statistical analysis. The Multidimensional Scaling method was used to construct a spatial representation of Maori web sites in the space generated by the key concepts in Maori culture. Using the correlation coefficients between derived dimensions and the key concepts we interpreted three dimensions as General Cultural, Intra-tribe Dynamics and Educational. The position of each Maori web site in this space has been located and described.

  4. Study on the Novel Dicyanate Ester Resin Containing Naphthalene Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qiang YAN; Hong Yun PENG; Li JI; Guo Rong QI

    2004-01-01

    The novel dicyanate ester resin containing naphthalene unit (DNCY) was synthesized, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analysis (EA).The thermal properties of DNCY resin was studied by thermal degradation analysis at a heating rate of 10 (C /min-1 in N2 and air. The DNCY resin exhibited better thermal and thermal-oxidative stability than bisphenol A dicyanate (BACY) resin.

  5. Synthesis and study of conjugated polymers containing Di- or Triphenylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukwattanasinitt, M.

    1996-06-21

    This thesis consists of two separate parts. The first part addresses the synthesis and study of conjugated polymers containing di- or triphenylamine. Two types of polymers: linear polymers and dendrimers, were synthesized. The polymers were characterized by NMR, IR, UV, GPC, TGA and DSC. Electronic and optical properties of the polymers were studied through the conductivity measurements and excitation- emission spectra. the second part of this thesis deals with a reaction of electron-rich acetylenes with TCNE. The discovery of the reaction from charge transfer complex studies and the investigation of this reaction on various electron-rich acetylenes are presented.

  6. [Studies on Yakushi Buddha and its medicinal container].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, there are about 250 Yakushi Buddha (i.e., Buddha of Healing) statues in Buddhist temples. They are listed as Important Cultural Properties and 14 of them are National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in Horin-ji Temple in Nara. Among the approximately 250 Yakushi Buddha statues, about 200 have medicinal containers-or rarely, a bowl-in the palm of the left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that the Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji Temple in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan has a medicinal container in the palm of his left hand, in which an offering (i.e., 220 g of materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of the lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean and azuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori graminei, Acori calami, Ginseng, Flos caryophylli and Lignum santali albi) and six minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue lead glass, CaCO3 particles, and silver and golden foils). Recently, the pharmacy educational program was extended from four to six years in order to meet clinical pharmacy requirements for patients. From studying the Buddha of Healing and its medicinal container described above, the author suggests that, in addition to pharmaceutical bioscience, philosophical concept be studied as part of the history of pharmacy in the future.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Organotin Containing Copolymers: Reactivity Ratio Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin monomers containing dibutyltin groups – dibutyltin citraconate (DBTC as a new monomer and dibutyltin maleate (DBTM – were synthesized. Free radical copolymerizations of the organotin monomers with styrene (ST and butyl acrylate (BA were performed. The overall conversion was kept low (≤15% wt/wt for all studied samples and the copolymers composition was determined from tin analysis using the Gillman and Rosenberg method. The reactivity ratios were calculated from the copolymer composition using the Fineman-Ross (FR method. The synthesized monomers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-, 13C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy.

  8. Emissions of tar-containing binders: field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the measurement of emissions during field construction of asphalt pavements using tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), which is known to release harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). At three different test sites, the main emission sources were identified and the total emission rates of fumes and PAHs of the paving process were determined. For this purpose, the paver was temporarily enclosed. While the screed area was the main emission source, the hopper area and freshly compacted pavement were also significant. In comparison with previous laboratory tests, the binder composition and the resulting emissions were comparable, except for Naphthalene. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a representative for carcinogenic PAHs was identified as a good leading compound, correlating well with the toxicity weighted sum of PAHs. In contrast, the unweighted, mass related sum of all EPA PAHs does not seem to be a good parameter to assess workplace concentrations because emissions by mass are dominated by the less hazardous 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs. Workplace concentrations for bitumen fumes and PAHs were below limit values in all three field studies. However, the margin was not large and the field tests were done under favourable meteorological conditions. Therefore, we suggest maintaining the current Swiss limit of 5000 mg EPA-PAH per kg binder in the RAP-containing hot mix.

  9. Optical study of dye-containing fluorinated polyimide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, A.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Della Mea, G.; Ischia, M.; Campostrini, R.

    Thin films of dye-containing fluorinated polyimide have been obtained by adding the dye powder to the polyamic acid resin and by spin coating the resulting solution on silica and silicon substrates. 6FDA (4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride) and DAB (diaminobenzophenone) have been used as precursor monomers and rhodamine B as dye. The influence of the rhodamine-B molecule on the completeness of the imidization process has been studied by coupled thermogravimetric and mass-spectrometric analyses (TG-MS) of pure and doped polyamic acid resin and by FT-IR analysis of samples before and after curing. Optical emission, excitation and absorption spectra have been collected in order to study spectroscopic and aggregation characteristics of rhodamine as a function of the deposition parameters.

  10. Packaging stiff polymers in small containers: A molecular dynamics study

    CERN Document Server

    Rapaport, D C

    2016-01-01

    The question of how stiff polymers are able to pack into small containers is particularly relevant to the study of DNA packaging in viruses. A reduced version of the problem based on coarse-grained representations of the main components of the system -- the DNA polymer and the spherical viral capsid -- has been studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The results, involving longer polymers than in earlier work, show that as polymers become more rigid there is an increasing tendency to self-organize as spools that wrap from the inside out, rather than the inverse direction seen previously. In the final state, a substantial part of the polymer is packed into one or more coaxial spools, concentrically layered with different orientations, a form of packaging achievable without twisting the polymer.

  11. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  12. Computer simulation study International Container Terminal "Tanjung Perak", Surabaya, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Wanders, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Tanjung Perak harbour of the city of Surabaya on the island Java, Indonesia has experienced a considerable growth of container traffic. In order to adequately deal with the expected continuing increase of container traffic in the future, the International container terminal is presently being ex

  13. Audio Key Finding: Considerations in System Design and Case Studies on Chopin's 24 Preludes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Ching-Hua; Chew, Elaine

    2006-12-01

    We systematically analyze audio key finding to determine factors important to system design, and the selection and evaluation of solutions. First, we present a basic system, fuzzy analysis spiral array center of effect generator algorithm, with three key determination policies: nearest-neighbor (NN), relative distance (RD), and average distance (AD). AD achieved a 79% accuracy rate in an evaluation on 410 classical pieces, more than 8% higher RD and NN. We show why audio key finding sometimes outperforms symbolic key finding. We next propose three extensions to the basic key finding system—the modified spiral array (mSA), fundamental frequency identification (F0), and post-weight balancing (PWB)—to improve performance, with evaluations using Chopin's Preludes (Romantic repertoire was the most challenging). F0 provided the greatest improvement in the first 8 seconds, while mSA gave the best performance after 8 seconds. Case studies examine when all systems were correct, or all incorrect.

  14. Audio Key Finding: Considerations in System Design and Case Studies on Chopin's 24 Preludes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Chew

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We systematically analyze audio key finding to determine factors important to system design, and the selection and evaluation of solutions. First, we present a basic system, fuzzy analysis spiral array center of effect generator algorithm, with three key determination policies: nearest-neighbor (NN, relative distance (RD, and average distance (AD. AD achieved a 79% accuracy rate in an evaluation on 410 classical pieces, more than 8% higher RD and NN. We show why audio key finding sometimes outperforms symbolic key finding. We next propose three extensions to the basic key finding system—the modified spiral array (mSA, fundamental frequency identification (F0, and post-weight balancing (PWB—to improve performance, with evaluations using Chopin's Preludes (Romantic repertoire was the most challenging. F0 provided the greatest improvement in the first 8 seconds, while mSA gave the best performance after 8 seconds. Case studies examine when all systems were correct, or all incorrect.

  15. Instability study of oil slicks contained by a single boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.; Wong, K.-F.V. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The different hydrodynamic instabilities that occur in the water-oil-boom systems were discussed. These instabilities are referred to as failures. The three major types of oil containment failures have been identified as being entrainment failure, drainage failure and critical accumulation failure. The primary factors which control instability are gravity, surface tension, current velocity, current depth, boom draft, oil viscosity and oil density. The impact that velocity has on the fluid flow at the water-oil interface was also discussed. This paper focused on a systematic study of the drainage failure and the critical accumulation failure. A numerical model was developed where two-dimensional flow was assumed. Two results were presented. One was characteristic of the interface movement, the other was the coefficient of collected oil and the critical containment conditions. Stability was found to be sensitive to the Froude number. It was also determined that the critical reduced gravity is more appropriate than the critical Froude number. 19 refs., 1 tab., 19 figs.

  16. Electronic conductivity studies on oxyhalide glasses containing TMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayatha, D. [R& D Center, Bharatiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Gurunanak Institute of Technology, Hyderabad -040 (India); Viswanatha, R. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sujatha, B. [Department of Electronics and Communcation, MSRIT, Bangalore 560054 (India); Narayana Reddy, C., E-mail: nivetejareddy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Siddaganga College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Tumkur 572102 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Microwave-assisted synthesis is cleaner, more economical and much faster than conventional methods. The development of new routes for the synthesis of solid materials is an integral part of material science and technology. The electronic conductivity studies on xPbCl{sub 2} – 60 PbO – (40-x) V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (1 ≥ x ≤ 10) glass system has been carried out over a wide range of composition and temperature (300 K to 423 K). X-ray diffraction study confirms the amorphous nature of the samples. The Scanning electron microscopic studies reveal the formation of cluster like morphology in PbCl{sub 2} containing glasses. The d.c conductivity exhibits Arrhenius behaviour and increases with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. Analysis of the results is interpreted in view Austin-Mott’s small polaron model of electron transport. Activation energies calculated using regression analysis exhibit composition dependent trend and the variation is explained in view of the structure of lead-vanadate glass.

  17. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Estanqueiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and sodium lauryl sulfate (and sodium cetearyl sulfate (LSX, the nature of the oily phase (decyl oleate, cyclomethicone or dimethicone and the presence or absence of pumice (5% w/w. While maintaining the samples at room temperature, rheology studies, texture analysis and microscopic observation of formulations with and without pumice were performed. Samples were also submitted to an accelerated stability study by centrifugation and to a thermal stress test. Through the testing, it was found that the amount of emulsifying agent affects the consistency and textural properties such as firmness and adhesiveness. So, formulations containing LSX (5% w/w and decyl oleate or dimethicone as oily phase had a better consistency and remained stable with time, so exhibited the best features to be used for skin care products.

  18. An Experimental Study of Cryptography Capability using Chained Key Exchange Scheme for Embedded Devices

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    After 38 years of birthday Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (DHKE), there are many proposed improvements in the DHKE protocol to encounter modern security issues. This protocol seems quite simple to be implemented, but it can be vulnerable to many types of attacks. In this work, we propose the Chained Key Exchange scheme as a case study to explore cryptographic computation capability of embedded microcontroller. We choose ARM RaspberryPi board as hardware platform for experimental setup. To enable...

  19. Experimental study of the Ca–Mg–Zn system using diffusion couples and key alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Nan Zhang, Dmytro Kevorkov, Florent Bridier and Mamoun Medraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine diffusion couples and 32 key samples were prepared to map the phase diagram of the Ca–Mg–Zn system. Phase relations and solubility limits were determined for binary and ternary compounds using scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD. The crystal structure of the ternary compounds was studied by XRD and electron backscatter diffraction. Four ternary intermetallic (IM compounds were identified in this system: Ca3MgxZn15−x (4.6≤x≤12 at 335 °C, IM1, Ca14.5Mg15.8Zn69.7 (IM2, Ca2Mg5Zn13 (IM3 and Ca1.5Mg55.3Zn43.2 (IM4. Three binary compounds were found to have extended solid solubility into ternary systems: CaZn11, CaZn13 and Mg2Ca form substitutional solid solutions where Mg substitutes for Zn atoms in the first two compounds, and Zn substitutes for both Ca and Mg atoms in Mg2Ca. The isothermal section of the Ca–Mg–Zn phase diagram at 335 °C was constructed on the basis of the obtained experimental results. The morphologies of the diffusion couples in the Ca–Mg–Zn phase diagram at 335 °C were studied. Depending on the terminal compositions of the diffusion couples, the two-phase regions in the diffusion zone have either a tooth-like morphology or contain a matrix phase with isolated and/or dendritic precipitates.

  20. A degradation study of PLLA containing lauric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf-Glauser, Annette C; Rose, John; Farrar, David; Cameron, Ruth E

    2005-05-01

    Addition of lauric acid to poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) has resulted in a new family of enhanced degradation biomaterials. Presented is PLLA4.5 (PLLA containing 4.5 wt% lauric acid), the fastest degrading of the family. Degradation was studied via mass changes, gel-permeation chromatography, wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS), simultaneous SAXS and tensile testing, and visual observation. The undegraded PLLA4.5 deformed by crazing, recognisable from the characteristic shape of the SAXS pattern. As water up-take and degradation proceeded, samples crystallised, decreasing the SAXS long period, until by 4 days the deformation mechanism had become that of crystal-mediated deformation. This resulted in a 'peanut-lemon'-shaped SAXS pattern, interpreted in terms of cavitation and fibrillated shear. Further degradation up to 12 days resulted in the same deformation mechanism at different sample displacements, with samples failing earlier during tensile testing until a ductile-brittle transition occurred. At 30-40 days water up-take and mass-loss increased significantly and global whitening of samples occurred, while the crystallinity and long period stabilised. Complete degradation had not occurred by the end of the study at 73 days. Through an understanding of how the changes in morphology during degradation affect the micromechanisms of deformation, it may be possible to design microstructures to give a tailored evolution of mechanical response in the body.

  1. Value Engineering Study for Closing Waste Packages Containing TAD Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2005-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management announced their intention to have the commercial utilities package spent nuclear fuel in shielded, transportable, ageable, and disposable containers prior to shipment to the Yucca Mountain repository. This will change the conditions used as a basis for the design of the waste package closure system. The environment is now expected to be a low radiation, low contamination area. A value engineering study was completed to evaluate possible modifications to the existing closure system using the revised requirements. Four alternatives were identified and evaluated against a set of weighted criteria. The alternatives are (1) a radiation-hardened, remote automated system (the current baseline design); (2) a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system (with personnel intervention if necessary); (3) a nonradiation-hardened, semi-automated system with personnel access for routine manual operations; and (4) a nonradiation-hardened, fully manual system with full-time personnel access. Based on the study, the recommended design is Alternative 2, a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system. It is less expensive and less complex than the current baseline system, because nonradiation-hardened equipment can be used and some contamination control equipment is no longer needed. In addition, the inclusion of remote automation ensures throughput requirements are met, provides a more reliable process, and provides greater protection for employees from industrial accidents and radiation exposure than the semi-automated or manual systems. Other items addressed during the value engineering study as requested by OCRWM include a comparison to industry canister closure systems and corresponding lessons learned; consideration of closing a transportable, ageable, and disposable canister; and an estimate of the time required to perform a demonstration of the recommended closure system.

  2. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  3. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  4. The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010. Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon D.; Caruso, Judith Borreson

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010". Since 2004, the annual ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of undergraduate students and information technology has sought to shed light on how information technology affects the college experience. We…

  5. Research Progress of Nuclear Astrophysics Physics:Study of Key Scientific Problems in Nuclear Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Bing; LIU; Wei-ping; LI; Zhi-hong; WANG; You-bao; HE; Jian-jun; SHI; Jian-rong; TANG; Xiao-dong; YAN; Sheng-quan; SU; Jun; LI; Yun-ju; ZENG; Sheng; LIAN; Gang; BAI; Xi-xiang; CHEN; Yong-shou; PANG; Dan-yang; GU; Jian-zhong; HAN; Zhi-yu; LI; Xin-yue

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary A systematic study of the key scientific problems in nuclear synthesis has been conducted.Significant research achievements from several important subjects such as direct measurement of astrophysical reaction,observation of abundances of elements,studies on decay properties of nuclei and reaction rates of primordial nucleosynthesis have been made utilizing large scientific facilities from China

  6. Photodissociation Studies of Metal-Containing Clusters and Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey Scott

    1995-01-01

    There have been two major areas of investigation for researchers working with laser ablation in molecular beams. The first area is the study of weakly-bound complexes. These complexes are bound by electrostatic interactions. In the present study the weakly bound interactions of the rare gases with the magnesium ion are investigated with electronic spectroscopy. The second major area is the study of metal and metal-containing clusters. Examples of previous investigations are the alkali metal clusters and the fullerenes. The present investigation is on metal -carbon clusters. The so-called metallo-carbohedrenes and metal-carbon nanocrystals are studied. Resonance enhanced photodissociation spectroscopy is used to obtain electronic excitation spectra of the Mg^+-rare gas species in the ultraviolet region. This investigation is facilitated by a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The interaction of the rare gas with the metal ion is attributed to a "solvation" of the atomic ion transition. Simple bonding arguments predict that the excited state is more bound than the ground state for these complexes. This will result in a shift of the complex vibronic origin to lower energy from the atomic ion transition. This is exactly what is observed in the experiment with progressively larger shifts for the heavier rare gases. The electronic excitation spectra allow the vibrational frequencies and anharmonicities for these complexes to be obtained for the excited state. In turn, the excited state bond dissociation energies can be determined. Finally, conservation of energy allows calculation of the ground state bond dissociation energies. In the metal-carbon systems the stability of the metallo-carbohedrene, met-car, stoichiometry is shown to extend into the transition period at least to the iron group. Photodissociation with a 532 nm laser causes a loss of metal atoms for met-cars formed with first row transition metals and a loss of metal-carbon units for met

  7. Nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes contain key nucleolar proteins but are impoverished for rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-01-15

    It is well known that fully-grown mammalian oocytes, rather than typical nucleoli, contain prominent but structurally homogenous bodies called "nucleolus-like bodies" (NLBs). NLBs accumulate a vast amount of material, but their biochemical composition and functions remain uncertain. To clarify the composition of the NLB material in mouse GV oocytes, we devised an assay to detect internal oocyte proteins with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) and applied the fluorescent RNA-binding dye acridine orange to examine whether NLBs contain RNA. Our results unequivocally show that, similarly to typical nucleoli, proteins and RNA are major constituents of transcriptionally active (or non-surrounded) NLBs as well as of transcriptionally silent (or surrounded) NLBs. We also show, by exposing fixed oocytes to a mild proteinase K treatment, that the NLB mass in oocytes of both types contains nucleolar proteins that are involved in all major steps of ribosome biogenesis, including rDNA transcription (UBF), early rRNA processing (fibrillarin), and late rRNA processing (NPM1/nucleophosmin/B23, nucleolin/C23), but none of the nuclear proteins tested, including SC35, NOBOX, topoisomerase II beta, HP1α, and H3. The ribosomal RPL26 protein was detected within the NLBs of NSN-type oocytes but is virtually absent from NLBs of SN-type oocytes. Taking into account that the major class of nucleolar RNA is ribosomal RNA (rRNA), we applied fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting 18S and 28S rRNAs. The results show that, in contrast to active nucleoli, NLBs of fully-grown oocytes are impoverished for the rRNAs, which is consistent with the absence of transcribed ribosomal genes in the NLB mass. Overall, the results of this study suggest that NLBs of fully-grown mammalian oocytes serve for storing major nucleolar proteins but not rRNA.

  8. Experimental study on 830 MPa grade pipeline steel containing chromium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ren; Shuai Zhang; Shuang Wang; Wen-yue Liu

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of microstructure and properties of 830 Mpa grade pipeline steel containing chromium was investigated by optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The main microstructures were multiple configurations, containing lath bainite and granule bainite. Mechanical properties test results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength improved with in-creasing chromium content. The toughness and elongation decreased at the same time, so temper process was introduced. Appling proper temper parameters, the values of toughness and elongation were improved dramatically, and the strength decreased slightly.

  9. Parametric study of propeller boss cap fins for container ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sang-Seop

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF and hub cap for 6,000TEU container ships to improve the propulsion efficiency. The design parameters of PBCF have been selected based on the geometrical shape. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with a propeller open water (POW test was performed to check the validity of CFD analysis. The design of experiment (DOE case was selected as a full factorial design, and the experiment was analyzed by POW and CFD analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to determine the correlation among design parameters. Four design alternatives of PBCF were selected from the DOE. The shape of a propeller hub cap was selected as a divergent shape, and the divergent angle was determined by the DOE. Four design alternatives of PBCF were attached to the divergent hub cap, and the POW was estimated by CFD. As a result, the divergent hub cap with PBCF has a negative effect on the POW, which is induced by an increase in torque coefficient. A POW test and cavitation test were performed with a divergent hub cap with PBCF to verify the CFD result. The POW test result showed that the open water efficiency was increased approximately 2% with a divergent hub cap compared to a normal cap. The POW test result was similar to the CFD result, and the divergent hub cap with the PBCF models showed lower open water efficiency. This was attributed to an increase in the torque coefficient just like the CFD results. A cavitation test was performed using the 2 models selected. The test

  10. Experimental Study on Practical Quantum Key Distribution Scheme with Time-Multiplexed Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu-Xian; HU Hua-Peng; LIANG Rui-Sheng; LU Yi-Qun; WANG Jin-Dong; LU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We present a scheme that is capable of detecting photon numbers during the quantum key distribution (QKD) based on an improved differential phase shift (DPS) system without Trojan horse attack. A time-multiplexed detector (TMD) is set in for the photon-number resolution. Two fibre loops are used for detecting photon numbers as well as distributing keys. The long-term stabilization is guaranteed by two Faraday mirrors (FM) at Bob's site to automatically compensate for polarization defect. Our experimental study (90km QKD is completed) indicates that such a system is stable and secure which nearly reaches the performance of a single photon scheme.

  11. Monotonicity of a Key Function Arised in Studies of Nematic Liquid Crystal Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a key function arised in studies of nematic liquid crystal polymers. Previously, it was conjectured that the function is strictly decreasing and the conjecture was numerically confirmed. Here we prove the conjecture analytically. More specifically, we write the derivative of the function into two parts and prove that each part is strictly negative.

  12. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: Results from a cross-European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Frewer, L.J.; Chryssochoidis, G.M.; Houghton, J.R.; Korzen-Bohr, S.; Krystallis, T.; Lassen, J.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes

  13. Preparation of a new-style composite containing a key bioflocculant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZJU1 and its flocculating effect on harmful algal blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng-Fei; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guan; Lu, Li-Ling; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-03-01

    A novel composite consisting of clay, bioflocculant, and inorganic flocculant was designed, and its flocculating effect on harmful algal blooms (HABs) was studied in this study. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), produced with a yield of 3.58±0.11 g/L by a newly isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZJU1, was indicated to be a key component in the composite. The components and functional groups of the EPS were analyzed, and it showed that polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are the main components; polar functional groups in the EPS are responsible for its flocculating activity. The novel composite was optimized by the response surface methodology and after optimization, the optical components and contents of the composite were Kaolin 2.38 g/L, CaCl2 0.28 g/L, KAl(SO4)2 0.09 g/L, and EPS 1.75 mg/L. The flocculating rates of the composite were tested, and it could rapidly reach 100±0.13% within 2 min when OD680 of Microcystis aeruginosa was 0.1; it could reach 100±0.08% within 5 min for OD680 of M. aeruginosa in HABs up to 1.0. These results suggest that the novel composite will be a highly efficient material for the treatment of HABs caused by M. aeruginosa.

  14. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-07-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  15. Surface study of mixtures containing cyclic ethers and isomeric chlorobutanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royo, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villares, A. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martin, S. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Giner, B. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Lafuente, C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: celadi@unizar.es

    2007-05-15

    Experimental surface tensions and the corresponding surface tensions deviations for the mixtures containing 1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane and 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane or 2-chloro-2-methylpropane, measured with a drop volume tensiometer, are reported at the temperatures of 298.15 K and 313.15 K. The excess surface concentrations of isomeric chlorobutanes are also evaluated using a monolayer model.

  16. A DSC STUDY OF PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION OF POLYESTERS CONTAINING CONJUGATED DIACETYLENES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-wen Bai; Xiao-fang Chen; Dong Zhang; Xin-hua Wan; Qi-feng Zhou

    2000-01-01

    The photopolymerization of two kinds of prepolyesters containing conjugated diacetylene (PDA-6 and PDA-12)was investigated using DSC. By measuring the endothermic enthalpy of the prepolymers after different UV-irradiation times,the polymerizations were found to follow the first-order rate law which agreed with the results of other investigators using a different method. The endothermic enthalpy measurements of PDA-6 and PDA-12 before UV-irradiation precluded the possibility that the decrease of endothermic enthalpy was caused by thermal polymerization.

  17. The evaporation study of silicon-containing ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarov, Norbert S.; Medvedev, Artem A.; Deyko, Grigoriy S.; Kustov, Leonid M.; Chernikova, Elena A.; Glukhov, Lev M.; Polyakova, Marina V.; Ioutsi, Vitaliy A.; Markov, Vitaliy Yu.; Sidorov, Lev N.

    2016-07-01

    1,2-Dimethyl-3-(1‧,1‧,3‧,3‧-tetramethyl-3‧-phenyldisiloxanyl)methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([PhC5OSi2MMIm+][Tf2N-]) is the first silicon-containing ionic liquid which was characterized with the vaporization enthalpy, (138.5 ± 1.8) kJ mol-1, and saturated vapor pressure, ln(p/Pa) = -(16656 ± 219)/(T/K) + (30.69 ± 0.92). This compound is a unique ionic liquid giving ions, retaining both cationic and anionic portions, in the electron impact ionization (EI) mass spectrum.

  18. Studies of key success factors of product development success: A reinterpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Kirsten; Harmsen, Hanne

    . The theoretical tradition of the resource-based perspective provides ­ at least to some extent ­ an account of this causality. An important point in the paper is that the key factors of success in the empi studies are not factors causally related to success, but at the most a number of valuable resources and thus......In this paper the general validity of the research area of key factors of success in product development is discussed. To be more specific we argue that validity hinges on the causal relation between success and success factrors ­ a relation that unaccounted for in the empirical studies...... the necessary but not sufficient conditions for success. A second issue in the paper is the discussion of how the empirical results may be implemented in firms. The results of the empirical studies show managers where to concentrate their efforts in order to raise the rate of successful products...

  19. Study on New Kind of Rare Earth-Containing Flocculants of Poly-Ferric Sulfate Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuang Juchi; Li Jinai; Luo Yongjian; Pang Xijie; Xiao Xueyan; Zhu Hengxiang; Yao Jiye

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of rare earth- containing flocculant of poly-ferric sulfate chloride (PFSCRE) was studied, and proved to produce high density floccules growing, make sludge deposit quickly and possess high COD removal rate, so that it is seen to be more effective for the disposal of dying wastewater than PFSC. The optimum process for preparing the PFSCRE is defined as REC/PFSC 1.2% ~ 2.2%. And each correlativity of configuration with capacity of aggregating sludge was respectively educed through analysis and comparison of configurations of them. Finally, a prediction was put forward that it should be the key for development of the PFSCRE agglomerating capacity to manage to increase its degree .of polymerization.

  20. Characteristics of evolving models of care for arthritis: A key informant study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veinot Paula

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of arthritis is increasing in the face of diminishing health human resources to deliver care. In response, innovative models of care delivery are developing to facilitate access to quality care. Most models have developed in response to local needs with limited evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to a examine the range of models of care that deliver specialist services using a medical/surgical specialist and at least one other health care provider and b document the strengths and challenges of the identified models. A secondary objective is to identify key elements of best practice models of care for arthritis. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of key informants with expertise in arthritis from jurisdictions with primarily publicly-funded health care systems. Qualitative data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach to identify common types of models of care, strengths and challenges of models, and key components of arthritis care. Results Seventy-four key informants were interviewed from six countries. Five main types of models of care emerged. 1 Specialized arthritis programs deliver comprehensive, multidisciplinary team care for arthritis. Two models were identified using health care providers (e.g. nurses or physiotherapists in expanded clinical roles: 2 triage of patients with musculoskeletal conditions to the appropriate services including specialists; and 3 ongoing management in collaboration with a specialist. Two models promoting rural access were 4 rural consultation support and 5 telemedicine. Key informants described important components of models of care including knowledgeable health professionals and patients. Conclusion A range of models of care for arthritis have been developed. This classification can be used as a framework for discussing care delivery. Areas for development include integration of care across the continuum, including primary

  1. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Gel System Containing Ibuprofen Solid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2016-12-01

    In the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, ibuprofen (IBU) is widely used; however, it has been limited the clinical use by its systemic side effect, such as gastrointestinal lesions. Therefore, we prepared topical gel ointment used IBU solid nanoparticles (IBUnano-gel formulation). In addition, we demonstrated their anti-inflammatory effect by using arthritis model rat (adjuvant-induced arthritis rat, AA rat). The gel formulations were prepared using additives (Carbopol 934, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and methylcellulose) and bead mill-method. The IBU particle size in the IBUnano-gel formulation was 208 nm. The increase in inflammation of the hind feet of AA rats was attenuated by the treatment with the IBUnano-gel formulation, and preventive effect was higher than that of a gel formulation containing IBUmicroparticles (IBUmicro-gel formulation, mean particle size 85.4 μm); the accumulation and permeability through the skin of IBU from the IBUnano-gel formulation were significantly larger in comparison with the IBUmicro-gel formulation. Further, no gastrointestinal lesions were observed in AA rats following the repetitive administration of the 5% IBUnano-gel formulation (0.30 g) for 42 days (once a day). These results suggest that the dermal application of IBU-nanoparticles provide effective and efficient therapy that spares patients from unwanted side effects.

  2. Turbulence study in the vicinity of piano key weir: relevance, instrumentation, parameters and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Harinarayan; Sharma, Nayan

    2017-05-01

    This research paper focuses on the need of turbulence, instruments reliable to capture turbulence, different turbulence parameters and some advance methodology which can decompose various turbulence structures at different levels near hydraulic structures. Small-scale turbulence research has valid prospects in open channel flow. The relevance of the study is amplified as we introduce any hydraulic structure in the channel which disturbs the natural flow and creates discontinuity. To recover this discontinuity, the piano key weir (PKW) might be used with sloped keys. Constraints of empirical results in the vicinity of PKW necessitate extensive laboratory experiments with fair and reliable instrumentation techniques. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter was established to be best suited within range of some limitations using principal component analysis. Wavelet analysis is proposed to decompose the underlying turbulence structure in a better way.

  3. Turbulence study in the vicinity of piano key weir: relevance, instrumentation, parameters and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Harinarayan; Sharma, Nayan

    2015-03-01

    This research paper focuses on the need of turbulence, instruments reliable to capture turbulence, different turbulence parameters and some advance methodology which can decompose various turbulence structures at different levels near hydraulic structures. Small-scale turbulence research has valid prospects in open channel flow. The relevance of the study is amplified as we introduce any hydraulic structure in the channel which disturbs the natural flow and creates discontinuity. To recover this discontinuity, the piano key weir (PKW) might be used with sloped keys. Constraints of empirical results in the vicinity of PKW necessitate extensive laboratory experiments with fair and reliable instrumentation techniques. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter was established to be best suited within range of some limitations using principal component analysis. Wavelet analysis is proposed to decompose the underlying turbulence structure in a better way.

  4. Biographical notes on Ancel Keys and Salim Yusuf: origins and significance of the seven countries study and the INTERHEART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ancel Keys and Salim Yusuf are both pioneers in preventive cardiology. Each overcame significant obstacles to demonstrate, through large international studies, how culture and environment influence cardiovascular disease. This paper will explore the origins and outcomes of their landmark studies: the Seven Countries Study, a prospective cohort model, and the INTERHEART Study, a case-control model. Each study advanced our understanding of the interplay between lifestyle, culture, and heart disease.

  5. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: results from a cross-European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Frewer, Lynn J; Chryssochoidis, George M; Houghton, Julie R; Korzen-Bohr, Sara; Krystallis, Thanassis; Lassen, Jesper; Pfenning, Uwe; Rowe, Gene

    2006-07-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes to, food risk management practices held by consumers and experts with an interest in food safety. Focus groups were conducted in five European countries chosen for their (hypothesised) cultural differences in attitudes towards risk: Denmark, Germany, Greece, Slovenia and the UK. Content analysis was carried out on the resulting texts and (sub) categories were identified within the analysis framework to facilitate the capture of emerging themes. Five key themes were identified as common to the perceptions of both consumers and experts, although these are not represented in the same way by both groups. These key themes are: (1) efforts made by the responsible authorities to manage food risks; (2) responsibility for prevention and management of food risks; (3) how priorities are established within regulatory systems; (4) scientific progress and its implications for food risk management; and (5) media attention and food safety incidents. Although some similarities emerged between the groups, differences were also identified. For example, experts appeared to be highly negative about media influences, whereas consumers appeared more indifferent about media influences and motives. These different perspectives need to be addressed in order to reduce the perceptual distance between key stakeholders, and in particular, to enhance consumer confidence in the food risk management system. Based on the study findings, recommendations for food risk management policies are outlined.

  6. Study on performance following Key Performance Indicators for trauma care: Khon Kaen Hospital 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Saranrittichai, Surachai; Sriwiwat, Sununta; Chumsri, Jirawadee; Kulleab, Sirikul; Jaikwang, Piyaporn

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted in 2000-2001 in order to improve the quality of trauma care by establishing the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as a guideline in providing trauma care service and to study the personnel's performance following 27 indexes of KPIs for trauma care in Khon Kaen Hospital. After the implementation of the KPIs by the method of participatory action research (PAR), the trauma preventable death rate was decreased to 1.3 per cent which was statistically different from the preventable death rate in 1997 (2.0%).

  7. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of Fe-containing smectites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Meijer, E.J.; Lu, X.; Wang, R.

    2010-01-01

    In order to identify the influences imposed by Fe substitution, density functional theory-based Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations were employed to study both oxidized and reduced Fe-bearing smectites. The following basic properties were investigated: local structures in the clay layer, h

  9. Kinetic Study of the Combustion of Phosphorus Containing Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaude, P.A.; Curran, H.J.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.

    1999-10-22

    The combustion of organophosphorus compounds is of great interest for the incineration of chemical warfare agent and their use in flame inhibition as halon replacement. The thermochemical data of these species and the reactions involved at high temperature are not well known, despite some recent experimental studies. With BAC-MP4 ab initio estimations as a basis and semi-empirical estimations for many new compounds, the thermochemistry of organophosphorus compounds is studied. New group additivity values are proposed for enthalpies of formation at 298K, entropies and heat capacities of species involving pentavalent phosphorus bonded to carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen and sulfur atoms. The kinetic of unimolecular elimination is investigated by modeling pyrolysis experiments of DEMP, TEP and DIMP. A new combustion mechanism is described and applied to the modeling of DMMP reaction in a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flame.

  10. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    OpenAIRE

    Marilene Estanqueiro; Jaime Conceição; Maria Helena Amaral; Delfim Santos; João Baptista Silva; José Manuel Sousa Lobo

    2014-01-01

    Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and) sodium lauryl sulfate (and) sodium cetearyl su...

  11. KEY ITEMS OF INNOVATION MANAGEMENT IN THE PRIMARY HEALTHCARE CENTRES CASE STUDY: FINLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Alireza; Zolfagharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Naaranoja, Marja

    2015-09-01

    Trends such as aging populations, excess costs, rising public expectations, and progress in medical science and technologies point out the necessity of adaptation and development of innovation in the healthcare systems particularly in developed countries. The main objective of this article is to review diffusion of innovation in the healthcare sector. Different types of innovation, diffusion characteristics, and adoption mechanisms are the subjects that are discussed in the selected case study, Finland. Finally, the key items of innovation management in the Finnish health system are introduced. The results can be implemented in other countries as well.

  12. Key Factors of Quality in the Sector of Tourism Services Providers: Case Study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vajčnerová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main results of partial research aimed at detection of the key factors affecting quality in the sector of tourism services providers, namely tour operators and travel agencies. A primary questionnaire survey was conducted; the researched factors were distributed in the context of service quality dimensions (Grönroos model; the dimensions were tested in relation to sex, age and education of the respondents (ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe test. Assurance was identified as the most important dimension. The output of the study is determining the significance of individual quality factors from the perspective of a potential customer when selecting a service provider.

  13. STUDY REGARDING THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE KEY CULTURAL VALUES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES. A COMPARATIVE STUDY: EUROPE, ASIA, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PETRESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is an important aspect of the company success. Each company develops an authentic culture. Still it is important to know what are the key cultural commune values that are linked with the company success. Thus, the purpose of present study is to identify such key values, taking as analysis base the most performant companies worldwide. With this purpose 28 multinational companies were selected from Forbes 500 companies and were analyzed in Hofstede model perspective. The results of the study emphasized that the multinational companies have strong and some fundamental cultural values that are shaped to some extent by national culture.Organizational culture is an important aspect of the company success. Each company develops an authentic culture. Still it is important to know what are the key cultural commune values that are linked with the company success. Thus, the purpose of present study is to identify such key values, taking as analysis base the most performant companies worldwide. With this purpose 28 multinational companies were selected from Forbes 500 companies and were analyzed in Hofstede model perspective. The results of the study emphasized that the multinational companies have strong and some fundamental cultural values that are shaped to some extent by national culture.

  14. Curcumin containing monoolein aqueous dispersions: A preformulative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta, E-mail: ese@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ravani, Laura [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Mariani, Paolo [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences and CNISM, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60100 Ancona (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [Macromolecular Chemistry II, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Puglia, Carmelo [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    The present study describes the production and characterization of monoolein aqueous dispersions (MAD) as drug delivery systems for curcumin (CR). MAD based on monoolein and different emulsifiers have been produced and characterized. Morphology and dimensional distribution have been investigated by Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM), X-ray and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). Monoolein in different mixtures with sodium cholate, sodium caseinate, bentonite and poloxamer resulted in heterogeneous dispersions constituted of unilamellar vesicles, cubosomes and sponge type phases, depending on the employed components, as found by cryo-TEM and X-ray studies. CR was encapsulated with entrapment efficiencies depending on the MAD composition, particularly the highest was reached in the case of monoolein/poloxamer/sodium cholate mixture. The same mixture was able to maintain CR stability also after 6 months. CR release modalities were in vitro investigated in order to mimic a possible subcutaneous administration of MAD. It was found that MAD constituted of monoolein/poloxamer and monoolein/poloxamer/sodium cholate mixtures were able to sustain CR release. MAD viscous vehicles were produced by xanthan gum. CR percutaneous absorption has been studied in vitro using excised human skin membranes [stratum corneum epidermis (SCE)] mounted into Franz cells. It was found that fluxes (F{sub n}) of CR incorporated in MAD are influenced by the presence of monoolein based nanosystems. In particular xanthan gum based MAD better control CR diffusion from MAD. - Highlights: • Curcumin (CR) can be solubilized in monoolein aqueous dispersions (MAD). • Different emulsifiers result in different inner structures in the disperse phase. • Monoolein/poloxamer/sodium cholate mixture (MCP) results in the highest CR encapsulation. • MCP maintains CR stability for 6 months. • Xanthan gum based MAD better control CR fluxes with respect to plain gel and liquid MAD.

  15. Structure-conductivity studies in polymer electrolytes containing multivalent cations

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, M

    1996-01-01

    force microscopy (AFM). DSC evidences helped to explain the texture of the iron samples during the drying process, and showed transitions between low melting, PEO and high melting spherulites, and VTPM is able to visualise the spherulites present in the samples. AFM has successfully imaged the as cast PEO sub 8 :FeBr sub 2 sample and the surface effect causing extra resistance in the impedance spectra could be seen. Conductivity studies were carried out using a.c. impedance spectra. Fe(ll) samples exhibit the typical semicircle-spike plot but the Fe(lll) samples displayed an extra semicircle before the spike reflecting a surface effect. This is also manifested in the Arrhenius plots of the same samples where a dip was shown at 100 deg C. From the conductivity studies on the iron systems it was found that for the dry samples the optimum conductivity was observed in PEO sub 8 :FeBr sub x irrespective of the valence state of the cation. For the air-cast samples the optimum conductivity composition depends on the...

  16. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z.; Shopska, M.; Paneva, D.; Kovacheva, D.; Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I.

    2016-12-01

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media ( Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  17. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z., E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg; Shopska, M., E-mail: shopska@ic.bas.bg; Paneva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Bulgaria); Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media (Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  18. Copper-Containing Amine Oxidases and FAD-Dependent Polyamine Oxidases Are Key Players in Plant Tissue Differentiation and Organ Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Cona, Alessandra; Angelini, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Plant polyamines are catabolized by two classes of amine oxidases, the copper amine oxidases (CuAOs) and the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent polyamine oxidases (PAOs). These enzymes differ to each other in substrate specificity, catalytic mechanism and subcellular localization. CuAOs and PAOs contribute to several physiological processes both through the control of polyamine homeostasis and as sources of biologically-active reaction products. CuAOs and PAOs have been found at high level in the cell-wall of several species belonging to Fabaceae and Poaceae families, respectively, especially in tissues fated to undertake extensive wall loosening/stiffening events and/or in cells undergoing programmed cell death (PCD). Apoplastic CuAOs and PAOs have been shown to play a key role as a source of H2O2 in light- or developmentally-regulated differentiation events, thus influencing cell-wall architecture and maturation as well as PCD. Moreover, growing evidence suggests a key role of intracellular CuAOs and PAOs in several facets of plant development. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the contribution of different CuAOs/PAOs, as well as their cross-talk with different intracellular and apoplastic metabolic pathways, in tissue differentiation and organ development.

  19. Improved RSA cryptosystem based on the study of number theory and public key cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is required to transmit confidential information over the network. Security is also demanding in wide range of applications. Cryptographic algorithms play a vital role in providing the data security against malicious attacks. RSA algorithm is extensively used in the popular implementations of Public Key Infrastructures. In asymmetric key cryptography, also called Public Key cryptography, two different keys (which form a key pair are used. One key is used for encryption and only the other corresponding key must be used for decryption. No other key can decrypt the message – not even the original (i.e. the first key used for encryption. In this paper, we have proposed an improved approach of RSA algorithm using two public key pairs and using some mathematical logic rather than sending one public key d irectly.Because if an attacker has an opportunity of getting the public key componet they can find private key value by brute force search. General Terms: Cryptography, network security

  20. Magnetic alignment study of rare-earth-containing liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyametdinov, Yury G; Haase, Wolfgang; Goderis, Bart; Moors, Dries; Driesen, Kris; Van Deun, Rik; Binnemans, Koen

    2007-12-20

    The liquid-crystalline rare-earth complexes of the type [Ln(LH)3(DOS)3]-where Ln is Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb; LH is the Schiff base N-octadecyl-4-tetradecyloxysalicylaldimine; and DOS is dodecylsulfate-exhibit a smectic A phase. Because of the presence of rare-earth ions with a large magnetic anisotropy, the smectic A phase of these liquid crystals can be easier aligned in an external magnetic field than smectic A phases of conventional liquid crystals. The magnetic anisotropy of the [Ln(LH)3(DOS)3] complexes was determined by measurement of the temperature-dependence of the magnetic susceptibility using a Faraday balance. The highest value for the magnetic anisotropy was found for the dysprosium(III) complex. The magnetic alignment of these liquid crystals was studied by time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. Depending on the sign of the magnetic anisotropy, the director of the liquid-crystalline molecules was aligned parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. A positive value of the magnetic anisotropy (and parallel alignment) was found for the thulium(III) and the ytterbium(III) complexes, whereas a negative value of the magnetic anisotropy (and perpendicular alignment) was observed for the terbium(III) and dysprosium(III) complexes.

  1. Key challenges in simulated patient programs: An international comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Nancy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on simulated or standardized patient (SP methodology is expanding. However, at the level of the program, there are several gaps in the literature. We seek to fill this gap through documenting experiences from four programs in Australia, Canada, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We focused on challenges in SP methodology, faculty, organisational structure and quality assurance. Methods We used a multiple case study method with cross-case synthesis. Over eighteen months during a series of informal and formal interactions (focused meetings and conference presentations we documented key characteristics of programs and drew on secondary document sources. Results Although programs shared challenges in SP methodology they also experienced differences. Key challenges common to programs included systematic quality assurance and the opportunity for research. There were differences in the terminology used to describe SPs, in their recruitment and training. Other differences reflected local conditions and demands in organisational structure, funding relationships with the host institution and national trends, especially in assessments. Conclusion This international case study reveals similarities and differences in SP methodology. Programs were highly contextualised and have emerged in response to local, institutional, profession/discipline and national conditions. Broader trends in healthcare education have also influenced development. Each of the programs experienced challenges in the same themes but the nature of the challenges often varied widely.

  2. Key success factors of health research centers: A mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Shahram; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Heydari, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Background In order to achieve success in future goals and activities, health research centers are required to identify their key success factors. Objective This study aimed to extract and rank the factors affecting the success of research centers at one of the medical universities in Iran. Methods This study is a mixed method (qualitative-quantitative) study, which was conducted between May to October in 2016. The study setting was 22 health research centers. In qualitative phase, we extracted the factors affecting the success in research centers through purposeful interviews with 10 experts of centers, and classified them into themes and sub-themes. In the quantitative phase, we prepared a questionnaire and scored and ranked the factors recognized by 54 of the study samples by Friedman test. Results Nine themes and 42 sub-themes were identified. Themes included: strategic orientation, management, human capital, support, projects, infrastructure, communications and collaboration, paradigm and innovation and they were rated respectively as components of success in research centers. Among the 42 identified factors, 10 factors were ranked respectively as the key factors of success, and included: science and technology road map, strategic plan, evaluation indexes, committed human resources, scientific evaluation of members and centers, innovation in research and implementation, financial support, capable researchers, equipment infrastructure and teamwork. Conclusion According to the results, the strategic orientation was the most important component in the success of research centers. Therefore, managers and authorities of research centers should pay more attention to strategic areas in future planning, including the science and technology road map and strategic plan.

  3. Homodigital dorsal adipofascial reverse flap: anatomical study of distal perforators and key points for safe dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, G; Casoli, V; Sommario, M; Risitano, G; D'Alcontres, F Stagno; Colonna, M R

    2010-07-01

    Dorsal adipofascial flaps have been used in the surgical reconstruction of complex injuries distal to the eponychial fold. Such injuries produce nail matrix devascularization/necrosis so that nail bed reconstruction can be a challenging technical problem. Irregular scarring of the nail bed and regrowth anomalies of the nail lamina can result, with both functional and cosmetic impairment of the finger. This study aimed to define the precise vascular anatomy of the dorsal adipofascial flap that has previously been used to reconstruct such complex soft tissue defects. Specifically, the purpose was to identify the key points of safe dissection for these flaps. Anatomical dissections were performed on 32 long fingers. The vascular tree was injected with suitable contrast and the distal dorsal region of the long fingers was studied.

  4. How the World's Best Schools Stay on Top: Study's Key Findings Pinpoint Practices That Align with Learning Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen

    2016-01-01

    Key findings from a new study highlight how Learning Forward's long-standing position on professional learning correlates with practices in high-performing systems in Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia. The purpose of this article is to share key findings from the study so that educators might apply them to strengthening…

  5. Undergraduates talk about their choice to study physics at university: what was key to their participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Melissa; Reiss, Michael; Mujtaba, Tamjid

    2013-07-01

    Background . The research on which this article is based was commissioned because of concerns about perceived shortages of willing and able young people choosing to study physics at university. Purpose This article reports on first year physics undergraduates' narratives of why they are studying physics and uses these narratives to identify reasons for their choice. Design and method Narrative-style interviewing with a purposive sample of first year undergraduates yielded data that revealed complexities around decision making, including choice of university course. Analysis of the texts was informed by psychoanalytical notions rooted in the work of Sigmund Freud. These psychoanalytical notions were used both in generating the interview data - the undergraduate volunteer interviewees were conceptualised as 'defended subjects' - and in analysing these interviews in order to conjecture how unconscious forces might figure in young people's decision making. Results After analysing the interviews with physics undergraduates, with respect to the question 'why are they reading physics?', the claim is that identification with a key adult is an important element in an individual's participation. On the other hand, we discerned no evidence that experience of the sorts of innovation typically designed to increase physics uptake - for example 'fun projects' or competitions - had been key with respect to a desire to read physics. Conclusion Attempts to recruit more students to university to study physics should note that a young person who identifies with a significant adult associated with physics, typically a teacher or family member, is in a good position to believe that physics is a subject that is worth studying.

  6. Study on the Key and Sensitive Stage of Winter Wheat Responses to Water and Nitrogen Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Bing-nian; LI Sheng-xiu

    2006-01-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to study the effect of nitrogen application on winter wheat under different status of soilmoisture, so that the key and sensitive stage of winter wheat responses to water and nitrogen coordination were determined.The results showed that the application of N fertilizer was more effective in early stage than in later stage, and at the lower N rates than at the higher N rates under non-irrigated conditions. N treatments had great effect on spikelet bearing number and grain number per spike, but had no effect on 1000-grain weight; Grain yield and yield component responses to N treatment were greater under irrigated conditions than under non-irrigated conditions. The joining stage was the key and sensitive stage of winter wheat responses to water and nitrogen coordination, and the grain yield, grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight increased, when water and N Fertilizer were applied at this stage. The mechanism is that water and fertilizer supply at joining stage can speed up the growth of above-ground crops, enhance the abilities to absorb and utilize nitrogen fertilizer, and meanwhile, delay the aging of the root and keep the root vigor for a longer period.

  7. Synthesis and mechanistic studies of a mitomycin dimer containing an eight-membered cyclic disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, Hyoung Rae; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Eun Sook; Jeong, Choon Sik; Moon, Aree; Lee, Sang Hyup

    2011-07-01

    Dimeric DNA alkylating agents have drawn significant interest because these compounds are expected to provide at least two reactive sites and as a result, generate enhanced levels of DNA interstrand cross-link (DNA ISC) adducts compared to their monomeric agents. We report the synthesis and mechanistic studies of a novel mitomycin dimer, 7-N,7'-N'-(1″,2″-dithiocanyl-3″,8″-dimethylenyl)bismitomycin C (8) connected by an eight-membered cyclic disulfide. Mitomycins require prior activation (i.e., transformation to a good electrophile) for DNA adduction and therefore, 8 was aimed to undergo facile nucleophilic activation and produce enhanced levels of DNA ISC. At the core of this function lies a cyclic disulfide in 8. It was expected that disulfide cleavage by an appropriate nucleophile would successively produce two thiols that may trigger activation of two mitomycin rings in a dimer through intramolecular cyclization to quinine rings. Compound 8 was synthesized from mitomycin A (1) and the key intermediate, cyclic disulfide (11), along with the reference diol mitomycin 7-N,7'-N'-(2″,7″-dihydroxy-1″,8″-octanediyl)bismitomycin C (23) which does not contain the disulfide unit. We found that 8 underwent significantly enhanced nucleophilic activation in the presence of Et(3)P compared with 23, and that the disulfide unit in 8 played a key role for the nucleophilic activation. Based on these findings, we proposed a mechanism for nucleophilic activation of 8. We further demonstrated that 8 generated much higher levels of DNA ISC (94%) compared with 23 (4%) and 2 (3%) in the presence of Et(3)P (and L-DTT) leading to the conclusion that 8 is more efficient for DNA ISC processes than 23 and 2 due to the role of disulfide unit.

  8. Identification key to Quivira milkweeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a key to milkweed identification at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. It contains a dichotomous key as well as a picture key. Milkweeds found on the...

  9. Experimental Study and Computational Simulations of Key Pebble Bed Thermo-mechanics Issues for Design and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Cogliati, Joshua; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-07-08

    An experimental and computational study, consisting of modeling and simulation (M&S), of key thermal-mechanical issues affecting the design and safety of pebble-bed (PB) reactors was conducted. The objective was to broaden understanding and experimentally validate thermal-mechanic phenomena of nuclear grade graphite, specifically, spheres in frictional contact as anticipated in the bed under reactor relevant pressures and temperatures. The contact generates graphite dust particulates that can subsequently be transported into the flowing gaseous coolent. Under postulated depressurization transients and with the potential for leaked fission products to be adsorbed onto graphite 'dust', there is the potential for fission products to escape from the primary volume. This is a design safety concern. Furthermore, earlier safety assessment identified the distinct possibility for the dispersed dust to combust in contact with air if sufficient conditions are met. Both of these phenomena were noted as important to design review and containing uncertainty to warrant study. The team designed and conducted two separate effects tests to study and benchmark the potential dust-generation rate, as well as study the conditions under which a dust explosion may occure in a standardized, instrumented explosion chamber.

  10. Key IT management issues in hospitals: Results of a Delphi study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaana, Mirou; Tamim, Haitham; Paré, Guy; Teitelbaum, Mari

    2011-12-01

    To develop an authoritative list of IT management issues faced by CIOs and IT directors in public hospitals. The ranking-type Delphi method, which elicits the opinion of a panel of experts through iterative controlled feedback, was used in this study. Data collection involved three main steps during which three panels of experts in Ontario (n=13 in rural hospitals; n=9 in community hospitals; n=8 in academic hospitals) provided their input about the key IT management issues in hospitals and their relative importance. Attrition rate was minimal; 28 out of the 30 experts who participated in the study completed all three phases of the survey. During the brainstorming phase, the responses from the three panels were consolidated resulting in a list of 36 IT management issues; eleven were overlapping between the three panels. In the narrowing down phase, 18 issues were retained in the rural panel; 20 issues in the community panel; and 17 issues in the academic panel. The top issues retained in this phase included: managing demand and expectations for IT services (76% of participants); having sufficient funds (69% of participants); recognizing IT as a key stakeholder in major hospital decisions (65% of participants); and implementation of an EMR (62% of participants). In the ranking phase, a moderate level of consensus was obtained for all three panels: W=0.41 (rural panel); W=0.54 (community panel); and W=0.43 (academic panel). Despite the differences in the preoccupations between the three groups, there were similarities on certain IT management issues. Besides having sufficient funds, three of the top IT management issues relate to the strategic positioning of IT within the hospital: managing demands and expectations for IT services; IT competing with other clinical priorities for scarce resources; and recognizing IT as a key stakeholder in major hospital decisions. This study is the first to systematically and rigorously identify and prioritize critical IT management

  11. The nuclear data, A key component for reactor studies, Overview of AREVA NP needs and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravaux Simon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the nuclear data is essential for AREVA NP. Indeed, many AREVA NP activities such as reactor design, safety studies or reactor instrumentation use them as input data. So, the nuclear data can be considered as a key element for AREVA NP. REVA NP’s contribution in the improvement of the nuclear data consists in a joint effort with the CEA. It means a financing and a sharing of information which can give an orientation to the future research axis. The aim of this article is to present the industrial point of view from AREVA NP on the research on nuclear data. Several examples of collaborations with the CEA which have resulted in an improvement of the nuclear data are presented.

  12. A Preliminary Study of the Key Technologies in Rice Seed Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guodong HUA; Guanxi LI; Delong MENG; Duoming WANG

    2015-01-01

    To study the production technology of rice seeds,with Lianjing 7 as test material,this paper explores the effects of the key rice seed production,processing and storage technologies( such as nitrogen fertilizer application and management,weeding mode in seed breeding field,temperature control of mechanical drying and water control on seed storage) on the quality of rice seeds. The results show that the optimal application proportion of tillering stage dressing and earing fertilizer is 8: 2,followed by 7 : 3; the best time of weeding is booting stage,with the highest purity; the effect of drying and germination rate is best when the temperature is controlled at 44℃ in mechanical drying process; the seed storage quality and storage costs can be guaranteed when the water content of rice seed is controlled at 18%.

  13. KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS. A CASE STUDY ON THE INTEGRATED REPORTS OF AN IT COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORGAN CĂTĂLINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis relies on the 2011 integrated report published by SAP, a European IT company included in the International Integrated Reporting Committee (IIRC Pilot Programme Business Network. The research methodology used is the analysis of the content as we search for a number of selected characteristics in the report and also for a set of key performance indicators (KPI. We use as references the guide provided by DVFA (Society of Investment Professionals in Germany and EFFAS (European Federation of Financial Analysts Societies – EFFAS (2010 for the software industry. The aim of our study is to analyse the way in which an IT company applies the guidelines recognised by the European Commission to identify and communicate the material nonfinancial information, in order to assess the organization’s abilities to create value on a short, medium and long term.

  14. Study on Key Technology of Using Shell Sand as Backfill for Sea Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Neng-hui; QU Yi-rong; HE Wen-qin; CHEN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The results of a study on the key technology of using shell sand, a kind of sea sand, as backfill for sea reclamation are described briefly. Laboratory tests show that the physical and mechanical properties of shell sand are as good as normal quartz sand. Based on the chemical test and durability test of shell sand it could be concluded that the influence of corrosion of shell sand by acid rain and sea water might be ignored in the evaluation of the safety and durability of the engineering project. The results of field improvement tests show that the bearing capacity of shell sand backfill foundation is more than 200 kPa after vibroflotation improvement or dynamic compaction improvement. The shell sand is a good backfill material for sea reclamation.

  15. A haploid genetic screen identifies the major facilitator domain containing 2A (MFSD2A) transporter as a key mediator in the response to tunicamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiling, Jan H; Clish, Clary B; Carette, Jan E; Varadarajan, Malini; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Sabatini, David M

    2011-07-19

    Tunicamycin (TM) inhibits eukaryotic asparagine-linked glycosylation, protein palmitoylation, ganglioside production, proteoglycan synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase activity, and cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria. Treatment of cells with TM elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress and activates the unfolded protein response. Although widely used in laboratory settings for many years, it is unknown how TM enters cells. Here, we identify in an unbiased genetic screen a transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, major facilitator domain containing 2A (MFSD2A), as a critical mediator of TM toxicity. Cells without MFSD2A are TM-resistant, whereas MFSD2A-overexpressing cells are hypersensitive. Hypersensitivity is associated with increased cellular TM uptake concomitant with an enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Furthermore, MFSD2A mutant analysis reveals an important function of the C terminus for correct intracellular localization and protein stability, and it identifies transmembrane helical amino acid residues essential for mediating TM sensitivity. Overall, our data uncover a critical role for MFSD2A by acting as a putative TM transporter at the plasma membrane.

  16. Radiation Shielding Materials Containing Hydrogen, Boron, and Nitrogen: Systematic Computational and Experimental Study. Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Sheila A.; Fay, Catharine C.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Earle, Kevin D.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kang, Jin Ho; Park, Cheol; McMullen, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    The key objectives of this study are to investigate, both computationally and experimentally, which forms, compositions, and layerings of hydrogen, boron, and nitrogen containing materials will offer the greatest shielding in the most structurally robust combination against galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), secondary neutrons, and solar energetic particles (SEP). The objectives and expected significance of this research are to develop a space radiation shielding materials system that has high efficacy for shielding radiation and that also has high strength for load bearing primary structures. Such a materials system does not yet exist. The boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) can theoretically be processed into structural BNNT and used for load bearing structures. Furthermore, the BNNT can be incorporated into high hydrogen polymers and the combination used as matrix reinforcement for structural composites. BNNT's molecular structure is attractive for hydrogen storage and hydrogenation. There are two methods or techniques for introducing hydrogen into BNNT: (1) hydrogen storage in BNNT, and (2) hydrogenation of BNNT (hydrogenated BNNT). In the hydrogen storage method, nanotubes are favored to store hydrogen over particles and sheets because they have much larger surface areas and higher hydrogen binding energy. The carbon nanotube (CNT) and BNNT have been studied as potentially outstanding hydrogen storage materials since 1997. Our study of hydrogen storage in BNNT - as a function of temperature, pressure, and hydrogen gas concentration - will be performed with a hydrogen storage chamber equipped with a hydrogen generator. The second method of introducing hydrogen into BNNT is hydrogenation of BNNT, where hydrogen is covalently bonded onto boron, nitrogen, or both. Hydrogenation of BN and BNNT has been studied theoretically. Hyper-hydrogenated BNNT has been theoretically predicted with hydrogen coverage up to 100% of the individual atoms. This is a higher hydrogen content

  17. A Study on the Key Management Strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many users who are in a cyber-space usually want to join the social group to have or to share their information. Now, there are two ways to join the group, the group manager invites them, and the users who want to join ask the owner. These days the group polices usually follow this way. But, it can be faced a security problem when the manager send group messages in near future because they don’t have any securities. Therefore, the security modules to join groups will be needed when they join the group or when they read the group messages. To set the security, we have to think how to keep the key such as a generation /an update/an arrangement, because all users need the key to join the groups or to read the group messages by decrypting. The key are going to be used to joining the group when it dynamically changes such as frequent group joining and leaving. If it applies or uses the existing methods in the smart cities which consider the users who will move globally, it could easily assume that the overhead/the cost of CPU will be increased and it follows capacity down because of lots of the key updates. So, to let them down, we suggest three key strategies, a group key, a subgroup key and a session key in this paper.

  18. Interaction Studies of Withania Somnifera's Key Metabolite Withaferin A with Different Receptors Assoociated with Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rekha; Sharma, Nitika; Roy, Sujata; Thakur, Ashoke R; Ganesh, Subhadra; Kumar, Sriram; Devi, Jamuna; Rajkumar, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera commonly known as Ashwagandha in India is used in many herbal formulations to treat various cardiovascular diseases. The key metabolite of this plant, Withaferin A was analyzed for its molecular mechanism through docking studies on different targets of cardiovascular disease. Six receptor proteins associated with cardiovascular disease were selected and interaction studies were performed with Withaferin A using AutoDock Vina. CORINA was used to model the small molecules and HBAT to compute the hydrogen bonding. Among the six targets, β1- adrenergic receptors, HMG-CoA and Angiotensinogen-converting enzyme showed significant interaction with Withaferin A. Pharmacophore modeling was done using PharmaGist to understand the pharmacophoric potential of Withaferin A. Clustering of Withaferin A with different existing drug molecules for cardiovascular disease was performed with ChemMine based on structural similarity and physicochemical properties. The ability of natural active component, Withaferin A to interact with different receptors associated with cardiovascular disease was elucidated with various modeling techniques. These studies conclusively revealed Withaferin A as a potent lead compound against multiple targets associated with cardiovascular disease.

  19. Consensus building for interlaboratory studies, key comparisons, and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Amanda; Lafarge, Thomas; Possolo, Antonio; Toman, Blaza

    2017-06-01

    Interlaboratory studies in measurement science, including key comparisons, and meta-analyses in several fields, including medicine, serve to intercompare measurement results obtained independently, and typically produce a consensus value for the common measurand that blends the values measured by the participants. Since interlaboratory studies and meta-analyses reveal and quantify differences between measured values, regardless of the underlying causes for such differences, they also provide so-called ‘top-down’ evaluations of measurement uncertainty. Measured values are often substantially over-dispersed by comparison with their individual, stated uncertainties, thus suggesting the existence of yet unrecognized sources of uncertainty (dark uncertainty). We contrast two different approaches to take dark uncertainty into account both in the computation of consensus values and in the evaluation of the associated uncertainty, which have traditionally been preferred by different scientific communities. One inflates the stated uncertainties by a multiplicative factor. The other adds laboratory-specific ‘effects’ to the value of the measurand. After distinguishing what we call recipe-based and model-based approaches to data reductions in interlaboratory studies, we state six guiding principles that should inform such reductions. These principles favor model-based approaches that expose and facilitate the critical assessment of validating assumptions, and give preeminence to substantive criteria to determine which measurement results to include, and which to exclude, as opposed to purely statistical considerations, and also how to weigh them. Following an overview of maximum likelihood methods, three general purpose procedures for data reduction are described in detail, including explanations of how the consensus value and degrees of equivalence are computed, and the associated uncertainty evaluated: the DerSimonian-Laird procedure; a hierarchical Bayesian

  20. Container assessment: corrosion study of HLW container materials. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981. Volume 1, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, T M; Soo, P

    1982-01-01

    Work has been started on the corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement behavior of commercially pure titanium (ASTM Grade 2), TiCode-12 (ASTM Grade 12), and OFHC copper, which are primary candidate materials for high level waste containers. The test environment used is a simulated brine solution typical of bedded salt at 150 C or room temperature. The immersion test results for these materials are in reasonable agreement with previous screening test results of Sandia National Laboratory; electron beam welded titanium and TiCode-12 samples show higher corrosion rates than the non-welded samples. To understand the difference between titanium and TiCode-12 in uniform and crevice corrosion, electrochemical tests were performed. While the initial repassivation behavior is similar in terms of charge density transfer after scratching tests in 1 M HCl solution at 80 C, titanium shows an active peak in polarization curves in brine at room temperature while TiCode-12 does not. Also, the open circuit corrosion potential of TiCode-12 is about 300 mV more anodic than that of titanium in 0.1 M HCl plus 0.9 M KCl solution at 85 C. Slow strain rate embrittlement and impact embrittlement have been observed in cathodically hydrogen charged commercially pure titanium and TiCode-12 in tension and buckling tests. C-ring and U-bend specimens of titanium and TiCode-12 have been designed and a slow strain rate test machine is being built to study stress corrosion cracking. Alternating Current Impedance and Scanning Reference Electrode Techniques are ready for pitting studies. For the study of radiation-induced corrosion, an irradiation cell was set up in the gamma pool to estimate quantitatively the oxidants as well as hydrogen produced by the gamma radiation in the brine solutions. 35 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Identifying key topics for a description of sexual behavior among Danish adolescents: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Olesen, Frede

    Background: Surveying sexual behavior in the general population serves to identify critical points, monitor the effects, and interpret changes in the spread of sexually transmitted infection. Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify points of particular importance to adolescents....... Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one......’ sexual behavior in order to initiate and design a behavior surveillance programme in Denmark. Methods: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with a total of 19 sexually experienced adolescents aged 18 to 23. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from...

  2. Se14, encoding a JmjC domain-containing protein, plays key roles in long-day suppression of rice flowering through the demethylation of H3K4me3 of RFT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Yokoo

    Full Text Available Floral transition from the vegetative to the reproductive growth phase is a major change in the plant life cycle and a key factor in reproductive success. In rice (Oryza sativa L., a facultative short-day plant, numerous flowering time and flower formation genes that control floral transition have been identified and their physiological effects and biochemical functions have been clarified. In the present study, we used a Se14-deficient mutant line (HS112 and other flowering mutant lines to investigate the photoperiodic response, chromosomal location and function in the photoperiod sensitivity of the Se14 gene. We also studied the interactive effects of this locus with other crucial flowering time genes. We found that Se14 is independent of the known photoperiod-sensitive genes, such as Hd1 and Ghd7, and is identical to Os03g0151300, which encodes a Jumonji C (JmjC domain-containing protein. Expression analysis revealed that the expressions of RFT1, a floral initiator known as a "florigen-like gene", and Ehd1 were up-regulated in HS112, whereas this up-regulation was not observed in the original variety of 'Gimbozu'. ChIP assays of the methylation states of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4 revealed that the trimethylated H3K4 in the promoter region of the RFT1 chromatin was significantly increased in HS112. We conclude that Se14 is a novel photoperiod-sensitivity gene that has a suppressive effect on floral transition (flowering time under long day-length conditions through the modification of chromatin structure by H3K4me3 demethylation in the promoter region of RFT1.

  3. Managing Returnable Containers Logistics - A Case Study Part II - Improving Visibility through Using Automatic Identification Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gretchen Meiser; Maleki, Reza A.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is the result of a project conducted on behalf of a company that uses its own returnable containers to transport purchased parts from suppliers. The objective of this project was to develop a proposal to enable the company to more effectively track and manage its returnable containers. The research activities in support of this project included (1) the analysis and documentation of the physical flow and the information flow associated with the container...

  4. A Study of Video Scenes Clustering Based on Shot Key Frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bo; ZHANG Lu; ZHOU Dong-ru

    2005-01-01

    In digital video analysis, browse, retrieval and query, shot is incapable of meeting needs. Scene is a cluster of a series of shots, which partially meets above demands. In this paper, an algorithm of video scenes clustering based on shot key frame sets is proposed. We use X2 histogram match and twin histogram comparison for shot detection. A method is presented for key frame set extraction based on distance of non adjacent frames, further more, the minimum distance of key frame sets as distance of shots is computed, eventually scenes are clustered according to the distance of shots. Experiments of this algorithm show satisfactory performance in correctness and computing speed.

  5. Choosing preclinical study models of diabetic retinopathy: key problems for consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi XS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xue-Song Mi,1,2 Ti-Fei Yuan,3,4 Yong Ding,1 Jing-Xiang Zhong,1 Kwok-Fai So4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of Central Nervous System, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in the eye. Although the clinical treatment for DR has already developed to a relative high level, there are still many urgent problems that need to be investigated in clinical and basic science. Currently, many in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems have been applied to solve these problems. Many approaches have also been used to establish different DR models. However, till now, there has not been a single study model that can clearly and exactly mimic the developmental process of the human DR. Choosing the suitable model is important, not only for achieving our research goals smoothly, but also, to better match with different experimental proposals in the study. In this review, key problems for consideration in choosing study models of DR are discussed. These problems relate to clinical relevance, different approaches for establishing models, and choice of different species of animals as well as of the specific in vitro culture systems. Attending to these considerations will deepen the understanding on current study models and optimize the experimental design for the final goal of preventing DR. Keywords: animal model, in vitro culture, ex vivo culture, neurovascular dysfunction

  6. Study in Mice Links Key Signaling Molecule to Underlying Cause of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Key Signaling Molecule to Underlying Cause of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Research funded in part by the National Institute ... between excessive activity of a signaling molecule and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a genetic disease characterized by fragile bones. ...

  7. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Socioeconomic Study - FKNMS fisher 2003-04 panel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project describes results from the 2003-04 collection year from four panels of commercial fishers in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Dry Tortugas...

  8. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Socioeconomic Study - FKNMS Fishers 2005 panel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project describes results from the 2004-05 collection year from four panels of commercial fishers in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Dry Tortugas...

  9. Addressing the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodvin, Brita; Aase, Karina; Brekken, Anita Løvås; Charani, Esmita; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer; Smith, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied, identifying emergent themes, subthemes and corresponding descriptions. The main barrier to communication is disruption involving specimen logistics, information on request forms, verbal reporting of test results and information transfer between poorly integrated IT systems. Furthermore, communication is challenged by lack of insight into each other's area of expertise and limited provision of laboratory services, leading to prolonged turnaround time, limited advisory services and restricted opening hours. Communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units can be improved by a review of testing processes, educational programmes to increase insights into the other's area of expertise, an evaluation of work tasks and expansion of rapid and point-of-care test services. Antibiotic stewardship programmes may serve as a valuable framework to establish these measures.

  10. A Study of the Key Techniques of High-Speed Optical Time Division Multiplexing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Several key techniques in high-speed optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) systems, including the generation and compression of gain-switched picosecond optical pulses, the all optical demultiplexer based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM), terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) and the electroabsorption modulator in OTDM systems, are studied in this dissertation. The gain-switching characteristics and the nonlinear dynamics of a semiconductor laser are investigated by solving its single-mode rate equations numerically, highlighting the dependence of the pulse width and the peak power of a gain-switched pulse on the parameters such as the differential gain and the photon lifetime, and the effects of the DC bias current and the modulation current of the laser on the pulse width and the spectral width of the gain-switched pulse. The two-dimensional bifurcation diagram is computed in a large modulation current and modulation frequency range, and it is found that the low-frequency period doubling (multipling) and chaos region are not closed fully and outspread to the high modulation current direction with a narrow modulation frequency region. In addition, a new clock recovery scheme employing the period multipling is proposed. Besides compressing the gain-switched laser diode pulse can be compressed to 6.9ps by using this DILM compressor, and such a short pulse completely satisfies the requirement for a 40 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) system.

  11. Study of the Influence of Key Process Parameters on Furfural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fele Žilnik, Ljudmila; Grilc, Viktor; Mirt, Ivan; Cerovečki, Željko

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the influence of key process variables on the furfural formation from leached chestnut-wood chips in a pressurized reactor. Effect of temperature, pressure, type and concentration of the catalyst solution, the steam flow rate or stripping module, the moisture content of the wood particles and geometric characteristics such as size and type of the reactor, particle size and bed height were considered systematically. One stage process was only taken into consideration. Lab-scale and pilot-scale studies were performed. The results of the non-catalysed laboratory experiments were compared with an actual non-catalysed (auto-catalysed) industrial process and with experiments on the pilot scale, the latter with 28% higher furfural yield compared to the others. Application of sulphuric acid as catalyst, in an amount of 0.03-0.05 g (H2SO4 100%)/g d.m. (dry material), enables a higher production of furfural at lower temperature and pressure of steam in a shorter reaction time. Pilot scale catalysed experiments have revealed very good performance for furfural formation under less severe operating conditions, with a maximum furfural yield as much as 88% of the theoretical value.

  12. The Mechanism about Key and Credential on Trusted Computing Platform and the Application Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhidong; ZHANG Huanguo; ZHANG Miao; YAN Fei; ZHANG Liqiang

    2006-01-01

    Trusted Computing technology is quickly developing in recent years. This technology manages to improve the computer security and archive a trusted computing environment. The core of trusted computing technology is cryptology. In this paper, we analyze the key and credential mechanism which is two basic aspects in the cryptology application of trusted computing. We give an example application to illustrate that the TPM enabled key and credential mechanism can improve the security of computer system.

  13. Experimental study for Yuen-Kim protocol of quantum key distribution with unconditional secure

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, O.; Kato, K; Sohma, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we simulate practical feature of Yuen-Kim protocol for quantum key distribution with unconditional secure. In order to demonstrate them experimentally by intensity modulation/direct detection(IMDD) optical fiber communication system, we use simplified encoding scheme to guarantee security for key information(1 or 0). That is, pairwise M-ary intensity modulation scheme is employed. Furthermore, we give an experimental implementation of YK protocol based on IMDD.

  14. Study on the security of the authentication scheme with key recycling in QKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Zhao, Qiang; Le, Dan; Niu, Xiamu

    2016-09-01

    In quantum key distribution (QKD), the information theoretically secure authentication is necessary to guarantee the integrity and authenticity of the exchanged information over the classical channel. In order to reduce the key consumption, the authentication scheme with key recycling (KR), in which a secret but fixed hash function is used for multiple messages while each tag is encrypted with a one-time pad (OTP), is preferred in QKD. Based on the assumption that the OTP key is perfect, the security of the authentication scheme has be proved. However, the OTP key of authentication in a practical QKD system is not perfect. How the imperfect OTP affects the security of authentication scheme with KR is analyzed thoroughly in this paper. In a practical QKD, the information of the OTP key resulting from QKD is partially leaked to the adversary. Although the information leakage is usually so little to be neglected, it will lead to the increasing degraded security of the authentication scheme as the system runs continuously. Both our theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the security level of authentication scheme with KR, mainly indicated by its substitution probability, degrades exponentially in the number of rounds and gradually diminishes to zero.

  15. Managing Returnable Containers Logistics - A Case Study Part II - Improving Visibility through Using Automatic Identification Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Meiser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This case study is the result of a project conducted on behalf of a company that uses its own returnable containers to transport purchased parts from suppliers. The objective of this project was to develop a proposal to enable the company to more effectively track and manage its returnable containers. The research activities in support of this project included (1 the analysis and documentation of the physical flow and the information flow associated with the containers and (2 the investigation of new technologies to improve the automatic identification and tracking of containers. This paper explains the automatic identification technologies and important criteria for selection. A companion paper details the flow of information and containers within the logistics chain, and it identifies areas for improving the management of the containers.

  16. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon [Youngdong Univ., Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study.

  17. Resonance Light-Scattering Spectroscopy Study on Interaction between Gold Colloid and Thiol Containing Pharmaceutical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-ling; Cai Ru-xiu; Yuan Hong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we used resonance light-scattering (RLS) spectroscopy to study the interaction between thiol-containing pharmaceutical and gold colloid. And for the first time, we proposed that this highly sensitive, gold colloid-based assay using RLS technique may have potential application in detecting thiol-containing substances.

  18. Experiments and analytical studies related to blowdown and containment thermal hydraulics on CSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Anu, E-mail: adutta@barc.gov.in; Thangamani, I.; Shanware, V.M.; Rao, K.S.; Gera, B.; Ravi Kiran, A.; Goyal, P.; Verma, Vishnu; Sharma, P.K.; Agrawal, M.K.; Ganju, S.; Singh, R.K.

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Blowdown and containment thermal hydraulics experiments conducted in CSF. • RELAP5, ASTEC and CONTRAN codes used for analysis. • Containment peak pressure and temp predicted close to experimental values. • CONTRAN and ASTEC codes predict early containment depressurization. • Numerical procedure, benchmarked for loss of coolant accident in nuclear reactors. - Abstract: Containment Studies Facility (CSF) is volumetrically scaled down model of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) containment for simulating LOCA/MSLB conditions which consists of concrete containment model (CM) and Primary Heat Transport Model (PHTM) vessel. Blowdown experiments at different initial vessel pressure conditions were recently conducted at CSF and the vessel and containment parameters such as pressure, temperature and level transients have been recorded during the experiments. The experimental results have been used for benchmarking of numerical procedure adopted for evaluating LOCA/MSLB conditions in nuclear containment. The numerical procedure involves simulation of blowdown phenomena using RELAP5 code for evaluating mass and energy discharge rates, which are then used for calculating containment pressure–temperature transients using ASTEC and in-house CONTRAN codes. Predictions of major parameters of vessel and containment model were found to be in good agreement with that of experimental data. In containment thermal hydraulic calculations, condensation heat transfer coefficient affects the containment pressure–temperature transients. Various empirical condensation models like Tagami, Uchida and Diffusion models have been incorporated in CONTRAN code and suitable condensation model has been identified for which predicted pressure values are close to the experimental one. The details of the experimental and analytical studies conducted are presented in this paper.

  19. Periodic Acid Schiff-Diastase as a key in Exfoliative cytology in diabetics: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashri R Latti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the fifth most common chronic condition and the sixth most frequent cause of death among the elderly. The objective of this research was to develop a new method for diabetes diagnosis by analysis of the glycogen content of the oral epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: Ten control subjects and ten diabetic patients (study group were taken, four oral smears for both control and study group from the buccal mucosa were taken and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain, Papanicolaou (PAP stain, periodic acid Schiff (PAS stain and PAS-Diastase (PAS-D stain. Results: The results showed that in the diabetic group: (i The epithelial cells stained with PAP stain exhibited figures of binucleation and occasional karyorrhexis, (ii the epithelial cells treated with PAS-D showed that glycogen containing cells did not take up the stain as compared to the other cells. Conclusion: The results associated with clinical and histological observations suggest that diabetes mellitus can produce alterations of oral epithelial cells as well as in their glycogen content.

  20. Periodic Acid Schiff-Diastase as a key in Exfoliative cytology in diabetics: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latti, Bhagyashri R; Birajdar, Sanjeev B; Latti, Ramchandra G

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the fifth most common chronic condition and the sixth most frequent cause of death among the elderly. The objective of this research was to develop a new method for diabetes diagnosis by analysis of the glycogen content of the oral epithelial cells. Ten control subjects and ten diabetic patients (study group) were taken, four oral smears for both control and study group from the buccal mucosa were taken and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain, Papanicolaou (PAP) stain, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain and PAS-Diastase (PAS-D) stain. The results showed that in the diabetic group: (i) The epithelial cells stained with PAP stain exhibited figures of binucleation and occasional karyorrhexis, (ii) the epithelial cells treated with PAS-D showed that glycogen containing cells did not take up the stain as compared to the other cells. The results associated with clinical and histological observations suggest that diabetes mellitus can produce alterations of oral epithelial cells as well as in their glycogen content.

  1. A study on RFID adoption for vehicle tracking in container terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Ting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Numerous studies discuss that Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology can provide better container handling efficiency; however, relative lack of research concerns the tracking and monitoring the movement of vehicle in the container terminal environment. Thus, this study aims at discussing the feasibility of applying RFID for vehicle tracking purpose in a container terminal. Design/methodology/approach: This study makes use of a series of experiments in a container terminal to discuss the factors that affect the use of RFID in the terminal. The possibility and accuracy of using RFID in such challenging environment is also investigated. These propositions are investigated by a case study. Findings: The experimental results indicate that the RFID communication is good at the containers area which occupies nearly all the area in the container terminal. However, in other area such as sea side and free area, the performance is not good and 100% readability only achieved in 5m and 10m in free area and sea side respectively. Originality/value: The container terminal environment, which consists of different transport vehicles for onward transportation, will affect the performance of RFID readability. Poor setup of the RFID reader and tag will lower the feasibility of RFID adoption as well as increase the cost. In order to address the challenges of implementing RFID in the container terminal environment, this paper provides a series of real site testing experiments to study the RFID performance in the container terminal environment. This represents an original contribution of value to future research and practice in the RFID adoptions in container terminal environment.

  2. Development of key indicators of hospital resilience: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Hospital resilience is an emerging concept, which can be defined as 'a hospital's ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining its critical health care functions, and then recover to its original state or adapt to a new one'. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive framework of key indicators of hospital resilience. A panel of 33 Chinese experts was invited to participate in a three-round, modified Delphi study to develop a set of potential measures previously derived from a literature review. In the first round, these potential measures were modified to cover the comprehensive domains of hospital resilience. The importance of proposed measures was scored by experts on a five-point Likert scale. Subsequently, the experts reconsidered their voting in light of the previous aggregated results. Agreement on measures was defined as at least 70% of the responders agreeing or strongly agreeing to the inclusion of a measure. A large proportion of preliminary measures (89.5%) were identified as having good potential for assessing hospital resilience. These measures were categorized into eight domains, 17 subdomains, and 43 indicators. The highest rated indicators (mean score) were: equipment for on-site rescue (4.7), plan initiation (4.6), equipment for referral of patients with complex care needs (4.5), the plan execution (4.4), medication management strategies (4.4), emergency medical treatment conditions (4.4), disaster committee (4.4), stock types and quantities for essential medications (4.4), surge capacity of emergency beds (4.4), and mass-casualty triage protocols (4.4). This framework identifies a comprehensive set of indicators of hospital resilience. It can be used for hospital assessment, as well as informing priority practices to address future disasters better. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. History of study, updated checklist, distribution and key of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zi-Zhong; Yin, Shi-Jin; Cao, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wen-Xin

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the history of taxonomic research on scorpions and provides an updated checklist and key of the scorpions currently known in China. This checklist is based on a thorough review of the extant literatures on scorpion species whose presence has been confirmed in China through field expeditions and examination of scorpion collections, excepting a few members that have no clear distribution or are currently in doubt. Totally, the scorpion fauna of China consists of 53 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera crossing five families, with 33 species (62.3%) and one genus being recorded as endemic. Additionally, identification key and the distribution of scorpions from China are provided.

  4. Using 'may contain' labelling to inform food choice: a qualitative study of nut allergic consumers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Julie; Muncer, Kate; Leftwich, Jo; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M; Gowland, M Hazel; Grimshaw, Kate; Lucas, Jane S

    2011-01-01

    .... Neither food safety nor foods labelling legislation address this issue. The aim of this study is to understand how peanut and nut allergic adults interpret 'may contain' labelling and how they use this information when purchasing food...

  5. Identifying Key Topics for the Description of Sexual Behavior in the Danish Population: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson

    abuse and internet dating to be triggers of unsafe sex. Conclusion According to Danish adolescents there were four important key topics which could lead to unsafe sex and these points differed slightly from our expectations. Those points of interest will be included in a sexual behavior questionnaire...

  6. KEY AREAS OF AIR-SEA INTERACTION IN GLOBAL OCEANS AND STUDY OF THE CLIMATOLOGICAL FEATURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Seven key areas of air-sea interaction in the global oceans are determined by comprehensive analysis of the global data of monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST), surface wind, temperature, humidity, sea surface sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. The time-lag correlation between SST and each atmospheric element in each key area are focally analyzed to expose the same and the different features of air-sea interaction in different key areas. The results show that the air-sea thermal interaction is strong in each area, SST, temperature and humidity can be fairly replaced with one another, particularly in the central eastern Pacific and the south India Ocean. The dynamic effect on SST is different in different areas and in the central western Pacific such effect is more important. The correlation between sensible heat, latent heat and SST is more significant in the eastern Pacific, the western Pacific and the two major monsoon areas - the northwestern Pacific and the south India Ocean. By analyzing the sustainable correlation probability of SST and every atmospheric element in each key area, we further know that the anomalies of which element, in which area and in which period are well sustained or easily destroyed. This is beneficial not only to prediction, but also to discussion of the physical mechanism of air-sea interaction.

  7. A qualitative study of the key factors in implementing telemedical monitoring of diabetic foot ulcer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B.S.B.; Jensen, L.K.; Frøkjær, J.

    2015-01-01

    of a telemedical intervention. We posed the following research question: What are the key organizational factors in the implementation of telemedicine in wound care? METHODS: In connection with a randomized controlled trial of telemedical intervention for patients with diabetic foot ulcers in the region...

  8. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Seog Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes.

  9. Investigating Three Key Principles of Sustained Strategic Renewal: A Longitudinal Study of Long-Lived Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Kwee (Zenlin)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHow do long-lived firms strategically renew themselves over time? Viewing organizational longevity as sustained strategic renewal, this PhD research investigates three key principles of self-renewing organizations. Building on the coevolutionary perspective that incorporates both selecti

  10. A Study on Contributory Group Key Agreements for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. V. Raghavendran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks, in particular Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs have revolutionized the field of networking with increasing number of their commercial and military applications. Security on the other hand, is now an essential requirement for these applications. However, the limitations of the dynamic, infrastructure-less nature of MANETs impose major difficulties in establishing a secure framework suitable for such services. Security for MANETs is a dynamic area of research. Most of the traditional routing protocols proposed for MANETs are focused on routing only not on the security aspects. As in traditional wired networks, wireless networks also require security. Unlike the wired networks, where dedicated routers, servers control the network, in MANETs nodes act both as terminals and also as routers for other nodes. A popular mechanism to satisfy the security requirements is the Group Key Management in which the group key is to be shared by each group communication participant. But to establish and manage the group key efficiently imposes new challenges – especially in infrastructure less MANETs. The basic needs of such networks require that the group key schemes must demonstrate not only high performance but also fault-tolerance.

  11. Managing Returnable Containers Logistics - A Case Study Part I - Physical and Information Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza A. Maleki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This case study paper is the result of a project conducted on behalf of a company, hereon referred to as Midwest Assembly and Manufacturing or MAAN. The company's operations include component manufacturing, painting, and assembling products. The company also purchases a relatively large percentage of components and major assemblies that are needed to support final assembly operations. MAAN uses its own returnable containers to transport purchased parts from suppliers. Due to poor tracking of the containers, the company has been experiencing lost containers and occasional production disruptions at its facility well as at the supplier sites. The objective of this project was to develop a proposal to enable MAAN to more effectively track and manage its returnable containers. The research activities in support of this project included the analysis and documentation of both the physical flow and the information flow associated with the containers as well as some of the technologies that can help with automatic identification and tracking of containers. The focal point of this paper is on a macro?level approach for the analysis of container and information flow within the logistics chain. A companion paper deals with several of the automatic identification technologies that have the potential to improve the management of MAAN's returnable containers.

  12. PrEP for key populations in combination HIV prevention in Nairobi: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, Ide; McKinnon, Lyle; Kimani, Joshua; Cherutich, Peter; Gakii, Gloria; Muriuki, Festus; Kripke, Katharine; Hecht, Robert; Kiragu, Michael; Smith, Jennifer; Hinsley, Wes; Gelmon, Lawrence; Hallett, Timothy B

    2017-05-01

    The HIV epidemic in the population of Nairobi as a whole is in decline, but a concentrated sub-epidemic persists in key populations. We aimed to identify an optimal portfolio of interventions to reduce HIV incidence for a given budget and to identify the circumstances in which pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be used in Nairobi, Kenya. A mathematical model was developed to represent HIV transmission in specific key populations (female sex workers, male sex workers, and men who have sex with men [MSM]) and among the wider population of Nairobi. The scale-up of existing interventions (condom promotion, antiretroviral therapy, and male circumcision) for key populations and the wider population as have occurred in Nairobi is represented. The model includes a detailed representation of a PrEP intervention and is calibrated to prevalence and incidence estimates specific to key populations and the wider population. In the context of a declining epidemic overall but with a large sub-epidemic in MSM and male sex workers, an optimal prevention portfolio for Nairobi should focus on condom promotion for male sex workers and MSM in particular, followed by improved antiretroviral therapy retention, earlier antiretroviral therapy, and male circumcision as the budget allows. PrEP for male sex workers could enter an optimal portfolio at similar levels of spending to when earlier antiretroviral therapy is included; however, PrEP for MSM and female sex workers would be included only at much higher budgets. If PrEP for male sex workers cost as much as US$500, average annual spending on the interventions modelled would need to be less than $3·27 million for PrEP for male sex workers to be excluded from an optimal portfolio. Estimated costs per infection averted when providing PrEP to all female sex workers regardless of their risk of infection, and to high-risk female sex workers only, are $65 160 (95% credible interval [CrI] $43 520-$90 250) and $10 920 (95% CrI $4700

  13. STUDY ON SOME PROPERTIES OF Si-CONTAINING POLYESTER-POLYETHER MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhenyi; ZHU Jin

    1997-01-01

    Some physical properties of the polyester-polyether multiblock copolymers with Si-containing hard segment were further examined by a series of physical methods. The hydrophobicity of the copolymers was improved with the incorporation of increasing amount of orgauosilicone, XPS test proved that silicon element was enriched at the surface of the Si-containing polyester-polyether copolymers. It was also found that their heat resistance and gas permeability for O2 and N2 were greatly improved. The study on semipermeability of films made of the Si-containing copolymers was also followed with interest.

  14. Experimental study of non-rectangular piano key weir discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh I. Khassaf, Mohamed B. Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation has been performed to understand the hydraulic behaviour of non-rectangular piano key weir where either the side wall angle or the side wall inclination angle is greater than zero. Five physical models were prepared: one standard type-A rectangular model, and four non-rectangular models designed in similar dimensions to the rectangular one. Tests were conducted in a 15m long, 0.3m wide and 0.45 m deep rectangular glass-walled experimental flume. Effects of side wall angle and side wall inclination angle on discharge coefficient were investigated, so that the head-discharge relationship for each model is achieved. It was concluded that changing those angle to about 10° has negative effect on discharge capacity, while changing them around 5° can increase the capacity when appropriate change in the inlet and outlet keys widths ratio.

  15. Novel effects of Helicobacter pylori CagA on key genes of gastric cancer signal transduction: a comparative transfection study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Farzam; Peerayeh, Shahin N; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Maghsoudi, Nader; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Siadat, Seyed D; Zali, Mohammad R

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is now recognized as a worldwide problem. Helicobacter pylori CagA is the first bacterial oncoprotein to be identified in relation to human cancer. Helicobacter pylori CagA is noted for structural diversity in its C-terminal region (contains EPIYA motifs), with which CagA interacts with numerous host cell proteins. Deregulation of host signaling by translocated bacterial proteins provides a new aspect of microbial-host cell interaction. The aim of this study is to compare the cellular effects of two different CagA EPIYA motifs on identified signaling pathways involve in gastric carcinogenesis. To investigate the effects of CagA protein carboxyl region variations on the transcription of genes involved in gastric epithelial carcinogenesis pathways, the eukaryotic vector carrying the cagA gene (ABC and ABCCC types) was transfected into gastric cancer cell line. The 42 identified key genes of signal transduction involved in gastric cancer were analyzed at the transcription level by real-time PCR. The results of real-time PCR provide us important clue that the ABCCC oncoprotein variant can change the fate of the cell completely different from ABC type. In fact, these result proposed that the ABCCC type can induce the intestinal metaplasia, IL-8, perturbation of Crk adaptor proteins, anti-apoptotic effect and carcinogenic effect more significantly than ABC type. These data support our hypothesis of a complex interaction of host cell and these two different H. pylori effector variants that determines host cellular fate.

  16. KEY DRIVERS OF OPTIMAL SPECIAL EDUCATION NEEDS PROVISION: AN ENGLISH STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saneeya QURESHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to argue that there are a number of key drivers for Special Educational Needs (SEN provision that have to be met by Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs and teaching professionals so as to ensure optimal provision and inclusion for children with SEN in mainstream primary schools. Although the research has been carried out in England, there is a significant European Dimension to the issue, as a similar role to that of SENCOs in respect of SEN management already exists in countries such as Finland and Ireland, and is being considered in Italy. Methods: This paper focuses on the data gathered for the purpose of the author’s doctoral research in England, through questionnaires and interviews with SENCOs, head teachers and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to explore key drivers of SEN provision by practitioners who support children with SEN. Results: Data illustrate that the key drivers of SEN provision include time; teacher openness to change; target setting; evidence of tried interventions; empowerment; decision-making and approachability. The implementation of such drivers depend largely on practitioner skills and competencies. Conclusion: The main conclusion within this paper is to develop points of reference for planning and practice, with illustrations of optimal provision by all practitioners who work with children with SEN.

  17. Theoretical Study on the Bicyclo[4.1.0]heptatriene Rearrangement in a Molecular Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The conversion process from bicyclo[4.1.0]heptatriene (BCT) to 1,2,4,6-cycloheptatetraene (CHTE) within a molecular container was studied with AM1 method, and single point energies for all stationary points were evaluated by B3LYP and HF methods. The conversion potential barrier for the encapsulation complex became smooth when compared with that for the rearrangement in free state. The influences of the inner phase of the molecular container on the conversion process were discussed.

  18. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  19. Key comparison study on peptide purity—synthetic human C-peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, R. D.; Li, M.; Song, D.; Westwood, S.; Stoppacher, N.; Daireaux, A.; Choteau, T.; Wielgosz, R.; Xiao, P.; Liu, Y.; Gao, X.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, T.; Mi, W.; Quan, C.; Huang, T.; Li, H.; Flatschart, R.; Borges Oliveira, R.; Melanson, J. E.; Ohlendorf, R.; Henrion, A.; Kinumi, T.; Wong, L.; Liu, Q.; Oztug Senal, M.; Vatansever, B.; Ün, I.; Gören, A. C.; Akgöz, M.; Quaglia, M.; Warren, J.

    2017-01-01

    . More detailed studies on the identification/quantification of peptide related impurities and the hydrolysis efficiency revealed that the integrity of the impurity profile of the related peptide impurities obtained by the participant is crucial for the impact on accuracy of the hCP mass fraction assignment. The assessment of the mass fraction of peptide impurities is based on the assumption that only the most exhaustive and elaborate set of results is taken for the calculation of the KCRVPepImp. The KCRVPepImp for the peptide related impurity mass fractions of the material was 83.3 mg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.5 mg/g. Inspection of the degree of equivalence plots for the mass fraction of peptide impurities and additional information obtained from the peptide related impurity profile indicates that in many cases only a very small number of impurities have been identified and quantified resulting in an underestimation of the peptide related impurity mass fractions. The approach to obtain a KCRVhCP for the mass fraction of hCP is based on a mass balance calculation that takes into account the most exhaustive and elaborate set of results for the peptide related impurities KCRVPepImp, the TFA mass fraction value, water and other minor counter ions obtained by the coordinating laboratories. Differences in the quality of the results obtained for both peptides related impurity mass fractions and hCP mass fractions are better weighted and reflected in smaller uncertainties. The KCRVhCP for CCQM-K115 is 801.8 mg/g with a corresponding combined standard uncertainty of 3.1 mg/g. In general, mass balance approaches show smaller uncertainties than PICAA approaches and the majority of results obtained by the PICAA approach are in agreement because of larger corresponding uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The

  20. Study on key technologies of energy-saving and environment-protective pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet energy-saving and environment-protective purpose, a series of plastic pumps are developed by composite molding. There are four key techniques involved, firstly, plastic hydraulic components with light-weight; secondly, steel barrel as a pump casing and a connection component as well; thirdly, floating impeller strategy where impeller is drifting freely along shaft; and lastly, a self balancing impeller technique which can totally keep axial force balancing. The manufacturing process is energy-saving, and the components can be recycled, which have great potentials for conservation of environment.

  1. Culinary experiences as a key tourism at traction. Case Study: Braşov County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALTESCU Codruta Adina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing authentic travel services is a prerequisite of increasing the attractiveness of a holiday destination. The development of the culinary tourism by integrating the traditional menus in the offer of food services or the organization of festivals based on culinary traditions of the visited area are components that highlight local specificities and which ensure the differentiation of the tourism offer on the national and international market. This article analyses the potential which favours the development of culinary tourism in Brasov county and which can represent a key element for improving the image of this tourism destination.

  2. Study of the Optimal Timing of Container Ship Orders Considering the Uncertain Shipping Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Jeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply System Dynamics (SD to analyze the optimal timing of container ship orders by considering the uncertain shipping environment. The collected monthly data for 12 years was obtained from the China seaborne container trade (CSCT and the China Containerized Freight Index (CCFI. Containership fleet development and the prices of new and second-hand container ships were classified based on five container vessel sizes (January of 2004–December of 2015. The period of simulation for this study was from 2004 to 2020. To analyze the optimal timing for the container ship orders, container ship fleet development as a supply factor and the CSCT as a demand factor, both of which are components of CCFI, were simulated. After the first simulation, CCFI was simulated holistically. Based on the CCFI simulation results, it was possible to develop three optimal timing scenarios for ship order placement. The CCFI for October 2016 was in the initial entry status of a short-term rebound, which makes it possible for shipping companies to order ships without the risk of revenue loss. The second best time period is May 2018, before the CCFI recovery of May 2019. The third best time for ship orders is later in 2020 for a CCFI recovery after 2021.

  3. A scenarios study on future demands on container and truck sizes of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jan; Kraaijenhagen, B.; Graser, H.; Szylar, I.; Weijers, Stef

    2012-01-01

    To what extent will future demands of worldwide operating parties, regarding the (tertiary) packaging of their freight flows, determine or influence the future dimensions of freight trucks? That is the question we address to in this paper. In this study we have studied what container sizes may fit i

  4. Key Variables for Decision-Making on Urban Renewal in China: A Case Study of Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Chinese government leads urban renewal via a top-down management style with the government playing the role of decision-maker. The decision-making opinions held by groups of stakeholders are divided, which creates many social problems, project technical issues and even civil disorder. This paper uses factor analysis to extract the key variables for decision-making on urban renewal and the entropy weight method to sort these key variables by importance. Based on this order, the differing opinions of stakeholders regarding urban renewal decision-making are explored. First, contradictory opinions exist concerning the importance of the ecological environment, housing and facilities, social welfare and commercial activities, which are the main driving forces behind urban renewal, due to the groups of stakeholders having different interest demands. Second, these varying interest demands of the stakeholders affect the urban renewal decision-making results. Finally, compensation to people for the demolition of their homes, infrastructure supplements and the investment behaviour of developers display the greatest lack of consensus of all the variables tested in urban renewal decision-making between different stakeholders.

  5. Study on the key technologies of the Transfer Equipment Cask for Tokamak Equator Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Buyun, E-mail: ayun@iim.ac.cn [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Gao, Lifu [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cao, Huibin; Sun, Jian [Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Yuxiang; Song, Quanjun; Ma, Chengxue; Chang, Li; Shuang, Feng [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Design on Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) for Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA). • A rhombic-like parallel robot for docking with minimum misalignment. • Design on electro-hydraulic servo system of the TECA for Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) manipulation. • A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA for Remote Handling (RH). - Abstract: The Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA) is a key solution for Remote Handling (RH) in Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) operations. From the perspectives of both engineering and technical designs of effective experiments on the TEPP, key technologies on these topics covering the TECA are required. According to conditions in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and features of the TEPP, this paper introduces the design of an Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) with an adaptive attitude and high precision positioning that transports a cask system of more than 30 tons from the Tokamak Building (TB) to the Hot Cell Building (HCB). Additionally, different actuators are discussed, and the hydraulic power drive is eventually selected and designed. A rhombic-like parallel robot is capable of being used for docking with minimum misalignment. Practical mechanisms of the cask system are presented for hostile environments. A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA. These designs yield realistic and extended applications for the RH of ITER.

  6. ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL STUDY OF THE CIRCULATION OF THE COMBINED MEDICINES CONTAINING DEXTROPROPOXYPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov VV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scientific studies in recent years in the field of pharmaceutical law and forensic pharmacy indicate the existence of cause-effect relationships of various kinds of addictive dependence and illegal circulation of certain groups of combined medicines containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredients. Illegal production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances from the combined drugs containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredients is of particular concern because these medicines are in legal trade in the pharmaceutical sector of Ukraine and used by patients in the treatment of pain of various etiologies, with colds, dry cough and others. Purpose of the work is to carry out organizational and legal studies of the legal circulation of combined medicines containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredient – dextropropoxyphene. Materials and methods. Research material were legal documents, instructions for medical use of combined medicines, forensic and pharmaceutical practice, scientific literature sources and Internet sites. In carrying out organizational and legal studies were used conventional regulatory, documentary, retrospective, forensic and pharmaceutical comparative graphical analysis methods. Results and discussion. In the course of the organizational and legal research on the characteristics of the legal handling controlled drugs that contain controlled active pharmaceutical ingredient - dekstropropoksyfen found that to date its circulation is regulated by the Order of the Ministry of healthcare of Ukraine from 19.07.2005. №360 «On approval of the rules of writing prescriptions and requirements, orders for drugs and medical products, the Procedure for sale of drugs and medical supplies from pharmacies and their structural subdivisions and Instruction on storage, accounting and disposal of prescription forms and claims-orders» According to the requirements of this order all combined

  7. Trade-offs in experimental designs for estimating post-release mortality in containment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark W.; Barbour, Andrew B; Wilson, Kyle L

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of post-release mortality (PRM) facilitate accounting for unintended deaths from fishery activities and contribute to development of fishery regulations and harvest quotas. The most popular method for estimating PRM employs containers for comparing control and treatment fish, yet guidance for experimental design of PRM studies with containers is lacking. We used simulations to evaluate trade-offs in the number of containers (replicates) employed versus the number of fish-per container when estimating tagging mortality. We also investigated effects of control fish survival and how among container variation in survival affects the ability to detect additive mortality. Simulations revealed that high experimental effort was required when: (1) additive treatment mortality was small, (2) control fish mortality was non-negligible, and (3) among container variability in control fish mortality exceeded 10% of the mean. We provided programming code to allow investigators to compare alternative designs for their individual scenarios and expose trade-offs among experimental design options. Results from our simulations and simulation code will help investigators develop efficient PRM experimental designs for precise mortality assessment.

  8. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  9. How can clinical practice guidelines be adapted to facilitate shared decision making? A qualitative key-informant study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T.T. van der; Pieterse, A.H.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Knaapen, L.; Legare, F.; Boivin, A.; Burgers, J.S.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Faber, M.J.; Elwyn, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore how clinical practice guidelines can be adapted to facilitate shared decision making. METHODS: This was a qualitative key-informant study with group discussions and semi-structured interviews. First, 75 experts in guideline development or shared decision making participated in

  10. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  11. Key performance indicators in intensive care medicine. A retrospective matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, M; von Dossow, V; Seeling, M; Ahlborn, R; Tamarkin, A; Conroy, P; Boemke, W; Wernecke, K-D; Spies, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Expert panel consensus was used to develop evidence-based process indicators that were independent risk factors for the main clinical outcome parameters of length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality. In a retrospective, matched data analysis of patients from five ICUs at a tertiary university hospital, agreed process indicators (sedation monitoring, pain monitoring, mean arterial pressure [MAP] >or= 60 mmHg, tidal volume [TV] or= 80 and or= 60 mmHg and BG >or= 80 mg/dl were relevant for survival. Linear regression of the 634 patients showed that analgesia monitoring, PIP or= 60 mmHg, BG >or= 80 mg/dl and indicating that adherence to evidence-based key process indicators may reduce mortality and length of ICU stay.

  12. Study on the key problems of interaction between microwave and chemical reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoqing; HUANG Kama

    2007-01-01

    Microwave has been found as an efficient heating method in chemical industry.However,in present days the interaction between microwave and chemical reactions has not been deeply understood,which restricts a wider application of high power microwave in chemical industry.In this Paper,the key problems of interaction between microwave and chemical reaction are investigated,such as complex effective permittivity of chemical reaction,simulation of microwave heating on chemical reaction and non-thermal effect of microwave,which will enhance further knowledge of the mechanism of interaction between microwave and chemical reaction.Moreover,such an analysis is beneficial for handling with difficulties in application of microwave chemical industry.

  13. Studies on the key odorants formed by roasting of wild mango seeds (Irvingia gabonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    2000-06-01

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a concentrate of volatiles obtained by solvent extraction and high vacuum distillation from roasted seeds (180 degrees C; 15 min) of wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) revealed 32 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 (low odor activity) to 2048 (high odor activity). The identification experiments based on the use of reference odorants revealed methional (cooked potato-like) followed by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), butan-2,3-dione, pentan-2,3-dione, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine as the key aroma compounds among the 27 odorants identified. All odorants are reported for the first time as components of roasted wild mango seeds.

  14. Prioritization of future research topics for children's hospice care by its key stakeholders: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, C; Knighting, K; Forbat, L; Kearney, N

    2009-07-01

    The Delphi process, widely used in health research to seek consensus on key issues amongst large stakeholder groups, was adopted to allow families, hospice staff/volunteers and linked professionals to identify and prioritize future research priorities for children's hospice care. In the qualitative Round 1, interviews with families (n = 5), linked professionals (n = 18) and focus groups with hospice staff and volunteers (n = 44) led to the generation of 56 research topics categorised within 14 broad themes. To give a larger number of stakeholders (n = 621) (including families n = 293; hospice staff/volunteers n = 216 and professionals n = 112) the opportunity to rate the importance of each research topic and seek group consensus on the future research priorities for children's hospice care, subsequent Rounds 2 and 3 involved the use of postal questionnaires. Response rates to questionnaires were 44% in Round 2 (274/621) and 83% in Round 3 (204/247). Participants prioritized research topics relating to 1) hospice and respite care needs of young people (aged 16 +), 2) pain and symptom management and 3) bereavement and end-of-life care. There was wide acknowledgement by those took part in the process of the difficulty in rating the topics, and emphasis on the fact that all of the topics raised during the project are of high importance and merit further research. The current salient issues perceived by key stakeholders as being the research priorities for children's hospice care were identified. Addressing these priority topics for research would further contribute to the development of a much needed evidence base in children's hospice and palliative care research and optimise the delivery of children's hospice services that are underpinned by valid and robust research.

  15. Towards the establishment of a new target strategy for WONCA Europe: a key informants study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionis, Christos; Allen, Justin; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Alegakis, Athanasios; Svab, Igor

    2008-01-01

    A few years ago WONCA Europe decided to refine its targets and propose a project aiming to evaluate achievements of the previous strategy for development of the discipline in Europe and to review its core components. This paper reports on the issues of this evaluation. A questionnaire consisting of two parts and four sections was used. The first and second sections addressed issues concerning the 10-target strategy, while the remaining sections addressed issues concerning the new European definition of general practice/family medicine (GP/FM). All European colleges and associations were invited to identify two key informants to complete the questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used for data analysis. Thirty-two key informants from 19 countries responded to the invitation. The targets for vocational training and mandatory undergraduate education in GP/FM received the largest number of responses for the highest level of achievement. Certain core characteristics were considered highly relevant to the delivery of GP/FM and medical education in Europe. Qualitative analysis identified a number of major issues, such as investment in capacity building, improving quality assurance and performance, legislative and political framework, and support. Identified obstacles included lack of academic infrastructure and research capacity, healthcare system characteristics, political issues, and GP practice issues. At present, WONCA Europe is treading new ground for GP/FM, and the current targets clearly need thorough revision. There is some evidence that the new GP/FM definition fits in rather well with the majority of the research and educational needs of certain European countries.

  16. Comparative study of microvascular density in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with topical preparations containing herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, G D; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Lascăr, I; Mogoantă, L

    2013-01-01

    During the healing process of third-degree skin burns, a very complex response involves different cells and tissues linked together by intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms. For the restoration of damaged tissues, angiogenesis is the key point in the formation of new blood vessels. By their emollient, astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, active principles from natural products contribute to the acceleration of the wound-healing process. In our study, we investigated the angiogenesis process in experimental model of third-degree skin burns treated with three topical preparations (cold-creams) containing 10% herbal extracts, comparing with 1% sulfadiazine cream and cold-cream base respectively. By their biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, cold-creams with herbal extracts are locally modulators of the cellular response and support the wound healing. The phytocomplex stimulates the favorable evolution of the burnt skin wounds and the development of neoangiogenesis capillaries.

  17. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira L Schneiders

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations’ attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Methods: Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD including people who inject drugs (PWID, 199 men who have sex with men (MSM, 200 transgender women (TGW and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Results: Key populations’ median age was 25 years (IQR: 22–30; 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%, with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47, and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%, condoms (23% and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%, selling or distributing drugs (36% or being violent (13%. Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; p<0.05, being verbally threatened (45% PWUD, 21% MSM, 25% TGW, 27% FEW; p<0.001 and body searched (44% PWUD, 28% MSM, 23% TGW, 8% FEW; p<0.001 was significantly higher among PWUD than other key populations. The majority (94% of police believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88% and carrying needles and syringes (55% as valid reasons

  18. Study on the Behaviors of a Conceptual Passive Containment Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The containment is an ultimate and important barrier to mitigate the consequences after the release of mass and energy during such scenarios as loss of coolant accident (LOCA or main steam line break (MSLB. In this investigation, a passive containment cooling system (PCCS concept is proposed for a large dry concrete containment. The system is composed of series of heat exchangers, long connecting pipes with relatively large diameter, valves, and a water tank, which is located at the top of the system and serves as the final heat sink. The performance of the system is numerically studied in detail under different conditions. In addition, the influences of condensation heat transfer conditions and containment environment temperature conditions are also studied on the behaviors of the system. The results reveal that four distinct operating stages could be experienced as follows: startup stage, single phase quasisteady stage, flashing speed-up transient stage, and flashing dominated quasisteady operating stage. Furthermore, the mechanisms of system behaviors are thus analyzed. Moreover, the feasibility of the system is also discussed to meet the design purpose for the containment integrity requirement. Considering the passive feature and the compactness of the system, the proposed PCCS is promising for the advanced integral type reactor.

  19. Feasibility Study of Non-Destructive Techniques to Measure Corrosion in SAVY Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Matthew Nicholas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Stainless Steel SAVY containers are used to transport and store nuclear material. They are prone to interior corrosion in the presence of certain chemicals and a low-oxygen environment. SAVY containers also have relatively thin walls to reduce their weight, making their structural integrity more vulnerable to the effects of corrosion. A nondestructive evaluation system that finds and monitors corrosion within containers in use would improve safety conditions and preclude hazards. Non-destructive testing can determine whether oxidation or corrosion is occurring inside the SAVY containers, and there are a variety of non-destructive testing methods that may be viable. The feasibility study described will objectively decide which method best fits the requirements of the facility and the problem. To improve efficiency, the containers cannot be opened during the non-destructive examination. The chosen technique should also be user-friendly and relatively quick to apply. It must also meet facility requirements regarding wireless technology and maintenance. A feasibility study is an objective search for a new technology or product to solve a particular problem. First, the design, technical, and facility feasibility requirements are chosen and ranked in order of importance. Then each technology considered is given a score based upon a standard ranking system. The technology with the highest total score is deemed the best fit for a certain application.

  20. Feasibility Study of Non-Destructive Techniques to Measure Corrosion in SAVY Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Matthew Nicholas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Stainless Steel SAVY containers are used to transport and store nuclear material. They are prone to interior corrosion in the presence of certain chemicals and a low-oxygen environment. SAVY containers also have relatively thin walls to reduce their weight, making their structural integrity more vulnerable to the effects of corrosion. A nondestructive evaluation system that finds and monitors corrosion within containers in use would improve safety conditions and preclude hazards such as the ones shown in figures 1 and 2. Non-destructive testing can determine whether oxidation or corrosion is occurring inside the SAVY containers, and there are a variety of non-destructive testing methods that may be viable. The following feasibility study will objectively decide which method best fits the requirements of the facility and the problem. To improve efficiency, the containers cannot be opened during the non-destructive examination. The chosen technique should also be user-friendly and relatively quick to apply. It must also meet facility requirements regarding wireless technology and maintenance. A feasibility study is an objective search for a new technology or product to solve a particular problem. First, the design, technical, and facility feasibility requirements are chosen and ranked in order of importance. Then each technology considered is given a score based upon a standard ranking system. The technology with the highest total score is deemed the best fit for a certain application.

  1. A Study on the Single-dose Oral Toxicity of Super Key in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose oral toxicity of the super key (processed sulfur. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Medvill, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulations. In order to investigate the oral toxicity of super key We administered it orally to Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. The SD rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of super key 500 mg/kg, 1,000 mg/kg and 2,000 mg/kg were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 10 mL/kg, was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rates, weights, clinical signs, gross findings and necropsy findings. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. (Approval number: A01-14018. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. Although slight decreases in the weights of some female rats were noted, no significant changes in weights or differences in the gross findings between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs. Conclusion: The results of this research showed that administration of 500 ─ 2,000 mg/kg of super key did not cause any changes in the weights or in the results of necropsy examinations. Neither did it result in any mortalities. The above findings suggest that treatment with super key is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence.

  2. A decision support system tool for the transportation by barge of import containers : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazi, Stefano; Fransoo, Jan C.; Van Woensel, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a DSS that generates schedules for the transportation of containers by barge in the hinterland, in particular from sea terminals to an inland terminal. As a case study, we propose the transportation from the ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp to a terminal in the south of the N

  3. Study of cryolite preparation from fluoride-containing acid slag in aluminium industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new process of cryolite preparation is studied in this work by selecting a proper system of reaction and weeding impurity technology. The quality of artifial cryolite reaches and exceeds the first level of national standard. The utilization efficient of fluoride-containing acid slag is above 99.5%. It brings considerable economic benefit, and the environment is improved.

  4. Resonance Light-Scattering Spectroscopy Study on Interaction between Gold Colloid and Thiol Containing Pharmaceutical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Xiao-ling; Cai; Ru-xiu; 等

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we used resonance light-scattering (RLS) spectroscopy to study the interaction betwwen thiolcontaining pharmaceutical and gold colloid. And for the first time, we proposed that this highly sensitive, gold colloidbased assay using RLS technique may have potential application in detecting thoil-containing substances.

  5. Study on key techniques for camera-based hydrological record image digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijin; Zhan, Di; Hu, Jinlong; Gao, Xiangtao; Bo, Ping

    2015-10-01

    With the development of information technology, the digitization of scientific or engineering drawings has received more and more attention. In hydrology, meteorology, medicine and mining industry, the grid drawing sheet is commonly used to record the observations from sensors. However, these paper drawings may be destroyed and contaminated due to improper preservation or overuse. Further, it will be a heavy workload and prone to error if these data are manually transcripted into the computer. Hence, in order to digitize these drawings, establishing the corresponding data base will ensure the integrity of data and provide invaluable information for further research. This paper presents an automatic system for hydrological record image digitization, which consists of three key techniques, i.e., image segmentation, intersection point localization and distortion rectification. First, a novel approach to the binarization of the curves and grids in the water level sheet image has been proposed, which is based on the fusion of gradient and color information adaptively. Second, a fast search strategy for cross point location is invented and point-by-point processing is thus avoided, with the help of grid distribution information. And finally, we put forward a local rectification method through analyzing the central portions of the image and utilizing the domain knowledge of hydrology. The processing speed is accelerated, while the accuracy is still satisfying. Experiments on several real water level records show that our proposed techniques are effective and capable of recovering the hydrological observations accurately.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical studies and antitumor activity of some new chalcone analogues containing ferrocenyl pyrazole moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratković, Zoran; Juranić, Zorica D; Stanojković, Tatjana; Manojlović, Dragan; Vukićević, Rastko D; Radulović, Niko; Joksović, Milan D

    2010-02-01

    A series of new alpha,beta-unsaturated conjugated ketones containing ferrocenyl pyrazole unit were synthesized and fully characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical characterization of subject compounds was performed by means of cyclic voltametry. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of all the synthesized compounds was studied against cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, melanoma Fem-x and myelogenous leukemia K562 cell lines by the MTT method. Derivative 1l containing 3-pyridyl moiety exhibited a better cytotoxic activity in the cell growth inhibition of K562 cell lines in comparison with cisplatin as a reference compound.

  7. Hydration of pure and base-Containing sulfuric acid clusters studied by computational chemistry methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Henning; Ortega, Ismael K.; Kupiainen, Oona; Olenius, Tinja; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    The formation of hydrates of small molecular sulfuric acid clusters and cluster containing both sulfuric acid and base (ammonia or dimethylamine) has been studied by means of computational chemistry. Using a combined ab initio/density functional approach, formation energies of clusters with up to four sulfuric acid molecules, and up to two base molecules, have been calculated. Consequences for the hydration level of the corresponding clusters have been modelled. While the majority of pure sulfuric acid cluster are comparatively strongly hydrated, base containing cluster were found to be less hydrophilic. Dimethylamine is particularly effective in lowering the hydrophilicity of the cluster. Implications of the hydration profiles on atmospheric processes are discussed.

  8. Interaction between adsorbed hydrogen and potassium on a carbon nanocone containing material as studied by photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaofeng [Nesna University College, 8700 Nesna (Norway); Raaen, Steinar, E-mail: sraaen@ntnu.no [Physics Department, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-09-14

    Hydrogen adsorption on a potassium doped carbon nanocone containing material was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and work function measurement. The valence band spectra indicate that there is charge transfer from potassium to carbon. Upon deposition on carbon potassium is in its ionic state for lower doping and shows both ionic and metallic behavior at higher doping. Adsorption of hydrogen facilitates diffusion of potassium on the carbon material as seen by changes in the K{sub 2p} core level spectrum. Variations in the measured sample work function indicate that hydrogen initially adsorb on the K dopants and subsequently adsorb on the carbon cone containing material.

  9. Non-target effects of repeated chlorothalonil application on soil nitrogen cycling: The key functional gene study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manyun; Xu, Zhihong; Teng, Ying; Christie, Peter; Wang, Jun; Ren, Wenjie; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao

    2016-02-01

    The widespread and increasing application of chlorothalonil (CTN) raises concerns about its non-target impacts, but little information is available on the effect of CTN on the key functional genes related to soil nitrogen (N) cycling, especially in the case of repeated applications. In the present study, a microcosm incubation was conducted to determine CTN residues and the impacts on the abundances of key functional genes related to N cycling after repeated CTN applications. The results demonstrated that repeated CTN applications at the recommended application rate and five times the recommended rate led to the accumulation of CTN residue in soil at concentrations of 5.59 and 78.79 mg kg(-1), respectively, by the end of incubation. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that repeated CTN applications had negative effects on the chiA and aprA gene abundances. There were significantly negative correlations between CTN residues and abundances of AOA and AOB genes. In addition, the abundances of key functional genes involved in soil denitrification were declined by repeated CTN applications with the sole exception of the nosZ gene. This study suggests that repeated CTN applications could lead to the accumulation of CTN residue and generate somewhat inconsistent and erratic effects on the abundances of key functional genes related to soil N cycling.

  10. Investigative studies into the recovery of DNA from improvised explosive device containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Shane G; Stallworth, Shawn E; Foran, David R

    2012-05-01

    Apprehending those who utilize improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a national priority owing to their use both domestically and abroad. IEDs are often concealed in bags, boxes, or backpacks to prevent their detection. Given this, the goal of the research presented was to identify IED handlers through postblast DNA recovery from IED containers. Study participants were asked to use backpacks for 11 days, after which they served as containers for pipe bombs. Eleven postdeflagration backpack regions likely to be handled were swabbed and analyzed via mini-short tandem repeats (miniSTRs) and alleles were called blind. An experimental consensus method was examined in which profiles from all regions were considered, to help identify spurious drop-in/out. Results were correct for all loci, except one that remained ambiguous. The results show that recovering DNA from IED containers is a viable approach for aiding in the identification of those who may have been involved in an IED event.

  11. Study of droplet size and velocity of fuel containing CO2 spray by means of PDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jin; QIAO Xinqi; HUANG Zhen; FANG Junhua

    2004-01-01

    Injection of fuel containing CO2 has potential to reduce NOx and soot emissions in a diesel engine. This paper presents an experimental study on the spray characteristics of fuel containing CO2 as measured by phase doppler anemometry (PDA). Experiments were performed under atmospheric conditions on diesel hole-type nozzles at constant injection pressure. Effects of CO2 concentration in diesel fuel on the spray pattern, droplet size and velocity were measured. Experimental results show that fuel atomization will improve greatly when the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the fuel exceeds the critical value. The axial and radial velocity of the fuel spray containing CO2 is larger than that of conventional diesel fuel spray near the nozzle exit due to flash boiling phenomena. Downstream of the spray, the radial velocity and droplet size of fuel containing CO2 is much more uniform and smaller than that of pure diesel spray. It is attributed to the greatly enhanced liquid-gas mixing resulting from flash separation of CO2 from the liquid. New insight into the atomization of the fuel containing CO2 was obtained and a possible mechanism to explain the phenomena was proposed. The method may be developed into a new technique for controlling diesel combustion and exhaust emissions.

  12. [Key technologies elements of clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Chun; Hu, Si-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    We assessed and graded the evidence of relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, combined with our clinical study practice to identify eleven key elements as a focus for the clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema: the primary purpose and design of the study, the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the treatment, the trail procedure,the effectiveness and safety evaluation, and quality control, etc, as well. In addition, seven recommendations for the design of clinical study of TCM new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema were provided.

  13. Study of non aqueous reprocessing methods. Final progress report. [Container materials for pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitel, R. J.; Luderer, J. E.; Henderson, T. M.

    1978-11-17

    The problems associated with container materials for selected pyrochemical processes and process containment conditions are reviewed. A rationale for container materials selection is developed. Candidate process container materials are presented, and areas warranting further development are identified. 14 tables.

  14. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03. The most common water holding containers found (outdoor were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction.

  15. Experimental method and preliminary studies of the passive containment water film evaporation mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [State Nuclear Power Technology Research, Beijing (China). Development Center; State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Beijing (China); Yang, Lin; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Shan; Du, Wangfang; Gao, Zhan; Li, Honegsen [State Nuclear Power Technology Research, Beijing (China). Development Center

    2017-05-15

    For larger containments and higher operation parameters, characteristics of the outside cooling of the PCCS are very important for the analysis on the containment integrity. A preliminary analysis was made and a four-step experimental method was used to numerically analyze the falling water film evaporation for the advanced passive containment. Then, the water flow stability along the outside wall of the containment was studied. The results fit well with those correlations without airflow when the air velocity is less than 5.0 m/s. However, when the air velocity is larger than 5.0 m/s, the influence of the air velocity on the water film will appear and the mean water film thickness will be thicker. Based on the prototype operation parameters, experimental studies were carried and the results were compared with the Dittus-Boelter correlation within the operation ranges. A modification factor was proposed for the conservative application of this correlation for nuclear safety analysis.

  16. Synthesis and Studies of Sulfur-Containing Heterocyclic Molecules for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzanti, Virginia

    This work describes the synthesis and studies of sulfur containing π conjugated heterocycles, which are considered interesting motifs in the field of molecular electronics. The first project, which is covered in Chapter 1, concerns the functionalization of tetracycle dibenzo[bc,fg][1,4]dithiapent......This work describes the synthesis and studies of sulfur containing π conjugated heterocycles, which are considered interesting motifs in the field of molecular electronics. The first project, which is covered in Chapter 1, concerns the functionalization of tetracycle dibenzo[bc,fg][1...... the synthesis of dimeric structures of redox active system tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Molecules with different conjugation pathways bridging two TTFs were synthesized and studied using CV and DPV in order to probe the electronic interaction between these two redox units. The last aspect of this thesis, which...

  17. Structural transformation studies on the rare earth containing Heusler alloys Pd 2RESn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarji, A. M.; Malik, S. K.; Shenoy, G. K.

    1985-03-01

    The Heusler alloys Pd 2RESn form for rare-earths (RE) from Tb to Lu and for Sc and Y. Of these, the alloys containing Yb, Tm, Lu, Sc and Y are superconducting. We have carried out structural studies on all these alloys by studying the temperature dependence of the X-ray patterns in the temperature range 5 to 300 K. Some nonstoichiometric compositions were also investigated. Structural transformation is observed only in Tb and Dy containing alloys while none of the superconducting alloys show a transformation. The transformation temperature is lowered by about 50 K in going from stoichiometric Pd 2TbSn to nonstoichiometric Pd 2Tb 0.95Sn while it is completely suppressed in Pd 2Dy 0.95Sn. Magnetic and Mössbauer studies on Dy compound are also reported.

  18. Keys to the Community : A multiple case study into professional legitimation in community development practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradener, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of

  19. Keys to the Community : A multiple case study into professional legitimation in community development practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradener, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of legitimac

  20. Keys to the Community : A multiple case study into professional legitimation in community development practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradener, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of legitimac

  1. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  2. Do we have proportionate gender in policy making? A Study based on key Government Institutions of SAARC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment has remained a long standing issue for practitioners and policy makers at all levels even in the present modern known era of modernization. The basic objective of this study is to assess gender equality in the top sphere of the SAARC key governmental institutions from the recruitment and selection perspective. This study has used secondary data collected from the official websites of the governments and its affiliated key institutions. The unique feature of this study is that it analyzes gender inequality phenomena form the recruitment and selection perspective. An extensive gap has been identified between male and female top executives serving in key government institutions, which is not only a serious challenge for the global gender equality policy but also a serious question on government gender selection polices in the region. The notion of male dominance clearly prevails in the current scenario of the gender representation in government institutions, which remains a serious challenge for the gender equality. It has been concluded that a special focus is needed to prioritize the selection mechanism for females in top power structure of these governments especially in SAARC region.

  3. Key aspects in managing safety when working with multiple contractors: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drupsteen, Linda; Rasmussen, Hanna B; Ustailieva, Erika; van Kampen, Jakko

    2015-01-01

    Working with multiple contractors in a shared workplace can introduce and increase safety risks due to complexity. The aim of this study was to explore how safety issues are recognized in a specific case and to identify whether clients and contractors perceive problems similarly. The safety issues are explored through a brief survey and a workshop in the maintenance department of a logistics company. The results indicate that culture and behavior are recognized differently by clients and by contractors. The contractors and client had different perceptions of involvement of contractors by the client. The contractors complained on lack of involvement, which was not fully recognized by the client. The case study used a practical approach to show differences in perception of safety within a project. The study illustrates the need for more applied studies and interventions on contractor safety.

  4. Generating social impact scenarios: A key step in making technology assessment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. V.

    1975-01-01

    The MITRE methodological studies were conducted to define relevant questions in relation to the concept of total impact analysis and to provide a procedure for integrating diverse checklists of questions which trace the initial and secondary impacts of any major technological application or of society's attempts to respond to or redirect that application. Some of the results of that study are presented in tabular form.

  5. A Study on the Efficiency of Container Terminals in Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bin Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to derive implications required for efficiency improvement and management level enhancement by selecting container terminals within major large ports of Korea and China as comparison units, evaluating their relative efficiencies and analyzing the trend of changes in their efficiencies. Since the scope of comparison subjects has been narrowed down to container terminals unlike previous studies, it is expected that the study results would have significant meaning due to the fact that it would be possible to compare and analyze in more detail. To achieve the objective, 30 major container terminals in both countries are selected, input and output variables are defined for each terminal and the DEA (data envelopment analysis model is used to conduct an analysis. The results show that the efficiency of major terminals in Korea (CCR: 0.815, BCC: 0.886 showed similar efficiency with China's terminals (CCR: 0.817, BCC: 0.887. While previous studies conclude that the efficiency of ports in Korea is far lower than that of ports in China.

  6. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Graham, Alexandra L; Profeta, Luisa T M; Johnson, Timothy J; Yokelson, Robert J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2011-02-15

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR-MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of elemental formulas. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba-containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal-containing species that were re-emitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, dispersion, and persistence of metal-containing aerosols, as well as their environmental effects, is needed.

  7. Use of fenbendazole-containing therapeutic diets for mice in experimental cancer therapy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-03-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research.

  8. The Aesthetics of Sundanese Traditional Design, Case study: Rice Containers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Jamaludin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional design that is still made and exists today is a legacy from mythical culture period. That is to say that it has its own aesthetical concept that is different from modern aesthetics. Some of the traditional designs in Sundanese society is the rice containers that come in different form depends on the rice condition. The design of a traditional rice container in Sundanese culture is made in basic shapes, such as square, circle and triangle or configuration of the basic shapes resulted in a beautiful design. The rice containers mostly made of woven bamboo. Uniquely, these visual basic shapes also found in proverbs and idioms in Sundanese language as a symbol of perfection of conduct.  Square symbolizes attitude or behavior, circle is for belief or faith, and triangle represents a holy place. Rice in traditional community such as Baduy in Banten has a connection with the myth of the goddess of rice. Thus, Sundanese traditional culture and society highly respect the rice. This is one of the reasons why the traditional rice containers are designed in those form. This study has come to a conclusion that traditional design made is not merely to fulfill utility needs but also to represent the Sundanese macrocosm.

  9. Exergetic analysis and thermoeconomic study for a container-housed engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, J.M.; Eguia, J.; Flores, I. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.; Ruiz de Adana, M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de La Rioja, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20. E-26004 Logrono, La Rioja (Spain); Miguez, J.L. [Universidad de Vigo, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, C/Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n 36200 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses for a container-housed reciprocating engine. The exergy analysis conducted was based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. Using thermographic inspection, the heat dissipated by each one of the 28 elements under consideration in the engine container was assessed, together with the mass flow rate of air supplied to the cab and the air temperature at the inlet and outlet. This information is essential for the proper design of the ventilation system needed to disseminate the heat generated inside the container-housed unit. The energy balance and corresponding exergy balance were drawn up using the values thus obtained and the information available on the engine. The engine efficiency rates were evaluated on both an energy and exergy basis, taking into account that heat from the cooling circuit and exhaust fumes are used for CHP. Finally, thermoeconomics was applied to calculate the costs of the electricity and useful heat energy produced by the engine. The result of this study should be to optimize the design of container-housed CHP systems, showing where exergy losses occur and identifying areas of improvement. (author)

  10. Mid-infrared vibrational study of deuterium-containing PAH variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been long proposed to be a major carrier of 'Unidentified Infrared' (UIR) emission bands that have been observed ubiquitously in various astrophysical environments. These molecules can potentially be an efficient reservoir of deuterium. Once the infrared properties of the deuterium-containing PAHs are well understood both experimentally and theoretically, the interstellar UIR bands can be used as a valuable tool to infer the cause of the deuterium depletion in the ISM. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out on deuterium-containing ovalene variants to study the infrared properties of these molecules. These include deuterated ovalene, cationic deuterated ovalene, deuteronated ovalene and deuterated-deuteronated ovalene. We present a D/H ratio calculated from our theoretical study to compare with the observationally proposed D/H ratio.

  11. The Effect of Communication Medium and Container Location on Paper Recycling: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Penpece

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global resource consumptions are in advanced day by day nevertheless world has limited sources, which should be used for boundless needs of humanity. Due to the fact that governments and the firms are try to find the way to make the sources sustainable. Recycling is one of the best ways to make sources renewable. For this purpose, the main aim of the study is to determine the effect of container location and communication medium on waste paper quantity. Experimental design was performed in two tiers to achieve this aim. The study was applied in Cag University and t-test was conducted to the obtained data. According to the score of t-test results H1 and H2 are statistically significant. Based on these results, the proximity of containers and the use of communication medium are positively effect on waste paper quantity.

  12. Mid-infrared vibrational study of deuterium-containing PAH variants

    CERN Document Server

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Sarre, Peter; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been long proposed to be a major carrier of 'Unidentified Infrared' (UIR) emission bands that have been observed ubiquitously in various astrophysical environments. These molecules can potentially be an efficient reservoir of deuterium. Once the infrared properties of the deuterium- containing PAHs are well understood both experimentally and theoretically, the interstellar UIR bands can be used as a valuable tool to infer the cause of the deuterium depletion in the ISM. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out on deuterium-containing ovalene variants to study the infrared properties of these molecules. These include deuterated ovalene, cationic deuterated ovalene, deuteronated ovalene and deuterated-deuteronated ovalene. We present a D/H ratio calculated from our theoretical study to compare with the observationally proposed D/H ratio.

  13. Study of Melanin Bleaching After Immunohistochemistry of Melanin-containing Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Melanin may interfere with immunohistochemical staining. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) bleaching, potassium permanganate bleaching, and potassium dichromate bleaching on melanin, tissue antigen, and 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) using melanin-containing and melanin-free tissue samples. Our results demonstrated that all 3 bleaching methods efficiently bleached melanin and partially destroyed tissue antigen. In addition, potassium perman...

  14. A Study of Applications of Multiagent System Specificaitons and the Key Techniques in Automatic Abstracts System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUShun-geng; ZHONGYi-xin

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, multiagent system specifications, multiagent system architectures, agent communica-tion languages and agent communication protocols, automatic abstracting based on multiagent technolo-gies are studied.Some concerned problems of de-signs and realization of automatic abstracting sys-tems based on multiagent technologies are strdied, too.Chapter 1 shows the significance and objectives of the thesis, its main contents are summarized, and innovations of the thesis are showed.Some basic concepts of agents and multiagent systems are stud-ied in Chapter2.The definitions of agents and mul-tiagent systems are given, and the theory, technolo-gies and applications of multiagent systems are sum-marized .Furthermore, some important studying trends of multiagent systems are set forward.Multi-agent system specifications are strdied in Chapter30MAS/KIB-a multiagent system specification is built using mental states such as K(Know), B(Be-lief), and I(Intention), its grammar and seman-teme are discussed, axioms and inference rules are given, and some properties are researched.We also compare MAS/KIB with other existing specifica-tions.MAS/KIB has the following characteristicsL1)each agent has its own world outlood;(2)no global data in the system;(3)processes of state changes are used as indexes to systems;(4)it has the characteristics of not only time series logic but also dynamic logic;and (5) interactive actions are included.The architectures of multiagent systems are studied in Chapter 4.First, we review some typical architecture of multiagent systems, agent network architecture, agent federated architecture, agent blackboard architenture ,and Foundation of Intelligent Physical Agent(FIPA) architecture.For the first time, we set forward and study the layering and partitioning models of the architectures of multi-agent systems,organizing architecture models, and interoperability architecture model of multiagent sys-tems .Chapter 5 studies agent communication lan

  15. Promotion Criteria, Faculty Experiences and Perceptions: A Qualitative Study at a Key University in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingning, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this micro-level, detailed qualitative study of a university faculty in a large city in China are threefold: to identify the sources of institutional promotion criteria, to illustrate the experiences of frontline faculty members with these criteria and their perceptions of them, and to discuss the possible bearings of the findings…

  16. Amalgamation, Expansion, Quality Assurance and Innovations: A Case Study on a Key University in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingning

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese higher education reform policies since 1993 have been pursued in a centralized, top-down manner, which some theorists characterize as "centralized decentralization" or governmental "steering at distance." This case-study dissertation has two purposes. First, is to evaluate the implementation or the "situated…

  17. Key aspects in managing safety when working with multiple contractors: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Rasmussen, H.B.; Ustailieva, E.; Kampen, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Working with multiple contractors in a shared workplace can introduce and increase safety risks due to complexity. The aim of this study was to explore how safety issues are recognized in a specific case and to identify whether clients and contractors perceive problems similarly. The safety issues

  18. Making Interdisciplinary Collaboration Work: Key Ideas, a Case Study and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Angus; Clarkin, Chantalle; Bangou, Francis; Duplaa, Emmanuel; MacDonald, Colla; Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas; Trumpower, David

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the "lessons learned" from an attempt to establish an interdisciplinary education research group. The growth, development and dissolution of the group are treated as an instrumental case study. Current literature on interdisciplinary collaboration is synthesized in order to provide a frame for analysis. Data was collected…

  19. Key Strategies for Improving School Nutrition: A Case Study of Three School Nutrition Program Innovators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheck, Jennifer M.; Morgan, Emily H.; Wilde, Parke; Griffin, Timothy; Nahar, Elizabeth; Economos, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This case study identified common elements of three diverse New England school districts that were real-world models of improving school meals. Methods: School districts that had greater than 1,000 students, [greater than or equal to]3 schools, and [greater than or equal to]40% of students who qualified for free- or…

  20. Compendium of Key Studies of the No Child Left Behind Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As part of a larger project to rethink the federal role in elementary and secondary education, the Center on Education Policy prepared this compendium, which summarizes the findings of major studies of the implementation and effects of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) conducted by various organizations and agencies. The brief summaries are…

  1. Intercultural Education in the European Context: Key Remarks from a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on some findings of a comparative study carried out by a network of scholars and researchers who are active in the field of intercultural education in the European context in the main "old immigration countries" (United Kingdom, France and Germany), "new immigration countries" (Italy, Spain and Greece) and…

  2. Key aspects in managing safety when working with multiple contractors: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Rasmussen, H.B.; Ustailieva, E.; Kampen, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Working with multiple contractors in a shared workplace can introduce and increase safety risks due to complexity. The aim of this study was to explore how safety issues are recognized in a specific case and to identify whether clients and contractors perceive problems similarly. The safety issues a

  3. Investigating the key factors in designing a communication skills program for medical students: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. Methods The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. Results The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., “The vast nature of the present communication skills training” and “administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills.” The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. Conclusion The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical

  4. Study on the Key Success Factors of the Operation of a Regional Military Logistic Food Material Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In order to establish an integrated supply system of the military food material, the study was to discuss the key success factors of operation of the military regional food material logistic center in Taiwan. Approach: The Delphi method, questionnaires and telephone interviews were used to collect and integrate the opinions of experts and scholars. Simultaneously, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was applied to confirm the evaluative factors of each level, i.e., one goal (to construct key success factors of the operation of a regional military logistic food material center for the first level, two analytical aspects (the external and internal environments for the second level, six evaluative facets (the safety design, strategic management, administrative effect, policy, service and internal and external integration for the third level and 19 evaluative criteria for the fourth level. Results: The 350 questionnaires from the second phase which were sent out to four kinds of respondents, 319 valid ones were returned. Conclusion: After AHP analysis, the results of this study could suggest an evaluation table for the key success factors of operation of the military regional food material logistic center in Taiwan.

  5. A Study of Applications of Multiagent System Specifications and the Key Techniques in Automatic Abstracts System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, multiagent system specifications, multiagent system architecture s , agent communication languages and agent communication protocols, automatic abs tracting based on multiagent technologies are studied. Some concerned problems o f designs and realization of automatic abstracting systems based on multiagent t echnologies are studied, too. Chapter 1 shows the significance and objectives of the thesis, its main contents are summarized, and innovations of the thesis are showed. Some basic concepts of agents and multiagent systems are studied in Cha pter 2. The definitions of agents and multiagent systems are given, and the theo ry, technologies and applications of multiagent systems are summarized. Furtherm ore, some important studying trends of multiagent systems are set forward. Multi agent system specifications are studied in Chapter 3. MAS/KIB—a multiagent syst em specification is built using mental states such as K(Know), B(Belief) , and I(Intention), its grammar and semanteme are discussed, axioms and infe rence rules are given, and some properties are researched. We also compare MAS/K IB with other existing specifications. MAS/KIB has the following characteristics : (1) each agent has its own world outlook; (2) no global data in the system; (3 ) processes of state changes are used as indexes to systems; (4) it has the char acteristics of not only time series logic but also dynamic logic; and (5) intera ctive actions are included. The architectures of multiagent systems are studied in Chapter 4. First, we review some typical architecture of multiagent systems, agent network architecture, agent federated architecture, agent blackboard archi tecture, and Foundation of Intelligent Physical Agent(FIPA) architecture. For th e first time, we set forward and study the layering and partitioning models of t he architectures of multiagent systems, organizing architecture models, and inte roperability architecture model of multiagent

  6. Communication between key stakeholders within a medical home: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Catherine S; Tandon, S Darius; Duggan, Anne K; Serwint, Janet R

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine perceived benefits, detriments, and barriers to communication between pediatric providers and home visitors. The authors performed a cross-sectional, qualitative study consisting of 3 focus groups with paraprofessional home visitors (n=12), 6 with parents receiving home visiting (n=33), and 4 with pediatric providers whose patients received home visiting (n=19). Emerging themes were generated by an inductive analytic approach. Perceived benefits included home visitors assisting parents with communication, giving providers family information, and reinforcing providers' guidance. Detriments included parental concern of sharing confidential information and providers becoming aware of family issues for which they are unprepared to act. Barriers included parental consent, logistics of home visitor-provider communication, and providers' lack of knowledge about home visitor programs/roles. Greater coordination between home visitation programs and pediatric providers may strengthen home visiting services and reinforce advice and anticipatory guidance given by providers.

  7. Identifying keys to success in clinical learning: a study of two interprofessional learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksov, Klara Bolander; Boman, Lena Engqvist; Liljedahl, Matilda; Björck, Erik

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to study the intrinsic system behind interprofessional clinical learning environments. Two health care units were selected on the basis of having received a reward for best clinical learning organization. Interviews were carried out with health care staff/clinical supervisors from different professions. The interviews were transcribed and analysed according to qualitative content analysis, and categories and themes were identified. Analysis revealed two different systems of clinical learning environments. In one, the interplay between the structural aspects dominated, and in the other, the interplay between the cultural aspects dominated. An important similarity between the environments was that a defined role for students in the organization and interprofessional teamwork around supervision across professional borders was emphasized.

  8. Endotoxin contamination: a key element in the interpretation of nanosafety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Boraschi, Diana

    2016-02-01

    The study of toxicity and potential risks of engineered nanoparticles is of particular importance in nanomedicine. Endotoxin, a common contaminant of bacterial origin, has biological effects that can mask the true biological effects of nanoparticles, if its presence is overlooked. In this review, we report the features of nanoparticle contamination by endotoxin, and the different biological effects of endotoxin-contaminated nanoparticles. We will describe different methods for endotoxin detection applied to nanoparticles, and discuss their pros and cons. Eventually, we describe various methods for eliminating endotoxin contamination in nanoparticles. Although there is no universal technique for efficiently removing endotoxin from nanoparticles, specific solutions can be found case by case, which can allow us to perform nanosafety studies in biologically relevant conditions.

  9. Characteristics of evolving models of care for arthritis: A key informant study

    OpenAIRE

    Veinot Paula; MacKay Crystal; Badley Elizabeth M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The burden of arthritis is increasing in the face of diminishing health human resources to deliver care. In response, innovative models of care delivery are developing to facilitate access to quality care. Most models have developed in response to local needs with limited evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to a) examine the range of models of care that deliver specialist services using a medical/surgical specialist and at least one other health care provide...

  10. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense Against Toxic Agents: Molecular Biology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-29

    Jacobson, M.K., Janzon, L., SeidegArd, J., Smulson, M.E., and Troll, W. The Malmt5 Diet and Cancer Study: The Biomarker Program. Submitted for publication in...ribosylate proteins which bind to the regulatory regions of glucocorticoid responsive genes. (2). TCDD, dioxin , a potent environmental contaminant...like glucocorticoid is mediated by an aromatic hydrocarbon rereptor which a!’c binds to specific DNA sequences (i.e. dioxin -responsive elements

  11. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A; Yang, Huan-Yi; Liu, Tong-Jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-Qing

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.

  12. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A.; Yang, Huan-yi; Liu, Tong-jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies. PMID:27704748

  13. Study of Key Factors Determinant Choice of Rail-Based Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ircham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to regulations of the Ministry of Transportation in 2002 about the type of transport based on the city size, the metropolis with a population of more than 1 million inhabitants are required to have the urban mass transit. Nevertheless, until now not all city-scale population of more than 1 million have mass public transport, either bus or rail-based. Especially for rail-based mass transit, indicated the existing regulations have not been able to challenge the development of rail-based urban mass transit. Learning from the literature study and the experience of countries that already have rail-based urban mass transit it has acquired nine main factors to be taken into account in developing a rail-based urban public transportation. This study was conducted by using Analytical Hierarchy Process method which was further validated through the implementation of the On Focus Group Discussion in the Jakarta City Transportation Council (DTKJ as well as in the City Development Planning Board (Bappeko Surabaya. Finally, the initial result shown five sequences determining factor for the determinant choice of rail-based mass transit, namely: fiscal or economic capacity of the region and society, transport policy, integrated public transport, land use, fare and travel time. Furthermore, the acquisition results of this study can be applied to the selected cities to address the challenges to urban mass transit development.

  14. Theoretical foundations of international migration process studies: analysis of key migration theories development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska K.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for transformation of Ukraine's migration policy based on globalized world development trends and in response to the challenges of European integration transformations causes the need of researching the theoretical and methodological basis of migration studies, and the regulations of existing theories of international migration. The bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on international migration in cites indexes found that the recent researches on these problems acquire interdisciplinary character. It necessitates the transformation of migration study approaches basing on economic, social, institutional theories and concepts synthesis. The article is devoted to the study of theoretical regulations of existing international migration theories in the context of the evolution of scientists’ views on this phenomenon. The author found that the existing theories of international migration should be divided into three categories (microeconomic, macroeconomic, globalizational that contributes to their understanding in the context of implementation possibilities in migrational public administration practice. It allows to determine the theories which should be used for Ukrainian state migration policy constructing and eliminating or reducing the external migration negative effects.

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is

  16. Depth keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvili, Ronen; Kaplan, Amir; Ofek, Eyal; Yahav, Giora

    2003-05-01

    We present a new solution to the known problem of video keying in a natural environment. We segment foreground objects from background objects using their relative distance from the camera, which makes it possible to do away with the use of color for keying. To do so, we developed and built a novel depth video camera, capable of producing RGB and D signals, where D stands for the distance to each pixel. The new RGBD camera enables the creation of a whole new gallery of effects and applications such as multi-layer background substitutions. This new modality makes the production of real time mixed reality video possible, as well as post-production manipulation of recorded video. We address the problem of color spill -- in which the color of the foreground object is mixed, along its boundary, with the background color. This problem prevents an accurate separation of the foreground object from its background, and it is most visible when compositing the foreground objects to a new background. Most existing techniques are limited to the use of a constant background color. We offer a novel general approach to the problem with enabling the use of the natural background, based upon the D channel generated by the camera.

  17. Epidemiology of Animal Bites in Azarshahr town: A Cross-sectional Study of Key Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari-Khounigh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Animal bites are among the most significant public health problems due to the risk of rabies. Because of high mortality rate and economic damages, rabies is of very importance. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites in Azarshahr in 2010 and 2011. Material and Methods : In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, all cases of animal bites in 2010 and 2011 that were recorded in rabies treatment centers of Azarshahr were included in the study using census method according to the existing data recorded in animal bites registry. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS software. Results : During 2010 and 2011, a total number of 630 animal bites cases occurred that 86.5% of the cases were male. In 51.7% of the cases, animal bites occurred in urban areas. The incidence rate of animal bites was calculated as 291.0 in 100000. The average age and the standard deviation of cases was 31.52±16.73. The main biting animal was domesticated dog (66.3% and most of the bites happened during summer (28.4%. The most injured body organ was hand (47.6%. The association between animal type and injured organ was statistically significant (P Conclusion : Due to the high costs of vaccination and immunoglobulin expenses, prevention strategies seem to be necessary. Since most of the bites were caused by domestic dogs, health education interventions with the aim of more controls on domestic animals could be a cost-effective approach.

  18. Identifying Key Topics for the Description of Sexual Behavior in the Danish Population: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson

    verbatim and analysed using qualitative description as the research approach. Results We identified four major categories of risk behavior: 1) Alcohol consumption being associated with no condom use. 2) Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands...... other countries, but cultural differences may raise additional or other questions in order to describe the important issues sufficiently. To design and initiate a sexual behavior surveillance program in Denmark, the aim of this qualitative study was therefore to identify focus points of special...

  19. Key Considerations and Methods in the Study of Gene-Environment Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul H G; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    With increased involvement of genetic data in most epidemiological investigations, gene-environment (G × E) interactions now stand as a topic, which must be meticulously assessed and thoroughly understood. The level, mode, and outcomes of interactions between environmental factors and genetic traits have the capacity to modulate disease risk. These must, therefore, be carefully evaluated as they have the potential to offer novel insights on the "missing heritability problem", reaching beyond our current limitations. First, we review a definition of G × E interactions. We then explore how concepts such as the early manifestation of the genetic components of a disease, the heterogeneity of complex traits, the clear definition of epidemiological strata, and the effect of varying physiological conditions can affect our capacity to detect (or miss) G × E interactions. Lastly, we discuss the shortfalls of regression models to study G × E interactions and how other methods such as the ReliefF algorithm, pattern recognition methods, or the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) method can enable us to more adequately model G × E interactions. Overall, we present the elements to consider and a path to follow when studying genetic determinants of disease in order to uncover potential G × E interactions.

  20. The Keys to Governance and Stakeholder Engagement: The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jardins, Terrisca R.

    2014-01-01

    Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals. PMID:25848612

  1. The keys to governance and stakeholder engagement: the southeast michigan beacon community case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jardins, Terrisca R

    2014-01-01

    Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals.

  2. Developing Key Skills as a Science Communicator: Case Studies of Two Scientist-Led Outreach Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Illingworth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outreach by scientific researchers in school classrooms often results in widespread benefit for learners, classroom teachers and researchers. This paper presents a consideration of these benefits using two case studies in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES. In each case, different school classroom-based activities were designed by scientists, but were improved by input from educational professionals, which helped to maximize the mutual learning experiences and to ensure the quality of the content and its delivery. Each case study suggests an improvement in scientist’s working knowledge of best practices for classroom-based outreach activities, which can translate to improved practices for University-level teaching, among other tangible career-relevant benefits. Despite these benefits, these projects highlight the well-established need for improved training for researchers in effective outreach practices, increased value on programme evaluation, and the growing need for meaningful professional recognition for researchers involved in these important, and ever-growing, outreach activities.

  3. Interprofessional social and emotional intelligence skills training: study findings and key lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Loma Kaye; Thomas-Squance, Ruth; Brainin-Rodriguez, Jo Ellen; Yancey, Antronette K

    2014-03-01

    Frequently changing demands in health care systems have focused attention on the need for emotional competence (EC) - social and emotional intelligence skills, to adapt efficiently, responsively and productively. This paper reports on findings from a workshop that introduced practical EC skills to nearly 1000 participants in education, medicine, mental health and substance abuse counseling. The holistic EC presentations were designed to teach concepts and principles providing each participant with the opportunity for individualized learning. Ninety percent of the participants rated these presentations as valuable and useful. Following this positive response, the approach was adapted to train health professionals serving diverse populations. This report shares our experience teaching various professionals and describes preliminarily testing of the adapted EC training program on a small group of health professionals, whose responsibilities included teamwork, program design, teaching clients and patients EC basics to support healthy practices and self-care. Their positive response supports the need for expanded study and further investigation.

  4. Analytical methodologies for metallomics studies of antitumor Pt-containing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía; Cañas, Benito; Palacios, María Antonia; Gómez-Gómez, María Milagros

    2010-01-01

    Pt-containing drugs are nowadays essential components in cancer chemotherapy. However, drug resistance and side effects limit the efficiency of the treatments. In order to improve the response to Pt-based drugs, different administration strategies or new Pt-compounds have been developed with little success. The reason for this failure could be that the mechanism of action of these drugs is not completely understood. In this way, metallomics studies may contribute to clarify the interactions of Pt-containing drugs within the organism. This review is mainly focused on the role of Analytical Chemistry on the study of the interactions between Pt-based drugs and biomolecules. A summary of the analytical techniques and the most common sample treatment procedures currently used in metallomics studies of these drugs is presented. Both are of paramount importance to study these complex samples preserving the drug-biomolecule interaction. Separation and detection techniques must be carefully selected in order to achieve the intended goals. The use of multidimensional hyphenated techniques is usually necessary for a better understanding of the Pt-based drugs interactions in the organism. An overview of Pt-drugs biological interactions is presented, considering the different sample matrices and the drugs course through the organism. Samples analysed in the included studies are blood, urine, cell cytosol, DNA as well as the drugs themselves and their derivatives. However, most of these works are based on in vitro experiments or incubations of standards, leading in some cases to contradictory results depending on the experimental conditions used. Though in vivo experiments represent a great challenge due to the high complexity and the low concentrations of the Pt-adducts in real samples, these studies must be undertaken to get a deeper understanding of the real interactions concerning Pt-containing drugs.

  5. Studies on Manganese Peroxidase Immobilized in Gelatin-containing Microemulsion-based Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Shao-fang; LUAN Yu-xia; SU Xiu-rong

    2005-01-01

    The immobilized technique of manganese peroxidase(MnP) in gelatin-containing microemulsion-based gels and the effects of storage time and reuse times on its catalytic activity were studied. The results show that the MnP immobilized together with Mn2+ and H2O2 could effectively oxidize syringaldazine in n-heptane. The immobilized MnP still had a high catalytic activity after one-month storage under a freezing condition. The reuse times have a relation to the amount of the immobilized H2O2. When the amount of the immobilized H2O2 is sufficient, the microemulsion-based gels containing MnP could be used many times.

  6. A study of the influence of a gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive on endometrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, T; Leppien, G; Fossman, W G; Hessing, C; Vladescú, E; Runnebaum, B

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate histological changes in the endometrium in 20 volunteers treated with a low-dose, gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive. Endometrial biopsy specimens were taken before, during a 6-month period of oral contraceptive use and in a post-treatment period. These specimens were evaluated using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, ultrasound examinations of the uterus, endometrial thickness and ovaries were performed. The low-dose, gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive had no adverse effects on the endometrium (e.g. no proliferation, no polyps, no inflammatory processes), was well tolerated and showed a low side-effect profile. The inhibition of endometrial transformation was demonstrated both by endometrial morphology as well as by endometrial thickness, as measured by transvaginal ultrasound examination.

  7. Study on microstructure and properties of brass containing Sb and Mg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A novel free-cutting unleaded brass containing antimony and magnesium was prepared by gravity casting and hot extrusion. Microstructure of the hot extruded Sb-Mg brass was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). Its mechanical properties were measured by tensile test, and cutting performance was investigated by lathe turning experiment. Results showed that microstructure of the hot extruded Sb-Mg brass was composed of α, β phases and Sb-Mg containing intermetallic compounds. The newly developed brass was compared with the HPb59-1 brass for its mechanical property. Its cutting performance was close to that of a German free-cutting unleaded brass. Sb-Mg brass has potential to replace HPb59-1 brass so as to reduce cost and protect environment.

  8. Experimental and ab initio studies of the novel piperidine-containing acetylene glycols

    CERN Document Server

    Mirsakiyeva, Amina; Elgammal, Karim; Ten, Assel; Hugosson, Håkan W; Delin, Anna; Yu, Valentina K

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis routes of novel piperidine-containing diacetylene are presented. The new molecules are expected to exhibit plant growth stimulation properties. In particular, the yield in a situation of drought is expected to increase. The synthesis makes use of the Favorskii reaction between cycloketones/piperidone and triple-bond containing glycols. The geometries of the obtained molecules were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The electronic structure and geometries of the molecules were studied theoretically using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The calculated geometries agree very well with the experimentally measured ones, and also allow us to determine bond lengths, angles and charge distributions inside the molecules. The stability of the OH-radicals located close to the triple bond and the piperidine/cyclohexane rings was proven by both experimental and theoretical analyses. The HOMO/LUMO analysis was done in order to characterize the electron density of t...

  9. Selection of key ambient particulate variables for epidemiological studies - applying cluster and heatmap analyses as tools for data reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Pitz, Mike; Breitner, Susanne; Birmili, Wolfram; von Klot, Stephanie; Schneider, Alexandra; Soentgen, Jens; Reller, Armin; Peters, Annette; Cyrys, Josef

    2012-10-01

    The success of epidemiological studies depends on the use of appropriate exposure variables. The purpose of this study is to extract a relatively small selection of variables characterizing ambient particulate matter from a large measurement data set. The original data set comprised a total of 96 particulate matter variables that have been continuously measured since 2004 at an urban background aerosol monitoring site in the city of Augsburg, Germany. Many of the original variables were derived from measured particle size distribution (PSD) across the particle diameter range 3 nm to 10 μm, including size-segregated particle number concentration, particle length concentration, particle surface concentration and particle mass concentration. The data set was complemented by integral aerosol variables. These variables were measured by independent instruments, including black carbon, sulfate, particle active surface concentration and particle length concentration. It is obvious that such a large number of measured variables cannot be used in health effect analyses simultaneously. The aim of this study is a pre-screening and a selection of the key variables that will be used as input in forthcoming epidemiological studies. In this study, we present two methods of parameter selection and apply them to data from a two-year period from 2007 to 2008. We used the agglomerative hierarchical cluster method to find groups of similar variables. In total, we selected 15 key variables from 9 clusters which are recommended for epidemiological analyses. We also applied a two-dimensional visualization technique called "heatmap" analysis to the Spearman correlation matrix. 12 key variables were selected using this method. Moreover, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the PSD data to characterize the possible particle sources. Correlations between the variables and PMF factors were used to interpret the meaning of the cluster and the heatmap analyses

  10. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-hua ZHANG; Tao WU; Faizan A SADIQ; Huan-yi YANG; Tong-jie LIU; Hui RUAN; Guo-qing HE

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB stil remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distilation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). Al samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.%中文概要题目:传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味物质的研究目的:通过同时蒸馏萃取(SDE)、顶空固相微萃取(SPME)及吹扫捕集(P&T)技术结合气相色谱-嗅闻-质谱(GC-O-MS)技术对传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味成分进行分析,并初步探讨特征风味形成机理。创新点:首次采用不同风味物质分析技术探索传统酸面团制备的馒头关键风味成分。方法:采用同时SDE、SPME及P&T方法,对不同传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味物质进行分析。结论:SDE结果显示,反式-2-壬烯醛和反式-2,4-癸二烯醛为传统酸面团馒头中关键风味成分。SPME和P&T 方法表明乙醇和醋酸是关键风味物质。因此,需要结合不同技术方法,全面分析传统酸面团制备的馒头中特征风味成分。

  11. Spectroscopic study of local thermal effect in transparent glass ceramics containing nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Local thermal effect influencing the fluorescence of triply ionized rare earth ions doped in nanocrystals is studied with laser spectroscopy and theory of thermal transportation for transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing nanocrystals. The result shows that the local temperature of the nanocrystals embedded in glass matrices is much higher than the environmental temperature of the sample. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent thermal energy induced by the light absorption must be considered when the theory of thermal transportation is applied to the study of local thermal effect.

  12. Synthesis and Studies of Sulfur-Containing Heterocyclic Molecules for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzanti, Virginia

    the synthesis of dimeric structures of redox active system tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Molecules with different conjugation pathways bridging two TTFs were synthesized and studied using CV and DPV in order to probe the electronic interaction between these two redox units. The last aspect of this thesis, which......This work describes the synthesis and studies of sulfur containing π conjugated heterocycles, which are considered interesting motifs in the field of molecular electronics. The first project, which is covered in Chapter 1, concerns the functionalization of tetracycle dibenzo[bc,fg][1...

  13. Design, synthesis, anticancer, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking studies of theophylline containing acetylenes and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddarraju, Radhakrishnam Raju; Murugulla, Adharvana Chari; Kotla, Ravindar; Chandra Babu Tirumalasetty, Muni; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Donthabakthuni, Shobha; Maroju, Ravichandar; Baburao, K; Parasa, Lakshmana Swamy

    2016-11-10

    A new series of theophylline containing acetylene derivatives (6a-6b and 7-13) and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives (20-32) have been designed and synthesized. These compounds were screened for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. Further the computational docking and 2D QSAR were performed using MOE software to identify novel scaffolds. The results showed that compound 29 and 30 exhibit significant cytotoxic effect on all four cancer cells such as lung (A549), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and melanoma (A375) with IC50 values of 2.56, 2.19, 1.89, 4.89 μM and 3.57, 2.90, 2.10, 5.81 μM respectively. Whereas quite different results were observed for these compounds in antimicrobial studies. Compounds 11, 21 and 26 have exhibited significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The docking studies demonstrate that compound 27, 28, 29 and 30 have good dock score and binding affinities with various therapeutic targets in cancer cell proliferation. In addition these compounds have shown acceptable correlation with bioassay results in the regression plots generated in 2D QSAR models. This is the first report to demonstrate the theophylline containing acetylene derivatives and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazole nucleoside hybrids as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents with comprehensive in silico analysis.

  14. Knowledge-enhancing Helix: An Approach for Developing Key Academic Skills at Universities. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Boeller

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly e-literate society, new and media technologies are proliferating and traditional teaching approaches are challenged to meet new requirements. Other aspects such as teamwork and knowledge exchange are also becoming more important. Collaborative working methods are more dominant in the networked business environment. The vocational training at universities is therefore continuously facing with new challenges. The objective of this paper is to show how the implementation of a holistic teaching approach including the idea of blended learning can be an effective way to train students in collaborative and academic working skills, methodological expertise, information literacy, as well as making students aware of new developments in media literacy. This approach follows our proposed concept DIAMOND (Didactical Approach for Media Competence Development with a main focus on the implementation of the "knowledgeenhancing helix." This pedagogical concept was developed corresponding the requirements for "good online learning." The paper accordingly discusses the theoretical framework and presents a case study where the concept was implemented in practice.

  15. Study on Equity and Efficiency of Health Resources and Services Based on Key Indicators in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the dialectical relationship between equity and efficiency of health resource allocation and health service utilization in China.We analyzed the inequity of health resource allocation and health service utilization based on concentration index (CI and Gini coefficient. Data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to evaluate the inefficiency of resource allocation and service utilization. Factor Analysis (FA was used to determine input/output indicators.The CI of Health Institutions, Beds in Health Institutions, Health Professionals and Outpatient Visits were -0.116, -0.012, 0.038, and 0.111, respectively. Gini coefficient for the 31 provinces varied between 0.05 and 0.43; out of these 23 (742% were observed to be technically efficient constituting the "best practice frontier". The other 8 (25.8% provinces were technically inefficient.Health professionals and outpatient services are focused on higher income levels, while the Health Institutions and Beds in Health Institutions were concentrated on lower income levels. In China, a few provinces attained a basic balance in both equity and efficiency in terms of current health resource and service utilization, thus serving as a reference standard for other provinces.

  16. Achieving People Friendly Accessibility. Key Concepts and a Case Study Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Tiboni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper stems from the evidence that one of the reasons of the “crisis” of today's cities probably depend on mobility issues.   But what should be done to confront all the negative impacts of passenger transportation, without curbing mobility? Can Urban Engineering be applied to promote a friendlier mobility, that should be not only environment and climate friendly, but user friendly as well? And how? A "people friendly" accessibility approach is presented and conceived as a solution to better integrate land uses with the transport system, satisfying people's expectations (especially those of vulnerable users to easily reach the opportunities they wish to engage with.  The case study of Amsterdam, as walkable and cycle friendly city, is briefly presented and reveal good practices in the field of urban and mobility planning.  Finally, an isochronical accessibility analysis of Amsterdam is applied: it represent catchment areas of railways stations and of supermarkets, and it highlights how much the structure of the city supports bicycle use.

  17. Knowledge-enhancing Helix: An Approach for Developing Key Academic Skills at Universities. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Boeller

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly e-literate society, new and media technologies are proliferating and traditional teaching approaches are challenged to meet new requirements. Other aspects such as teamwork and knowledge exchange are also becoming more important. Collaborative working methods are more dominant in the networked business environment. The vocational training at universities is therefore continuously facing with new challenges. The objective of this paper is to show how the implementation of a holistic teaching approach including the idea of blended learning can be an effective way to train students in collaborative and academic working skills, methodological expertise, information literacy, as well as making students aware of new developments in media literacy. This approach follows our proposed concept DIAMOND (Didactical Approach for Media Competence Development with a main focus on the implementation of the "knowledgeenhancing helix." This pedagogical concept was developed corresponding the requirements for "good online learning." The paper accordingly discusses the theoretical framework and presents a case study where the concept was implemented in practice.

  18. From struggles to resource gains in interprofessional service networks: Key findings from a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Kira, Mari

    2017-04-07

    In interprofessional service networks, employees cross professional boundaries to collaborate with colleagues and clients with expertise and values different from their own. It can be a struggle to adopt shared work practices and deal with "multivoicedness." At the same time, networks allow members to engage in meaningful service provision, gain a broader understanding of the service provided, and obtain social support. Intertwined network struggles and resource gains have received limited attention in the interprofessional care literature to date. The aim of the study was to investigate the learning potential of the co-existing struggles and resource gains. This article reports findings from two interprofessional networks. Interviews were conducted with 19 employees and thematically analysed. Three types of struggles and six types of resource gains of networking were identified. The struggles relate, first, to the assumptions of networking following similar practices to those in a home organisation; second, to the challenges of dealing with the multivoicedness of networking; and, third, to the experienced gap between the networking ideals and the reality of cooperation. At the same time, the network members experience gains in emotional resources (e.g., stronger sense of meaningfulness at work), cognitive resources (e.g., understanding the customer needs from alternative perspectives), and social resources (e.g., being able to rely on other professionals' competence). Learning potential emerged from the dynamics between coexisting struggles and resource gains.

  19. Plant cell death and cellular alterations induced by ozone: Key studies in Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faoro, Franco, E-mail: franco.faoro@unimi.i [Istituto di Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Milano and CNR, Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, U.O.T di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Iriti, Marcello [Istituto di Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Milano and CNR, Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, U.O.T di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    An account of histo-cytological and ultrastructural studies on ozone effect on crop and forest species in Italy is given, with emphasis on induced cell death and the underlying mechanisms. Cell death phenomena possibly due to ambient O{sub 3} were recorded in crop and forest species. In contrast, visible O{sub 3} effects on Mediterranean vegetation are often unclear. Microscopy is thus suggested as an effective tool to validate and evaluate O{sub 3} injury to Mediterranean vegetation. A DAB-Evans blue staining was proposed to validate O{sub 3} symptoms at the microscopic level and for a pre-visual diagnosis of O{sub 3} injury. The method has been positively tested in some of the most important crop species, such as wheat, tomato, bean and onion and, with some restriction, in forest species, and it also allows one to gain some very useful insights into the mechanisms at the base of O{sub 3} sensitivity or tolerance. - Ozone-induced cell death is a frequent phenomenon in Mediterranean conditions, not only in the most sensitive crops but also in forest species.

  20. Study and optimization of key parameters of a laser ablation ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Li, Jianan; Tang, Binchao; Shi, Yuan; Yu, Quan; Qian, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-11-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), having an advantage in real-time and on-line detection, is an atmospheric pressure detecting technique. LA-IMS (Laser Ablation Ion Mobility Spectrometry) uses Nd-YAG laser as ionization source, whose energy is high enough to ionize metal. In this work, we tested the signal in different electric field intensity by a home-made ion mobility spectrometer, using silicon wafers the sample. The transportation of metal ions was match with the formula: Td = d/K • 1/E, when the electric field intensity is greater than 350v/cm. The relationship between signal intensity and collection angle (the angle between drift tube and the surface of the sample) was studied. With the increasing of the collection angle, signal intensity had a significant increase; while the variation of incident angle of the laser had no significant influence. The signal intensity had a 140% increase when the collection angle varied from 0 to 45 degree, while the angle between the drift tube and incident laser beam keeping the same as 90 degree. The position of ion gate in LA-IMS(Laser Ablation Ion Mobility Spectrometry) is different from the traditional ones for the kinetic energy of the ions is too big, if the distance between ion gate and sampling points less than 2.5cm the ion gate will not work, the ions could go through ion gate when it closed. The SNR had been improved by define the signal when the ion gate is closed as background signal, the signal noise including shock wave and electrical field perturbation produced during the interaction between laser beam and samples is eliminated when the signal that the ion gate opened minus the background signal.

  1. Key Findings and Recommendations from the Coös Youth Study: Research from the First Half of the Study. Regional Issue Brief Number 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Michael S.; Jaffee, Eleanor M.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief, authors Michael Staunton and Eleanor Jaffee review the key findings and recommendations from research conducted in the first half of the Coös Youth Study, which began in 2008 and is planned to continue through 2018. The study explores young people's decisions about their educational and job opportunities in rural northern New…

  2. Romanian Consumers’ Willingness to Buy Foodstuffs Containing Food Additives: Results of a Conjoint Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szucs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the literature and the authors’ previous studies showed consumers’ high anxiety regarding food additives as well as their high demand for additive-free products in Romania, even at higher prices. Hence, the aim of our work was to analyse the willingness to buy and preference of foodstuffs containing natural and artificial food additives in Romania.A complex conjoint analysis (rating-based and choice-based was performed amongst Romanian consumers. Conjoint cards were created from two groups of food additives (‘preservatives’ and ‘packaging gases’, and consisting of two ‘model foodstuffs’ (pre-packed sliced cheese and chips. For the study, three factors were selected: ‘preservatives’ (artificial/natural, ‘packaging gases’ (contains/does not contain and ‘price’ (average+10%/average+20%. Results were collected via the internet and data were analysed with the help of SPSS Conjoint and XLSTAT softwares. ‘Preservatives’ have a dominant importance and ‘natural preservatives’ have a high utility in shopping decisions. ‘Natural’ compounds have higher importance in the example of foodstuffs thought to contain less food additives (pre-packed sliced cheese, while the presence of ‘packaging gases’ is acceptable to respondents in easy to handle and convenient foodstuffs. With the help of the cluster analysis, the promising target group (‘desire for natural’ characterising additive-free foodstuffs  that contain natural compounds was identified. Restricted comparison of the rating-based and the choice-based analysis showed that the choice-based method was easier to handle and understand for the participants. Regarding the results, a threefold conclusion was established: the ‘prominence effect’ is greater for the choice-based than the rating-based analysis; the effect of ‘level focusing’ is smaller in the rating-based than in the choice-based analysis; the ‘compatibility effect’ the rating

  3. Comprehensive paleoseismic geological studies in a key site in southwestern Kola Peninsula (Northeast of the Fennoscandian Shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S. B.; Nikonov, A. A.; Shvarev, S. V.; Rodkin, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the results of detailed paleoseismic and geological investigations in a key site in the wall of the Imandra Lake depression (Kola Peninsula Region, Northeast of the Fennoscandian Shield). Study of different groups of paleoseismic deformations developed in the fault zone and the application of new methods and techniques made it possible to identify a large seismotectonic zone characterized by great earthquakes at the end of the Late Glacial and in the Holocene. The investigation data are indicative of the necessity to estimate the seismic potential in the Kola Atomic plant area in a different way.

  4. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  5. Sulfonamide-containing PTP 1B inhibitors: Docking studies, synthesis and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Enli; Gan, Qiang; Chen, Xi; Feng, Changgen

    2017-01-01

    PTP 1B plays an important role in regulating insulin signaling pathway and is regarded as a valid target for curing diabetes and obesity. In this paper, two novel sulfonamide-containing PTP 1B inhibitors were designed, synthesized in mild condition, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. The single crystal of compounds 7 and 8 were obtained and their structures were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. In addition, their inhibitory activity were predicted by genetic algorithm, and carried on in vitro enzyme activity test. Of which compound 8 showed good inhibitory activity, in consistent with docking studies.

  6. Antibacterial structure–activity relationship studies of several tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrin, Lucian G; Hopf, Henning; Jones, Peter G; Sarbu, Laura G; Babii, Cornelia; Mihai, Alina C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A structure–activity relationship study concerning the antibacterial properties of several halogen-substituted tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids has been performed. The compounds have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of the corresponding 3-dithiocarbamic flavanones under acidic conditions. The influence of different halogen substituents on the antibacterial properties has been tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Amongst the N,N-dialkylamino-substituted flavonoids, those having an N,N-diethylamino moiety exhibited good to excellent antimicrobial properties against both pathogens. Fluorine-substituted flavonoids were found to be less active than those bearing other halogen atoms. PMID:27340492

  7. Antibacterial structure–activity relationship studies of several tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian G. Bahrin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A structure–activity relationship study concerning the antibacterial properties of several halogen-substituted tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids has been performed. The compounds have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of the corresponding 3-dithiocarbamic flavanones under acidic conditions. The influence of different halogen substituents on the antibacterial properties has been tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Amongst the N,N-dialkylamino-substituted flavonoids, those having an N,N-diethylamino moiety exhibited good to excellent antimicrobial properties against both pathogens. Fluorine-substituted flavonoids were found to be less active than those bearing other halogen atoms.

  8. Oxalate-containing phytocomplexes as dentine desensitisers: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Salvatore; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Prati, Carlo; Mongiorgi, Romano

    2006-08-01

    It is known that pulpal fluid movement through dentinal tubules causes dentinal hypersensitivity and that pain can be reduced by decreasing the fluid flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate dentinal permeability and morphology after a single exposure to experimental phytocomplex substances containing oxalates. The treatments tested were experimental pastes, gels and solutions of phytocomplexes (extracted from rhubarb, spinach and mint), an experimental paste containing 5% potassium oxalate, and two commercial toothpastes recommended for dentinal hypersensitivity (Elmex and Sensodyne). Dentine discs from human third molars were used in this study. Each sample was brushed for 3 min with each treatment in order to test reductions in dentinal permeability. Each treated sample was challenged with orthophosphoric acid for 90 s to determine changes in dentinal permeability and the sensitivity of treatments to acid challenge. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyse the samples. This study found that spinach and rhubarb phytocomplex treatments reduced dentinal permeability by occluding dentinal tubules through formation of calcium oxalate crystals. These results indicate that phytocomplexes extracted from rhubarb and spinach, used in different formulations, should be effective for topical treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.

  9. Kinetic release studies of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate from gum acacia crosslinked hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, B A; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Ray, S S; Mbianda, X Y; Fotsing, M C; Owonubi, S J; Agwuncha, S C

    2015-02-01

    Natural polymer hydrogels are useful for controlling release of drugs. In this study, hydrogels containing gum acacia were synthesized by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide with gum acacia. The effect of gum acacia in the hydrogels on the release mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) was studied at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The hydrogels exhibited high swelling ratios at pH 7.4 and low swelling ratios at pH 1.2. The release study was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy via complex formation with Fe(III) ions. At pH 1.2, the release profile was found to be anomalous while at pH 7.4, the release kinetic of BP was a perfect zero-order release mechanism. The hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive and the release profiles of the BP were found to be influenced by the degree of crosslinking of the hydrogel network with gum acacia. The preliminary results suggest that these hydrogels are promising devices for controlled delivery of bisphosphonate to the gastrointestinal region.

  10. Permeation studies of novel terbinafine formulations containing hydrophobins through human nails in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejnovic, Ivana; Huonder, Cornelia; Betz, Gabriele

    2010-09-15

    Existing treatments of onychomycosis are not satisfactory. Oral therapies have many side effects and topical formulations are not able to penetrate into the human nail plate and deliver therapeutical concentrations of active agent in situ. The purpose of the present study was to determine the amount of terbinafine, which permeates through the human nail plate, from liquid formulations containing enhancers, namely hydrophobins A-C in the concentration of 0.1% (w/v). The used reference solution contained 10% (w/v) of terbinafine in 60% (v/v) ethanol/water without enhancer. Permeability studies have been performed on cadaver nails using Franz diffusion cells modified to mount nail plates and filled with 60% (v/v) ethanol/water in the acceptor chamber. Terbinafine was quantitatively determined by HPLC. The amount of terbinafine remaining in the nail was extracted by 96% ethanol from pulverized nail material after permeation experiment and presented as percentage of the dry nail weight before the milling test. Permeability coefficient (PC) of terbinafine from reference solution was determined to be 1.52E-10 cm/s. Addition of hydrophobins improved PC in the range of 3E-10 to 2E-9 cm/s. Remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail from reference solution was 0.83% (n=2). An increase of remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail was observed in two out of three tested formulations containing hydrophobins compared to the reference. In all cases, known minimum inhibitory concentration of terbinafine for dermatophytes (0.003 microg/ml) has been exceeded in the acceptor chamber of the diffusion cells. All tested proteins (hydrophobins) facilitated terbinafine permeation after 10 days of permeation experiment, however one of them achieved an outstanding enhancement factor of 13.05 compared to the reference. Therefore, hydrophobins can be included in the list of potential enhancers for treatment of onychomycosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An integrated approach to steam condensation studies inside reactor containments: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Mahesh Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India); Khandekar, Sameer, E-mail: samkhan@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India); Sharma, Pavan K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Occurrence of severe accidents, such as the Fukushima incident in 2011, is unlikely with a probability of 10{sup −5} per reactor per year. However, such kinds of accidents have serious consequences on both, short term as well as on long term public health, environment and energy policy and security. They also adversely affect the progress of nuclear power industry. Thus, despite such a low probability of occurrence, a need arises to review the safety standards of nuclear power plants, especially in the light of the Fukushima accident. Apart from other systems, a review of thermal-hydraulics and safety system for the reactor containment is vital, as it is the last barrier to radioactive leakage. Main threats to the containment integrity include over-pressurization, not only due to steam alone, but its coupling with the possibility of local hydrogen combustion, depending on the local mixture composition of steam-air-hydrogens. It must be emphasized that steam condensation rate affects the local mixture composition and presence of hydrogen significantly deteriorates the condensation rate. This intrinsic coupling needs to be understood. In this paper, steam condensation and related issues, including basics of condensation, modeling approaches, parameters affecting condensation and experiments performed (in both separate effect and integral test facilities) are critically reviewed, in the light of coupled issues of hydrogen transport and combustion. Such studies are necessary for correlation development and/or to find out the local distribution of steam-hydrogen-air mixture within the containment to locate the possible hydrogen combustion location(s) and hence, deployment of active/passive safety systems. In addition, it is important that future studies, both experimental and numerical modeling, focus on the coupled nature of the problem in a comprehensive manner for ensuring long term safety.

  12. [Key measures for developing palliative care from a public health perspective. Initial results from a three-round Delphi study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmann, M; Jünger, S; Radbruch, L; Schneider, N

    2011-05-01

    Recently, six key targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care in Germany were defined. This article reports the initial results of a follow-up study aiming at developing concrete measures to achieve these targets. We carried out a three-round Delphi study with stakeholders acting on the meso- and macro-levels of the German healthcare system (e.g., representatives of patient organizations, health insurance funds, politics, medical and nursing associations). In the first Delphi round, participants proposed measures to achieve the six key targets using free-text answers. The answers were analyzed with a qualitative-descriptive approach. In total, 107 stakeholders responded to the first Delphi round. After data reduction, 37 measures were extracted and grouped into six major categories: family carers, qualification, quality, public relations, services, and coordination. The range of measures on the different levels of policy, health care, and education presents a substantiated basis for the elaboration of targeted public health action plans to improve palliative care. Prioritization of measures in the second and third Delphi rounds will provide empirical support for decision making.

  13. Monte Carlo parametric studies of neutron interrogation with the Associated Particle Technique for cargo container inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyglun, Clément; Carasco, Cédric; Pérot, Bertrand

    2014-06-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation is extensively studied by Monte Carlo simulation at the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission). The active inspection system is based on the Associated Particle Technique (APT). Fissions induced by tagged neutrons (i.e. correlated to an alpha particle in the DT neutron generator) in SNM produce high multiplicity coincidences which are detected with fast plastic scintillators. At least three particles are detected in a short time window following the alpha detection, whereas nonnuclear materials mainly produce single events, or pairs due to (n,2n) and (n,n'γ) reactions. To study the performances of an industrial cargo container inspection system, Monte Carlo simulations are performed with the MCNP-PoliMi transport code, which records for each neutron history the relevant information: reaction types, position and time of interactions, energy deposits, secondary particles, etc. The output files are post-processed with a specific tool developed with ROOT data analysis software. Particles not correlated with an alpha particle (random background), counting statistics, and time-energy resolutions of the data acquisition system are taken into account in the numerical model. Various matrix compositions, suspicious items, SNM shielding and positions inside the container, are simulated to assess the performances and limitations of an industrial system.

  14. Study on Properties of Environment-friendly Concrete Containing Large Amount of Industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, H.; Maruoka, M.; Sadayama, C.; Nemoto, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamaji, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to reduce CO2 discharged from the cement and concrete industries by effective use of industrial by-products, such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and so on. In this paper, the properties of concrete containing large amount of industrial by-products and very small amount of alkaline activator including cement or sludge from ready mixed concrete plant are analyzed. As the result, it was confirmed that concretes containing large amount of industrial by-products can achieve sufficient compressive strength. However, these concretes showed poor frost resistance. It was thought that the reason was coarsening of air void system and this caused their poor frost resistance. Therefore, in order to micronize the air void system and improve frost resistance, the combination of air entraining agent and antifoaming agent was applied. By this method, it was confirmed that the frost resistance of some these concrete improved. In this study, other properties of these concretes, such as fresh properties and other durability were evaluated and it was confirmed that these concretes show sufficient properties.

  15. Evaluating an experimental dentifrice containing chloramine-T: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapelli, Camila; Landi, Flávio; Ribas, José Paulo; Panzeri, Heitor; Lara, Elza Helena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an experimental dentifrice (CH) containing an antimicrobial agent (1% chloramine-T). A clinical, fully randomised, double-blind comparative study was designed for 30 selected patients aged 15 to 50 years, with no periodontal disease, decay or other oral diseases, good general health and the presence of dental plaque and sulcus bleeding. Baseline Turesky modified plaque index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were scored for all patients. Volunteers randomly received the experimental dentifrice (CH) or a commercial-brand dentifrice containing triclosan (TR). Both dentifrices were provided in identical, number-labelled tubes, and the subjects were instructed to use the supplied dentifrice only for their usual oral hygiene, three times a day for a duration of 7 days. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI and SBI were assessed again. The data obtained were subjected to the Kruskal– Wallis test, followed by Dunn's post hoc test. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI scores diminished significantly for both evaluated dentifrices. The SBI values decreased significantly for both experimental and commercial-brand dentifrices. Both dentifrices reduced PI and SBI. By comparing the experimental and gold-standard dentifrice, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the PI and SBI scores after their use, suggesting that they exerted a similar effect on the oral health indexes.

  16. Immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic studies of recombinant factor VIII containing lipid cochleates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloski, Matthew P; Peng, Aaron; Varma, Prashant R; Fathallah, Anas M; Miclea, Razvan D; Mager, Donald E; Balu-iyer, Sathy V

    2011-05-01

    Replacement therapy using recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) is currently the most common therapy for hemophilia A, a bleeding disorder caused by the deficiency of FVIII. However, 15-30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies against administered rFVIII, which complicates the therapy. Encapsulation or association of protein with lipidic structures can reduce this immune response. Previous studies developed and characterized rFVIII-containing phosphatidylserine (PS) cochleate cylinders using biophysical techniques. It was hypothesized that these structures may provide a reduction in immunogenicity while avoiding the rapid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) previously observed with liposomal vesicles of similar composition. This study investigated in vivo behavior of the cochleates containing rFVIII including immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics in hemophilia A mice. The rFVIII-cochleate complex significantly reduced the level of inhibitory antibody developed against rFVIII following intravenous (i.v.) administration. Pharmacokinetic modeling allowed assessment of in vivo release kinetics. Cochleates acted as a delayed release delivery vehicle with an input peak of cochleates showed limited RES uptake and associated rFVIII displayed a similar disposition to the free protein upon release from the structure. Incomplete disassociation from the complex limits systemic availability of the protein. Further formulation efforts are warranted to regulate the rate and extent of release of rFVIII from cochleate complexes.

  17. A study of the temporal robustness of the growing global container-shipping network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nuo; Wu, Nuan; Dong, Ling-Ling; Yan, Hua-Kun; Wu, Di

    2016-10-07

    Whether they thrive as they grow must be determined for all constantly expanding networks. However, few studies have focused on this important network feature or the development of quantitative analytical methods. Given the formation and growth of the global container-shipping network, we proposed the concept of network temporal robustness and quantitative method. As an example, we collected container liner companies' data at two time points (2004 and 2014) and built a shipping network with ports as nodes and routes as links. We thus obtained a quantitative value of the temporal robustness. The temporal robustness is a significant network property because, for the first time, we can clearly recognize that the shipping network has become more vulnerable to damage over the last decade: When the node failure scale reached 50% of the entire network, the temporal robustness was approximately -0.51% for random errors and -12.63% for intentional attacks. The proposed concept and analytical method described in this paper are significant for other network studies.

  18. Adsorption and revaporisation studies on iodine oxide aerosols deposited on containment surface materials in LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, S.; Foreman, M.R.StJ.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.; Tapper, U.; Lamminmaeki, S.; Jokiniemi, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    During a hypothetical severe nuclear accident, the radiation field will be very high in the nuclear reactor containment building. As a result gaseous radiolysis products will be formed. Elemental iodine can react in the gaseous phase with ozone to form solid iodine oxide aerosol particles (iodine oxide). Within the AIAS (Adsorption of Iodine oxide Aerosols on Surfaces) project the interactions of iodine oxide (IOx) aerosols with common containment surface materials were investigated. Common surface materials in Swedish and Finnish LWRs are Teknopox Aqua V A paint films and metal surfaces such as Cu, Zn, Al and SS, as well as Pt and Pd surfaces from hydrogen recombiners. Non-radioactive and {sup 131}I labelled iodine oxide aerosols were produced with the EXSI CONT facility from elemental iodine and ozone at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. The iodine oxide deposits were analysed with microscopic and spectroscopic measurement techniques to identify the kind of iodine oxide formed and if a chemical conversion on the different surface materials occurs. The revaporisation behaviour of the deposited iodine oxide aerosol particles from the different surface materials was studied under the influence of heat, humidity and gamma irradiation at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Studies on the effects of humidity were performed using the FOMICAG facility, while heat and irradiation experiments were performed in a thermostated heating block and with a gammacell 22 having a dose rate of 14 kGy/h. The revaporisation losses were measured using a HPGe detector. The revaporisated {sup 131}I species from the surfaces were chemically tested for elemental iodine formation. The parameter dominating the degradation of the produced iodine oxide aerosols was humidity. Cu and Zn surfaces were found to react with iodine from the iodine oxide aerosols to form iodides, while no metal iodides were detected for Al and SS samples. Most of the iodine oxide aerosols are assumed to

  19. Radiolytic Modification of Sulfur Containing Acidic Amino Residues in Model Peptides: Fundamental Studies for Protein Footprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu,G.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    Protein footprinting based on hydroxyl radical-mediated modification and quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis is a proven technique for examining protein structure, protein-ligand interactions, and structural allostery upon protein complex formation. The reactive and solvent-accessible amino acid side chains function as structural probes; however, correct structural analysis depends on the identification and quantification of all the relevant oxidative modifications within the protein sequence. Sulfur-containing amino acids are oxidized readily and the mechanisms of oxidation are particularly complex, although they have been extensively investigated by EPR and other spectroscopic methods. Here we have undertaken a detailed mass spectrometry study (using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry) of model peptides containing cysteine (Cys-SH), cystine (disulfide bonded Cys), and methionine after oxidation using {gamma}-rays or synchrotron X-rays and have compared these results to those expected from oxidation mechanisms proposed in the literature. Radiolysis of cysteine leads to cysteine sulfonic acid (+48 Da mass shift) and cystine as the major products; other minor products including cysteine sulfinic acid (+32 Da mass shift) and serine (-16 Da mass shift) are observed. Radiolysis of cystine results in the oxidative opening of the disulfide bond and generation of cysteine sulfonic acid and sulfinic acid; however, the rate of oxidation is significantly less than that for cysteine. Radiolysis of methionine gives rise primarily to methionine sulfoxide (+16 Da mass shift); this can be further oxidized to methionine sulfone (+32 Da mass shift) or another product with a -32 Da mass shift likely due to aldehyde formation at the {gamma}-carbon. Due to the high reactivity of sulfur-containing amino acids, the extent of oxidation is easily influenced by secondary oxidation events or the presence of redox reagents used in standard proteolytic

  20. Drug waste minimisation and cost-containment in Medical Oncology: Two-year results of a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansutti Mauro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-containment strategies are required to face the challenge of rising drug expenditures in Oncology. Drug wastage leads to economic loss, but little is known about the size of the problem in this field. Methods Starting January 2005 we introduced a day-to-day monitoring of drug wastage and an accurate assessment of its costs. An internal protocol for waste minimisation was developed, consisting of four corrective measures: 1. A rational, per pathology distribution of chemotherapy sessions over the week. 2. The use of multi-dose vials. 3. A reasonable rounding of drug dosages. 4. The selection of the most convenient vial size, depending on drug unit pricing. Results Baseline analysis focused on 29 drugs over one year. Considering their unit price and waste amount, a major impact on expense was found to be attributable to six drugs: cetuximab, docetaxel, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, pemetrexed and trastuzumab. The economic loss due to their waste equaled 4.8% of the annual drug expenditure. After the study protocol was started, the expense due to unused drugs showed a meaningful 45% reduction throughout 2006. Conclusion Our experience confirms the economic relevance of waste minimisation and may represent a feasible model in addressing this issue. A centralised unit of drug processing, the availability of a computerised physician order entry system and an active involvement of the staff play a key role in allowing waste reduction and a consequent, substantial cost-saving.

  1. Containing psychotic patients with fragile boundaries: a single-session group case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarenne, Anaïs; Segal, Emily; Sigman, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a single group psychotherapy session of six individuals suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective illness, which was characterized by numerous manifestations of fragile Ego boundaries. Based on these illustrations of fragile Ego boundaries, we explore some of the group's core therapeutic actions against psychosis. We discuss how the group (1) provides access to a structuring auxiliary Ego, (2) acts as a containing object by establishing firm boundaries and by mentalizing patients' psychotic productions, and (3) may become a solid object representation introjected by individuals wrestling with porous Ego boundaries and a poor sense of self. We conclude that, in addition to the known role of group therapy in increasing mature defenses, developing insight and providing social support, the group promotes healthier Ego boundaries, and eventually improves self-differentiation, and also tolerance to interpersonal proximity. This case study clarifies group therapy dynamics with individuals suffering from psychosis.

  2. MORPHOLOGY STUDY OF A SERIES OF AZOBENZENE-CONTAINING SIDE-ON LIQUID CRYSTALLINE TRIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Deng; Annie Br(u)let; Pierre-antoine Albouy; Patrick Keller; Xiao-gong Wang; Min-hui Li

    2012-01-01

    A series of azobenzene containing side-on liquid crystalline ABA triblock copolymers were investigated.This triblock series possesses the same central liquid crystal block B and various lengths of the amorphous block A.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),small angle X-rays and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) were used to study their morphologies.Aider annealing the samples over weeks at a temperature within the nematic temperature range of block B,different morphologies (disordered,lamellar,perforated layer and hexagonal cylinder) were observed by TEM.The alignment behavior of these azo triblock copolymers in the magnetic field for artificial muscle application,as well as the phase period and the order-disorder transition (ODT) were studied in situ by SANS.

  3. Electrical conductivity studies on CuBr containing Al2O3 particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubec, P. M.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuBr was studied and the role of a second phase, Al2O3, dispersed in CuBr was tested. CuBr melts at 493 C and exhibits three phases in the solid state. CuBr is a good ionic conductor with a transport number for copper ions of virtually unity with weighed proportions of the appropriate chemicals used. The CuBr materials were heated above melting point of CuBr, and the samples were sandwiched between copper electrodes. The ac conductivity, was determined at 1 kHz between 25 and 440 C depending on the sample. It was shown that at low temperatures, the conductivity for CuBr (Al2O3) increased by as much as 100, whereas in the beta phase the conductivity of CuBr containing Al2O3 decreased. The electrical conductivity studies are in agreement with earlier data.

  4. Coordinating and Evaluating of Multiple Key Performance Indicators for Manufacturing Equipment:Case Study of Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Hongye Su; Shan Lu; Yue Wang; Quanling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing equipment takes the task of operation and directly effects on the manufacturing process. One single Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is mainly employed to evaluate equipment in most studies, neither inte-grating the KPIs into a completed evaluation system nor considering the impact and conflict among KPIs. In this paper, a KPI evaluation architecture is presented to define and analyze KPIs, and then a common structure for KPI to obtain the KPI set of manufacturing equipment is introduced. An available multi-KPI coordination model is proposed to discern and balance the relationship among multi-KPI. Final y, a case study is introduced to il ustrate the applicability of the coordination model by using multi-objective optimization strategy and an efficient solu-tion is obtained.

  5. In vitro metabolism study of a black market product containing SARM LGD-4033.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Lore; Pozo, Oscar J; Lootens, Leen; Morthier, Wouter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2017-02-01

    Anabolic agents are often used by athletes to enhance their performance. However, use of steroids leads to considerable side effects. Non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of substances that have not been approved so far but seem to have a more favourable anabolic/androgenic ratio than steroids and produce fewer side effects. Therefore the use of SARMs has been prohibited since 2008 by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Several of these SARMs have been detected on the black market. Metabolism studies are essential to identify the best urinary markers to ensure effective control of emerging substances by doping control laboratories. As black market products often contain non-pharmaceutical-grade substances, alternatives for human excretion studies are needed to elucidate the metabolism. A black market product labelled to contain the SARM LGD-4033 was purchased over the Internet. Purity verification of the black market product led to the detection of LGD-4033, without other contaminants. Human liver microsomes and S9 liver fractions were used to perform phase I and phase II (glucuronidation) metabolism studies. The samples of the in vitro metabolism studies were analyzed by gas chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-MS(/MS)), liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(HR)MS/MS). LC-HRMS product ion scans allowed to identify typical fragment ions for the parent compound and to further determine metabolite structures. In total five metabolites were detected, all modified in the pyrrolidine ring of LGD-4033. The metabolic modifications ranged from hydroxylation combined with keto-formation (M1) or cleavage of the pyrrolidine ring (M2), hydroxylation and methylation (M3/M4) and dihydroxylation (M5). The parent compound and M2 were also detected as glucuronide-conjugates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Mental Health and Exposure to the United States: Key Correlates from the Hispanic Community Health Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreira, Krista M; Gotman, Nathan; Isasi, Carmen R; Arguelles, William; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Giachello, Aida L; Gonzalez, Patricia; Penedo, Frank J; Salgado, Hugo; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2015-09-01

    We examined the association between exposure to the U.S. and symptoms of poor mental health among adult Hispanic/Latinos (N = 15,004) overall and by Hispanic/Latino background. Using data from the Hispanic Community Health Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), we estimated logistic regressions to model the risk of moderate to severe symptoms of psychological distress, depression, and anxiety as a function of years in the U.S. and six key psychosocial risk and protective factors. In unadjusted models, increased time in the U.S. was associated with higher risk of poor mental health. After adjustment for just three key factors--perceived discrimination, perceived U.S. social standing, and the size of close social networks--differences in the odds of poor mental health by years in the U.S became insignificant for Hispanics/Latinos overall. However, analyses by Hispanic/Latino background revealed different patterns of association with exposure to the U.S. that could not be fully explained.

  7. Ln{sub 12}-containing 60-tungstogermanates. Synthesis, structure, luminescence, and magnetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai-Yao; Lin, Zhengguo; Roemer, Isabella; Kortz, Ulrich [Jacobs University, Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Bremen (Germany); Bassil, Bassem S. [Jacobs University, Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Bremen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Balamand, Tripoli (Lebanon); Vanhaecht, Stef; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (Belgium); Saenz de Pipaon, Cristina [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Tarragona (Spain); Galan-Mascaros, Jose Ramon [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Tarragona (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Fan, Linyuan; Cao, Jie [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic, Conversion Materials, School of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology (China)

    2015-12-07

    A new class of hexameric Ln{sub 12}-containing 60-tungstogermanates, [Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 6} is contained in Eu{sub 12}(OH){sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 18}Ge{sub 2}(GeW{sub 10}O{sub 38}){sub 6}]{sup 39-} (Eu{sub 12}), [Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 6} is contained in Gd{sub 12}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 24}Ge(GeW{sub 10}O{sub 38}){sub 6}]{sup 37-} (Gd{sub 12}), and [(H{sub 2}O){sub 6} is contained in Dy{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 24}(GeW{sub 10}O{sub 38}){sub 6}]{sup 36-} (Dy{sub 12}), comprising six di-Ln-embedded {β(4,11)-GeW_1_0} subunits was prepared by reaction of [α-GeW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sup 10-} with Ln{sup III} ions in weakly acidic (pH 5) aqueous medium. Depending on the size of the Ln{sup III} ion, the assemblies feature selective capture of two (for Eu{sub 12}), one (for Gd{sub 12}), or zero (for Dy{sub 12}) extra Ge{sup IV} ions. The selective encapsulation of a cationic sodium hexaaqua complex [Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup +} was observed for Eu{sub 12} and Gd{sub 12}, whereas Dy{sub 12} incorporates a neutral, distorted-octahedral (H{sub 2}O){sub 6} cluster. The three compounds were characterized by single-crystal XRD, ESI-MS, photoluminescence, and magnetic studies. Dy{sub 12} was shown to be a single-molecule magnet. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Adjuvant treatment of atopic eczema: assessment of an emollient containing N-palmitoylethanolamine (ATOPA study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, B; Eicke, C; Reinhardt, H-W; Ring, J

    2008-01-01

    For long-term management of atopic eczema, the use of skin care creams is recommended, but effectiveness of this treatment is not well established. The objective of this study was to yield data on the skin care properties of a cream with a unique lamellar matrix containing N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and to assess quality-of-life variables in patients with mild to moderate atopic eczema. In this multinational, multicentre, observational, non-controlled, prospective cohort study, patients between 2 and 70 years of age were enrolled. All patients were supplied with the study product sufficient for treatment over the entire study period. Outcome was followed in periods between 3 and 7 days and 4 and 6 weeks after study start. Data were gathered from doctor reports and patient self-assessments via patient questionnaires. Data from 2456 patients entered the database. The mean examination intervals were 6 days for the 3- to 7-day period and 38 days for the 4- to 6-week period. At study end, intensities of erythema, pruritus, excoriation, scaling, lichenification and dryness were significantly reduced with a combined score reduction of 58.6% in the entire population (57.7% in adults > 12 years and 60.5% in children effectiveness (decline of pruritus and loss of sleep) indicated a gain in quality of life in these patients. The reduced use of topical corticosteroids is important in view of safety and pharmacoeconomic implications in the treatment of atopic eczema.

  9. Nanoindentation and AFM studies of PECVD DLC and reactively sputtered Ti containing carbon films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Pauschitz; J Schalko; T Koch; C Eisenmenger-Sittner; S Kvasnica; Manish Roy

    2003-10-01

    Amorphous carbon film, also known as DLC film, is a promising material for tribological application. It is noted that properties relevant to tribological application change significantly depending on the method of preparation of these films. These properties are also altered by the composition of the films. In view of this, the objective of the present work is to compare the nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of diamond like carbon (DLC) film obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) with the Ti containing amorphous carbon (Ti/-C : H) film obtained by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition (UMSD). Towards that purpose, DLC and Ti/-C : H films are deposited on silicon substrate by PECVD and UMSD processes, respectively. The microstructural features and the mechanical properties of these films are evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindentation and by AFM. The results show that the PECVD DLC film has a higher elastic modulus, hardness and roughness than the UMSD Ti/-C : H film. It also has a lower pull off force than Ti containing amorphous carbon film.

  10. Computational study on the inhibition mechanism of cruzain by nitrile-containing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; Medina-Franco, José L; Castillo, Rafael

    2012-05-01

    Cysteine proteases from parasites as well as from mammals are promising drug targets for parasitic infections and systemic human diseases, respectively. Many reversible and irreversible inhibitors of this very large class of proteins have been designed. Among others, molecules with a nitrile moiety, which is a group that is susceptible to a nucleophilic attack by the enzyme, have been identified as good inhibitors. Although it is known that the nitrile group binds covalently to Cys25, there are no reports about the energetics involved in the mechanism of this process. Herein, density functional theory and quantum semi-empirical calculations were conducted in order to study the molecular recognition of cysteine proteases by nitrile-containing molecules. Results reported in this paper suggest an interaction that starts with a nucleophilic attack from the Cys25 to the inhibitor followed by a proton transfer from His162. Only one transition state was detected; however, we found the existence of an energy plateau in the potential energy surface. Based on the proposed mechanism, some structural features that could improve the biological activity of nitrile-containing molecules toward cysteine proteases are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of plaque regrowth with a probiotic toothpaste containing Lactobacillus paracasei: A spectrophotometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Commonly, most of the organisms ascribed as having probiotic properties belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and milk is the most commonly used vehicle. Objectives: The study was aimed at analyzing the biofilm formation by plaque regrowth method upon the usage of a probiotic toothpaste containing Lactobacillus paracasei by measuring the optical density using a spectrophotometer.Materials and Methods: A commercially available probiotic toothpaste, PerioBiotic (spearmint flavored from the company Designs for Health, has been tested. The toothpaste contains the strain L. paracasei, which has been found to co-aggregate with Streptococcus mutans (MS. The Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth Method (PGRM was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial effects on plaque metabolism in vivo. PGRM is based on the observation that natural fasted dental plaque, sampled from different quadrants of the dentition, exhibits similar metabolic and regrowth properties when suspended at equal “biomass” in standardized media. Conclusion: The results suggest that L. paracasei-based toothpaste, PerioBiotic, is effective in the reduction of MSmonospecies biofilm, but the activity appears short lived when high sucrose exposure is administered.

  12. Wound healing, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and collagen-containing products: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Charles P; Romeo, CarolAnn

    2014-01-01

    The effects of multiple medications may impair or enhance wound healing. A review of the literature for drug side effects identified cell culture and case studies of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) impairing collagen deposition in cutaneous wounds; these medications have also been used to prevent or minimize keloid formation. A 71-year-old male patient presented with a venous leg ulcer (VLU), having incurred a crushing injury and fracture requiring surgical repair 16 years earlier. The patient's history was significant for obesity, smoking 1 cigar daily, hypertension, and lower extremity venous insufficiency; medications included amlodipine and lisinopril. The wound initially responded well to advanced wound products and compression, but wound healing subsequently stalled. A collagen-containing alginate dressing was added to the treatment regimen and the wound closed within 2 weeks. We postulate that lisinopril may have contributed to the observed delayed healing and targeted this potential impediment to wound healing with a readily available topical collagen-containing product resulting in a rapid wound closure after a significant delay in progress toward wound healing.

  13. Study of melanin bleaching after immunohistochemistry of melanin-containing tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongwu; Wu, Wenqiao

    2015-04-01

    Melanin may interfere with immunohistochemical staining. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) bleaching, potassium permanganate bleaching, and potassium dichromate bleaching on melanin, tissue antigen, and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) using melanin-containing and melanin-free tissue samples. Our results demonstrated that all 3 bleaching methods efficiently bleached melanin and partially destroyed tissue antigen. In addition, potassium permanganate bleaching and potassium dichromate bleaching clearly destroyed DAB, whereas TCCA bleaching had no significant effect on DAB. Therefore, neither potassium permanganate nor potassium dichromate is an ideal solution, whereas TCCA might be an ideal solution for melanin bleaching after the immunohistochemical staining of melanin-containing tissues. After immunostaining followed by TCCA bleaching, the melanin could be completely removed in all 120 malignant melanoma tissue sections. Compared with the control, the DAB intensity was clear, and the tissue structure and cellular nuclei were well maintained. It is worth noting that TCCA should be freshly prepared before each experiment, and used within 2 hours of its preparation. In addition, sections should not be incubated with TCCA for over 30 minutes.

  14. Kinetic Study on Flooded Soil Recovery Using Soil Containing Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainol N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the kinetic parameters for flooded soil recovery via soil containing Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The general procedures of this experiment started by preparation of simulated flooded soil (FS and soil containing AMF (SA. Mixed soil was prepared by mixing FS and SA with ratio 1:1. Onion plant was chosen as a host plant and planted in the mixed soil for 14 days. The plantation was conducted in ambient temperature. The nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil were tested using HACH Spectrophotomer. The Michaelis-Menten equation was used to study the nutrients recovery in soil. The Lineweaver-Bulk plot was used to solve the Michaelis-Menten equation. From the experiment conducted, the maximum nutrient uptake (Vmax and bonding affinity (Km obtained for nitrogen (N were 6.28mg/l.d and 82.17 mg/l, for phosphorus (P were 9.80 mg/l.d and 60.96 mg/l.d and for potassium (K were 0.07mg/l.d and 4.55mg/l. By comparing the result with other researcher, it showed that the Vmax and Km of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P obtained were higher than other research. This was because the onion required a high level of N and P in the soil compared to other host plant.

  15. An empirical study on key factors for purchasing strategy on project based organizations: A case study of gas field development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Kazazi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in development of oil and gas resources is to find the critical success factors associated with different important projects. Purchasing and procurement plays a key role in these projects. There is no doubt that in history of similar studies, there are not much studies to determine key factors. The proposed study of this paper presents an empirical study to find these factors in one of the most important gas filed in Iran is now South Pars Gas Field. The study distributes a questionnaire consists of various questions associated with purchasing activities. We investigate the feedbacks gathered from decision makers using factor analysis. The results of our survey reveal that there are three categories of organizational strategy, the relative importance of strategy and risk according to factor analysis. Each factor consists of many other factors and the relative importance of all factors are investigated.

  16. Steam explosions-induced containment failure studies for Swiss nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuchuat, O.; Schmocker, U. [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, Villigen (Switzerland); Esmaili, H.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1998-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of both in-vessel and ex-vessel energetic fuel-coolant interaction for Beznau (a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor with a large, dry containment), Goesgen (a Siemens/KWU pressurized water reactor with a large, dry containment) and Leibstadt (a General Electric boiling water reactor-6 with a free standing steel, MARK-III containment) nuclear power plants is presented in this paper. The Conditional Containment Failure Probability of the steel containment of these Swiss nuclear power plants is determined based on different probabilistic approaches. (author)

  17. Generation of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible solutions in view of optical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by generating drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the generation and study of micro/nano-droplets and the generation of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have generated and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible solutions in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the generation of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a solution of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.

  18. Is Duhuo Jisheng Tang containing Xixin safe? A four-week safety study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pau-Chung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though the nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aristolochic acid (AA are known, its safety in clinical usage is not clear. This study aims to evaluate the safety of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT in a four-week study to treat osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Methods A qualitative and quantitative investigations on DJT were conducted. A list of adverse events (AEs, complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were measured for participants with knee OA at their scheduled hospital visits. Each detected AEs was independently assessed for severity and causality by site investigators (Chinese medical doctors and study nurses. Results A total of 71 eligible subjects were included in the clinical study where 287 AEs were reported. DJT did not contain detectable aristolochic acid (AA under thin-layer chromatography (TLC analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. There were no significant changes in liver or kidney functions. Conclusion In four-week use of DJT, no renal tubular damage, no severe incidences of AEs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs were observed. The present study obtained safety data from active surveillance of DJT.

  19. Methodological and metabolic considerations in the study of caffeine-containing energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks are popular and widely available beverages. Despite large increases in consumption, studies documenting the nutritional, metabolic, and health implications of these beverages are limited. This review provides some important methodological considerations in the examination of these drinks and highlights their potential impact on the gastrointestinal system, liver, and metabolic health. The gastrointestinal system is important as it comes into contact with the highest concentration of energy drink ingredients and initiates a chain of events to communicate with peripheral tissues. Although energy drinks have diverse compositions, including taurine, ginseng, and carnitine, the most metabolically deleterious ingredients appear to be simple sugars (such as glucose and fructose) and caffeine. In combination, these last two ingredients have the greatest metabolic impact and potential influence on overall health. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  20. Study of the Molecular Recognition of Nucleotides and Bases by a Novel Calixarene Derivative Containing Uracil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI,Hui-Jie; SHI,Xian-Fa; YAO,Tian-Ming; JI,Liang-Nian

    2008-01-01

    A calix[4]arene derivative containing uracil, 5-(uracil-N1-acetamido)-25,26,27,28-tetrahy droxycalix[4]-arene (UC), was designed and synthesized. The interaction with nucleotides and bases has also been studied by ESI-MS and π-A isotherms. The results of ESI-MS showed that UC could recognize adenine and adenosine from other nucleotides and bases. In addition, π-A isotherms at the air-water interface indicated that there was interaction between UC and the species in the subphase, and the respective complexes were formed in the monolayer. The mean molecular area at zero surface pressure increased with the sizes of the nucleotides and bases in the subphase in the order: water<adenine<adenosine<ATP·Na2.

  1. Ternary Amides Containing Transition Metals for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study with Alkali Metal Amidozincates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hujun; Richter, Theresia M M; Pistidda, Claudio; Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Santoru, Antonio; Gizer, Gökhan; Niewa, Rainer; Chen, Ping; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The alkali metal amidozincates Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2 and K2[Zn(NH2)4] were, to the best of our knowledge, studied for the first time as hydrogen storage media. Compared with the LiNH2-2 LiH system, both Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2-12 LiH and K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH systems showed improved rehydrogenation performance, especially K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH, which can be fully hydrogenated within 30 s at approximately 230 °C. The absorption properties are stable upon cycling. This work shows that ternary amides containing transition metals have great potential as hydrogen storage materials.

  2. Experimental study and phase equilibrium modeling of systems containing acid gas and glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin P.; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study phase equilibria of systems containing acid gases and glycols. The acid gases include carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2) while glycols include monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG). A brief...... literature survey on the solubility of the acid gases and hydrocarbons in glycols is presented. New experimental solubility data mainly for COS and some limited data for H2S in glycols from 276 to 333K and at elevated pressures are reported. Experimental measurements have been carried out using the “static......-synthetic” method. The reliability and repeatability of the experimental work are demonstrated. The experimental solubility data for COS and glycols, from this work, and those for H2S and CO2 from the literature are modeled using the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA parameters for pure...

  3. Synthesis and Structural Studies of Er3+ Containing Lead Cadmium Fluoroborate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Maurício A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitreous domain was established in the PbF2-CdF2-B2O 3 system from melting and quenching experiments. Er3+ containing glasses were prepared and glass ceramics were obtained by selected heat-treatments. Lead fluoride was identified (beta-PbF2 as the crystalline phase. Structural studies were performed in some glassy and partially crystallized samples by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS measurements. The role of Cd2+ and Pb2+ atoms on the glass network formation and also on the crystallization behavior was put forward by these techniques. After crystallization Er3+ atoms segregated in the crystal phase.

  4. Study of improving the thermal response of a construction material containing a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaouatni, A.; Martaj, N.; Bennacer, R.; Elomari, M.; El Ganaoui, M.

    2016-09-01

    The use of phase change materials (PCMs) for improving the thermal comfort in buildings has become an attractive application. This solution contributes to increasing the thermal inertia of the building envelope and reducing power consumption. A building element filled with a PCM and equipped with ventilation tubes is proposed, both for increasing inertia and contributing to refreshing building envelope. A numerical simulation is conducted by the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics, which aims to test the thermal behaviour of the developed solution. An experimental study is carried out on a concrete block containing a PCM with ventilation tubes. The objective is to see the effect of PCM coupled with ventilation on increasing the inertia of the block. The results show the ability of this new solution to ensure an important thermal inertia of a building.

  5. Study on the environmental behavior of cleaning products containing bacteria; Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Reinigern auf Bakterienbasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danneberg, G.; Tichy, H.V.; Simon, R.

    2000-03-01

    Cleaning products containing microorganisms were studied with a focus an products intended for the application in grease traps. Literature data available were compiled. Microbiological investigations were conducted with selected products. In addition laboratory experiments were performed in order to evaluate the capability of the products to support biodegradation of fatty compounds to CO{sub 2}. The influence on sewage quality was determined in a grease trap of a canteen with a selected product. (orig.) [German] Untersucht wurden Reinigungsprodukte, die Mikroorganismen enthalten und die insbesondere fuer den Einsatz in Fettabscheidern vorgesehen sind. Es wurden Literaturangaben ueber diese Produkte zusammengestellt. Ausgewaehlte Produkte wurden in Laborexperimenten mikrobiologisch untersuch. Weiterhin wurde im Laborversuch experimentell festgestellt, in wie weit diese Praeparate einen biologischen Abbau von Fetten zu CO{sub 2} bewirken koennen. In einem Praxisversuch an einem Fettabscheider wurde untersucht, wie sich die Abwasserqualitaet ohne und mit der Anwendung eines derartigen Praeparates verhaelt. (orig.)

  6. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  7. Study on Key Problems of a New Environmental Dredging Based on Ecological Protection and Subsequent Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Wei

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study key problems of a new environmental dredging based on ecological protection and subsequent ecological restoration. [Method] People paid more attention to sediment pollutant removal in environmental dredging, without considering coming aquatic eco-restoration work after dredging. Factor affecting aquatic ecosystem existence and growth was screened, and ecological dredging manner was put forward. [Result] On the basis of analyzing dredging objective, effect and influence, started from ecological protection and subsequent ecological restoration, water depth and substrate were screened as priority control factors of the environmental sediment dredging. New manner of combining sediment dredging to reshape underwater terrain was put forward. [Conclusion] The research provided solution for water depth and substrate demands of the subsequent ecological restoration.

  8. Validation of key indicators in cattle farms at high risk of animal welfare problems: a qualitative case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P C; More, S J; Blake, M; Higgins, I; Clegg, T; Hanlon, A

    2013-03-23

    The objective of this study was to validate four key farmer performance indicators (KFPI), identified in a previous study, as indicators of on-farm cattle welfare incidents in Ireland, through comparison of the distribution of these KPFIs in the national herd (n=109,925) and in case herds (n=18), where welfare incidents were previously studied. The KFPIs identified were late registrations, and exits from the herd by on-farm burial, by moves to knackeries and by moves to 'herd unknown'. Data were extracted from two Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine databases for the national herd and the case herds. All four KFPIs differed significantly between the case herds and the national herd, and one further KFPI was identified, namely moves to factories. The data for these KFPIs are routinely stored on national databases, which were established in order to comply with Regulation (EC) 1760/2000. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be possible in the future to use routine data capture to improve strategy towards on-farm animal welfare. At this point, however, based on calculated specificities and sensitivities, none of these five KFPIs, at the cut-offs investigated and using several combinations, are able to distinguish herds with and without on-farm animal welfare problems at an accuracy suitable for routine national use in Ireland.

  9. Study of optical reflectance properties in 1D annular photonic crystal containing double negative (DNG) metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Aghajamali, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical investigation of photonic band gaps or reflection bands in one-dimensional annular photonic crystal (APC) containing double negative (DNG) metamaterials and air has been presented. The proposed structure consists of the alternate layers of dispersive DNG material and air immersed in free space. In order to study photonic band gaps we obtain the reflectance spectrum of the annular PC by employing the transfer matrix method (TMM) in the cylindrical waves for both TE and TM polarizations. In this work we study the effect of azimuthal mode number (m) and starting radius (ρ0) on the three band gaps viz. zero averaged refractive index (zero-nbar) gap, zero permittivity (zero- ε) and zero permeability (zero- μ) gaps. It is found that for m ≥ 1 , zero- μ gap appears in TE mode and zero- ε gap appears in TM mode. The width of both zero- μ and zero- ε gap increases by increasing m values, but the enhancement of zero- μ gap is more appreciable. Also, the effect of ρ0 on the three band gaps (reflection bands) of annular PC structure at the given m-number has been studied, for both TE and TM polarizations. The result shows that in both polarizations zero- ε and zero- μ gaps decreases when ρ0 increases, whereas zero-nbar gap remains invariant.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  11. Synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and molecular modeling studies of triazole containing dopamine D3 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Wang, Qi; Mishra, Yogesh; Xu, Jinbin; Reichert, David E; Malik, Maninder; Taylor, Michelle; Luedtke, Robert R; Mach, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    A series of 2-methoxyphenyl piperazine analogues containing a triazole ring were synthesized and their in vitro binding affinities at human dopamine D2 and D3 receptors were evaluated. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, and 4g, demonstrate high affinity for dopamine D3 receptors and moderate selectivity for the dopamine D3 versus D2 receptor subtypes. To further examine their potential as therapeutic agents, their intrinsic efficacy at both D2 and D3 receptors was determined using a forskolin-dependent adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay. Affinity at dopamine D4 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors was also determined. In addition, information from previous molecular modeling studies of the binding of a panel of 163 structurally-related benzamide analogues at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors was applied to this series of compounds. The results of the modeling studies were consistent with our previous experimental data. More importantly, the modeling study results explained why the replacement of the amide linkage with the hetero-aromatic ring leads to a reduction in the affinity of these compounds at D3 receptors.

  12. Key factors influencing adoption of an innovation in primary health care: a qualitative study based on implementation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlfjord Siw

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bridging the knowledge-to-practice gap in health care is an important issue that has gained interest in recent years. Implementing new methods, guidelines or tools into routine care, however, is a slow and unpredictable process, and the factors that play a role in the change process are not yet fully understood. There is a number of theories concerned with factors predicting successful implementation in various settings, however, this issue is insufficiently studied in primary health care (PHC. The objective of this article was to apply implementation theory to identify key factors influencing the adoption of an innovation being introduced in PHC in Sweden. Methods A qualitative study was carried out with staff at six PHC units in Sweden where a computer-based test for lifestyle intervention had been implemented. Two different implementation strategies, implicit or explicit, were used. Sixteen focus group interviews and two individual interviews were performed. In the analysis a theoretical framework based on studies of implementation in health service organizations, was applied to identify key factors influencing adoption. Results The theoretical framework proved to be relevant for studies in PHC. Adoption was positively influenced by positive expectations at the unit, perceptions of the innovation being compatible with existing routines and perceived advantages. An explicit implementation strategy and positive opinions on change and innovation were also associated with adoption. Organizational changes and staff shortages coinciding with implementation seemed to be obstacles for the adoption process. Conclusion When implementation theory obtained from studies in other areas was applied in PHC it proved to be relevant for this particular setting. Based on our results, factors to be taken into account in the planning of the implementation of a new tool in PHC should include assessment of staff expectations, assessment of the

  13. Potentiodynamic polarization studies on candidate container alloys for the Tuff Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, N.G.; Beavers, J.A.; Durr, C.L. [Cortest Columbus Technologies, OH (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Cortest Columbus Technologies, Inc. (CC Technologies) is investigating the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level radioactive waste packages. This information is being developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to aid in their assessment of the Department of Energy`s application to construct a geologic repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the results of cyclic-potentiodynamic-polarization (CCP) studies performed on candidate container materials for the Tuff Repository. The CPP technique was used to provide an understanding of how specific variables such as environmental composition, temperature, alloy composition, and welding affect both the general- and localized-corrosion behavior of two copper-base and two Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in simulated repository environments. A statistically-designed test solution matrix was formulated, based on an extensive search of the literature, to evaluate the possible range of environmental species that may occur in the repository over the life of the canister. Forty-two CPP curves were performed with each alloy and the results indicated that several different types of corrosion were possible. The copper-base alloys exhibited unusual CCP behavior in that hysteresis was not always associated with pitting. The effects of temperature on the corrosions behavior were evaluated in two types of tests; isothermal tests at temperatures from 50{degrees}C to 90{degrees}C and heat-transfer tests where the solution was maintained at 50{degrees}C and the specimen was internally heated to 90{degrees}C. In the isothermal test, CPP curves were obtained with each alloy in simulated environments at 50{degrees}C, 75{degrees}C, and 90{degrees}C. The results of these CCP experiments indicated that no systematic trends were evident for the environments tested. Lastly, the effects of welding on the corrosion behavior of the alloys in simulated environments were examined.

  14. Specific binding of avidin to biotin containing lipid lamella surfaces studied with monolayers and liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Qin, H; Xiao, C; Wen, C; Wang, S; Sui, S F

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of avidin (from egg white) with phospholipid (monolayer and bilayer) model membranes containing biotin-conjugated phospholipids has been studied. In the first part, using surface sensitive techniques (ellipsometry and surface plasmon resonance) we demonstrated that the nonspecific adsorption of avidin to phospholipid lamella could be abolished by adding an amount of Ca2+, Mg2+ or Ba2+ that led to an electrostatic interaction. The specific binding of avidin to lipid mixtures containing biotin-conjugated phospholipids was obviously composition dependent. The ratio 1:12 of a B-DPPE/DPPE mixture was found to be the optimum molar ratio. When we compared the results from the surface sensitive techniques with those from the electron micrographs of a two dimensional crystal of avidin (obtained in our laboratory), the optimum ratio was found to be determined by the effect of lateral steric hindrance. In the second part, we observed the pattern of the layers of fluorescently labeled phospholipid and adsorbed proteins with a home-made micro fluorescence film balance. The fluorescence images showed that avidin was preferentially bound to the receptors that were in the fluid domains. Further, with a sensitive fluorescence assay method, the effect of the phase behavior of liposomes on the specific binding of avidin was measured. This showed that avidin interacted with biotinlipid more weakly in the gel state liposome than in the liquid state liposome. The major conclusion was that the binding of avidin to a membrane bound model receptor was significantly restricted by two factors: one was the lateral steric hindrance and the other was the fluidity of the model membrane.

  15. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  16. [Study of Preparation and Utility of Suppository Containing Carbamazepine Tablet for Hospital Use in Rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isamu; Arai, Narutoshi; Fukushima, Aishi; Saito, Astuko; Inoue, Yutaka; Kimura, Masayuki; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients often report a decreased quality of life due to cancer-related pain, especially neuropathic pain, which is difficult to manage and often develops resistance to morphine. Thus a supplementary analgesic can play an important role in the treatment of cancer-related pain. Carbamazepine (CBZ), for example, can be effective, but only if the patient can take medication orally because it is limited to oral administration. In this study we investigated the efficacy of a suppository containing CBZ tablet in hospital preparations. We selected a base for the suppository of either polyethylene glycol (P), Witepsol VOSCO(®) H-15 (H), or Witepsol VOSCO(®) S-55 (S). Six to eight in vitro and in vivo groups were divided randomly based on route of administration and treatment: intravenous (i.v.), per os (p.o.), and intrarectal administration (i.r.) (composed of CBZ powder and tablet formulations, CBZp and CBZt) prepared in either a base of P, H, or S (CBZp/P, CBZp/H, CBZp/S, CBZt/P, CBZt/H, and CBZt/S). The hardness levels of the CBZt suppository group were significantly lower than the CBZp suppository group. The drug release profiles of the CBZt suppository group were high in order of P, H, and S; there were no significant differences between these groups and the CBZp suppository group. The maximum drug concentration time levels of the CBZt suppository group significantly increased compared with the p.o. group. These two groups had equivalent maximum drug concentration and bioavailability levels. These results suggest that a suppository containing CBZ tablet can be useful for hospital preparations.

  17. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  18. complexes containing isocyanide and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR. S. O. OWALUDE

    Synthesis of new ruthenium(II) complexes containing isocyanide and labile nitrile ligands. Owalude,* S. O. ... both compounds has distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Key words: Nitrile ... commercial product from Acros Organics. All.

  19. Is the switch to an ectomycorrhizal state an evolutionary key innovation in mushroom-forming fungi? A case study in the Tricholomatineae (Agaricales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Marisol; Matheny, Patrick Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Although fungi are one of the most diverse groups of organisms, little is known about the processes that shape their high taxonomic diversity. This study focuses on evolution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom-forming fungi, symbiotic associates of many trees and shrubs, in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We used the BiSSE model and BAMM to test the hypothesis that the ECM habit represents an evolutionary key innovation that allowed the colonization of new niches followed by an increase in diversification rate. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) supports the ancestor of the Tricholomatineae as non-ECM. We detected two diversification rate increases in the genus Tricholoma and the Rhodopolioid clade of the genus Entoloma. However, no increases in diversification were detected in the four other ECM clades of Tricholomatineae. We suggest that diversification of Tricholoma was not only due to the evolution of the ECM lifestyle, but also to the expansion and dominance of its main hosts and ability to associate with a variety of hosts. Diversification in the Rhodopolioid clade could be due to the unique combination of spore morphology and ECM habit. The spore morphology may represent an exaptation that aided spore dispersal and colonization. This is the first study to investigate rate shifts across a phylogeny that contains both non-ECM and ECM lineages.

  20. Graduate Program Scheduling Gains Flexibility through Container Courses: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Online course delivery makes possible one innovation which can provide each student with greater program flexibility as well as some personal ownership of the direction and pace of his degree progress. This concept can be called the "container course." A container course is the offering of more than one course simultaneously under a single course…

  1. Study on the structure and morphology of supramolecular shape memory polyurethane containing pyridine moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. J.; Hu, J. L.; Chen, S. G.; Zhang, C. L.

    2011-06-01

    Fabricating smart materials has been an attractive research topic in recent years. In this study, a series of pyridine-containing shape memory polyurethanes (Py-SMPUs) with different pyridine contents were synthesized. Based on the theoretical analysis, the structure and morphology of Py-SMPUs were studied systematically with FT-IR, DSC, WAXD, DMA, AFM, etc. Results show that a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structure is formed in the Py-SMPUs. Hydrogen bonds present in the urethane group and pyridine ring are the most favorable hydrogen bonds which play an important role in the movement of the polymer chain. Microphase separation consisting of a soft phase and hard phase occurs in the Py-SMPUs. The soft phase is influenced greatly by the N, N-bis(2-hydroxyl ethyl) isonicotinamide (BINA) unit and the hard phase is mainly a result of the hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol (HDI-BDO) units. As the BINA content decreases, the soft phase tends to change gradually from a continuous amorphous phase to a droplet-like dispersion phase, whereas the hard phase develops from a droplet-like dispersion amorphous phase to a continuous crystalline phase.

  2. Infrared spectroscopic study of a phosphoryl-containing enzyme: cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, J.M.; Martinez-Carrion, M.

    1986-05-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic study of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase has been carried out in order to determine the ionization state of the phosphate group of the bound pyridoxal phosphate. The band arising from the symmetric stretching of the dianionic phosphate monoester has been identified in holoenzyme spectra in solution. Its integrated intensity does not change with pH in the range 5.3-8.6, the value being close to the integrated intensity of the same band in free pyridoxal phosphate in solution at pH 8-9. On the other hand, for free cofactor, the integrated intensity changes with pH according to the pK expected for a 5'-phosphate group in solution. It appears, therefore, that the 5'-phosphate group of the bound cofactor remains mostly dianionic in the pH range 5.3-8.6, and a small /sup 31/P-NMR chemiCal shift/pH titration dependent curve observed in holoenzyme solutions seems due to the phosphate group in the protein, likely the Lys 258-pyridoxal phosphate Schiff's base. These results also show Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a valuable technique in the study of phosphoryl-containing proteins.

  3. Mechanical Properties Studies of Components Formulation for Mixing Process Contain of Polypropylene, Polyethylene, and Aluminium Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsi, A.; Dinzi, R.

    2017-03-01

    Certain powder and others components can induce toxic reactions if not properly handled in the mixing stage. During handling, the small particles can become airborne and be trapped in the lungs, another concern is inhomogeneities in the mixing process. Uniform quantities of the particles of the components are needed in all portions of the mixture. This paper reports the results of mechanical properties studies of mixing three components formulation for mixing process. Contain of Polyethylene (PE), Polyprophylene (PP) and Aluminium Powder. Powder mixer, Autodesk mold flow and computer based on excell method was carried out to study the influence of each formulation component on the flow %, PE 20% and Aluminium powder 2%. Macroscopic optic and macro photo was carried out to identify the homogenity of mixing, tensile test for identify the strength of component after mixing. Finally the optimal tensile test with composition PP 785,PE 20% and Aluminium powder 2% at speed 52 rpm, temperature 1500C, the tensile strength 20,92 N/mm2. At temperature 1600C, speed 100 rpm the optimum tensile strength 17,91 N/mm2. The result of simulation autodesk mold flow adviser the filling time 6 seconds. Otherwise on manual hot hidraulic press the time of filling 10 seconds.

  4. Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing quantum dots based on a study using a microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiannuo; Tian, Jing; Weng, Lixing; Wu, Lei; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Wang, Lianhui

    2012-02-01

    There is a lack of reliable nanotoxicity assays available for monitoring and quantifying multiple cellular events in cultured cells. In this study, we used a microfluidic chip to systematically investigate the cytotoxicity of three kinds of well-characterized cadmium-containing quantum dots (QDs) with the same core but different shell structures, including CdTe core QDs, CdTe/CdS core-shell QDs, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs, in HEK293 cells. Using the microfluidic chip combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiple QD-induced cellular events including cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and QD uptake were simultaneously analysed. The three kinds of QDs showed significantly different cytotoxicities. The CdTe QDs, which are highly toxic to HEK293 cells, resulted in remarkable cellular and nuclear morphological changes, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, and strong inhibition of cell proliferation; the CdTe/CdS QDs were moderately toxic but did not significantly affect the proliferation of HEK293 cells; while the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had no detectable influence on cytotoxicity with respect to cell morphology, viability, and proliferation. Our data indicated that QD cytotoxicity was closely related to their surface structures and specific physicochemical properties. This study also demonstrated that the microfluidic chip could serve as a powerful tool to systematically evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in multiple cellular events.

  5. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Studies of Poly(lactide) Electrospun Fibers Containing Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yazhe; Cebe, Peggy

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes(CNTs) often serve as an effective nucleating agent that facilitates the crystallization of semicrystalline polymers. Here we study the influence of CNTs on thermal and structural properties of Poly-lactide (PLA), which is well-known as a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic polymer. The effect of CNTs on the crystallization and melting behavior of electrospun fibers of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA, with 100% L-isomer) and poly (D-lactide) (PDLA, containing 4% D-isomer) was systemically studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform spectroscopy(FT-IR) and real time synchrotron wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) . Multi-walled CNTs were co-electrospun with the poly(lactides) in weight ratios ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 wt% MW-CNT. PLA/carbon nanotubes composite electrospun fibers were successfully produced by appropriate choice of processing conditions and solution concentration. The morphologies of neat and CNT-filled electrospun nanofibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy. WAXS and DSC results show that lower content of CNTs contributes to higher speed of crystallization. However the results also showed that at the highest concentration of CNTs the ultimate crystallinity was reduced. FTIR and X-ray results show that PLA fibers have different crystal forms at high and low crystallization temperature. DSC results also show that D-lactide has reduced crystallinity compared to L-lactide.

  6. Selenium-Containing Fused Bicyclic Heterocycle Diselenolodiselenole: Field Effect Transistor Study and Structure-Property Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Sashi; Chithiravel, Sundaresan; Sharma, Sagar; Bedi, Anjan; Krishnamoorthy, Kothandam; Zade, Sanjio S

    2016-07-20

    The first application of the diselenolodiselenole (C4Se4) heterocycle as an active organic field effect transistor materials is demonstrated here. C4Se4 derivatives (2a-2d) were obtained by using a newly developed straightforward diselenocyclization protocol, which includes the reaction of diynes with selenium powder at elevated temperature. C4Se4 derivatives exhibit strong donor characteristics and planar structure (except 2d). The atomic force microscopic analysis and thin-film X-ray diffraction pattern of compounds 2a-2d indicated the formation of distinct crystalline films that contain large domains. A scanning electron microscopy study of compound 2b showed development of symmetrical grains with an average diameter of 150 nm. Interestingly, 2b exhibited superior hole mobility, approaching 0.027 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with a transconductance of 9.2 μS. This study correlate the effect of π-stacking, Se···Se intermolecular interaction, and planarity with the charge transport properties and performance in the field effect transistor devices. We have shown that the planarity in C4Se4 derivatives was achieved by varying the end groups attached to the C4Se4 core. In turn, optoelectronic properties can also be tuned for all these derivatives by end-group variation.

  7. Liquid PEG Polymers Containing Antioxidants: A Versatile Platform for Studying Oxygen-Sensitive Photochemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongin, Cédric; Golden, Jessica H; Castellano, Felix N

    2016-09-14

    This article proposes the exploitation of widely available, inexpensive, innocuous "green" liquid polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers containing the oxygen scavenger oleic acid (OA) as promising media for studying oxygen-sensitive photochemical processes. Here we report the successful application of this media to detailed investigations of triplet-sensitized photochemical upconversion, previously established as being readily poisoned by dissolved oxygen. Three different PEG materials were investigated with increasing molecular weight from 200 to 600 g/mol, coded as PEG-200, PEG-400, and PEG-600. These fluidic polymers facilitate an oxygen-depleted environment in comparison to commonly employed organic solvents while providing high solubility and diffusion for the dissolved chromophores. Moreover, the low oxygen permeation afforded by these PEG solvents allows them to remain deoxygenated in open containers under ambient conditions for extended time periods. OA, 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA), and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) are shown to efficiently and quantitatively consume dissolved oxygen in the PEG environment in the presence of the photoactivated triplet sensitizer platinum(II) tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPBP). Oxygen consumption was directly correlated with systematically increasing sensitizer excited-state lifetimes that eventually reach the same plateau as achieved through extensive N2 sparging. Diffusion-controlled bimolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer quenching between PtTPBP and the acceptor/annihilator 9,10-bisphenylethynylanthracene (BPEA) was observed in all three PEG formulations investigated. Subsequent triplet-triplet annihilation, between triplet excited BPEA acceptors, achieves bright and stable upconverted singlet fluorescence from BPEA with no decrease in intensity over 20 h under ambient conditions. In the champion composition (PEG 200), the upconversion quantum efficiency reached 31% under conditions where triplet-triplet annihilation

  8. Key priority areas for patient safety improvement strategy in Libya: a protocol for a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmontsri, Mustafa; Banarsee, Ricky; Majeed, Azeem

    2017-07-02

    Patient safety is a global public health problem. Estimates and size of the problem of patient safety in low-income and developing countries are scarce. A systems approach is needed for ensuring that patients are protected from harm while receiving care. The primary objective of this study will be to use a consensus-based approach to identify the key priority areas for patient safety improvement in Libya as a developing country. A modified Delphi study. A three-phase modified Delphi study will be conducted using an anonymous web-based questionnaires. 15 international experts in the field of patient safety will be recruited to prioritise areas of patient safety that are vital to developing countries such as Libya. The participants will be given the opportunity to rank a list of elements on five criteria. The participants will also be asked to list five barriers that they believe hinder the implementation of patient safety systems. Descriptive statistics will be used to evaluate consensus agreement, including percentage agreement and coefficient of variation. Kendall's coefficient of concordance will be used to evaluate consensus across all participants. Ethical approval has been granted from Imperial College Research Ethics Committee (ICREC: 16IC3598). The findings of the study will be published in a PhD thesis. A manuscript will also be prepared for publication in a high-impact peer-reviewed journal describing the Delphi process and the findings of the study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Key-rate enhancement using qutrit states for quantum key distribution with askew aligned sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yonggi; Son, Wonmin

    2016-11-01

    It is known that measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) provides ultimate security from all types of side-channel attack on detectors at the expense of low key rate. In the present study, we propose MDI-QKD using three-dimensional quantum states and show that the protocol improves the secret key rate under the analysis of mismatched-basis statistics. Specifically, we analyze security of the 3 d -MDI-QKD protocol with askew aligned sources, meaning that the original sources contain unwanted states instead of the expected one. We evaluate the secret key rate of the protocol and identify the regime in which the key rate is higher than the protocol with the qubit MDI-QKD.

  10. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with methyl iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J.; Glaenneskog, H.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    An experimental study on radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. In year 2008 the NROI project, a Nordic collaboration studying iodine chemistry in the containment was started. During 2009, oxidation of iodine, especially organic iodine, was studied within the NROI project. The chemistry of organic iodine in the gas phase is still one of the greatest remaining uncertainties concerning iodine behaviour during a severe accident. During the first year of the NROI project the oxidation of elemental iodine, I2, with ozone and UV-light was investigated. In this study organic iodide, in this case methyl iodide, was investigated in similar conditions as in the NROI-1 project. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for the ISTP project CHIP conducted by IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. Experimental results showed that the methyl iodide concentration in the facility was reduced with increasing temperature and increasing UVC intensity. Similar behaviour occurred when ozone was present in the system. Formed organic gas species during the decomposition of methyl iodide was mainly formaldehyde and methanol. Instant and extensive particle formation occurred when methyl iodide was transported through a UVC radiation field and/or when ozone was present. The size of the formed primary particles was about 10 nm and the size of secondary particles was between 50-150 nm. From the SEM-EDX analyses of the particles, the conclusion was drawn that these were some kind of iodine

  11. A study of how precursor key concepts for organic chemistry success are understood by general chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick Gerard

    This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted from the Covalent Structure and Bonding two-tiered multiple choice diagnostic instrument (Peterson, Treagust, & Garnett, 1989) and augmented by the Geometry and Polarity of Molecules single-tiered multiple choice instrument (Furio & Calatayud, 1996). The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and coded for analysis to determine the subjects' understanding of the key ideas. The subjects displayed many misconceptions that were summarized into nine assertions about student conceptualization of chemistry. (1) Many students misunderstand the location and nature of intermolecular forces. (2) Some think electronegativity differences among atoms in a molecule are sufficient to make the molecule polar, regardless of spatial arrangement. (3) Most know that higher phase change temperatures imply stronger intermolecular attractions, but many do not understand the difference between covalent molecular and covalent network substances. (4) Many have difficulty deciding whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, often confusing bilateral symmetry with spatial symmetry in all three dimensions. (5) Many cannot reliably draw correct Lewis structures due to carelessness and overuse of flawed algorithms. (6) Many are confused by how electrons can both repel one other and facilitate bonding between atoms via orbitals---this seems oxymoronic to them. (7) Many cannot explain why the atoms of certain elements do not follow the octet rule and some believe the octet rule alone can determine the shape of a molecule. (8) Most do know that electronegativity and polarity

  12. Cytotoxicity Study on Luminescent Nanocrystals Containing Phospholipid Micelles in Primary Cultures of Rat Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Gianpiero; Fanizza, Elisabetta; Laquintana, Valentino; Denora, Nunzio; Fasano, Anna; Striccoli, Marinella; Colella, Matilde; Agostiano, Angela; Curri, M. Lucia; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are emerging as a new tool in neuroscience field, representing superior optical probes for cellular imaging and medical diagnosis of neurological disorders with respect to organic fluorophores. However, only a limited number of studies have, so far, explored NC applications in primary neurons, glia and related cells. Indeed astrocytes, as resident cells in the central nervous system (CNS), play an important pathogenic role in several neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, therefore enhanced imaging tools for their thorough investigation are strongly amenable. Here, a comprehensive and systematic study on the in vitro toxicological effect of core-shell type luminescent CdSe@ZnS NCs incorporated in polyethylene glycol (PEG) terminated phospholipid micelles on primary cultures of rat astrocytes was carried out. Cytotoxicity response of empty micelles based on PEG modified phospholipids was compared to that of their NC containing counterpart, in order to investigate the effect on cell viability of both inorganic NCs and micelles protecting NC surface. Furthermore, since the surface charge and chemistry influence cell interaction and toxicity, effect of two different functional groups terminating PEG-modified phospholipid micelles, namely amine and carboxyl group, respectively, was evaluated against bare micelles, showing that carboxyl group was less toxic. The ability of PEG-lipid micelles to be internalized into the cells was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by fluorescence microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) assay. The results of the experiments clearly demonstrate that, once incorporated into the micelles, a low, not toxic, concentration of NCs is sufficient to be distinctly detected within cells. The overall study provides essential indications to define the optimal experimental conditions to effectively and profitably use the proposed luminescent colloidal NCs as optical probe for future in vivo

  13. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric T.; Canabal, Francisco

    A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze the entire process on a three-dimensional domain. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger was less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  14. Mössbauer Study of Graphite-Containing Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorescu, Monica; Trotta, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Graphite-doped hematite and magnetite nanoparticles systems (~50 nm) were prepared by mechanochemical activation for milling times ranging from 2 to 12 hours. Their structural and magnetic properties were studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The spectra corresponding to the hematite milled samples were analyzed by considering two sextets, corresponding to the incorporation of carbon atoms into the iron oxide structure. For ball-milling time of 12 hours a quadrupole split doublet has been added, representing the contribution of ultrafine particles. The Mössbauer spectra of graphite-doped magnetite were resolved considering a sextet and a magnetic hyperfine field distribution, corresponding to the tetrahedral and octahedral sublattices of magnetite, respectively. A quadrupole split doublet was incorporated in the fitting of the 12-hour milled sample. The recoilless fraction for all samples was determined using our previously developed dual absorber method. It was found that the recoilless fraction of the graphite-doped hematite nanoparticles decreases as function of ball-milling time. The f factor of graphite-containing magnetite nanoparticles for the tetrahedral sites stays constant, while that of the octahedral sublattice decreases as function of ball-milling time. These findings reinforce the idea that carbon atoms exhibit preference for the octahedral sites of magnetite.

  15. A photoactive isoprenoid diphosphate analogue containing a stable phosphonate linkage: synthesis and biochemical studies with prenyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraw, Amanda J.; Zhao, Zongbao; Strickland, Corey L.; Taban, A. Huma; Hsieh, John; Michael, Jefferies; Xie, Wenshuang; Shintani, David; McMahan, Colleen; Cornish, Katrina; Distefano, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    A number of biochemical processes rely on isoprenoids, including the post-translational modification of signaling proteins and the biosynthesis of a wide array of compounds. Photoactivatable analogues have been developed to study isoprenoid utilizing enzymes such as the isoprenoid synthases and prenyltransferases. While these initial analogues proved to be excellent structural analogues with good cross linking capability, they lack the stability needed when the goals include isolation of cross-linked species, tryptic digestion, and subsequent peptide sequencing. Here, the synthesis of a benzophenone-based farnesyl diphosphate analogue containing a stable phosphonophosphate group is described. Inhibition kinetics, photolabeling experiments, as well as x-ray crystallographic analysis with a protein prenyltransferase are described, verifying this compound as a good isoprenoid mimetic. In addition, the utility of this new analogue was explored by using it to photoaffinity label crude protein extracts obtained from Hevea brasiliensis latex. Those experiments suggest that a small protein, Rubber Elongation Factor, interacts directly with farnesyl diphosphate during rubber biosynthesis. These results indicate that this benzophenone-based isoprenoid analogue will be useful for identifying enzymes that utilize farnesyl diphosphate as a substrate. PMID:17477573

  16. Study on Strength and Microstructure of Cement-Based Materials Containing Combination Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of complex binders containing two or three blended mineral admixtures in terms of glass powder (GP, limestone powder (LP, and steel slag powder (SP was determined by a battery solution type compressive testing machine. The morphology and microstructure characteristics of complex binder hydration products were also studied by microscopic analysis methods, such as XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM. The mechanical properties of the cement-based materials were analyzed to reveal the most appropriate mineral admixture type and content. The early sample strength development with GP was very slow, but it rapidly grew at later stages. The micro aggregate effect and pozzolanic reaction mutually occurred in the mineral admixture. In the early stage, the micro aggregate effect reduced paste porosity and the small particles connected with the cement hydration products to enhance its strength. In the later stage, the pozzolanic reaction of some components in the complex powder occurred and consumed part of the calcium hydroxide to form C-S-H gel, thus improving the hydration environment. Also, the produced C-S-H gel made the structure more compact, which improved the structure’s strength.

  17. Applying 89Zr-Transferrin To Study the Pharmacology of Inhibitors to BET Bromodomain Containing Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin modifying proteins are attractive drug targets in oncology, given the fundamental reliance of cancer on altered transcriptional activity. Multiple transcription factors can be impacted downstream of primary target inhibition, thus making it challenging to understand the driving mechanism of action of pharmacologic inhibition of chromatin modifying proteins. This in turn makes it difficult to identify biomarkers predictive of response and pharmacodynamic tools to optimize drug dosing. In this report, we show that 89Zr-transferrin, an imaging tool we developed to measure MYC activity in cancer, can be used to identify cancer models that respond to broad spectrum inhibitors of transcription primarily due to MYC inhibition. As a proof of concept, we studied inhibitors of BET bromodomain containing proteins, as they can impart antitumor effects in a MYC dependent or independent fashion. In vitro, we show that transferrin receptor biology is inhibited in multiple MYC positive models of prostate cancer and double hit lymphoma when MYC biology is impacted. Moreover, we show that bromodomain inhibition in one lymphoma model results in transferrin receptor expression changes large enough to be quantified with 89Zr-transferrin and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo. Collectively, these data further underscore the diagnostic utility of the relationship between MYC and transferrin in oncology, and provide the rationale to incorporate transferrin-based PET into early clinical trials with bromodomain inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:26725682

  18. Study of Phase Relations of ZnO-Containing Fayalite Slag Under Fe Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huayue; Chen, Liugang; Malfliet, Annelies; Jones, Peter Tom; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-10-01

    A ZnO-containing fayalite-based slag can be formed in copper smelting from secondary raw materials and its high viscosity is a common issue that hinders slag tapping. In this work, the crystallization behavior of the industrial slag was observed in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Solid precipitation was found to be the major cause of the poor slag fluidity. The phase relations in the industrial slag system ZnO-"FeO"-SiO2-Al2O3-CaO (CaO/SiO2 = 0.05, Al2O3/SiO2 = 0.15) were investigated by quenching the samples after reaching equilibrium at 1423 K (1150 °C) under iron saturation. The equilibrium composition of the phases was determined with electron probe micro-analysis. The effect of individual components, such as FeO, ZnO, and CaO on the phase equilibrium of the slag system has been quantitatively studied. The relation between the solid-phase fraction and the chemical composition of the slag has been revealed. Suggestions to modify the slag composition toward low viscosity are provided.

  19. [Synthesis of strontium-containing porous hydroxyaptite ceramics and study of its biological properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen; Ran, Xu; Liang, Jie; Chen, Hezhong; Luo, Jiaoming

    2012-12-01

    Strontium added into porous hydroxyaptite ceramics has the functions of improving its osseointegration, decreasing its dissolution rate and improving the bone density. Strontium-containing hydroxyaptite (Sr-HA) ceramics has been used as bone replacement and scaffold to treat the osteoporosis and bone default in clinic, but the mechanism of interfacial tissue response caused by the trace element Sr in Sr-HA ceramics still remains to be further studied. Four types of Sr-HA ceramic samples with different contents of Sr were prepared by microwave plasma sintering for testing the response of the soft tissue implanted in dog muscles in our laboratory. The contents of Sr element in the samples are 0 mol%, 1 mol%, 5 mol%, and 7 mol%, respectively. The samples were implanted in the muscle of the dogs for 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. The histological observations at the end of each period showed that the irritant ranking increased with the content of Sr in Sr-HA ceramics at the end of 12 weeks, and there were rich bone tissue in Sr-HA ceramic samples with 5 mol% Sr element. The overdose of element Sr is harmful to soft tissues. When the content of Sr in Sr-HA ceramic was below 5 mol%, the soft tissue response was very slight and the new bones were induced to grow well.

  20. Study of Selected Properties of Thermally Sprayed Coatings Containing WC and WB Hard Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brezinová Janette

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research of the essential characteristics of two kinds of advanced coatings applied by HVOF technology. One studied coating: WB-WC-Co (60-30-10% contains two types of hard particles (WC and WB, the second coating is eco-friendly alternative to the previously used WC-based coatings, called “green carbides” with the composition WC-FeCrAl (85-15%. In green carbides coating the heavy metals (Co, Ni, NiCr forming the binding matrix in conventional wear-resistant coatings are replaced by more environmentally friendly matrix based on FeCrAl alloy. On the coatings was carried out: metallographic analysis, measurement of thickness, micro-hardness, adhesion, resistance to thermal cyclic loading and adhesive wear resistance (pin-on-disk test. One thermal cycle consisted of heating the coatings to 600°C, dwell for 10 minutes, and subsequently cooling on the still air. The number of thermal cycles: 10. The base material was stainless steel AISI 316L, pretreatment prior to application of the coating: blasting with white corundum, application device JP-5000.

  1. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YU Liangmin; JIANG Xiaohui; XIA Shuwei; ZHAO Haizhou

    2009-01-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-l-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  2. Mass spectrometric studies of lithium-containing oxides at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yasushi; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Genichi; Amioka, Kenji; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    The sublimation and vaporization of various lithium containing oxides have been studied by high temperature mass spectrometry. The installed Knudsen cell apparatus gave some useful information about the vapor species, appearance potentials, partial pressures and heats of reactions involved. The investigated oxides are Li 2O, Li 2O-Al 2O 3, Li 2O-MoO 2 and Li 2O-SiO 2 systems. This paper mainly presents the most recent data for the Li 2O-SiO 2 system. A relationship for the decomposition reaction of ortho-Li 4SiO 4 was deduced. The heat of the reaction was determined by the third law method. The activity of the Li 2O component in the double oxides was estimated from the partial pressures of the vapor species. γ-LiAlO 2 and meta-Li 2SiO 3 showed fairly low activities in comparison with Li 2O oxide. The activity coefficients decreased with the Li 2O mole fraction in the lithium compounds. The heats of formation and atomization of LiO and Li 2O gaseous species were determined.

  3. Thermal studies of poly(esters) containing silicon or germanium in the main chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagle, L.H. [Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, P.O. Box 306, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ltagle@puc.cl; Terraza, C. [Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, P.O. Box 306, Santiago (Chile); Valenzuela, P. [Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, P.O. Box 306, Santiago (Chile); Leiva, A. [Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, P.O. Box 306, Santiago (Chile); Urzua, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2005-01-20

    The thermal properties of poly(esters) containing Si and/or Ge in the main chain derived from the acid dichlorides bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-dimethyl-silane, bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-dimethyl-germane, bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-diphenyl-silane and bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-diphenyl-silane, and the diphenols bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-dimethyl-silane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-dimethyl-germane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenyl-silane and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenyl-germane were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic thermogravimetry. Poly(esters) with two Si atoms in the main chain showed higher values of T{sub g} than those with two Ge atoms, and the same was observed for poly(esters) with phenyl groups bonded to the heteroatoms, instead of those with methyl groups. Thermal decomposition temperatures were also higher for those poly(esters) with two Si atoms in the main chain and those in which the heteroatom is bonded to phenyl groups, due to the higher polarity of the Si-C bond in front of the Ge-C.

  4. Enhanced oral absorption of insulin-loaded liposomes containing bile salts: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mengmeng; Tan, Ya'nan; Guan, Peipei; Hovgaard, Lars; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Lian, Ruyue; Li, Xiaoyang; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes containing bile salts (BS-liposomes) significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of insulin (rhINS). However, the underlying absorption mechanisms have not been well understood yet. In this study, the transiting fate of the liposomes was first investigated using fluorescent imaging tools to confirm the effect of enhanced gastrointestinal stability. In order to obtain evidence of enhanced transcellular permeation, the interaction between BS-liposomes and the biomembrane was investigated in Caco-2 cell lines. BS-liposomes were found to be more stable in the gastrointestinal tract by showing prolonged residence time in comparison with conventional liposomes. BS-liposomes were significantly more effective for cellular uptake and transport of rhINS; and this effect was found to be size- and concentration-dependent. A good linear correlation was observed between the concentration of the liposomes and uptake/transport of rhINS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy visualization further validated the transcellular transit of BS-liposomes. The BS-liposomes showed little effect on cytotoxicity and did not induce apoptosis within 24h investigation. It was concluded that BS-liposomes showed improved in vivo residence time and enhanced permeation across the biomemebranes. Mechanisms of trans-enterocytic internalization could be proposed as an interpretation for enhanced absorption of insulin-loaded liposomes.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical study of a new asymmetrical tripodal amine containing morpholine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rezaeivala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new asymmetrical tripodal amine, [H3L2]Br3 containing morpholine moiety was prepared from reacting of one equivalent of N-(3-aminopropylmorpholine and two equivalents of tosylaziridine, followed by detosylation with HBr/CH3COOH. The products were characterized by various spectroscopic methods such as FAB-MS, elemental analysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the hydrobromide salt of the latter amine, [H3L2]Br3, was also determined. For triprotonated form of the ligand L2 we can consider several microspecies and/or conformers. A theoretical study at B3LYP/6-31G∗∗ level of theory showed that the characterized microspecies is the most stable microspecies for the triprotonated form of the ligand. It was shown that the experimental NMR data for [H3L2]Br3 in solution have good correlation with the corresponding calculated data for the most stable microspecies of [H3L2]3+ in the gas phase.

  6. Study of the activity of DNA polymerases β and λ using 5-formyluridine containing DNA substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrik O. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the TLS-activity of human DNA polymerases β and λ (pols β and λ using 5-formyluridine (5-foU containing DNA duplexes which are imitating the intermediates during replication of the leading DNA strand, and to study the influence of replication factors hRPA and hPCNA on this activity. Methods. The EMSA and the methods of enzyme’s kinetics were used. Results. The capability of pols β and λ to catalyze DNA synthesis across 5-foU was investigated and the kinetic characteristics of this process in the presence and in the absence of protein factors hRPA and hPCNA were evaluated. Conclusions. It was shown that: (i both proteins are able to catalyze TLS on used DNA substrates regardless of the reaction conditions, however, pol λ was more accurate enzyme; (ii hRPA can stimulate the efficacy of the nonmutagenic TLS catalyzed by pol at the nucleotide incorporation directly opposite of 5-foU, at the same time it doesn’t influence the incorporation efficacy if the damage displaced into the duplex; (iii hPCNA doesn’t influence the efficacy of TLS catalyzed by both enzymes.

  7. Ventilation Rates and Airflow Pathways in Patient Rooms: A Case Study of Bioaerosol Containment and Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Ehsan S; Grosskopf, Kevin R

    2015-11-01

    Most studies on the transmission of infectious airborne disease have focused on patient room air changes per hour (ACH) and how ACH provides pathogen dilution and removal. The logical but mostly unproven premise is that greater air change rates reduce the concentration of infectious particles and thus, the probability of airborne disease transmission. Recently, a growing body of research suggests pathways between pathogenic source (patient) and control (exhaust) may be the dominant environmental factor. While increases in airborne disease transmission have been associated with ventilation rates below 2 ACH, comparatively less data are available to quantify the benefits of higher air change rates in clinical spaces. As a result, a series of tests were conducted in an actual hospital to observe the containment and removal of respirable aerosols (0.5-10 µm) with respect to ventilation rate and directional airflow in a general patient room, and, an airborne infectious isolation room. Higher ventilation rates were not found to be proportionately effective in reducing aerosol concentrations. Specifically, increasing mechanical ventilation from 2.5 to 5.5 ACH reduced aerosol concentrations only 30% on average. However, particle concentrations were more than 40% higher in pathways between the source and exhaust as was the suspension and migration of larger particles (3-10 µm) throughout the patient room(s). Computational analyses were used to validate the experimental results, and, to further quantify the effect of ventilation rate on exhaust and deposition removal in patient rooms as well as other particle transport phenomena.

  8. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  9. Studies on composite solid propellant with tri-modal ammonium perchlorate containing an ultrafine fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Suresh Babu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite solid propellant is prepared using tri-modal Ammonium perchlorate (AP containing coarse, fine and ultrafine fractions of AP with average particle size (APS 340, 40 and 5 μm respectively, in various compositions and their rheological, mechanical and burn rate characteristics are evaluated. The optimum combination of AP coarse to fine to ultrafine weight fraction was obtained by testing of series of propellant samples by varying the AP fractions at fixed solid loading. The concentration of aluminium was maintained constant throughout the experiments for ballistics requirement. The propellant formulation prepared using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9 has lowest viscosity for the propellant paste and highest tensile strength due to dense packing as supported by the literature. A minimum modulus value was also observed at 9 wt. % of ultrafine AP concentration indicates the maximum solids packing density at this ratio of AP fractions. The burn rate is evaluated at different pressures to obtain pressure exponent. Incorporation of ultrafine fraction of AP in propellant increased burn rate without adversely affecting the pressure exponent. Higher solid loading propellants are prepared by increased AP concentration from 67 to 71 wt. % using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9. Higher solid content up to 89 wt. % was achieved and hence increased solid motor performance. The unloading viscosity showed a trend with increased AP content and the propellant couldn't able to cast beyond 71 wt. % of AP. Mechanical properties were also studied and from the experiments noticed that % elongation decreased with increased AP content from 67 to 71 wt.%, whereas tensile strength and modulus increased. Burn rate increased with increased AP content and observed that pressure exponent also increased and it is high for the propellant containing with 71 wt.% of AP due to increased oxidiser to fuel ratio. Catalysed

  10. The study of volume ultrasonic waves propagation in the gas-containing iron ore pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkun, V; Morkun, N; Pikilnyak, A

    2015-02-01

    The results of research of the volume ultrasonic waves propagation in the gas-containing iron ore slurry using ultrasonic phased array technology is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  12. A study of compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials containing tramadol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mužíková, Jitka; Kubíčková, Alena

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluates and compares the compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials for the preparation of hydrophilic gel matrix tablets containing tramadol hydrochloride and the coprocessed dry binders Prosolv® SMCC 90 and Disintequik™ MCC 25. The selected types of hypromellose are Methocel™ Premium K4M and Methocel™ Premium K100M in 30 and 50 % concentrations, the lubricant being magnesium stearate in a 1 % concentration. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression process and compactibility by the tensile strength of tablets. The values of total energy of compression and plasticity were higher in the tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 than in those containing Disintequik™ MCC 25. Tramadol slightly decreased the values of total energy of compression and plasticity. Tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 yielded stronger tablets. Tramadol decreased the strength of tablets from both coprocessed dry binders.

  13. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  14. EPA, 12 Private Entities Agree to Remove Contamination and Conduct Study at Metro Container Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (October 21, 2015) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 12 private entities have agreed to settle on actions that will lead to increased environmental protection at the Metro Container Superfund Site in Trainer, Delaware Co.,

  15. Molecular dynamics study of the behavior of nitromethanes enclosed inside carbon nanotube containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Se Won; Cho, Soo Gyeong

    2016-07-01

    We utilized molecular dynamics (MD) to investigate the behavior of nitromethane molecules (NMs) enclosed inside carbon nanotube (CNT) containers sealed with buckybowl caps. Two different sizes of CNT containers, i.e., (10,10) and (20,20), were employed to contain the energetic NMs. After loading the NMs into these containers, MD simulations were carried out at different loading densities. The loading density was changed from 0.4 to 2.0 g/cc. At low loading densities, NMs preferentially resided near the surface of the CNT wall (orienting themselves in the cylindrical direction) and near the buckybowl caps (orienting themselves in the principal-axis direction). This behavior suggests the buckybowl caps and the CNT wall have attractive interactions with the NMs. The distribution of the NMs inside the containers did not change upon increasing the temperature from ambient to 100 °C. However, the positional preference of the NMs found at ambient temperature to 100 °C was not the same as that observed at 1000 °C due to the increased thermal motions of the NMs. The size of the CNT container had a significant effect on the fluidity of the NMs. From 25 to 100 °C, the NMs inside the (10,10) CNT container were only mobile at low loading densities. On the other hand, in the (20,20) CNT container, the NMs showed good mobility up to a loading density of 1.6 g/cc. Graphical Abstract Attractive interactions between the nitromethanes and the buckybowl caps as well as the carbon nanotube wall.

  16. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON KEY INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: GREEN BUDGETING - A CATALYST FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY AND A FACTOR FOR INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Violeta-Maria Cimpoeru

    2012-01-01

    ... proper resources for social and environmental programs. The study analyzes green budget practices and suggests several ways to use them in order to ensure consistency in implementing key elements of sustainable economy...

  17. Key indicators of SGSN pool planning study%SGSN Pool规划关键指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静霞; 王计艳; 郑直; 邱钧

    2012-01-01

      With the SGSN pool rapid development, the the core network is facing the problems of how to planning the pool reasonable, according to the key indicators of SGSN pool planning study, we put forward our specific planning method on how to determine the size of the pool, how to fusion the pool of different regions, and give a stong support to the SGSN pool planning.%  随着SGSN Pool的全面部署,如何根据网络现状合理地进行Pool的规划是核心网目前面临的难题,本文针对现网部署SGSN Pool时所涉及的关键指标进行分析研究,给出各类指标的具体规划方法,并对现网面临的跨本地网组Pool、如何确定Pool的大小等实际问题进行分析,给出具体建议,对SGSN Pool的部署具有较强的指导意义。

  18. Key parameters for behaviour related to source separation of household organic waste: A case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Huong, Luong Thi Mai

    2017-03-01

    Proper management of food waste, a major component of municipal solid waste (MSW), is needed, especially in developing Asian countries where most MSW is disposed of in landfill sites without any pretreatment. Source separation can contribute to solving problems derived from the disposal of food waste. An organic waste source separation and collection programme has been operated in model areas in Hanoi, Vietnam, since 2007. This study proposed three key parameters (participation rate, proper separation rate and proper discharge rate) for behaviour related to source separation of household organic waste, and monitored the progress of the programme based on the physical composition of household waste sampled from 558 households in model programme areas of Hanoi. The results showed that 13.8% of 558 households separated organic waste, and 33.0% discharged mixed (unseparated) waste improperly. About 41.5% (by weight) of the waste collected as organic waste was contaminated by inorganic waste, and one-third of the waste disposed of as organic waste by separators was inorganic waste. We proposed six hypothetical future household behaviour scenarios to help local officials identify a final or midterm goal for the programme. We also suggested that the city government take further actions to increase the number of people participating in separating organic waste, improve the accuracy of separation and prevent non-separators from discharging mixed waste improperly.

  19. Keys to successful implementation of a French national quality indicator in health care organizations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelli, Mathias; Gomez, Marie-Léandre; Sicotte, Claude; Zicari, Adrian; Bonnefond, Jean-Yves; Lorino, Philippe; Minvielle, Etienne

    2016-10-06

    Several countries have launched public reporting systems based on quality indicators (QIs) to increase transparency and improve quality in health care organizations (HCOs). However, a prerequisite to quality improvement is successful local QI implementation. The aim of this study was to explore the pathway through which a mandatory QI of the French national public reporting system, namely the quality of the anesthesia file (QAF), was put into practice. Seven ethnographic case studies in French HCOs combining in situ observations and 37 semi-structured interviews. A significant proportion of potential QAF users, such as anesthetists or other health professionals were often unaware of quality data. They were, however, involved in improvement actions to meet the QAF criteria. In fact, three intertwined factors influenced QAF appropriation by anesthesia teams and impacted practice. The first factor was the action of clinical managers (chief anesthetists and head of department) who helped translate public policy into local practice largely by providing legitimacy by highlighting the scientific evidence underlying QAF, achieving consensus among team members, and pointing out the value of QAF as a means of work recognition. The two other factors related to the socio-material context, namely the coherence of information systems and the quality of interpersonal ties within the department. Public policy tends to focus on the metrological validity of QIs and on ranking methods and overlooks QI implementation. However, effective QI implementation depends on local managerial activity that is often invisible, in interaction with socio-material factors. When developing national quality improvement programs, health authorities might do well to specifically target these clinical managers who act as invaluable mediators. Their key role should be acknowledged and they ought to be provided with adequate resources.

  20. Studying work practices: a key factor in understanding accidents on the level triggered by a balance disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosier, C; Leclercq, S; Rabardel, P; Langa, P

    2008-12-01

    Accidents on the level (AOL) rank second amongst the most numerous and serious occupational accidents with days lost in France and are a major health and safety problem in every sector of activity. The case study described in this paper was conducted at a metallurgical company with 300 employees. The aims of this work were dual: 1) to extend the general knowledge required for preventing these accidents; 2) to propose prevention measures to this company. Existing data on company occupational accidents were gathered and analysed to identify a work situation that appeared likely to cause AOL. This work situation was analysed in detail. Several risk factors were identified within this work situation, by way of interviews with 12 operators. These risk factors concerned various dimensions of the work situation, particularly its physical dimension (e.g. templates structure) and organisational dimension (e.g. parts availability). Interviews were conducted, focusing on risk factors perceived by operators and involving allo-confrontations based on accounts of four AOL occurring in this situation. Allo-confrontations were interviews confronting operators with a risk occupational situation that was accidental for one of their colleagues, the latter being absent from the interview. Results highlighted the fact that the work practices implemented are key factors in understanding these accidents. This study underlines the role of work practices in AOL causality and prevention. It also provides explanations associated with various work situation dimensions involving adoption of more or less safe work practices. AOL are serious and frequent in occupational situations. Injury claims analysis and interviews in an industrial company emphasise the specific characteristics of an occupational situation and of prevention actions forming the basis of an intervention. The need for a better understanding of factors affecting work practice is highlighted in relation to research.

  1. Transfection Studies with Colloidal Systems Containing Highly Purified Bipolar Tetraether Lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnapireddy, Shashank Reddy; Baghdan, Elias; Jedelská, Jarmila

    2017-01-01

    Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT) differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery. Lipoplexes were prepared by complexation of liposomes with a luciferase expressing plasmid (pCMV-luc) at certain nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N/P) ratios and optimised for the transient transfection of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3). Complexation efficacy was investigated by gel-red fluorescence assay. Biophysical properties, like size, surface charge, and morphology, were investigated by differential light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM), respectively, revealing structural differences between liposomes and lipoplexes. A range of stable transfecting agents containing tetraether lipids were obtained by incorporating 5 mol% of tetraether lipids. Lipoplexes showed a decrease in free gel-red with increasing N/P ratios indicating efficient incorporation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and remarkable stability. Transfection experiments of the lipoplexes revealed successful and superior transfection of SK-OV-3 cell line compared to the commercially available DOTAP and branched polyethyleneimine (25 kDa bPEI).

  2. Transfection Studies with Colloidal Systems Containing Highly Purified Bipolar Tetraether Lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Konrad H; Pinnapireddy, Shashank Reddy; Baghdan, Elias; Jedelská, Jarmila; Bakowsky, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT) differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery. Lipoplexes were prepared by complexation of liposomes with a luciferase expressing plasmid (pCMV-luc) at certain nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N/P) ratios and optimised for the transient transfection of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3). Complexation efficacy was investigated by gel-red fluorescence assay. Biophysical properties, like size, surface charge, and morphology, were investigated by differential light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM), respectively, revealing structural differences between liposomes and lipoplexes. A range of stable transfecting agents containing tetraether lipids were obtained by incorporating 5 mol% of tetraether lipids. Lipoplexes showed a decrease in free gel-red with increasing N/P ratios indicating efficient incorporation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and remarkable stability. Transfection experiments of the lipoplexes revealed successful and superior transfection of SK-OV-3 cell line compared to the commercially available DOTAP and branched polyethyleneimine (25 kDa bPEI).

  3. Transfection Studies with Colloidal Systems Containing Highly Purified Bipolar Tetraether Lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad H. Engelhardt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery. Lipoplexes were prepared by complexation of liposomes with a luciferase expressing plasmid (pCMV-luc at certain nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N/P ratios and optimised for the transient transfection of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3. Complexation efficacy was investigated by gel-red fluorescence assay. Biophysical properties, like size, surface charge, and morphology, were investigated by differential light scattering (DLS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM, respectively, revealing structural differences between liposomes and lipoplexes. A range of stable transfecting agents containing tetraether lipids were obtained by incorporating 5 mol% of tetraether lipids. Lipoplexes showed a decrease in free gel-red with increasing N/P ratios indicating efficient incorporation of plasmid DNA (pDNA and remarkable stability. Transfection experiments of the lipoplexes revealed successful and superior transfection of SK-OV-3 cell line compared to the commercially available DOTAP and branched polyethyleneimine (25 kDa bPEI.

  4. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with methyl iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT, Espoo (Finland)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    An experimental study on radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. In year 2008 the NROI project, a Nordic collaboration studying iodine chemistry in the containment, was started. During year 2008 (NROI-1) the radiolytic oxidation of elemental iodine was investigated and during 2009 (NROI-2), the radiolytic oxidation of organic iodine was studied. This project (NROI-3) is a continuation of the investigation of the oxidation of organic iodine. The project has been divided into two parts. 1. The aims of the first part were to investigate the effect of ozone and UV-radiation, in dry and humid conditions, on methyl iodide. 2. The second project was about gamma radiation (approx20 kGy/h) and methyl iodide in dry and humid conditions. 1. Experimental results showed that the methyl iodide concentration in the facility was reduced with increasing temperature and increasing UV-radiation intensity. Similar behaviour occurred when ozone was present in the system. Formed organic gas species during the decomposition of methyl iodide was mainly formaldehyde and methanol. The particle formation was instant and extensive when methyl iodide was exposed to ozone and/or radiation at all temperatures. The size of the formed primary particles was about 10 nm and the size of secondary particles was between 50-200 nm. From the SEM-EDX analyses of the particles, the conclusion was drawn that these were some kind of iodine oxides (I{sub xO{sub y}). However, the correct speciation of the formed particles was difficult to obtain because the particles melted and fused together under the electron beam. 2. The results from this sub-project are more inconsistent and hard to interpret. The particle formation was significant lesser than corresponding experiments when ozone/UV-radiation was used instead of gamma radiation. The transport of gaseous methyl iodide through the facility was

  5. Study on Salt-Containing Extractive Distillation for the 2-Propanol/Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jiquan

    2008-01-01

    The salt-containing extractive distillation column and the salt-containing agent recovery column for the 2-propanol/water/ethanediol/KAc system were simulated by the NRTL model and the modified Rose Relaxation method. The simulation results showed that prediction of the salt effect in vapor-liquid equilib-rium and the correlation method (TDCM) of NRTL parameters were suitable for the said system. Four different distillation technology processes were investigated; the results showed that the salt-containing extractive distillation process was the best one. The simulating design of the extractive distillation column was performed under the conditions of different total stage number, feeding location, reflux ratio, amount of mixed agent and concentration of KAc. The results showed that such factors as 17 stages, a feeding location at the 9th stage, a reflux ratio of 1.2, and a mixed agent feeding rate of 1.141 kmol/h, might be the best suited operating conditions. The simulating design was also done for the column for recovering the salt-containing agent. The simulation method of the salt-containing extractive distillation is simple and effective in this work.

  6. Genome-wide association study of virologic response with efavirenz-containing or abacavir-containing regimens in AIDS clinical trials group protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, David S; Ribaudo, Heather J; Daar, Eric S; Gulick, Roy M; Haubrich, Richard H; Robbins, Gregory K; de Bakker, Paul I W; Haas, David W; McLaren, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Efavirenz and abacavir are components of recommended first-line regimens for HIV-1 infection. We used genome-wide genotyping and clinical data to explore genetic associations with virologic failure among patients randomized to efavirenz-containing or abacavir-containing regimens in AIDS

  7. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Christian; Galeazzi, Roberto; Rodríguez, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to 40, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head...... seas. A Matlab/Simulinkr parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007). The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll...... is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic...

  8. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in

  9. Preparation of fluorescence quenched libraries containing interchain disulphide bonds for studies of protein disulphide isomerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spetzler, J C; Westphal, V; Winther, Jakob R.

    1998-01-01

    the chemistry required for the generation of a split-synthesis library, two substrates containing an interchain disulphide bond, a fluorescent probe and a quencher were synthesized. The library consists of a Cys residue flanked by randomized amino acid residues at both sides and the fluorescent Abz group...... at the amino terminal. All the 20 natural amino acids except Cys were employed. The library was linked to PEGA-beads via methionine so that the peptides could be selectively removed from the resin by cleavage with CNBr. A disulphide bridge was formed between the bead-linked library and a peptide containing...

  10. The bactericidal effects of an acidified sodium chlorite-containing oral moisturizing gel: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyama, Iwao; Osato, Shigeo; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the bactericidal effects and bactericidal time of an acidified sodium chlorite compound gel (ASC-Gel) on bacteria isolated from the peri-implant sulci of 10 patients who received implants 3-27 years previously, and the depth of each peri-implant sulcus was 5 mm or less. Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC33277) was used as the control bacterium. Five ASC-Gel preparations were created by adding 3.3%, 5.0%, 7.0%, 9.0%, and 11.0% citric acid (CA) (condition a, b, c, d, and e, respectively) into an oral moisturizing gel containing sodium chlorite. The concentrations of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) generated in ASC-Gel under conditions (a) to (e) were 12.1, 14.1, 17.2, 21.2, and 39.3 ppm, respectively. We examined the bactericidal effects of the 5 ASC-Gel preparations at volumes of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mL, and measured the bactericidal time when 2.0 mL of ASC-Gel was used under condition (e). The bactericidal effects of ASC-Gel became significantly greater with increased concentrations of CA and ClO2 and with increased usage (0.5-2.0 mL) of the gel. All bacteria were killed by using 2.0 mL of ASC-Gel under condition (e). ASC-Gel also needed between 45 and 90 minutes to kill all microbes under condition (e). Within the limits of the present investigation, these results suggest that ASC-Gel is useful as a chemical disinfectant against bacteria in the peri-implant sulcus. Further studies are also required to protect teeth, the surface of hydroxyapatite-coated implants, and the surrounding soft tissues from effects of chemical dissolution such as acid erosion due to the low pH of ASC-Gel.

  11. A cytochemical study of acid carbohydrates on the surface of Candida lipolytica grown in tween 80-containing medium

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Aline E.; Shariá Allana E. do Nascimento; Lima Marco Antonio Barbosa de; Campos-Takaki Galba Maria de

    2000-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing molecules were located on the surface of Candida lipolytica by using ruthenium red in a cytochemical study. The yeast was grown in media containing Tween 80. The surfactant, at 1.0% and 0.5%, was added to the culture medium in different intervals of time, correspondent to the beginning of exponential growth phase, mid of logarithimic phase and beginning of stationary growth phase. Control cultures were grown in a medium containing glucose. The growth of the yeast in me...

  12. Key influences identified by first year undergraduate nursing students as impacting on the quality of clinical placement: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John; Courtney-Pratt, Helen; Fitzgerald, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Despite the fact that high quality clinical placement is an integral component of pre-registration nursing education for the development of the future nursing workforce, the literature identifies an ongoing struggle to 'get it right'. To examine qualitative data gathered through the Quality Clinical Placements Evaluation project to identify what pre-registration nursing students deemed helpful and not helpful influences on their first year Professional Experience Placement. A total of 553 first year undergraduate nursing students from 2010 to 2012 were enrolled in the programme and all were invited to complete a validated survey to measure the quality of their first clinical placement. A total of 361 completed surveys were returned. This paper examines the data provided through open-ended questions within the survey related to most helpful and least helpful aspects of their clinical experience. An inductive analysis approach using NVIVO allowed inherent areas to emerge from the raw data forming three key themes that influenced the experience of students. Feeling welcomed, individual versus team attitudes, and student expectations of supervising ward nurses were the themes identified that were perceived by the student as important to the success of learning and the quality of the experience overall. The findings echo previous research into the student experience of clinical placement; however the focus regarding the need for students to have a quality relationship with the supervising nurse is an area that warrants further exploration. Furthermore, we argue that students should be purposely engaged in the tertiary sector and provided guidance and strategies related to forming and maintaining relationships with those that supervise their clinical placement, in order to ensure consistent positive experiences. The outcomes from this study suggest that a missing component is teaching undergraduates how to manage relationships in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015

  13. Master's level education in Jordan: a qualitative study of key motivational factors and perceived impact on practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Zainab

    2013-09-01

    To explore key motivational factors of Jordanian nurses to undertake a Master's degree and explore perceived impact on practice. In Jordan, there are postgraduate educational programmes offering a Master's degree in clinical nursing for registered nurses. These programmes are intended to prepare nurses to practise at an advanced level as potential clinical nurse specialists. Little is known about the motivation of nurses to undertake such Master's degree preparation programmes and their perceived impact on practice. Using an ethnographic design, narratives from semi-structured interviews with participants (n=37) from five Jordanian hospitals and two public universities were collected and thematically analysed. Four main themes emerged from the data: self development; broadening career opportunities; developing practice; and the perceived impact of Master's level nurses on practice. The majority of Jordanian nurses chose to undertake a Master's degree because of a desire for self and practice development. The majority of participants referred to M-level nurses in terms of knowledge transfer, highlighting their clinical teaching and in-service education activities. M-level nurses were also associated with managerial and supervisory roles in clinical practice. Controversy over the impact of M-level nurses in enhancing patient care is not limited to the Jordanian setting. Future research needs to focus on comparative studies between nurses with M-level qualifications and experienced nurses without either M-level qualifications or specialist courses to establish if there is any significant relationship between practice performance and educational preparation and experience. Evaluation research could be undertaken for the purpose of developing measurable and observable criteria related to educational and skill based outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality control of CT systems by automated monitoring of key performance indicators: a two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowik, Patrik; Bujila, Robert; Poludniowski, Gavin; Fransson, Annette

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of performing routine periodical quality controls (QC) of CT systems by automatically analyzing key performance indicators (KPIs), obtainable from images of manufacturers' quality assurance (QA) phantoms. A KPI pertains to a measurable or determinable QC parameter that is influenced by other underlying fundamental QC parameters. The established KPIs are based on relationships between existing QC parameters used in the annual testing program of CT scanners at the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. The KPIs include positioning, image noise, uniformity, homogeneity, the CT number of water, and the CT number of air. An application (MonitorCT) was developed to automatically evaluate phantom images in terms of the established KPIs. The developed methodology has been used for two years in clinical routine, where CT technologists perform daily scans of the manufacturer's QA phantom and automatically send the images to MonitorCT for KPI evaluation. In the cases where results were out of tolerance, actions could be initiated in less than 10 min. 900 QC scans from two CT scanners have been collected and analyzed over the two-year period that MonitorCT has been active. Two types of errors have been registered in this period: a ring artifact was discovered with the image noise test, and a calibration error was detected multiple times with the CT number test. In both cases, results were outside the tolerances defined for MonitorCT, as well as by the vendor. Automated monitoring of KPIs is a powerful tool that can be used to supplement established QC methodologies. Medical physicists and other professionals concerned with the performance of a CT system will, using such methods, have access to comprehensive data on the current and historical (trend) status of the system such that swift actions can be taken in order to ensure the quality of the CT examinations, patient safety, and minimal disruption of service.

  15. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    /high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions......Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers...... need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success...

  16. Effectiveness and safety of bedaquiline-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB : A multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisov, Sergey E.; Dheda, Keertan; Enwerem, Martin; Leyet, Rodolfo Romero; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Centis, Rosella; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem; Maryandyshev, Andrey; Belilovski, Evgeny; Ganatra, Shashank; Skrahina, Alena; Akkerman, Onno; Aleksa, Alena; Amale, Rohit; Artsukevich, Janina; Bruchfeld, Judith; Caminero, Jose A.; Carpena Martinez, Isabel; Codecasa, Luigi; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Denholm, Justin; Douglas, Paul; Duarte, Raquel; Esmail, Aliasgar; Fadul, Mohammed; Filippov, Alexey; Forsman, Lina Davies; Gaga, Mina; Garcia-Fuertes, Julia-Amaranta; Garcia-Garcia, Jose-Maria; Gualano, Gina; Jonsson, Jerker; Kunst, Heinke; Lau, Jillian S.; Mastrapa, Barbara Lazaro; Troya, Jorge Lazaro Teran; Manga, Selene; Manika, Katerina; Gonzalez Montaner, Pablo; Mullerpattan, Jai; Oelofse, Suzette; Ortelli, Martina; Juan Palmero, Domingo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Papalia, Antonella; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Payen, Marie-Christine; Pontali, Emanuele; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo; Saderi, Laura; Sadutshang, Tsetan Dorji; Sanukevich, Tatsiana; Solodovnikova, Varvara; Spanevello, Antonio; Topgyal, Sonam; Toscanini, Federica; Tramontana, Adrian R.; Udwadia, Zarir Farokh; Viggiani, Pietro; White, Veronica; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    Large studies on bedaquiline used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in a large, retrospective, observational study conducted in 25 centres

  17. Perspectives on key principles of generalist medical practice in public service in sub-saharan africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Raymond V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The principles and practice of Family Medicine that arose in developed Western countries have been imported and adopted in African countries without adequate consideration of their relevance and appropriateness to the African context. In this study we attempted to elicit a priori principles of generalist medical practice from the experience of long-serving medical officers in a variety of African counties, through which we explored emergent principles of Family Medicine in our own context. Methods A descriptive study design was utilized, using qualitative methods. 16 respondents who were clinically active medical practitioners, working as generalists in the public services or non-profit sector for at least 5 years, and who had had no previous formal training or involvement in academic Family Medicine, were purposively selected in 8 different countries in southern, western and east Africa, and interviewed. Results The respondents highlighted a number of key issues with respect to the external environment within which they work, their collective roles, activities and behaviours, as well as the personal values and beliefs that motivate their behaviour. The context is characterized by resource constraints, high workload, traditional health beliefs, and the difficulty of referring patients to the next level of care. Generalist clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa need to be competent across a wide range of clinical disciplines and procedural skills at the level of the district hospital and clinic, in both chronic and emergency care. They need to understand the patient's perspective and context, empowering the patient and building an effective doctor-patient relationship. They are also managers, focused on coordinating and improving the quality of clinical care through teamwork, training and mentoring other health workers in the generalist setting, while being life-long learners themselves. However, their role in the community, was

  18. In situ study of key material and process reliability issues in the chemical vapor deposition of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ishing

    With the limitations of current aluminum based metallization schemes used in microelectronics, the development of a manufacturable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for copper metallization schemes is crucial to meet the stringent requirements of sub-quarter micron device technology and beyond. The work presented herein focused on investigating key material and process reliability issues pertaining to Cu CVD processing. In particular, a unique combination of in-situ gas phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) was employed to study the role of hydrogen in thermal CVD of copper using (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). These studies showed that hydrogen provides significant enhancement in the deposition rate of copper interconnects. Based on the QMS and FTIR data, this enhancement could be attributed to the role of hydrogen in assisting in the removal of tmvs from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac), thus enhancing the conversion of Cusp{I}(hfac) intermediates to Cusp{o} and Cusp{II}(hfac)sb2 and providing a wider process window with higher conversion efficiency. In addition, in-situ real time QMS studies were performed of the gas phase evolution and decomposition pathways of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) during thermal CVD of copper. The QMS investigations focused on determining the ionization efficiency curves and appearance potentials of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) under real CVD processing conditions. The resulting curves and associated potentials were then employed to identify the most likely precursor decomposition pathways and examine relevant implications for thermal CVD of copper from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). Finally, a hydrogen-plasma assisted CVD (PACVD) process was developed for the growth of device quality gold for incorporation as dopant in emerging Cu CVD based metallization interconnects. In particular, it was demonstrated that the PACVD gold process window identified can maintain very low gold deposition rates (gold is a promising in-situ Cu doping technique

  19. Anthranoid-containing medicines and food supplements on the Belgian market: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, C; Corthout, J

    2014-06-01

    Medicines and food supplements containing anthranoid herbal drug preparations were verified on identity of the herbal substance, content of total hydroxyanthracene glycosides and microbiological quality. All examined medicines complied with the fixed requirements whereas all food supplements deviated from 1 or more of the criteria. The food supplements showed a large variability in quality and content.

  20. 54. The Study on the Mutagenicity of Organic Extracts from Fish Raised in Water Containing Effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    objective: To assess the cytogenetic toxicological safety of fish raised in water containing effluent. Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were raised in water that contained effluent. Both fish samples and water samples were collected and analyzed. One group of fish raised in YuQiao reservoir (The source of drinking-water for Tianjin) and a reservoir water sample were collected at the same time as the clean control group. The mutagenicity of organic extracts of the fish was detected using the mice bone marrow micronucleus test and the mutagenicity of the water samples was detected using the micronucleus test of vicia faba root tip cells. Results: The results of the mice bone marrow micronucleus test on organic extracts of the fish showed that the micronucleus rates of the three experimental groups were significantly higher than that of the negative control group (peanut oil) and the clean control group (P0.05) Conclusions: The results indicate that the water containing effluent and the fish raised in this kind of water contain some kinds of organic mutagenic compounds, which might have some potentially hazardous effects on human beings through the food chains.

  1. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole compounds Containing Thiophene Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; ZHANG Shu-sheng; HU Zhi-qiang; JIAO Kui

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen new triazole compounds containing thiophene groups were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by means of 1H NMR, IR, MS spectroscopies and elemental analyses. The preliminary biological tests show that the titled compounds exhibit some activities of fungicides and plant growth regulators.

  2. Laser spectroscopy and ab initio studies of metal-containing free radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Greetham, G M

    2000-01-01

    strontium-containing free radical is reported, that of SrCCH. This new excited electronic state is accessed by the orbitally-forbidden B-tilde' sup 2 DELTA-X-tilde sup 2 SIGMA sup + transition. Spin-orbit and vibrational structure have been seen in spectra of SrCCH and SrCCD and confirmed the assignment. Finally, observation of a new transition in an unidentified gallium-containing molecule is reported. Two progressions corresponding to two different vibrational modes of the molecule are seen in the spectrum. Potential spectral carriers, including Ga sub x clusters and other gallium-containing molecules formed by reaction with impurities, are discussed in an attempt to explain the observed spectrum. This work describes the use of laser spectroscopy and ab initio calculations in the investigation of several new electronic transitions in metal-containing free radicals. These free radicals were prepared in a supersonic jet by laser ablation of solid metal samples in the presence of appropriate precursor molecule...

  3. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen; Ren, T.; Zhao, Yidong; Zeng, X.; Heide, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outs

  4. Experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear reactor containment wall cooled by gravitationally falling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Ari D.; Umar, Efrison; Suwono, Aryadi; Manalu, Reinhard E. E.

    2012-06-01

    Gravitationally falling water cooling is one of mechanism utilized by a modern nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) for its Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). Since the cooling is closely related to the safety, water film cooling characteristics of the PCCS should be studied. This paper deals with the experimental study of laminar water film cooling on the containment model wall. The influences of water mass flow rate and wall heat rate on the heat transfer characteristic were studied. This research was started with design and assembly of a containment model equipped with the water cooling system, and calibration of all measurement devices. The containment model is a scaled down model of AP 1000 reactor. Below the containment steam is generated using electrical heaters. The steam heated the containment wall, and then the temperatures of the wall in several positions were measure transiently using thermocouples and data acquisition. The containment was then cooled by falling water sprayed from the top of the containment. The experiments were done for various wall heat rate and cooling water flow rate. The objective of the research is to find the temperature profile along the wall before and after the water cooling applied, prediction of the water film characteristic such as means velocity, thickness and their influence to the heat transfer coefficient. The result of the experiments shows that the wall temperatures significantly drop after being sprayed with water. The thickness of water film increases with increasing water flow rate and remained constant with increasing wall heat rate. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as film mass flow rate increase due to the increases of the film thickness which causes the increasing of the thermal resistance. The heat transfer coefficient increases slightly as the wall heat rate increases. The experimental results were then compared with previous theoretical studied.

  5. Comparative evaluation of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate to a dentifrice containing potassium nitrate for dentinal hypersensitivity: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Satyapal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate is a recently introduced desensitizing agent which acts by occluding the dentinal tubules and also resists acid decalcification. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of a new toothpaste containing 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity and also compare it with 5% potassium nitrate. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with the chief complaint of dentinal hypersensitivity were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The visual analog scale (VAS scores were taken for water and air stimuli at baseline, 3 weeks after usage of the respective toothpaste, and 3 weeks after discontinuation of the respective toothpaste. Results: Both the groups showed reduction in hypersensitivity scores at 3 weeks and 6 weeks for air stimulus and cold water. The calcium sodium phosphosilicate group, however, showed significantly reduction in hypersensitivity compared to the potassium nitrate group at any time point for both measures of hypersensitivity. Conclusion: The 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate group showed immense reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity symptoms. The 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate showed prolonged effects even after discontinuation as compared to 5% potassium nitrate, due to its dentinal tubular occlusion property.

  6. Dentistry – a professional contained career in healthcare. A qualitative study of Vocational Dental Practitioners' professional expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eaton Kenneth A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New graduates in the UK presently spend one year in training as Vocational Dental Practitioners (VDPs in preparation for primary dental care. There is a growing recognition that the emerging workforce has very different professional expectations to those of earlier generations, with implications for the profession, patients and the performance of health systems. The objectives of this study were to investigate why VDPs' in England and Wales perceive they chose dentistry as a professional career; how they perceive their vision has changed and the implications for their professional career plans, both short- and longterm. Methods Purposive sampling of schemes was undertaken to include urban, rural and metropolitan schemes, schemes in areas with and without dental schools and geographic coverage across England and Wales. All VDPs in these schemes were initiated to participate in this qualitative study using focus groups. A topic guide was utilised to standardise data collection. Informants' views were recorded on tape and in field notes. Data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology. Results A total of 99 VDPs participated in the 10 focus groups. Their choice of dentistry as a professional career was motivated by multiple categories of influence: 'academic', 'healthcare', 'lifestyle', the influence of 'family', 'friends', 'careers advice' and 'work experience'. Consideration of the features of the 'professional job' appears to have been key to their choice of dentistry and the 'active rejection of medicine' as an alternative career. Entry into the profession was proving a challenging process for some but not all VDPs. Informants perceived that their vision had been moderated as a result of 'personal student debt', 'national workforce initiatives', 'limitations on clinical practice' and the 'cost of additional training'. Short term goals focused around 'recovery from the past' and 'preparation for the future

  7. A randomised clinical study to determine the effect of a toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins on plaque oral microbiome ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S. E.; Arnold, D.; Murphy, B.; Carroll, P.; Green, A. K.; Smith, A. M.; Marsh, P. D.; Chen, T.; Marriott, R. E.; Brading, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    The numerous species that make up the oral microbiome are now understood to play a key role in establishment and maintenance of oral health. The ability to taxonomically identify community members at the species level is important to elucidating its diversity and association to health and disease. We report the overall ecological effects of using a toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins compared to a control toothpaste on the plaque microbiome. The results reported here demonstrate that a toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins can augment natural salivary defences to promote an overall community shift resulting in an increase in bacteria associated with gum health and a concomitant decrease in those associated with periodontal disease. Statistical analysis shows significant increases in 12 taxa associated with gum health including Neisseria spp. and a significant decrease in 10 taxa associated with periodontal disease including Treponema spp. The results demonstrate that a toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins can significantly shift the ecology of the oral microbiome (at species level) resulting in a community with a stronger association to health. PMID:28240240

  8. Cancer risk and key components of metabolic syndrome:a population-based prospective cohort study in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; SHEN Hong-bing; LU Feng; LIU Si-jun; DU Jiang-bo; WANG Jian-ming; QIAN Yun; SHEN Chong; JIN Guang-fu; HU Zhi-bin

    2012-01-01

    Background The key components of metabolic syndrome (MS) are waist circumference,blood pressure,fast blood glucose,high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides (TG).These components have,separately and jointly,been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.In this study,we aimed to explore the association between MS components and cancer risk in a population-based cohort in China.Methods We established a population-based cohort with 17 779 individuals aged 35 and above at baseline in 2004 and 2005 in Changzhou,Jiangsu Province,China.All participants were face-to-face interviewed to complete a questionnaire and were accepted physical examinations including blood tests for glucose and lipids and physical measurements for obesity and blood pressure.In 2009,a total of 16 284 subjects (6886 men and 9398 women,91.6%) attended the flow-up interviews and the participants or their family members reported all the hospitalizations and diseases including cancer occurred during the follow-up period.Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of metabolic syndrome components and cancer incidence.Results There was a dose-response association between cancer risk and the number of MS components presented at baseline (P for trend=0.012) and the HR (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 2.63 (1.27-5.45) for subjects carrying 3 or more metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for possible confounding factors.Specifically,the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for cancer risk in subjects with central obesity,high fasting glucose,low HDL-c were 1.94 (1.01-3.74),2.04 (1.10-3.77) and 2.05 (1.09-3.88),respectively.Conclusions In this population-based,prospective cohort study in China,we found MS components,e.g.,central obesity,high fasting glucose,low HDL-c were risk factors for cancer development.Early intervention of MS components may be also beneficial to reduce cancer burden.

  9. Effectiveness of Key Knowledge Spreader Identification in Online Communities of Practice: A Simulation Study from Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of online communities of practice (CoPs), how to identify key knowledge spreader (KKS) in online CoPs has grown up to be a hot issue. In this paper, we construct a network with variable clustering based on Holme-Kim model to represent CoPs, a simple dynamics of knowledge sharing is considered. Kendall's Tau coefficient…

  10. Virtuality as a key concept in the study of globalisation : aspects of the symbolic transformation of contemporary Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The author concentrates on virtuality, which he has come to regard as one of the key concepts for characterizing and understanding the forms of globalization in Africa. Chapters 1 and 2 define virtuality and globalization and provisionally indicate their theoretical relationship. The problematic her

  11. Key Challenges in the Reform of Governance, Quality Assurance, and Finance in Vietnamese Higher Education--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Khanh Van

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam's higher education is highly centralized in terms of its governance and management. A couple of higher education reform plans have been introduced over the past decade but they seem to result in poor outcomes. This paper addresses the challenges faced in the areas of governance, quality assurance and finance by a "key" university…

  12. A quality by design (QbD) case study on liposomes containing hydrophilic API: I. Formulation, processing design and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Khan, Mansoor A; Burgess, Diane J

    2011-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to extend QbD principles to liposomal drug products containing a hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to demonstrate both the feasibility and the advantages of applying QbD concepts to liposome based complex parenteral controlled release systems. The anti-viral drug Tenofovir was selected as a model compound. Desired properties for two of the key liposome drug product qualities, namely the particle size and drug encapsulation efficiency, were defined and evaluated. It was observed that the liposome preparation process significantly affects liposome particle size, and this resulted in considerable variation in the drug encapsulation efficiency. Lipid chain length did not have a significant effect on drug encapsulation efficiency. However, lipid concentration did affect the drug encapsulation efficiency with higher lipid concentrations resulting in higher drug encapsulation. The use of risk assessment in this study assisted the identification of eight high risk factors that may impact liposome drug encapsulation efficiency and particle size.

  13. [Study of a DNA sequence from brine shrimp artemia containing a novel DM domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Song, Wen Qin; Chen, Rui Yang

    2004-10-01

    Sex-determining mechanisms are highly variable between phyla. However, there is an apparent exception in which structurally and functionally related genes control sex determination in different phyla: the sexual regulators DSX of Drosophila melanogaster and MAB-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans both containing a DNA-binding motif, DM domain. Proteins containing the domain may also play a role in sexual development of vertebrates. For examples, both the human DMRT1 (doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1) gene and mouse Dmrt1 gene are necessary for male development. In this paper, through the degenerated PCR, a DNA fragment ADM was amplified out from genomic DNA of brine shrimp, Artemia sinica from YunCheng Salt Lake, Shanxi, China and Artemia parthenogenetica from GaHai, Qinghai, China, respectively. ADM encodes 47 amino acids and is highly homologous to amino acid sequence of the known DM domains. By comparing total of 27 DM domains in distant related species, a phylogenic tree of DM domain was constructed. In the tree, these DM domains were divided into different branches according to their subtypes. Among the DM domains that were compared, ADM is most homologous to the DM domain contained in human DMRT3 and mouse Dmrt3, which shares 83% identity between them. In addition, the same length of ADM could also be amplified out from cDNA of Artemia sinica and Artemia parthenogenetica, which indicated that ADM was expressed and located in one exon. The DM domain in brine shrimp reported here would make it possible for cloning the full-length cDNA containing the DM domain and further elucidating their functions.

  14. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  15. Immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic studies of recombinant Factor VIII containing lipid cochleates

    OpenAIRE

    Kosloski, Matthew P.; Peng, Aaron; Varma, Prashant R.; Fathallah, Anas M.; MICLEA, RAZVAN D.; Mager, Donald E.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2010-01-01

    Replacement therapy using recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) is currently the most common therapy for hemophilia A, a bleeding disorder caused by the deficiency of FVIII. However, 15–30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies against administered rFVIII which complicates the therapy. Encapsulation or association of protein with lipidic structures can reduce this immune response. Previously, we developed and characterized rFVIII-containing phosphatidylserine (PS) cochleate cylinders using bio...

  16. STUDIES OF MAIN CHAIN DYNAMICS OF FLUORINE-CONTAINING IONOMERS BY CARBON-13 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RELAXATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yanwu; WANG Dehua; QIU Jianqing; QIAN Baogong; WANG Hongzuo

    1992-01-01

    The carbon-13 spin-spin relaxation times of fluorine-containing ionomers are measured and motional correlation times τ0 and τd are calculated by using VJGM model. The results show that the motions of polymer main chain in ionomers become more difficult with increasing of ionization degree and contents of functional group, and depend on the fine structures and stability of ionic microdomains.

  17. Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Autism: A Review of Recent Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Anne M.; Tadrous, Mina; Miller, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    Although epidemiologic evidence has not supported the hypothesis of a causal relationship between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism, concerns continue about pediatric exposure to mercury through vaccine administration. A statement issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Public Health Service in 1999 prompted the removal of thimerosal from many vaccines. In 2004, the Immunization Safety Review Committee of the Institute of Medicine rejected the hypothesis of a causal re...

  18. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holden

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to +-40 degrees, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head seas. A Matlab/Simulink parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007. The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic results which are in good agreement with the model tank experiments.

  19. Ultrasonic Fingerprinting of Structural Materials: Spent Nuclear Fuel Containers Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sednev, D.; Lider, A.; Demyanuk, D.; Kroening, M.; Salchak, Y.

    Nowadays, NDT is mainly focused on safety purposes, but it seems possible to apply those methods to provide national and IAEA safeguards. The containment of spent fuel in storage casks could be dramatically improved in case of development of so-called "smart" spent fuel storage and transfer casks. Such casks would have tamper indicating and monitoring/tracking features integrated directly into the cask design. The microstructure of the containers material as well as of the dedicated weld seam is applied to the lid and the cask body and provides a unique fingerprint of the full container, which can be reproducibly scanned by using an appropriate technique. The echo-sounder technique, which is the most commonly used method for material inspection, was chosen for this project. The main measuring parameter is acoustic noise, reflected from material's artefacts. The purpose is to obtain structural fingerprinting. Reference measurement and additional measurement results were compared. Obtained results have verified the appliance of structural fingerprint and the chosen control method. The successful authentication demonstrates the levels of the feature points' compliance exceeding the given threshold which differs considerably from the percentage of the concurrent points during authentication from other points. Since reproduction or doubling of the proposed unique identification characteristics is impossible at the current state science and technology, application of this technique is considered to identify the interference into the nuclear materials displacement with high accuracy.

  20. A compatibility study of containment materials in FEFO, bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Moddeman, W.E.; Foster, P.

    1995-02-01

    We report on a program to evaluate the compatibility of energetic fluids with candidate containment materials. The energetic fluids are constituents of various extrudable explosives developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These paste-like explosives consist of explosive particulates (HMX, TATB for example) suspended in mixtures of energetic liquids and are designed to remain extrudable over a wide temperature range for many years. It is important to preclude or minimize interactions between the constituents of the paste and the containment materials since such interactions could result in decreased reliability or failure of the containment vessel as well as intrinsic changes in the flow or explosive characteristics of the paste. In this report we focus on one specific paste formulation: RX-52-AE (Transferable Insensitive Explosive, TIE), composed principally of the solid explosive TATB and the energetic liquid, FEFO. Compatibility between a number of organic and metallic materials with neat FEFO has been evaluated. The 300 series stainless steels, Al 6061-T6, and Monel 400 showed evidence of surface attack (oxidation or pitting). Polished gold coupons became discolored and XPS analysis revealed the formation gold cyanide. Platinum, iridium, titanium, tantalum and Ta-10% W showed little evidence of reaction. Among the organic materials, the per-fluorinated materials showed only slight interaction with the FEFO while the polyethylene, polyester and Aclar{reg_sign} materials were attacked by the liquid. These interactions were manifested in changes in color, net weight gain and mechanical properties. The changes were exaggerated by higher temperatures.

  1. Study on Surface Adsorption and Inhibition Behavior of Corrosion Inhibitors Contained in Copper Foil Rolling Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Sang; Sun Jianlin; Jiang Wei; Xu Yang; Zeng Yingfeng; Xia Lei

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption and inhibition behavior of 2,5-bis(ethyldisulfanyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTDA) andN-((6-methyl-1H -benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)methyl)-N-octyloctan-1-amine (EAMBA) as corrosion inhibitors contained in copper foil roll-ing oil have been investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) have been employed to observe the surface topography and analyze the components on copper foil. The results show that the rolling oil containing DMTDA and EAMBA can signiifcantly decrease the dissolution rate and increase the inhibition efifciency of samples, especially in the case of best compounded rolling oil system. The SEM and EDS investigations also conifrmed that the protection of the copper foil surface is achieved by strong adsorption of the molecules which can prevent copper from being corroded easily. Reactivity descriptors of the corrosion inhibitors have been calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) and the reactivity has been analyzed through the molecular orbital and Fukui indices. Active sites of inhibitor are mainly concentrated on the ring and the polar functional groups, and in the meanwhile, the distribution is helpful to form coordination and backbonding among molecules and then to form stable adsorption on the metal surface. And this work provides theoretical evidence for the selection of corrosion inhibitors contained in copper foil rolling oil.

  2. Influence of Herbal Complexes Containing Licorice on Potassium Levels: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WooSang Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the influence of these complexes on potassium levels in a clinical setting, we investigated the influence of herbal complexes containing licorice on potassium levels. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients treated with herbal complexes containing licorice from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. We recorded the changes in the levels of potassium, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and examined the differences between before and after herbal complexes intake using a paired t-test. In addition, we investigated the prevalence of hypokalemia among these patients and reviewed such patients. We identified 360 patients who did not show significant changes in the levels of potassium and creatinine (P=0.815, 0.289. We observed hypokalemia in 6 patients. However, in 5 patients, the hypokalemia did not appear to be related to the licorice. Thus, we could suggest that herbal complexes containing licorice do not significantly influence the potassium levels in routine clinical herbal therapies. However, we propose that follow-up examination for potassium levels is required to prevent any unpredictable side effects of administration of licorice in routine herbal medicine care.

  3. Transportation of perishable and refrigerated foods in mylar foil bags and insulated containers: a time-temperature study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Schrade, John P; Su, Haiyan; Specchio, John J

    2014-08-01

    Data are lacking on the temperature changes of food during transport without the use of refrigerated trucks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of several insulated and noninsulated containers with or without frozen gel packs to keep perishable and refrigerated foods within the temperature safe zone in relationship to duration of transport. The study was designed to duplicate the practices exhibited by customers purchasing perishable food products from a cash-and-carry business. Approximately 40 perishable food items were evaluated. Four types of containers were tested: a mylar foil bag, a commercial insulated bag, a generic insulated bag, and a commercial insulated blanket. Mixed foods were placed into these containers with or without frozen gel packs, transported in unrefrigerated vehicles, and monitored for 4 h for temperature changes. Two environmental temperatures, room temperature of 21.1°C and a stress temperature of 37.8°C, were evaluated. The internal temperature and surface temperature of the food products in these containers increased slowly but remained well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code requirements. The various containers were similar in their ability to retain coolness. The presence of frozen gel packs dramatically enhanced the cold-holding capacity of the containers. The temperature of foods increased more rapidly when stressed in a heated environment. The containers tested used with the frozen gel packs can keep the surface and internal temperatures of various perishable foods (starting at 4.4°C or less) within the Food Code recommendation of under 21.1°C for 4 h. Cash-and-carry businesses should strongly encourage their retail customers to utilize these containers with frozen gel packs to safely transport perishable foods.

  4. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF VESSEL-SPANNING BUBBLES IN CYLINDRICAL & ANNULAR & OBROUND & AND CONICAL CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DHALIWAL TK

    2010-01-28

    This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske & Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske & Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers, is included in Appendix A. Results from the experiments confirm that the gravity yield parameter, Y{sub G}, correctly includes container size and can be applied to full-scale containers to predict the possibility of the formation of a stable vessel spanning bubble. The results also indicate that a vessel spanning bubble will likely form inside the STSC for KE, KW, and Settler sludges if the shear strengths of these sludges exceed 1820, 2080, and 2120 Pa, respectively. A passive mechanism installed in the STSC is effective at disrupting a rising sludge plug and preventing the sludge from plugging the vent filter or being forced out of the container. The Sludge Treatment Project for Engineered Container and Settler Sludge (EC/ST) Disposition Subproject is being conducted in two phases. Phase 1 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the radioactive sludge currently stored in the K West (KW) Basin into Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and transport the STSCs to T-Plant for interim storage. Phase 2 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the sludge from interim storage, treat and package sludge for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The STSC is a cylindrical container; similar to previously used large diameter containers. A STSC (Figure 1) with a diameter of 58 inches will be used to transport KE and KW originating sludge (located in Engineered Containers 210, 220, 240, 250, and 260) to T-Plant. A STSC with an annulus (Figure 2) will be used to transport Settler Tank sludge, located in Engineered Container 230. An obround small canister design was previously considered to retrieve sludge from the basin. The obround design was selected in

  5. Update on Key Studies - The Millennium Cohort Study, The STAMPEDE Study, The Million Veteran Program, and The National Health Study for a New Generation of US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Spouse health, behavioral, and relationship data; some child outcomes The Millennium Cohort Family Study Environmental exposures US Army Public Health...Smith TC, et al. Anthrax vaccination in the Millennium Cohort: validation and measures of health. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32:347–353. 20. Smith B, Smith...LeardMann CA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Ryan MAK. Smallpox vaccination : comparison of self-reported and electronic vaccine records in the millennium

  6. Beer thiol-containing compounds and redox stability: kinetic study of 1-hydroxyethyl radical scavenging ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Natália E C; Lund, Marianne N; Andersen, Mogens L; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2013-10-02

    The 1-hydroxyethyl radical is a central intermediate in oxidative reactions occurring in beer. The reactivity of thiol-containing compounds toward 1-hydroxyethyl radical was evaluated in beer model solutions using a competitive kinetic approach, employing the spin-trap 4-POBN as a probe and by using electron paramagnetic resonance to detect the generated 1-hydroxyethyl/4-POBN spin adduct. Thiol-containing compounds were highly reactive toward the 1-hydroxyethyl radical with apparent second-order rate constants close to the diffusion limit in water and ranging from 0.5 × 10⁹ L mol⁻¹ s⁻¹ for the His-Cys-Lys-Phe-Trp-Trp peptide to 6.1 × 10⁹ L mol⁻¹ s⁻¹ for the reduced lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) isolated from beer. The reactions gave rise to a moderate kinetic isotope effect (k(H)/k(D) = 2.3) suggesting that reduction of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical by thiol-containing compounds takes place by hydrogen atom abstraction from the RSH group rather than electron transfer. The content of reduced thiols in different beers was determined using a previously established method based on ThioGlo-1 as the thiol derivatization reagent and detection of the derivatized thiols by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector. The total level of thiol in beer (oxidized and reduced) was determined after a reduction step employing 3,3',3″-phosphanetriyltripropanoic acid (TCEP) as the disulfide reductant. A good correlation among total protein and total thiol content in different beers was observed. The results suggest a similar ratio between reduced thiols and disulfides in all of the tested beers, which indicates a similar redox state.

  7. XPS and Raman study of zinc containing silica microparticles loaded with insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanea, E.; Simon, V., E-mail: viorica.simon@phys.ubbcluj.ro

    2013-09-01

    Zinc–silica microparticles obtained by sol–gel method solely or by combining sol–gel chemistry with freeze-drying and spray-drying procedures were explored as potential insulin drug delivery carriers for their improved loading efficiency. Zinc containing silica hosts of different specific surface area and mean pore volume loaded with insulin under similar conditions were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess the insulin adherence to these matrices and the biologically active state of the insulin after embedding.

  8. Study on the Formation Mechanism of Oxygen-containing Groups on the Surfaces of Hypercrosslinked Polystyrenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Hua MENG; Ai Min LI; Lin WU; Fu Qiang LIU; Quan Xing ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    The synthetic parameters were changed to explore the formation mechanism of the oxygen-containing groups on the surfaces of the hypercrosslinked polymers. The FT-IR spectra and the Boehm titration were used to characterize the surface chemistry of the synthesized polymers. The GC-MS was applied to analyze nitrobenzene which was the solvent in the reaction.The functionalities such as carbonyls and phenols were formed through the oxidation of residual chloromethyl groups by nitrobenzene and the carboxylic groups were formed through further oxidation by oxygen. The nitrobenzene was deoxidized to nitrosobenzene and further to aniline.

  9. Study on Microcavity Organic Light-emitting Devices Containing Negative Refractive Index Dielectric Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Hong-xin; LI Li-xin

    2009-01-01

    A new structure containing negative refractive index dielectric layer(NRIDL) is introduced into microcavity.The properties of the new microcavity organic light-emitting devices(MOLEDs) are investigated.In the experiment,the transfer matrix method is adopted.The dependence of reflectance and transmittance on the refractive index and thickness of NRIDL are analyzed in detail.Compared with the electroluminescence spectra of non-NRIDL diodes,the line widths of the spectra of the MOLEDs are narrower and all the peaks enhance.The results show that the new structure is beneficial to improve the performance and reduce the thickness of microcavity devices.

  10. STUDIES ON THE PREPARATION OF ZINC-CONTAINING ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several kinds of activated carbon fibers, using sisal fiber as precursors, were preparedwith steam activation or with ZnCl2 activation. Zinc or its compounds were dispersed in them. Theantibacterial activities of these activated carbon fibers were determined and compared. The researchresults showed that these sisal based activated carbon fibers supporting zinc have strongerantibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and S. aureus. The antibacterial activity is related tothe precursors, the pyrolysis temperature, and the zinc content. In addition, small quantity of silversupported on zinc-containing ACFs will greatly enhance the antibacterial activity of ACFs.

  11. STUDIES ON THE POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE INITIATED BY METAVANADATE- CONTAINING ANION EXCHANGER-THIOUREA REDOX SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chaoxiong; WU Jinyuan; WU Yuxian

    1991-01-01

    The polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) in aqueous nitric acid initiated by metavanadate-containing anion exchange resin (PV)-thiourea (TU) redox system at 20- 40 ℃. has been investigated. The overall rate of polymerization (Rp) is given by Rp= 1.92 × 104 e -6,860/RT [AN]1.2[PV]0.44[TU]1.0[HNO3]1.0 The kinetic parameters differed from those of V5+-TU system indicated that the generation of the primary radicals is mainly a difffusion-controlled reaction . The effect of macromolecular field arisen from the polymer matrix exerts a great influence on the polymerization process.

  12. Engineering trade studies for a quantum key distribution system over a 30  km free-space maritime channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, John; Neifeld, Mark; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2017-01-20

    Here, we present the engineering trade studies of a free-space optical communication system operating over a 30 km maritime channel for the months of January and July. The system under study follows the BB84 protocol with the following assumptions: a weak coherent source is used, Eve is performing the intercept resend attack and photon number splitting attack, prior knowledge of Eve's location is known, and Eve is allowed to know a small percentage of the final key. In this system, we examine the effect of changing several parameters in the following areas: the implementation of the BB84 protocol over the public channel, the technology in the receiver, and our assumptions about Eve. For each parameter, we examine how different values impact the secure key rate for a constant brightness. Additionally, we will optimize the brightness of the source for each parameter to study the improvement in the secure key rate.

  13. How the Adoption of the Big-Data Paradigm Affects the Key Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of an Information Assurance (IA) Framework: A Multiple-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Benjamin G.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study identified those factors that influence the perceived effectiveness of traditional IA control frameworks. The key factors examined in this study are risk management, governance, access control, privacy protection, integrity, availability, reliability, and usability. The researcher endeavored to determine how the…

  14. Study of zwitterionic sulfopropylbetaine containing reactive siloxanes for application in antibacterial materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Mo, Yangmiao; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-07-01

    Antibacterial agents receive a great deal of attention around the world due to the interesting academic problems of how to combat bacteria and of the beneficial health, social and economic effects of successful agents. Scientists are actively developing new antibacterial agents for biomaterial applications. This paper reports the novel antibacterial agent siloxane sulfopropylbetaine (SSPB), which contains reactive alkoxysilane groups. The structure and properties of SSPB were systematically investigated, with the results showing that SSPB contains both quaternary ammonium compounds and reactive siloxane groups. SSPB has good antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli (E. coli, 8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, ATCC 6538). The minimal inhibition concentration is 70 μmol/ml SSPB against both E. coli and S. aureus. In addition, the SSPB antibacterial agent can be used in both weak acid and weak alkaline environments, functioning within the wide pH range of 4.0-9.0. The SSPB-modified glass surface killed 99.96% of both S. aureus and E. coli organisms within 24 h. No significant decrease was observed in this antibacterial activity after 20 washes. Moreover, SSPB does not induce a skin reaction and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is an ideal candidate for future applications as a safe, environmentally friendly antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative dissolution of actinide oxides in H 2O 2 containing aqueous solution - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrman, Reijo; Amme, Marcus; Roth, Olivia; Ekeroth, Ella; Jonsson, Mats

    2010-02-01

    Oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel is an important issue in the safety assessment of a future geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. Although UO 2 constitutes, in terms of mass, the majority of the spent fuel material, its main radiotoxicity is (after extended storage times) contained in actinides with half lives shorter than that of 238-uranium, such as isotopes of Np and Pu. Relatively little information is available on the dissolution behavior of Np and Pu in comparable environments. This work investigates the oxidative dissolution of NpO 2 and PuO 2 in non-complexing aqueous solutions containing H 2O 2 and compares their behavior with that of UO 2. We have found that oxidative dissolution takes place for all three actinides in the presence of H 2O 2. Based on the obtained dissolution rates, we would not expect the dissolution of the actinides to be congruent. Instead, in a system without complexing agent, the release rates of Np and Pu are expected to be lower than the U release rate.

  16. A study of fracture in brittle laminar composites that contain weak interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colin Stuart

    Ceramics have material properties that make them useful for many industrial applications. They are strong, hard, and chemically inert. Their refractoriness gives them an advantage over metals and polymers for use at high temperature. Unfortunately, the inherent brittleness of ceramics limits their use in structural applications. One way to improve the toughness of ceramics is to combine them with other materials to make composites. The correct combination of materials can lead to synergism, and a significant improvement in properties. In this work, brittle laminates that contain weak interlayers are considered. The weak interlayers lead to crack deflection, and can result in non-catastrophic failure of the material. The requirements for consistent crack deflection and non-catastrophic failure are not fully understood. This work is an attempt to explain the observed fracture behaviour in brittle laminar composites that contain weak interlayers. A combination of experimental work, fracture mechanics modeling and finite element modeling has been used to predict the requirements necessary for non-catastrophic failure. The work shows the size of flaws in the surface of the composite, in the weak interlayer, and in subsequent strong layers in the material, all play an important role in the fracture behaviour. Control and understanding of the effect of the various flaw sizes can be used to achieve non-catastrophic failure and increased work of fracture in these composites.

  17. Study on wear resistant cast B-containing 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuang Jiacai; Jiang Zhiqiang; Zhang Shiyin; Ye Chang; Liu Qicheng

    2009-01-01

    The developed 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel containing 1.63 wt.%B have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Vickers microhardness measurement. The microstructural evolution and property of high boron stainless steel after solution treatment at the temperature of 1050℃ are also investigated. The results show that the main compositions of borides are Fe, Cr and B, and with small amount of Ni, Mn and C elements. Silicon is insoluble in the borides. The hardness of borides is over 1,500 HV. It has been found that borides do not decompose during solution treatment, but part of borides dissolves into the matrix. The effect of increasing the solubility of boron element in the austenitic matrix favours the hardness enhancement by 8.54%. High boron stainless steel has excellent wear resistance in corrosive environment. Lifetime of transfer pipe made of high boron-containing stainless steel is 1.5-1.8 times longer than that of boron-free 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel.

  18. Organic compounds containing methoxy and cyanoacrylic acid: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalaji, A. D., E-mail: alidkhalaji@yahoo.com [Golestan University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maddahi, E. [Iran University of Science & Technology, Ms.C Educated, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dusek, M.; Fejfarova, K. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Chow, T. J. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Chemistry (China)

    2015-12-15

    Metal-free organic compounds 24-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid) and 34-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid), containing methoxy groups as a donor and the acrylic acid as an acceptor were synthesized and characterized by CHN, FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and used as photosensitizers for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The sensitizing characteristics of them were evaluated. Both compounds contain the natural molecule, its anionic form and the piperidinium cation and they differ by number of these molecules in the asymmetric unit. To get further insight into the effect of molecular structure on the performance of DSSC, their geometry and energies of HOMO and LUMO were optimized by density functional theory calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with Gaussian 03. Overall conversion efficiencies of 0.78 under full sunlight irradiation are obtained for DSSCs based on the new metal-free organic dyes 24-SC and 34-SC.

  19. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines. IX. Application of the concentration-concentration structure factor to the study of binary mixtures containing pyridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2009-10-10

    Binary mixtures formed by a pyridine base and an alkane, or an aromatic hydrocarbon, or a 1-alkanol have been studied in the framework of the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), formalism. Deviations between experimental data and those provided by the DISQUAC model are discussed. Systems containing alkanes are characterized by homocoordination. In pyridine + alkane mixtures, S{sub CC}(0) decreases with the chain length of the longer alkanes, due to size effects. For a given alkane, S{sub CC}(0) also decreases with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base. This has been interpreted assuming that the number of amine-amine interactions available to be broken upon mixing also decreases similarly, probably as steric hindrances exerted by the methyl groups of the aromatic amine increase with the number of these groups. Homocoordination is higher in mixtures with 3,5-dimethylpyridine than in those with 2,6-dimethylpyridine. That is, steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 3 and 5 are stronger than when they are in positions 2 and 6. Similarly, from the application of the DISQUAC (dispersive-quasichemical) model, it is possible to conclude that homocoordination is higher in systems with 3- or 4-methylpyridine than in those involving 2-methylpyridine. Systems including aromatic hydrocarbons are nearly ideal, which seems to indicate that there is no specific interaction in such solutions. Mixtures with 1-alkanols show heterocoordination. This reveals the existence of interactions between unlike molecules, characteristic of alkanol + amine mixtures. Methanol systems show the lowest S{sub CC}(0) values due, partially, to size effects. This explains the observed decrease of homocoordination in such solutions in the order: pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,6-dimethylpyridine. Moreover, as the energies of the OH-N hydrogen bonds are practically independent of the pyridine base considered when mixed with methanol, it suggests that

  20. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  1. Ancel Keys: a tribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitallie, Theodore B

    2005-02-14

    Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study - which was immediately recognized to be a classic - continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  2. The routine utilization of dental care during pregnancy in eastern China and the key underlying factors: a Hangzhou City study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral diseases are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The routine utilization of dental care (RUDC during pregnancy is an effective way to improve pregnant women's oral health, and thus safeguard the health of their babies. As China has one fifth of the world's population, it is especially meaningful to encourage RUDC there. However, the status of RUDC in China and the key underlying factors are largely unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey investigated the current status of RUDC during pregnancy and the key underlying factors in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, eastern China. We collected participants' demographics, individual oral-hygiene behaviors, individual lifestyle, oral-health conditions and attitudes, and also their RUDC during pregnancy. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used to analyze the key underlying factors. RESULTS: Only 16.70% of the participants reported RUDC during pregnancy. The percentage of RUDC was significantly lower among pregnant women with the following characteristics: aged 30 or less, an annual household income under $8,000, brushing once a day or less, never flossing or rinsing the mouth, paying no attention to pregnancy-related oral-health knowledge, and being dissatisfied with one's individual dental hygiene behavior. CONCLUSIONS: RUDC during pregnancy is very low in eastern China and is greatly influenced not only by a woman's age, annual income, individual hygiene behavior, but also by her attention and attitudes to oral health. To improve this population's access to and use of dental care during pregnancy, appropriate programs and policies are urgently needed.

  3. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  4. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  5. Experimental facility for containment sump reliability studies (Generic Task A-43). [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgin, W. W.; Padmanabhan, M.; Janik, C. R.

    1980-12-01

    On July 3, 1979, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) contracted the Alden Research Laboratory (ARL) to conduct tests on unresolved safety issues associated with containment sump performance during the recirculation mode (Generic Task A-43). This report describes the test facility constructed and completed under Phase I, Task III of the contract. Sump performance is determined through the observation of vortex formation in the main tank and the measurement of swirl, pressure gradient, and entrained air in the suction pipes. The use of electrically operated valves and a sophisticated data acquisition system, with computer interface, allows the test flow parameters to be set and test data to be taken (with the exception of vortex observations) from a single central office.

  6. Studies on the adsorption of sulfo-group-containing aromatics by chitosan-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenjian; Chen, Shuwei; Chang, Fei; Han, Yue; Zhang, Yuanzhang

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan-β-cyclodextrin (CTS-CD) prepared through a crosslinking reaction between chitosan and β-cyclodextrin was employed to adsorb the three following sulfo-group-containing aromatics: disodium 2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonate (R salt), 2-naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA), and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). At 318 K, the saturated adsorption capacity of CTS-CD for R salt, NSA, and SDBS was 431, 416, and 376 mg/g, respectively. The experimental data fitted the second-order model well and the rate constant of the adsorption increased with the temperature increment. The values of apparent activation energy for R salt, NSA, and SDBS were calculated as 33.2, 34.2, and 16.8 kJ/mol respectively. The isothermal adsorption was found following the Langmuir adsorption equation. The negative values of ΔG and the positive values of ΔH indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic.

  7. 2D-QSAR Studies on Triazolone Compounds Containing Benzenesulfonic Amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Qing-Li; GAO Jun; SUN Dao-Xing; ZHANG Shu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The geometry structures of 6 triazolone compounds containing benzenesulfonic amide were fully optimized with DFT (Density Functional Theory) method at the B3LYP/6-31G level, and the structural and electronic parameters of the compounds were calculated. The hydrophobic and topological parameters of the title compounds were calculated by HyperChem software. The mono- and bi-parametric models between the parameters and biological activity of the compounds were analyzed by Multiple Linear Regression method based on Hansch-Fujita model. The results show that the activities of the title compounds were increased with higher hydrophobic property logP and molecular volume V, lower molecular energy ETOTAL and electronegative of benzene ring Qph.

  8. Parametric Study on Important Variables of Aircraft Impact to Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sangshup; Hahm, Daegi; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, to find the damage parameter, it is necessary to use many analysis cases and the time reduction. Thus, this paper uses a revised version of Riera's method. Using this method, the response has been found a Prestressed Concrete Containments Vessels (PCCVs) subject to impact loading, and the results of the velocity and mass of the important parameters have been analyzed. To find the response of the PCCVs subjected to aircraft impact load, it is made that a variable forcing functions depending on the velocity and fuel in the paper. The velocity variation affects more than fuel percentage, and we expect that the severe damage of the PCCVs with the same material properties is subject to aircraft impact load (more than 200m/s and 70%)

  9. Study on Deactivation and Cracking Performance of Catalysts Containing Y and MFI Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenyu; Li Caiying; Tian Huiping; Huang Zhiqing

    2004-01-01

    This article investigated the deactivation caused by hydrothermal treatment and metal contamination of two cracking catalysts containing the Y and ZRP- 1 zeolites aimed at maximization of light olefin yield.Test results had shown that the hydrothermal stability and resistance to metal contamination of the ZRP-1zeolite were apparently better than those of the Y zeolite. Hydrothermal treatment and metal contamination had not only changed the catalytic cracking performance of respective zeolites, but at the same time had also modified to a definite degree of the relative proportions of effective components in these two zeolites and affected the synergistic effects between them, resulting in a relative enhancement of secondary cracking ability of the catalyst and increased olefin selectivity in the FCC products. In the course of application of catalyst for maximization of light olefins yield appropriate adjustment of the relative proportion of two active components can help to alleviate the products distribution and selectivity changes caused by deactivationof FCC catalysts.

  10. Theoretical studies on the structures and detonation properties of nitramine explosives containing benzene ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, GuoZheng; Lu, Ming

    2012-06-01

    The nitramine compounds containing benzene ring were optimized to obtain their molecular geometries and electronic structures at DFT-B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level. The theoretical molecular density (ρ), heat of formation (HOF), energy gap (ΔE(LUMO-HOMO)), charge on the nitro group (-Q(NO2)), detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P), estimated using Kamlet-Jacobs equations, showed that the detonation properties of these compounds were excellent. It is found that there are good linear relationships between density, heat of formation, detonation velocity, detonation pressure and the number of nitro group. The simulation results reveal that molecule G performs similarly to famous explosive HMX, and molecule H outperforms HMX. According to the quantitative standard of energetics as an HEDC (high energy density compound), molecule H essentially satisfies this requirement. These results provide basic information for molecular design of novel high energetic density compounds.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on a Cylinder Containing Granules Rolling Down an Inclined Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Wibowo, Edy; Rokhmat, Mamat; Yuliza, Elfi; Khairurrijal,; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of a hollow cylinder containing granules and rolling down an inclined plane was investigated. A theoretical approach for investigating the behaviour of such a cylinder was proposed. The critical angle of the plane that allows the system to roll downward is presented. A simple experiment using six types of granules consistently confirmed the theoretical predictions. We showed that the critical angle is independent of the size distribution of the granules. We observed that the sliding angle of granules inside the cylinder is constant and, surprisingly, similar to the avalanche angle of the granules. Our theoretical prediction can be used to determine the critical angle without considering the shape, surface roughness and size distribution of the granules. Additionally, we derived the oscillation frequency of the system when it is slightly deviated from equilibrium, showing the frequency initially increases and then decreases with increasing granular volume. The oscillation is absent when the cylind...

  12. NLOphoric studies in thiazole containing symmetrical push-pull fluorophores - Combined experimental and DFT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telore, Rahul D.; Satam, Manjaree A.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-10-01

    A series of donor-π-acceptor extended styryl chromophores having carbazole as electron donor with thiazole bridge and cyano group as the electron acceptors are investigated for nonlinear optical properties. The geometries of the extended styryls were optimized and electronic excitation properties were estimated using TD-DFT. The experimental solvatochromic shifts and density functional theory (DFT) computations are employed to understand the nonlinear optical properties of new generation push-pull fluorophores containing carbazole and thiazole cores. The solvatochromic polarizability values are calculated by two-level quantum mechanical model. Density Functional Theory is explored to determine the liner hyperpolarizability (α0), static first hyperpolarizability (β0) and second order hyperpolarizability (γ) for extended styryls. The calculation carried out by B3LYP method and 6-31G (d) basis set at ground state and excited state in different solvent polarity. The thiazole bridge in extended styryl enhances the nonlinear optical properties.

  13. A study of the anomalous behaviour of the glass electrode in solutions containing hydrofluoric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil; Lundgaard, T.

    1965-01-01

    A defined surface hydration of the glass electrode is secured by pre-treatment with 0.1 N HF followed by rinsing with pure 0.1 N HCl for a few minutes. On subsequent contact with 0.1 N HCl containing HF, the electrode potential shows a change which is determined by the [HF]. The immediate reaction...... is an adsorption of HF by the glass surface. This is followed, at [HF] higher than 0.01 N, by the substitution of two F− for OH− per Si atom. With increasing HF the attack on the Si-O-Si bonds becomes severe, but it can be tolerated to a considerable degree because the newly formed surface is identical...... with the previous one. Some applications of the glass electrode in titrations with HF are suggested in an appendix....

  14. A study of nondiffracting Lommel beams propagating in a medium containing spherical scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belafhal, A.; Ez-zariy, L.; Hricha, Z.

    2016-11-01

    By means of the expansion of the nondiffracting beams on plane waves with help of the Whittaker integral, an exact analytical expression of the far-field form function of the scattering of the acoustic and optical nondiffracting Lommel beams propagating in a medium containing spherical particles, considered as rigid and single spheres, is investigated in this work. The form function of the scattering of the high order Bessel beam by a rigid and isolated sphere is deduced, from our finding, as a special case. The effects of the wave number-sphere radius product (ka) , the polar angle (φ) , the propagation half-cone angle (β) and the scattering angle (θ) on the far-field form function of the scattered wave have been analyzed and discussed numerically. The numerical results show that the illumination of a rigid sphere by Lommel beams produces asymmetrical scattering.

  15. Archaeological studies at Drill Hole U20az Pahute Mesa, Nye county, Nevada. [Contains bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, A.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Henton, G.H.; Lockett, C.L.; Nials, F.L.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.

    1991-07-01

    During the summer of 1987, the Quaternary Sciences Center (formerly Social Science Center) of the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada System, conducted data recovery investigations at five archaeological sites located near Drill Hole U20az on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. These sites were among 12 recorded earlier during an archaeological survey of the drill hole conducted as part of the environmental compliance activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). The five sites discussed in this report were considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and were in danger of being adversely impacted by construction activities or by effects of the proposed underground nuclear test. Avoidance of these sites was not a feasible alternative; thus DRI undertook a data recovery program to mitigate expected adverse impacts. DRI's research plan included controlled surface collections and excavation of the five sites in question, and had the concurrence of the Nevada Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology and the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation. Of the five sites investigated, the largest and most complex, 26Ny5207, consists of at least three discrete artifact concentrations. Sites 26Ny5211 and 26Ny5215, both yielded considerable assemblages. Site 26Ny5206 is very small and probably is linked to 26Ny5207. Site 26Ny5205 contained a limited artifact assemblage. All of the sites were open-air occurrences, and, with one exception contained no or limited subsurface cultural deposits. Only two radiocarbon dates were obtained, both from 26Ny5207 and both relatively recent. While the investigations reported in the volume mitigate most of the adverse impacts from DOE activities at Drill Hole U20az, significant archaeological sites may still exist in the general vicinity. Should the DOE conduct further activities in the region, additional cultural resource investigations may be required. 132 refs., 71 figs., 44 tabs.

  16. A copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase from the angiosperm Cistus creticus subsp. creticus is a putative key enzyme for the formation of pharmacologically active, oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Pichersky, Eran; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2010-09-01

    The resin of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus, a plant native to Crete, is rich in labdane-type diterpenes with significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The full-length cDNA of a putative diterpene synthase was isolated from a C. creticus trichome cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein is highly similar (59%-70% identical) to type B diterpene synthases from other angiosperm species that catalyze a protonation-initiated cyclization. The affinity-purified recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed protein used geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate and catalyzed the formation of copal-8-ol diphosphate. This diterpene synthase, therefore, was named CcCLS (for C. creticus copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase). Copal-8-ol diphosphate is likely to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes that are abundant in the resin of this plant. RNA gel-blot analysis revealed that CcCLS is preferentially expressed in the trichomes, with higher transcript levels found in glands on young leaves than on fully expanded leaves, while CcCLS transcript levels increased after mechanical wounding. Chemical analyses revealed that labdane-type diterpene production followed a similar pattern, with higher concentrations in trichomes of young leaves and increased accumulation upon wounding.

  17. A Copal-8-ol Diphosphate Synthase from the Angiosperm Cistus creticus subsp. creticus Is a Putative Key Enzyme for the Formation of Pharmacologically Active, Oxygen-Containing Labdane-Type Diterpenes1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Pichersky, Eran; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2010-01-01

    The resin of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus, a plant native to Crete, is rich in labdane-type diterpenes with significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The full-length cDNA of a putative diterpene synthase was isolated from a C. creticus trichome cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein is highly similar (59%–70% identical) to type B diterpene synthases from other angiosperm species that catalyze a protonation-initiated cyclization. The affinity-purified recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed protein used geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate and catalyzed the formation of copal-8-ol diphosphate. This diterpene synthase, therefore, was named CcCLS (for C. creticus copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase). Copal-8-ol diphosphate is likely to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes that are abundant in the resin of this plant. RNA gel-blot analysis revealed that CcCLS is preferentially expressed in the trichomes, with higher transcript levels found in glands on young leaves than on fully expanded leaves, while CcCLS transcript levels increased after mechanical wounding. Chemical analyses revealed that labdane-type diterpene production followed a similar pattern, with higher concentrations in trichomes of young leaves and increased accumulation upon wounding. PMID:20595348

  18. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  19. Studying the sorption properties of a clinoptilolite-containing tuff with respect to europium(III) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikova, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    The kinetic laws of sorption of europium(III) ions from sulfate solutions by a clinoptilolite-containing tuff are studied. The kinetic parameters of sorption process are determined and absorption isotherms are constructed for europium ions. It is found that both external and internal diffusion are rate-limiting steps, and europium is completely extracted from dilute solutions (<0.0025 m).

  20. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal - a case study from health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  1. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  2. Development of technical skills in Electrical Power Engineering students: A case study of Power Electronics as a Key Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, I. S.; Azlee Hamid, Fazrena

    2017-08-01

    Technical skills are one of the attributes, an engineering student must attain by the time of graduation, as per recommended by Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC). This paper describes the development of technical skills, Programme Outcome (PO) number 5, in students taking the Bachelor of Electrical Power Engineering (BEPE) programme in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Seven courses are identified to address the technical skills development. The course outcomes (CO) of the courses are designed to instill the relevant technical skills with suitable laboratory activities. Formative and summative assessments are carried out to gauge students’ acquisition of the skills. Finally, to measure the attainment of the technical skills, key course concept is used. The concept has been implemented since 2013, focusing on improvement of the programme instead of the cohort. From the PO attainment analysis method, three different levels of PO attainment can be calculated: from the programme level, down to the course and student levels. In this paper, the attainment of the courses mapped to PO5 is measured. It is shown that Power Electronics course, which is the key course for PO5, has a strong attainment at above 90%. PO5 of other six courses are also achieved. As a conclusion, by embracing outcome-based education (OBE), the BEPE programme has a sound method to develop technical psychomotor skills in the degree students.

  3. Study on the Built-up Effect of Inorganic Compounds to Flame Retardant Containing Organophosphorus in Suppression of Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Miao; XIAN Chun-ying; YANG Yong

    2006-01-01

    The built-up effect of inorganic compounds containing more active metal ions, such as Ca2+ , Al3+ , Cu2+ , and Zn2+ , as additives adding to phosphorus-containing flame retarding systems in suppression of smoke was studied. The data presented herein suggested that the amount of smoke in the burning process can be better suppressed after the cotton fabric finishing with built- up system was burnt. Some general principles were identified, and the likely causes of the observed effects were analyzed according to test data.

  4. In-vitro study investigating influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrian, K.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, DJ

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized enamel. Human tooth, which was demineralised in citric acid solution, had a toothpaste containing green tea extract of concentration of 5, 10 or 15% application. Microhardness measurement was carried out on each enamel surface of the teeth for initial, after the demineralization and after application of the tooth pastes. It showed that there was significant decrease between enamel microhardness of the teeth at the initial condition and after demineralization. After application of the toothpaste containing green tea extract of each concentration the microhardnss increased significantly. However, there the microhardness was insignificant between the applications of each green tea concentration.

  5. In Vitro Skin Diffusion Study of Pure Forskolin versus a Forskolin-Containing Plectranthus barbatus Root Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hammell, Dana C.; Spry, Malinda; D’Orazio, John A.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro skin diffusion study of pure forskolin (1) versus a 1-containing Plectranthus barbatus root extract (P. barbatus extract) in hairless guinea pig skin and human skin in a flow-through diffusion cell system was conducted and is being reported for the first time. Both topical agents were formulated in a solution of 70% ethanol and 30% propylene glycol (v/v). The results showed that forskolin can be delivered through the stratum corneum and that the flux of this compound was enhanced when 1 was delivered as a constituent of the P. barbatus extract as compared to an equivalent amount in pure form. These results suggest that the P. barbatus extract used contains permeation enhancement activity from other compound(s) contained in the crude root extract. It is possible that P. barbatus root extract may be used as an economical source of 1 to perform topical chemical manipulation of pigmentation in high-risk populations. PMID:19281221

  6. Robotic simulation with 2.0 tools to develop key competencies in Secondary Education. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Vázquez Cano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 171 975 Universidad de Salamanca 8 1 1197 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The paper presents a contextualized research in a secondary school in the province of Toledo in which he examines the design of a robotic simulation activity for the development of key competencies from an interdisciplinary and transversely way between the subjects of Technology, Spanish Language, English and Plastic and Visual Education. The design of the activity consisted on the development of an interdisciplinary project for the construction of a worm robot with an electronic device for measuring lengths. 2.0 free tools were used for designing it and  supported the development of four key competencies: Google Sketchup, Prezi, Glosgter and Windows Movie Maker. We analyzed the findings of teachers and students on the feasibility of robotic simulation through the project work as a teaching strategy and especially the improvement of indicators of the following basic skills: language, learning to learn, information processing and digital competence knowledge and interaction with the physical world. The results show a high appreciation of students and teachers about the project and its functionality in the cross and interdisciplinary development of key competencies.

  7. Deepwater turbidite system analysis : From outcrops studies to basin scale depositional elements. Key learnings for reservoir occurence and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarre, J.-C.; Dattilo, P.; Crumeyrolle, P.

    2012-04-01

    Decisions on exploration and production in the deepwater domain rely mostly on seismic data (2D or 3D) with limited amount of well geological data. This limited information has to be supplemented by models derived from analogues at different scales, in order to derisk the reservoir presence and infer the reservoir architecture within a larger stratigraphic framework from shelf to deep basin. The fundamental outcrop analysis carried in the 70's and the 80's contributed to identify and characterize the main deep water depositional elements. Outcrop observations are the best way to appraise the architectural and faciological complexity of the subsurface depositional systems within their stratigraphic framework. The lessons learned in the Earth surface provide the key to the subsurface data understanding: core analysis, well-logs correlations and detailed 3D seismic interpretations. Subsurface data is in turn bringing key insights on large scale depositional system; 3D geometry and sediment nature of the depositional elements and processes. Research derived from 3D seismic subsurface data interpretations with tentative continuity between shelf to basin improved the understanding of shelf to deep basin sediment transfer mechanisms. In particular, it has been accompanied by a renewal of interest in the processes associated with hyperpycnal flows in the various deepwater settings. Outcrop and Subsurface integration appears as a powerful tool to characterize and predict reservoir occurence. A seismic based approach on the recognition of depositional elements defined at different scales honoring the stratigraphical architecture of turbidites deposits is systematically applied in our evaluations at a similar scale than the elementary depositional sequences recognized by Mutti (1994). Despite common depositional processes, a large diversity of systems and geobodies will be illustrated from regional scale to reservoir scale from a worldwide portfolio of assets in turbidite

  8. Spectroscopic Study on Eu3+ Doped Borate Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles and Ag Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shaobo; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Jinsu; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Jiashi; Hua, Ruinian; Dong, Bin; Xia, Haiping; Chen, Baojiu

    2015-01-01

    Transparent Eu(3+)-doped borate glasses containing Ag nanoparticles and Ag aggregates with composition (40 - x) CaO-59.5B2O3-0.5Eu2O3-xAgNO3 were prepared by a simple one-step melt-quenching technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the glasses reveal amorphous structural properties and no diffraction peaks belonging to metal Ag particles. Ag particles and Ag aggregates were observed from the absorption spectra. Effective energy transfers from the Ag aggregates to the Eu3+ ions were observed in the excitation spectra from monitoring the intrinsic emission of Eu3+x .5D0 --> 7F2. The glasses with higher Ag content can be effectively excited by light in a wide wavelength region, indicating that these glasses have potential application in the solid state lighting driven by semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs). The emission spectra of the samples with higher Ag contents exhibit plenteous spectral components covering the full visible region from violet to red, thus indicating that these glass materials possess an excellent and tunable color rendering index. The color coordinates for all the glass samples were calculated by using the intensity-corrected emission spectra and the standard data issued by the CIE (Commission International de l' Eclairage) in 1931. It was found that the color coordinates for most samples with higher Ag contents fall into the white region in the color space.

  9. Study of third-order nonlinear susceptibility of polySchiff base containing triphenylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU HaiJun; WANG Wen; HUANG YuDong; ZHANG YunDong; ZHANG YunJun; BAI XuDuo; LIU Yuan

    2007-01-01

    PolySchiff base containing triphenylamine has been synthesized by polycondensation and characterized by FT-IR, NMR, UV-visible spectrometer. Measurements of the third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility x(3)by Z-scan technique have shown that the large nonlinearity is dominated by the two-photon absorption in PSB. The sign and size of real part Rex(3), nonlinear refractive index n2 have been measured with the condition of 532 nm, 8 ns-duration pulses to be -1.23x10-10esu, -3.06x10-12esu;nonlinear absorption index β and size of image part Imx(3) to be 3.63x10-10 m/W, 1.15x10-11 esu, respectively, so the third-order nonlinear susceptibility x(3) is 1.19x10-11 esu. The value is larger than other polymers reported. PSB is self-focusing material and has potential application in nonlinear optic field.

  10. Study of third-order nonlinear susceptibility of polySchiff base containing triphenylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    PolySchiff base containing triphenylamine has been synthesized by polycondensation and character-ized by FT-IR,NMR,UV-visible spectrometer. Measurements of the third-order optical nonlinear sus-ceptibility χ(3) by Z-scan technique have shown that the large nonlinearity is dominated by the two-photon absorption in PSB. The sign and size of real part Reχ(3) ,nonlinear refractive index n2 have been measured with the condition of 532 nm,8 ns-duration pulses to be -1.23×10-10 esu,-3.06×10-12 esu;nonlinear absorption index β and size of image part Imχ(3) to be 3.63×10-10 m/W,1.15×10-11 esu,respec-tively,so the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) is 1.19×10-11 esu. The value is larger than other polymers reported. PSB is self-focusing material and has potential application in nonlinear optic field.

  11. Nanocrystals and amorphous matrix phase studies of Finemet-like alloys containing Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, J.A., E-mail: jmoya.fi.uba@gmail.co [IESIING, Facultad de Ingenieria e Informatica, UCASAL, A4402FYP Salta (Argentina); Lab. Solidos Amorfos, Facultad de Ingenieria, INTECIN, UBA-CONICET (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    Two simple models were developed in order to determine the chemical composition of both nanocrystals and intergranular amorphous phases in nanocrystallized Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1} containing Ge using data from X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy techniques. Saturation magnetization of the amorphous intergranular matrix (M{sub s}{sup am}) was calculated considering the contribution of the alpha-Fe(Si,Ge) nanocrystals and saturation magnetization of the alloys. The behavior of M{sub s}{sup am} with the iron content of the matrix was obtained and discussed. The exchange stiffness constant for the nanograins and for the amorphous phases was determined. The increment in the coercive field (H{sub c}) with increasing Ge content was evaluated using two theoretical models for the random magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (). Results show that the magnetic hardening observed could not be attributed to an increase in but mainly to an important increment of the magnetostriction constant of the alpha-Fe(Si,Ge) nanocrystals (lambda{sub s}{sup cr}). Values for lambda{sub s}{sup cr} are proposed.

  12. Study on Synthesis and Binding Ability of a New Anion Receptor Containing NH Binding Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO,Yan-Hong; LIN,Hai; LIN,Hua-Kuan

    2007-01-01

    A new colorimetric recognition receptor 1 based on the dual capability containing NH binding sites of selectively sensing anionic guest species has been synthesized. Compared with other halide anions, its UV/Vis absorption spectrum in dimethyl sulfoxide showed the response toward the presence of fluoride anion with high selectivity,and also displayed dramatic color changes from colorless to yellow in the presence of TBAF (5 × 10-5 mol/L). The similar UV/Vis absorption spectrum change also occurred when 1 was treated with AcO- while a little change with H2PO-4 and OH-. Receptor 1 has almost not affinity abilities to Cl-, Br- and I-. The binding ability of receptor 1to fluoride with high selectivity over other halides contributes to the anion size and the ability of forming hydrogen bonding. While the different ability of binding with geometrically triangular (AcO-), tetrahedral (H2PO-4 ) and linear (OH-) anions maybe result from their geometry configuration.

  13. Thermal and morphological behavior of chitosan/PEO blends containing gold nanoparticles. Experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardd, Sebastián; Schmidt, Mathias; Saavedra-Torres, Mario; Leiva, Angel; Radic, Deodato; Saldías, César

    2016-06-25

    Using solution-casting method, binary blends of chitosan (CS) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO 100,000) containing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared. Shifts in the melting temperature (Tm) and crystallization temperature (Tc) values for CS/PEO and CS/PEO/AuNPs blends were observed by calorimetric analysis. In general, CS/PEO/AuNPs blends tended to decompose at higher temperatures than neat polymers. From the FT-IR spectra, shifts in the main signals, such as -NH2, -OH and COC, were detected in the blends and were attributed to the polymer interactions and the incorporation of gold nanoparticles. In addition, the analysis of the blend topographies by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that at a higher CS content, more homogenous surfaces were observed. This behavior was attributed to the interactions present in the CS/PEO/AuNPs blends. Finally, theoretical analyses helped to confirm that the gold nanoparticles would be preferentially adsorbed onto the chitosan microdomains due to the interactions between acetyl and hydroxyl groups and Au atoms.

  14. Evaluation of an Experimental Gel Containing Euclea natalensis: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales-Peres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of an experimental gel containing Euclea natalensis extract on dentin permeability. Methods. Thirty-six dentin discs, 1-mm-thick. The discs were prepared from the coronal dentin of extracted human third molars that were divided into 3 groups (. The dentin discs in each group were treated with the groups following experimental materials: (FG: 1.23% fluoride gel, pH 4.1; (EG: Euclea natalensis extract gel, pH 4.1; (CG: control gel, pH 4.1. The gels were applied to the occlusal slide of the dentin under the following conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid. The hydraulic conductance (HC of each condition was determined four times using a fluid flow apparatus (Flodec. The data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (. Results. The greatest mean reduction in HC was produced in group EG dentin discs (61.2%; . Even after acid challenge with 6% citric acid the great reduction occurred in group EG (66.0%; than other groups (CG-77.1%, FG-90.8%. Conclusion. E. natalensis gel not only reduced dentin permeability, but also resisted posttreatment citric acid challenge without changing its permeability. Further research has to confirm this promising result in the clinical situation.

  15. Computational study on fused five membered heterocyclic compounds containing tertiary oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yujie; Zhang, Tongcun; Piao, Ying'ai; Zhang, Xiuli; Hu, Yanying; Zhang, Liming; Jia, Shiru; He, Huixin

    2017-02-01

    The structure, stability and electronic properties of two fused five membered heterocyclic compounds containing tertiary oxygen have been investigated with quantum chemistry computation. The results show that 3H-4λ3-furo[1,2-a]furan (M1) and 2a1λ4-oxacyclopenta[cd]pentalene (M2) both own three Csbnd O bonds and especially in M2 the three Csbnd O bonds and angles are approximately identical. The two compounds are comparatively stable and M2 with three pentacycles is more stable than compound M1 according to the Csbnd O bond lengths, bond orders, Egap, electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), electrophilicity (ω), and aromaticity indexes. The aromaticity indexes such as NICS(0), NICS(1) and NICS(1)zz show that they both have strong aromaticity. The natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis shows that oxygen atom takes hybrid orbitals composed of s and p orbital components to form σ(Csbnd O) bonds in compounds M1 and M2. The second order perturbation analysis shows that the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer within the molecule exists in compound M1.

  16. Further studies on lead compounds containing the opioid pharmacophore Dmt-Tic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Fiorini, Stella; Baldisserotto, Anna; Trapella, Claudio; Sasaki, Yusuke; Ambo, Akihiro; Marczak, Ewa D; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Salvadori, Severo

    2008-08-28

    Some reference opioids containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, especially the delta agonists H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph (1) and H-Dmt-Tic-NH-(S)CH(CH2-COOH)-Bid (4) (UFP-512) were evaluated for the influence of the substitution of Gly with aspartic acid, its chirality, and the importance of the -NH-Ph and N(1)H-Bid hydrogens in the inductions of delta agonism. The results provide the following conclusions: (i) Asp increases delta selectivity by lowering the mu affinity; (ii) -NH-Ph and N(1)H-Bid nitrogens methylation transforms the delta agonists into delta antagonists; (iii) the substitution of Gly with L-Asp/D-Asp in the delta agonist H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph gave delta antagonists; the same substitution in the delta agonist H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH2-Bid yielded more selective agonists, H-Dmt-Tic-NH-(S)CH(CH2-COOH)-Bid and H-Dmt-Tic-NH-(R)CH(CH2-COOH)-Bid; (iv) L-Asp seems important only in functional bioactivity, not in receptor affinity; (v) H-Dmt-Tic-NH-(S)CH(CH2-COOH)-Bid(N(1)-Me) (10) evidenced analgesia similar to 4, which was reversed by naltrindole only in the tail flick. 4 and 10 had opposite behaviours in mice; 4 caused agitation, 10 gave sedation and convulsions.

  17. Study of gunshot residues from Sintox® ammunition containing marking substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Polovková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of factory marked Sintox® ammunition were investigated from the composition of gunshot residue particles (GSR and occurrence of marking substance points of view. The experiments were carried out with two cartridges of caliber 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 Parabellum of two producers (Ruag Ammotec, Switzerland and Men, Germany. The first cartridge (type Action 4, Ruag Ammotec contains gadolinium as a marking element, while the other cartridge (type PEP II, Men is marked with gallium in gunpowder. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDAX analyzer (SEM/EDX was used to detect and analyze the GSR particles in samples collected from the cartridges, barrels and shooter’s hands. Besides those, particles from the hit clothes placed at different shooting distances were collected and analyzed. The spreading of GSR cloud from the gun was observed using the high-speed camera. Results obtained clearly revealed that the way of ammunition production/construction and type of marking of ammunition can significantly influence the presence and detection reliability of marking elements in GSR. The detectability is affected also by the shooting distance.

  18. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhipeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Ren, Tianhui, E-mail: thren@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Zhao, Yidong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zeng, Xiangqiong; Heide, E. van der [Laboratory for Surface Technology and Tribology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeSO{sub 4}.

  19. Study on crystallization behaviour of co-polyamide 66 containing triaryl phosphine oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yang Xiao Feng; Li Qiao Ling; Chen Zhi Ping; Yang Yong Feng; Zhang Lei

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the isothermal crystallization and non-isothermal crystallization behaviour of flame retardant co-polyamide 66 (FR-PA66) containing triaryl phosphine oxide (TPO) were researched by employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), respectively. The effects of TPO groups on nucleation mechanism, nucleation pattern and crystallization rate of FR-PA66 were discussed in detail. Experimental results show that TPO unit does not nucleate first during crystallization process of FR-PA66. The nucleationmechanism and nucleation pattern of FR-PA66 do not virtually change with incorporation of TPO groups when compared with polyamide 66 (PA66). The mainly crystallization process of FR-PA66 is still free nucleation and growing during the prime crystallization stage, and is unimensional nucleation and growing during the second crystallization stage. But at the second crystallization stage, we think there is a para-crystal forming with the maincrystal unimensional nucleation and growing. In addition, incorporation of TPO groups result in the decrement of both nucleation rate and crystallization rate of FR-PA66, and the increment of crystallization activation energy. Hence the TPO groups were unfavourable for FR-PA66 crystallization. In addition, incorporation of TPO groups also result in the decrement of crystallization region of FR-PA66, and increment of spherulite defect.

  20. Comparative study of phenol and cyanide containing wastewater in CSTR and SBR activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, C A; Samaras, P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the examination of the performance of two bench scale activated sludge systems, a conventional Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR) and a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR), for the treatment of wastewaters containing phenol and cyanides and the assessment of the toxicity reduction potential by bioassays. The operation of the reactors was monitored by physicochemical analyses, while detoxification potential of the systems was monitored by two bioassays, the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The reactors influent was highly toxic to both organisms, while activated sludge treatment resulted in the reduction of toxicity of the influent. An increased toxicity removal was observed in the SBR; however CSTR system presented a lower ability for toxicity reduction of influent. The performance of both systems was enhanced by the addition of powdered activated carbon in the aeration tank; activated carbon upgraded the performance of the systems due to the simultaneous biological removal of pollutants and to carbon adsorption process; almost negligible values of phenol and cyanides were measured in the effluents, while further toxicity reduction was observed in both systems.

  1. Intraoral film containing insulin-phospholipid microemulsion: formulation and in vivo hypoglycemic activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Haryadi, Bernard Manuel; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Suendo, Veinardi

    2015-06-01

    Non-invasive administration of insulin is expected for better diabetes mellitus therapy. In this report, we developed intraoral preparation for insulin. Insulin was encapsulated into nanocarrier using self-assembly emulsification process. To increase lipophilicity of insulin, it was dispersed in phospholipid resulted in insulin-phospholipid solid dispersion. The microemulsion formula was established from our previous work which contained glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween 20, and polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) in a ratio of 1:8:1. To confirm the formation of insulin-phospholipid solid dispersion, PXRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed. Then, the microemulsion was evaluated for droplet size and distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, physical stability, and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, microemulsion with expected characteristic was evaluated for in vitro release, in vitro permeation, and in vivo activity. The droplets size of ∼100 nm with narrow distribution and positive charge of +0.56 mV were formed. The insulin encapsulated in the oil droplet was accounted of >90%. Water-soluble chitosan seems to be a promising film matrix polymer which also functioned as insulin release controller. Oral administration of insulin microemulsion to healthy Swiss-Webster mice showed hypoglycemic effect indicating the success of this protein against a harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. This effectiveness significantly increased by fourfold as compared to free insulin. Taken together, microemulsion seems to be a promising carrier for oral delivery of insulin.

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Key Factors of Academic Innovation and Faculties' Teaching Goals--The Mediatory Role of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Marzooghi, Rahmatullah; Dehghani, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    The following research tries to study the Relationship between key factors of academic innovations and faculties' teaching goals with the mediatory role of their pedagogical, technological and content knowledge. The statistical population in this research included faculty members of Shiraz University. By simple random sampling, 127 faculty members…

  3. Workshop on Key Issues in Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The workshop on key analysis method and largescale facilities application in the project of Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" was held in the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Anhui on January 5th, 2008.

  4. Spontaneous gender categorization in masking and priming studies: key for distinguishing Jane from John Doe but not Madonna from Sinatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ruth; Khurana, Beena

    2012-01-01

    Facial recognition is key to social interaction, however with unfamiliar faces only generic information, in the form of facial stereotypes such as gender and age is available. Therefore is generic information more prominent in unfamiliar versus familiar face processing? In order to address the question we tapped into two relatively disparate stages of face processing. At the early stages of encoding, we employed perceptual masking to reveal that only perception of unfamiliar face targets is affected by the gender of the facial masks. At the semantic end; using a priming paradigm, we found that while to-be-ignored unfamiliar faces prime lexical decisions to gender congruent stereotypic words, familiar faces do not. Our findings indicate that gender is a more salient dimension in unfamiliar relative to familiar face processing, both in early perceptual stages as well as later semantic stages of person construal.

  5. Comparative study of reactions between µ-nitrido- or µ-oxo-bridged iron tetrasulfophthalocyanines and sulfur-containing reductants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereven’kov Ilia A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of reactivity of μ-nitrido- and μ-oxo-dimers of iron tetrasulfophthalocyanine has been performed in aqueous solutions of various acidity. The substantially higher stability of nitrido-bridged structure under both strongly acidic and strongly alkaline environments was demonstrated. Reactions of the complexes with sulfur-containing reductants (sodium dithionite, thiourea dioxide, sodium hydroxymethanesulfinate, L-cysteine has been studied. Differences in reduction processes were explained.

  6. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  7. Discoloration and mineralization of Orange II using different heterogeneous catalysts containing Fe: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiyun; Hu, Xijun; Yue, Po Lock

    2004-11-01

    Four heterogeneous catalysts containing Fe including a bentonite-clay-based Fe nanocomposite (Fe-B), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), amorphous FeOOH, and calcined FeOOH (denoted as FeOOH-M) were employed for the photo-Fenton discoloration and mineralization of 0.2 mM Orange II in the presence of 10 mM H2O2 and 8 W UVC at two different initial solution pH values (3.0 and 6.6). It was found that, at an initial solution pH of 3.0, their photocatalytic activities follow the order Fe-B > FeOOH, FeOOH-M > alpha-Fe2O3. When the Fe-B nanocomposite, FeOOH, and FeOOH-M were used as heterogeneous catalysts, both heterogeneous and homogeneous photo-Fenton reactions were responsible for the discoloration and mineralization of 0.2 mM Orange II because homogeneous photo-Fenton reaction occurred due to the presence of Fe ions leached from the catalysts. At an initial solution pH of 6.6, their photocatalytic activities still follow the order Fe-B > FeOOH, FeOOH-M > alpha-Fe2O3. However, only heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction accounted for the discoloration and mineralization of 0.2 mM Orange II because Fe leaching from the catalysts was significantly depressed. In the case of alpha-Fe2O3 as a catalyst, whether at an initial solution pH of 3.0 or 6.6, only heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction happened for the discoloration and mineralization of 0.2 mM Orange II because Fe leaching from the catalyst is negligible. The apparent discoloration kinetics of Orange II with the four catalysts at two different initial solution pH values was also investigated.

  8. Cocktail sedation containing propofol versus conventional sedation for ERCP: a prospective, randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angsuwatcharakon Phonthep

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ERCP practically requires moderate to deep sedation controlled by a combination of benzodiazepine and opiod. Propofol as a sole agent may cause oversedation. A combination (cocktail of infused propofol, meperidine, and midazolam can reduce the dosage of propofol and we hypothesized that it might decrease the risk of oversedation. We prospectively compare the efficacy, recovery time, patient satisfactory, and side effects between cocktail and conventional sedations in patients undergoing ERCP. Methods ERCP patients were randomized into 2 groups; the cocktail group (n = 103 and the controls (n = 102. For induction, a combination of 25 mg of meperidine and 2.5 mg of midazolam were administered in both groups. In the cocktail group, a bolus dose of propofol 1 mg/kg was administered and continuously infused. In the controls, 25 mg of meperidine or 2.5 mg/kg of midazolam were titrated to maintain the level of sedation. Results In the cocktail group, the average administration rate of propofol was 6.2 mg/kg/hr. In the control group; average weight base dosage of meperidine and midazolam were 1.03 mg/kg and 0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Recovery times and patients’ satisfaction scores in the cocktail and control groups were 9.67 minutes and 12.89 minutes (P = 0.045, 93.1and 87.6 (P P Conclusions Cocktail sedation containing propofol provides faster recovery time and better patients’ satisfaction for patients undergoing ERCP. However, mild degree of desaturation may still develop. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01540084

  9. Studies on PVA pectin cryogels containing crosslinked enzyme aggregates of keratinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Yanina N; Cavello, Ivana; Cavalitto, Sebastián; Illanes, Andres; Castro, Guillermo R

    2014-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol-pectin (PVA-P) films containing enrofloxacin and keratinase were developed to treat wounds and scars produced by burns and skin injuries. However, in order to prevent enzyme inactivation at the interface between the patch and the scars, crosslinked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) from a crude extract of keratinase produced by Paecilomyces lilacinus (LPSC#876) were synthesized by precipitation with acetone and crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Soluble vs. CLEA keratinase (K-CLEA) activities were tested in 59% (v/v) hydrophobic (isobutanol and n-hexane) and hydrophilic (acetone and dimethylsulfoxide) solvents mixtures. K-CLEA activity was 1.4, 1.7 and 6.6 times higher in acetone, n-hexane and isobutanol than the soluble enzyme at 37 °C after 1 h of incubation, respectively. K-CLEA showed at least 45% of enzyme residual activity in the 40-65 °C range, meanwhile the soluble biocatalyst was fully inactivated at 65 °C after 1h incubation. Also, the soluble enzyme was completely inactivated after 12 h at pH 7.4 and 45 °C, even though K-CLEA retained full activity. The soluble keratinase was completely inactivated at 37 °C after storage in buffer solution (pH 7.4) for 2 months, meanwhile K-CLEAs kept 51% of their activity. K-CLEA loaded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVA-P cryogels showed six times lower release rate compared to the soluble keratinase at skin pH (5.5). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis showed that K-CLEA bound to pectin rather than to PVA in the PVA-P matrix.

  10. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  11. A SAXS study on nanostructure evolution in water free membranes containing ionic liquid: from dry membrane to saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Satpal Singh; Park, Jin-Soo; Choi, Young-Woo

    2010-11-07

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique has been used to study the evolution of ionomer peak in the recast Nafion membranes containing the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIBF(4)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report dealing with the study of membranes containing different concentrations of the ionic liquid (EMIBF(4)), from the dry (no ionic liquid) to the saturation (containing 70 wt% ionic liquid) state to understand the evolution of the ionomer peak and the formation of ionic aggregates in these anhydrous membranes. The small-angle scattering maximum (ionomer peak) has been observed to shift continuously toward lower scattering vector (q) values as the ionic liquid content increases. The ionic conductivity behavior for the membranes containing ionic liquid has been found to be closely related with the change of slope of the double logarithmic plot between the reciprocal of the position of the ionomer peak and the polymer weight fraction. The q region over which Porod's law has been obeyed in different membranes was initially narrow and has been observed to widen with an increase in the content of the ionic liquid.

  12. Environmental Considerations in the Studies of Corrosion Resistant Alloys for High-Level Radioactive Waste Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilevbare, G O; Lian, T; Farmer, J C

    2001-11-26

    The corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 (UNS No.: N06022) was studied in simulated ground water of different pH values and ionic contents at various temperatures. Potentiodynamic polarization techniques were used to study the electrochemical behavior and measure the critical potentials in the various systems. Alloy 22 was found to be resistant to localized corrosion in the simulated ground waters tested.

  13. Study on EPC Network Key Performance Indicators%EPC网络关键性能指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭省力; 赵占强; 李峻洋

    2014-01-01

    It analyzes the network evolution, bearer management, circuit services fal back and VoIP of EPC, and raises five categories of key performance indicators, such as accessibility, session management, mobility, traffic volume, and resource/load, according to the operators’deployment policy of EPC. For each of al five categories of KIPs, the KPI calculation methods and the primary timers statistical methods are given. With these KPIs, the operator can evaluate the network performance, analyzes the user model, and discover network problems.%对EPC网络演进、承载管理、CSFB、VoIP等进行了研究分析,结合运营商部署EPC网络的实际需求,提出了接入类、会话类、移动性、业务量、资源负荷等五类指标,并详细给出每类指标的原始指标统计点及计算方法。通过对这些指标的统计和分析,运营商能够对网络性能进行评估、分析用户行为和发现网络问题。

  14. Comparative study of human and mouse postsynaptic proteomes finds high compositional conservation and abundance differences for key synaptic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bayés

    Full Text Available Direct comparison of protein components from human and mouse excitatory synapses is important for determining the suitability of mice as models of human brain disease and to understand the evolution of the mammalian brain. The postsynaptic density is a highly complex set of proteins organized into molecular networks that play a central role in behavior and disease. We report the first direct comparison of the proteome of triplicate isolates of mouse and human cortical postsynaptic densities. The mouse postsynaptic density comprised 1556 proteins and the human one 1461. A large compositional overlap was observed; more than 70% of human postsynaptic density proteins were also observed in the mouse postsynaptic density. Quantitative analysis of postsynaptic density components in both species indicates a broadly similar profile of abundance but also shows that there is higher abundance variation between species than within species. Well known components of this synaptic structure are generally more abundant in the mouse postsynaptic density. Significant inter-species abundance differences exist in some families of key postsynaptic density proteins including glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors and adaptor proteins. Furthermore, we have identified a closely interacting set of molecules enriched in the human postsynaptic density that could be involved in dendrite and spine structural plasticity. Understanding synapse proteome diversity within and between species will be important to further our understanding of brain complexity and disease.

  15. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky.

  16. Application of a key events dose-response analysis to nutrients: a case study with vitamin A (retinol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A Catharine; Russell, Robert M; Miller, Sanford A; Munro, Ian C; Rodricks, Joseph V; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Julien, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    The methodology used to establish tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for nutrients borrows heavily from risk assessment methods used by toxicologists. Empirical data are used to identify intake levels associated with adverse effects, and Uncertainty Factors (UF) are applied to establish ULs, which in turn inform public health decisions and standards. Use of UFs reflects lack of knowledge regarding the biological events that underlie response to the intake of a given nutrient, and also regarding the sources of variability in that response. In this paper, the Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF) is used to systematically consider the major biological steps that lead from the intake of the preformed vitamin A to excess systemic levels, and subsequently to increased risk of adverse effects. Each step is examined with regard to factors that influence whether there is progression toward the adverse effect of concern. The role of homeostatic mechanisms is discussed, along with the types of research needed to improve understanding of dose-response for vitamin A. This initial analysis illustrates the potential of the KEDRF as a useful analytical tool for integrating current knowledge regarding dose-response, generating questions that will focus future research efforts, and clarifying how improved knowledge and data could be used to reduce reliance on UFs.

  17. [Key Points for Design and Evaluation of Clinical Studies in Treating Children's Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Chinese Medical New Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen; Ma, Rong; Hu, Si-yuan

    2015-05-01

    Based on collecting data at home and abroad, we combined clinical practice of scientific researches. We also summarized key points for design and evaluation of clinical studies in treating children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by Chinese medical new drugs from objective and design, selection of diagnostic criteria, recruitment and dropping-out of subjects, effectiveness evaluation, safety evaluation, drug combination, and quality control, and so on. We hope to provide reference for design and evaluation of clinical studies by Chinese medical new drugs.

  18. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  19. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    OpenAIRE

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recogni...

  20. Studies of hadronic B decays to final states containing open charm mesons at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Martín Sánchez, A

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a general purpose forward spectrometer operating at the Large Hadron Collider, optimized for the study of B and D hadrons. LHCb recorded 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity during 2011 data taking, collecting unprecedented large samples of B decays to final states involving charmed mesons. These decays offer several complementary measurements of CP violation and CKM matrix parameters, and serve as a laboratory for testing effective theories of hadron decays. We present a selection of new world leading results in these types of decays, including first observations of new modes, world best branching ratio measurements and studies of resonant substructures.

  1. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 30, 1979 - Study of plutonium oxide leak rates from shipping containers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Madia, W.J.; Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Owzarski, P.C.; Bander, T.J.; Schmidt, E.W.; Yesso, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The study was initiated in October 1976, as outlined in the 189 research proposal submitted previously. Several tasks are to be undertaken in this study which, when combined, have the end objective of defining the leak rates of plutonium oxide powder from characterized leaks. Progress during the reporting period is briefly described on the following tasks: review of the literature and theoretical work relating to transmission of particles through channels; investigation of the relationship of gas flow rates, leak geometries, pressure and temperatures; measurement of the transmission of a well-characterized simulant (UO/sub 2/ powder) through leaks characterized in Task B; measurement of the fuel grade PuO/sub 2/ leaks through a standard leak incorporated into a suitable container; and investigation of PuO/sub 2/ leaks through simulated defected containers. (TFD)

  2. Protein binding studies with radiolabeled compounds containing radiochemical impurities. Equilibrium dialysis versus dialysis rate determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B

    1987-01-01

    The influence of radiochemical impurities in dialysis experiments with high-affinity ligands is investigated. Albumin binding of labeled decanoate (97% pure) is studied by two dialysis techniques. It is shown that equilibrium dialysis is very sensitive to the presence of impurities resulting...

  3. Epistemic Cognition when Students Read Multiple Documents Containing Conflicting Scientific Evidence: A Think-Aloud Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Leila E.; Braten, Ivar; Stromso, Helge I.

    2012-01-01

    This study used think-aloud methodology to investigate 51 Norwegian undergraduates' topic-specific epistemic cognition while working with six documents presenting conflicting views on the issue of cell phones and potential health risks. Results showed that students' epistemic cognition was represented by one dimension concerning the certainty and…

  4. Electrochemical Study on Ligand Substitution Reactions in Oxofluoro Boron Containing Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyakova, L.P.; Bukatova, G.A.; Polyakov, E.G.;

    1997-01-01

    Linear voltammetry was used for study of the ligand substitution reactions in the process of titration of FLINAK-KBF4, melt with different oxides. At molar ratio O/B=1 complexes BF4- which are characteristic for oxygenless melt transform into BOF2- Further increasing of O/B ratio up to 2 leads to...

  5. Small particles containing phthalic esters in the indoor environment - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, B.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Cedhaim, L.

    2002-01-01

    Many chemicals in polymeric materials have low vapour pressure. Hypothetically such chemicals are emitted and may stay as particles or be adsorbed onto dust particles and become airborne. The aim of this pilot study has been to validate the methods for measuring phthalates on particles in indoor...

  6. Epistemic Cognition when Students Read Multiple Documents Containing Conflicting Scientific Evidence: A Think-Aloud Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Leila E.; Braten, Ivar; Stromso, Helge I.

    2012-01-01

    This study used think-aloud methodology to investigate 51 Norwegian undergraduates' topic-specific epistemic cognition while working with six documents presenting conflicting views on the issue of cell phones and potential health risks. Results showed that students' epistemic cognition was represented by one dimension concerning the certainty and…

  7. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ewig, F. [GRS Koln (Germany); Dickenson, S. [AEAT, (United Kingdom); Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L. [IPSN (France); Rydl, A. [NRIR (Czech Republic); Royen, J. [OECD/NEA (France)

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I{sup -} concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  8. Synthesis and ion-binding studies of platinum(Ⅱ) phenanthroline complexes containing crown ether moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two new benzo-[15]-crown-5 attached phenanthroline platinum(Ⅱ) complexes with the general formula Pt(phen)X2, where X = Cl (1), C≡CC6H5 (2) have been synthesized, and their absorption and luminescence response towards metal ions have been studied.

  9. A study of photolysis of polychlorobiphenyl-containing transformer oil by UV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskenderova, Z. I.; Djavanshirova, A. A.; Kurbanov, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    UV absorption spectra of polychlorobiphenyls in transformer oil have been studied. We have shown that the absorption of the corresponding bands decreases with the growth of the time of irradiation. At t = 40 min, the degree of transformation of Abs is up to 40-66%.

  10. Moessbauer study of the composition and corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited and cast brass containing 1-4 m% tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertes, A.; Suba, M.; Varsanyi-Lakatos, M.; Czako-Nagy, I. (Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Fizikai Kemiai es Radiologiai Tanszek); Pchelnikov, A.P.; Losev, V.V. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    1982-09-06

    Moessbauer measurements on electrodeposited and cast brass containing 1-4 m% tin were carried out using conversion electron detector. It was found that the tin formed phases with copper but not with zinc. The identified phases were ..beta.., ..gamma.., epsilon and eta and their ratio depended on the tin concentration and on the preparation process of the brass. The corrosion behaviour of the samples was also studied.

  11. Spontaneous Abortion and a Diet Drug Containing Caffeine and Ephedrine: A Study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Howards, Penelope P.; Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Bech, Bodil H.; Nohr, Ellen A; Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; Charles Poole; Jørn Olsen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medications may be consumed periconceptionally before a woman knows she is pregnant. In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen) containing ephedrine (20 mg) and caffeine (200 mg) with spontaneous abortion (SAB) in the Danish National Birth Cohort. METHODS: Women were recruited during their first prenatal visit from 1996-2002. Pre-conception and early pregnancy medication use was reported on the enrollment form, and pregnancy outcome w...

  12. Key species and impact of fishery through food web analysis: A case study from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Marta; Scotti, Marco; Micheli, Fiorenza; Bodini, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) aims to support the protection of natural ecosystems and to improve economic activities. It requires considering all of the actors interacting in social-ecological systems (e.g., fish and fishers) in the understanding that their interplay determines the dynamic behavior of the single actors as well as that of the system as a whole. Connections are thus central to EBM. Within the ecological dimension of socio-ecological systems, interactions between species define such connections. Understanding how connections affect ecosystem and species dynamics is often impaired by a lack of data. We propose food web network analysis as a tool to help bridge the gap between EBM theory and practice in data-poor contexts, and illustrate this approach through its application to a coastal marine ecosystem in Baja California Sur, Mexico. First, we calculated centrality indices to identify which key (i.e., most central) species must be considered when designing strategies for sustainable resource management. Second, we analyzed the resilience of the system by measuring changes in food web structure due to the local extinction of vulnerable species (i.e., by mimicking the possible effect of excessive fishing pressure). The consequences of species removals were quantified in terms of impacts on global structural indices and species' centrality indices. Overall, we found that this coastal ecosystem shows high resilience to species loss. We identified species (e.g., Octopus sp. and the kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) whose protection could further decrease the risk of potential negative impacts of fishing activities on the Baja California Sur food web. This work introduces an approach that can be applied to other ecosystems to aid the implementation of EBM in data-poor contexts.

  13. New guаnidin-containing compounds with biocidal active: synthesis and prospects of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Kyznecova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized a new complex compound-ditsitratoborat guanidinium studied its composition, structure , physical and chemical properties using IR spectroscopy , thermal , X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis , conductivity , quantum-chemical modeling . Proven biocidal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylo-coccus aureus, yeasts bioassay methods . On the basis of silicate (clay and the Trans-Baikal Territory materials synthesized coordination compound obtained organic-inorganic composites in various ways (using mechanical activation and ultrasonic vibrations , studied its properties. The present invention extends the range of antiseptic preparations , the resulting composite is promising a wide range of applications due to their sorption properties and biocidal activity : qualitative improvement of natural , domestic, wastewater , swimming pools, reservoirs , soil objects .

  14. Ferroelectric studies of excessive Sm3+ containing perovskite PZT and pyrochlore biphase ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, T. Anil; Ramesh, K. V.; Reddy, V. Raghavendra; Sastry, D. L.

    2014-04-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Sm3+ modified Pb1-x Sm2x/3 (Zr0.6Ti0.4) O3 (PSZT) ceramics (where x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) have been prepared by a high energy ball milling technique, followed by calcination at 950°C and sintering at 1150°C. As x is increased more than 0.1 mole%, considerable secondary phase has been formed. This phase has been identified as pyrochlore Sm2Ti2O7 from its X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks. The XRD studies also indicate that the perovskte phases of the present systems undergo a dopant induced phase transformation from rhombohedral to tetragonal strucure. All the samples exhibit diffuse but non-relaxor type ferroelectric phase transition. The results of dielectric and hysteresis studies of these materials are presented.

  15. Kinetic and physical-chemical study of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin containing carvacrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Serafini, Mairim Russo; de Carvalho, Yasmim Maria Barbosa Gomes; Soares Santana, Dayanne Valéria; Lima, Bruno Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; de Aquino, Thiago Mendonça; Sabino, Adilson Rodrigues; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Grangeiro-Júnior, Severino; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2016-12-01

    Carvacrol is a good natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent; however, its poor aqueous solubility and high volatility limit its application in food systems. Different methods of complexation have been used to preserve aromas in food products and complexation in cyclodextrins (CDs) is among the most efficient ways. In the present study, we investigated the complexation efficiency of carvacrol in β-CD using methods different from those already reported in the literature for this compound. The supramolecular structure of the carvacrol/β-CD complex was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), docking, complexation efficiency, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and Karl Fischer titration. Results clearly showed the formation of a supramolecular complex in which the guest molecule, carvacrol, was entrapped inside the cavity of the host, β-CD mainly by slurry method. These results contribute to other studies involving this type of system.

  16. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  17. A Combined Experimental and Computational Study on the Stability of Nanofluids Containing Metal Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapureddy, Harsha V R; Nune, Satish K; Motkuri, Radha Kishan; McGrail, B Peter; Dang, Liem X

    2015-07-23

    Computational studies on nanofluids composed of metal organic frameworks were performed using molecular modeling techniques. Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the adsorption behavior of 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (R-245fa) in a MIL-101 metal organic frameworks at various temperatures. To understand the stability of the nanofluid composed of MIL-101 particles, we performed molecular dynamics simulations to compute potentials of mean force between hypothetical MIL-101 fragments terminated with two different kinds of modulators in R-245fa and water. Our computed potentials of mean force results indicate that the metal organic frameworks particles tend to disperse better in water than in R-245fa. The reasons for this difference in dispersion were analyzed and are discussed in the paper. Our results agree with experimental results indicating that the potential models employed and modeling approaches provide good descriptions of molecular interactions and the reliabilities.

  18. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  19. An initial study of mesons and baryons containing strange quarks with GlueX

    CERN Document Server

    AlekSejevs, A; Dugger, M; Ritchie, B; Senderovich, I; Anassontzis, E; Ioannou, P; Kourkoumeli, C; Voulgaris, G; Jarvis, N; Levine, W; Mattione, P; McGinley, W; Meyer, C A; Schumacher, R; Staib, M; Collins, P; Klein, F; Sober, D; Doughty, D; Barnes, A; Jones, R; McIntyre, J; Mokaya, F; Pratt, B; Boeglin, W; Guo, L; Khetarpal, P; Pooser, E; Reinhold, J; Ghoul, H Al; Capstick, S; Crede, V; Eugenio, P; Ostrovidov, A; Sparks, N; Tsaris, A; Ireland, D; Livingston, K; Bennett, D; Bennett, J; Frye, J; Lara, M; Leckey, J; Mitchell, R; Moriya, K; Shepherd, M R; Szczepaniak, A; Miskimen, R; Mushkarenkov, A; Guegan, B; Hardin, J; Stevens, J; Williams, M; Ponosov, A; Somov, S; Salgado, C; Ambrozewicz, P; Gasparian, A; Pedroni, R; Black, T; Gan, L; Dobbs, S; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Dudek, J; Close, F; Swanson, E; Denisov, S; Huber, G; Kolybaba, D; Krueger, S; Lolos, G; Papandreou, Z; Semenov, A; Semenova, I; Tahani, M; Brooks, W; Hakobyan, H; Kuleshov, S; Soto, O; Toro, A; Vega, I; White, R; Barbosa, F; Chudakov, E; Egiyan, H; Ito, M; Lawrence, D; McCaughan, M; Pennington, M; Pentchev, L; Qiang, Y; Smith, E S; Somov, A; Taylor, S; Whitlatch, T; Wolin, E; Zihlmann, B

    2013-01-01

    The primary motivation of the GlueX experiment is to search for and ultimately study the pattern of gluonic excitations in the meson spectrum produced in $\\gamma p$ collisions. Recent lattice QCD calculations predict a rich spectrum of hybrid mesons that have both exotic and non-exotic $J^{PC}$, corresponding to $q\\bar{q}$ states ($q=u,$ $d,$ or $s$) coupled with a gluonic field. A thorough study of the hybrid spectrum, including the identification of the isovector triplet, with charges 0 and $\\pm1$, and both isoscalar members, $|s\\bar{s}\\ >$ and $|u\\bar{u}\\ > + |d\\bar{d}\\ >$, for each predicted hybrid combination of $J^{PC}$, may only be achieved by conducting a systematic amplitude analysis of many different hadronic final states. Detailed studies of the performance of the \\gx detector have indicated that identification of particular final states with kaons is possible using the baseline detector configuration. The efficiency of kaon detection coupled with the relatively lower production cross section for p...

  20. Labeling quality and molecular characterization studies of products containing Lactobacillus spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Giovanna; Fazio, Davide; Petronio, Giulio Petronio; Inturri, Rosanna; Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize at species level by phenotypic and different molecular methods the strains of Lactobacillus spp. used as constituents of five oral and four vaginal products. Susceptibilities to representative antibiotics were evaluated. In addition, total viable counts at mid and 3 months to deadline of shelf life, in the different formulations and the presence of eventual contaminant microorganisms were investigated.In all oral products the molecular characterization at species level of the strains of Lactobacillus spp. confirmed the strains stated on the label, except for one strain cited on the label as Lactobacillus casei, that our study characterized as Lactobacillus paracasei. In oral products total viable cell content complied with content claimed on the label. In three out four vaginal products (one product claimed "bacillo di Döderlein"), molecular characterization complied with the bacterial name stated on the label. Two vaginal products reported viable counts on the label that were confirmed by our study. The other vaginal products, which did not report bacterial counts on the label, showed a similar decrease of viable counts at different dates to deadline compared to the others. From all the tested products, contaminant microorganisms and acquired resistance to representative antibiotics by the probiotic strains were not detected.