WorldWideScience

Sample records for containment of biohazards

  1. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Management Group

    2006-01-01

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management

  2. Hiroshima to Fukushima. Biohazards of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, Eiichiro

    2014-04-01

    Examines the issue of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons for a wide audience. Written from a Japanese perspective. Discusses one of the most important policy issues of the 21st Century. Set against a backdrop of the recent disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, ''Hiroshima to Fukushima'' examines the issue of radiation safety. The author provides important and accurate scientific information about the radioactive substances arising from nuclear power plants and weapons, including the effects of this radiation on living organisms. Currently, humankind is at a crossroads and must decide whether to phase out or increase its reliance on nuclear power as weapons and an energy source. Although a few countries, mostly European, have vowed to abolish nuclear power as an energy source, many other countries are about to increase their nuclear power programs. This book is written from a Japanese perspective and thus provides an alternative to views of Western writers. The author includes rigorous scientific analyses, however maintains a broad scope which allows the book to be accessible to decision-makers and non-specialists.

  3. Hiroshima to Fukushima biohazards of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Set against a backdrop of the recent disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, "Hiroshima to Fukushima" examines the issue of radiation safety. The author provides important and accurate scientific information about the radioactive substances arising from nuclear power plants and weapons, including the effects of this radiation on living organisms. Currently, humankind is at a crossroads and must decide whether to phase out or increase its reliance on nuclear power as weapons and an energy source. Although a few countries, mostly European, have vowed to abolish nuclear power as an energy source, many other countries are about to increase their nuclear power programs. This book is written from a Japanese perspective and thus provides an alternative to views of Western writers. The author includes rigorous scientific analyses, however maintains a broad scope which allows the book to be accessible to decision-makers and non-specialists.

  4. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waste Management Group

    2006-11-29

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management.

  5. Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, Melissa C; Carpenter, Calvin B; Colby, Lesley A

    2017-01-01

    Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take app...

  6. Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Melissa C; Carpenter, Calvin B; Colby, Lesley A

    2017-06-01

    Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take appropriate steps to mitigate the risks of working with these biologic hazards. This article will review responsibilities for institutional oversight of occupational health and safety for research involving biologic hazards.

  7. Assessing the Biohazard Potential of Putative Martian Organisms for Exploration Class Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E.; McKay, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of 1976 have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out and more recent studies suggest that the case for biological interpretation of the Viking Labeled Release data may now be stronger than it was when the experiments were originally conducted. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether or not future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. However, if native life is confirmed, it will be problematic to determine whether any of its species may present a medical risk to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to bio-hazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those pathogens whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anticontamination protocol and recent recommendations of the NRC Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are theoretically possible on Mars. The prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the possibility of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not

  8. Biohazard Analysis of Select Biodefense Vaccine Candidates - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella Tularensis LVS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.

    2007-01-01

    Biohazard assessment of biodefense vaccine candidates forms the basis for a facility- and activity-specific risk assessment performed to determine the biosafety levels and general safety standards required for biological product development. As a part of our support to the US biodefense vaccine development program, we perform a systematic biohazard assessment of potential vaccine candidates with the primary objective to, (a) Identify and characterize hazard elements associated with the wild type and vaccine strains, (b) Provide biohazard information on the etiologic agent (vaccine candidate) to assess Phase 1 clinical trial facility sites, (c) Provide a baseline to conduct an agent and facility-specific risk assessment at clinical trial facilities interested in performing phase 1 clinical trial, (d) Provide comparative hazard profiles of the vaccine candidates wit MSDS for wild-type to identify and establish appropriate protective biosafety levels, and (e) Support determination of a hazard level to select personal protective equipment as required under the OSHA guidelines. This paper will describe the biohazard analysis of two vaccine candidates, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella tularensis LVS, a viral and bacterial agent, respectively. As part of the biohazard assessment we preformed a thorough review of published literature on medical pathology, epidemiology, pre-clinical investigational studies, and environmental data on the etiologic agent subtypes and the vaccine candidates. Using standard analytical procedures, the data were then analyzed relative to two intrinsic hazard parameters-health hazard and environmental hazard. Using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, the potential hazards of etiologic agent wild subtypes and vaccine candidates were ranked under three main categories: Public Health Hazard, Environmental Hazard, and Overall Hazard. A WOE scoring system allows for both a determination of the intrinsic hazard of each

  9. Biohazard Analysis of Select Biodefense Vaccine Candidates - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella Tularensis LVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, V [National Security Programs, Computer Science Corporation, Alexandria (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Biohazard assessment of biodefense vaccine candidates forms the basis for a facility- and activity-specific risk assessment performed to determine the biosafety levels and general safety standards required for biological product development. As a part of our support to the US biodefense vaccine development program, we perform a systematic biohazard assessment of potential vaccine candidates with the primary objective to, (a) Identify and characterize hazard elements associated with the wild type and vaccine strains, (b) Provide biohazard information on the etiologic agent (vaccine candidate) to assess Phase 1 clinical trial facility sites, (c) Provide a baseline to conduct an agent and facility-specific risk assessment at clinical trial facilities interested in performing phase 1 clinical trial, (d) Provide comparative hazard profiles of the vaccine candidates wit MSDS for wild-type to identify and establish appropriate protective biosafety levels, and (e) Support determination of a hazard level to select personal protective equipment as required under the OSHA guidelines. This paper will describe the biohazard analysis of two vaccine candidates, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella tularensis LVS, a viral and bacterial agent, respectively. As part of the biohazard assessment we preformed a thorough review of published literature on medical pathology, epidemiology, pre-clinical investigational studies, and environmental data on the etiologic agent subtypes and the vaccine candidates. Using standard analytical procedures, the data were then analyzed relative to two intrinsic hazard parameters-health hazard and environmental hazard. Using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, the potential hazards of etiologic agent wild subtypes and vaccine candidates were ranked under three main categories: Public Health Hazard, Environmental Hazard, and Overall Hazard. A WOE scoring system allows for both a determination of the intrinsic hazard of each

  10. Nanoparticles eyed as biohazard treatment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M. D.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-11-10

    Nanoparticles may someday come to the rescue of people exposed to chemical, biological or radiological hazards. Argonne researchers are in the early testing stages of a system that would cleanse the blood of contaminants using tiny magnetic particles and a portable, external magnetic separator. Current methods of cleaning the blood of radioactive and other hazardous materials are mainly limited to dialysis and filtration techniques. Unfortunately, current medical procedures to detoxify human blood are restricted to only a few types of toxins, drastically limiting treatment options for exposed victims. Also, several important shortcomings exist with the currently available technology. Treatments can take several hours to complete, require the turnover and filtration of large volumes of blood, are rather inefficient at removing toxins and can be risky for the patient. For these reasons, current methods are mostly restricted to patients with kidney failure and certain types of drug overdoses. Alternative treatments exist, such antibodies and chelators, substances that combine with and neutralize toxins. These treatments can be used for specific kinds of toxins, but are not efficient. In addition, they can cause serious side effects, such as allergic reactions and organ failure. 'The best that doctors can do for most biohazard exposure is supportive treatment,' Kaminski said. 'This new system will be designed to directly remove the toxic agents from the bloodstream, quickly and efficiently.' The biohazard detoxification system will use biodegradable nanoparticles between 100 and 5,000 nanometers (one nanometer is one ten-millionth of a centimeter) in size, small enough to pass through tiny blood vessels and yet large enough to avoid being filtered from the bloodstream by the kidneys.

  11. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: A pilot-scale investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► VOCs and biohazards emitted during garbage compressing process were monitored. ► BTF–PC integrated reactor was employed for VOCs and biohazards removal. ► Health risk of target VOCs and biohazards were assessed before and after treatment. -- Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32–306.03 μg m −3 ) were much higher than those as compressor off (0–13.31 μg m −3 ). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m −3 as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter–photocatalytic (BTF–PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF–PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale

  12. Gamma irradiation for control of biohazards in aqua cultured fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.; Warrier, S.B.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    As compared with capture fisheries, aquacultured fish and shellfish are more associated with biological and chemical hazards due to possibilities of their contamination through agents from both freshwater and coastal ecosystems. With enhanced export potential of aquacultured items consumers may be increasingly exposed to these hazards. The habit of eating raw fishery products by consumers in several Asian countries may add to widespread outbreak of aquaculture mediated hazards. This article is intended to briefly discuss the various biological hazards associated with aquaculture operations and the scope of using ionizing radiation in alleviation of the problems. (author)

  13. 餐饮业常见生物危害分析及控制%Analysis and control of common biohazard in restaurant industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺寅; 张连慧; 刘新旗

    2013-01-01

    餐饮业食品安全问题已逐渐成为政府高度重视、广大消费者日趋关注的大问题.由于生物危害造成致病菌污染食品而导致的食源性疾病仍然占主要位置.因此,生物危害分析在餐饮业HACCP体系(Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point)建立过程中尤为重要.本文对餐饮业HACCP体系建立过程中常见的3种生物危害:细菌(金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌、副溶血性弧菌、肠出血性大肠杆菌O157:H7、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、肉毒梭状芽孢杆菌、志贺氏菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌)、病毒、寄生虫生物危害进行科学的分析,并提出切实有效的控制措施,为建立经济高效的HACCP体系提供一定的理论支持.%The food safety issues of restaurant industry have been attached great importance by both government and consumers.The foodborne diseases still occupy the main position due to the Pathogenic bacteria pollution food caused by biohazard.Therefore,the biohazard analysis plays the key role during the process of HACCP( Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point)construction in the restaurant industry.ln this article,3 common biohazards were analyzed of the process of HACCP construction in the restaurant industry, including bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus, salmonella, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Intestinal hemorrhagic escherichia coli 0157 : H7, Mononuclear cell hyperplasia liszt bacteria, Clostridium botulinum, Shigella Spp, Bacillus cereus), viruses, parasite. Regulatory measures were proposed which provided theoretical basis in the construction of economic efficient HACCP system.

  14. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  15. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: a pilot-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-04-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32-306.03 μg m(-3)) were much higher than those as compressor off (0-13.31 μg m(-3)). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m(-3) as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter-photocatalytic (BTF-PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF-PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical and biohazardous waste generator's guide: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Guide describes the procedures required to comply with all federal and state laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) policy applicable to medical and biohazardous waste. The members of the LBL Biological Safety Subcommittee participated in writing these policies and procedures. The procedures and policies in this Guide apply to LBL personnel who work with infectious agents or potentially infectious agents, publicly perceived infectious items or materials (e.g., medical gloves, culture dishes), and sharps (e.g., needles, syringes, razor blades). If medical or biohazardous waste is contaminated or mixed with a hazardous chemical or material, with a radioactive material, or with both, the waste will be handled in accordance with the applicable federal and State of California laws and regulations for hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste

  17. Medical and biohazardous waste generator`s guide: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Guide describes the procedures required to comply with all federal and state laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) policy applicable to medical and biohazardous waste. The members of the LBL Biological Safety Subcommittee participated in writing these policies and procedures. The procedures and policies in this Guide apply to LBL personnel who work with infectious agents or potentially infectious agents, publicly perceived infectious items or materials (e.g., medical gloves, culture dishes), and sharps (e.g., needles, syringes, razor blades). If medical or biohazardous waste is contaminated or mixed with a hazardous chemical or material, with a radioactive material, or with both, the waste will be handled in accordance with the applicable federal and State of California laws and regulations for hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste.

  18. Advantages of combined touch screen technology and text hyperlink for the pathology grossing manual: a simple approach to access instructive information in biohazardous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhenhong; Ghorbani, Rhonda P; Li, Hongyan; Hunter, Robert L; Hannah, Christina D

    2007-03-01

    Gross examination, encompassing description, dissection, and sampling, is a complex task and an essential component of surgical pathology. Because of the complexity of the task, standardized protocols to guide the gross examination often become a bulky manual that is difficult to use. This problem is further compounded by the high specimen volume and biohazardous nature of the task. As a result, such a manual is often underused, leading to errors that are potentially harmful and time consuming to correct-a common chronic problem affecting many pathology laboratories. To combat this problem, we have developed a simple method that incorporates complex text and graphic information of a typical procedure manual and yet allows easy access to any intended instructive information in the manual. The method uses the Object-Linking-and-Embedding function of Microsoft Word (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) to establish hyperlinks among different contents, and then it uses the touch screen technology to facilitate navigation through the manual on a computer screen installed at the cutting bench with no need for a physical keyboard or a mouse. It takes less than 4 seconds to reach any intended information in the manual by 3 to 4 touches on the screen. A 3-year follow-up study shows that this method has increased use of the manual and has improved the quality of gross examination. The method is simple and can be easily tailored to different formats of instructive information, allowing flexible organization, easy access, and quick navigation. Increased compliance to instructive information reduces errors at the grossing bench and improves work efficiency.

  19. Study of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Microbial Activities of Sludge and Degradation of Biohazardous Contaminants in the Sewage Sludge Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Libing; Wang Jianlong; Wang Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the response of sewage sludge exposed to 60 Co gamma irradiation at a dose of 0-25 kGy was investigated. Results showed that gamma irradiation could disintegrate sludge flocs and release proteins, polysaccharides and extracellular enzymes into the bulk solution. The maximum oxygen uptake rate decreased by 58%, and 99% of the culturable bacteria were inactivated at 25 kGy. However, the tested protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase showed slight inactivation during irradiation treatment. The efficiency of sludge solubilization reached around 6.5% with a dose of 25 kGy. The efficiency of sludge solubilization with aeration was increased by around 25% compared to that without aeration at an irradiation dose of 2.5-9 kGy. The soluble protein, polysaccharide and humic (like) substance concentrations were higher under aerated conditions. With aeration the over all reaction appears to be oxidative as evidenced by the higher nitrate and nitrite ion concentrations in solution. (author)

  20. Study of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Microbial Activities of Sludge and Degradation of Biohazardous Contaminants in the Sewage Sludge Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libing, Chu; Jianlong, Wang; Bo, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2012-07-01

    In this report, the response of sewage sludge exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation at a dose of 0-25 kGy was investigated. Results showed that gamma irradiation could disintegrate sludge flocs and release proteins, polysaccharides and extracellular enzymes into the bulk solution. The maximum oxygen uptake rate decreased by 58%, and 99% of the culturable bacteria were inactivated at 25 kGy. However, the tested protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase showed slight inactivation during irradiation treatment. The efficiency of sludge solubilization reached around 6.5% with a dose of 25 kGy. The efficiency of sludge solubilization with aeration was increased by around 25% compared to that without aeration at an irradiation dose of 2.5-9 kGy. The soluble protein, polysaccharide and humic (like) substance concentrations were higher under aerated conditions. With aeration the over all reaction appears to be oxidative as evidenced by the higher nitrate and nitrite ion concentrations in solution. (author)

  1. Vermistabilization of sewage sludge (biosolids) by earthworms: converting a potential biohazard destined for landfill disposal into a pathogen-free, nutritive and safe biofertilizer for farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajiv K; Herat, Sunil; Bharambe, Gokul; Brahambhatt, Ashish

    2010-10-01

    Earthworms feed readily upon sludge components, rapidly converting them into vermicompost, reduce the pathogens to safe levels and ingest the heavy metals. Volume is significantly reduced from 1 m³ of wet sludge (80% moisture) to 0.5 m³ of vermicompost (30% moisture). Earthworms have real potential both to increase the rate of aerobic decomposition and composting of organic matter and also to stabilize the organic residues in the sludge--removing the harmful pathogens (by devouring them and also by discharge of antibacterial coelomic fluid) and heavy metals (by bio-accumulation). They also mineralize the essential nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the sludge. It may not be possible to remove toxic substances completely, but at least change the 'chemical make-up' of the sludge to make it harmless to the soil and enable its use as a nutritive organic fertilizer. This method has been found to comply with grade A standards for sludge stabilization.

  2. Integration of Biosafety into Core Facility Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the implementation of biosafety policies for small, medium and large core laboratories with primary shared objectives of ensuring the control of biohazards to protect core facility operators and assure conformity with applicable state and federal policies, standards and guidelines. Of paramount importance is the educational process to inform core laboratories of biosafety principles and policies and to illustrate the technology and process pathways of the core laboratory for biosafety professionals. Elevating awareness of biohazards and the biosafety regulatory landscape among core facility operators is essential for the establishment of a framework for both project and material risk assessment. The goal of the biohazard risk assessment process is to identify the biohazard risk management parameters to conduct the procedure safely and in compliance with applicable regulations. An evaluation of the containment, protective equipment and work practices for the procedure for the level of risk identified is facilitated by the establishment of a core facility registration form for work with biohazards and other biological materials with potential risk. The final step in the biocontainment process is the assumption of Principal Investigator role with full responsibility for the structure of the site-specific biosafety program plan by core facility leadership. The presentation will provide example biohazard protocol reviews and accompanying containment measures for core laboratories at Yale University.

  3. Multiphoton tomography to detect chemo- and biohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    In vivo high-resolution multiphoton/CARS tomography provides optical biopsies with 300 nm lateral resolution with chemical fingerprints. Thousands of volunteers and patients have been investigated for early cancer diagnosis, evaluation of anti-ageing cosmetic products, and changes of cellular metabolism by UV exposure and decreased oxygen supply. The skin as the outermost and largest organ is also the major target of CB agents. Current UV-based sensors are useful for bio-aerosol sensing but not for evaluating exposed in vivo skin. Here we evaluate the use of 4D multiphoton/CARS tomographs based on near infrared femtosecond laser radiation, time-correlated single photon counting (FLIM) and white light generation by photonic crystal fibers to detect bio- and chemohazards in human in vivo skin using twophoton fluorescence, SHG, and Raman signals.

  4. Biohazards associated with materials used in prosthodontics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or systemically. Reliable research information using robust methodology is thus needed to clarify the various safety issues and frequency of adverse reactions in general dentistry, including prosthodontic treatment. Key words: Adverse effects, biocompatibility, formaldehyde, nanoparticles, polymeric restorative materials ...

  5. Biohazards associated with materials used in prosthodontics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Apr-Jun 2013 • Vol 16 • Issue 2. Review Article ... evaluated in different test settings.[8] Red blood cells ..... glass ionomers and resin modified glass ionomers, and found that after 24 ...

  6. A two-hypothesis approach to establishing a life detection/biohazard protocol for planetary samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Catharine; Steele, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The COSPAR policy on performing a biohazard assessment on samples brought from Mars to Earth is framed in the context of a concern for false-positive results. However, as noted during the 2012 Workshop for Life Detection in Samples from Mars (ref. Kminek et al., 2014), a more significant concern for planetary samples brought to Earth is false-negative results, because an undetected biohazard could increase risk to the Earth. This is the reason that stringent contamination control must be a high priority for all Category V Restricted Earth Return missions. A useful conceptual framework for addressing these concerns involves two complementary 'null' hypotheses: testing both of them, together, would allow statistical and community confidence to be developed regarding one or the other conclusion. As noted above, false negatives are of primary concern for safety of the Earth, so the 'Earth Safety null hypothesis' -- that must be disproved to assure low risk to the Earth from samples introduced by Category V Restricted Earth Return missions -- is 'There is native life in these samples.' False positives are of primary concern for Astrobiology, so the 'Astrobiology null hypothesis' -- that must be disproved in order to demonstrate the existence of extraterrestrial life is 'There is no life in these samples.' The presence of Earth contamination would render both of these hypotheses more difficult to disprove. Both these hypotheses can be tested following a strict science protocol; analyse, interprete, test the hypotheses and repeat. The science measurements undertaken are then done in an iterative fashion that responds to discovery with both hypotheses testable from interpretation of the scientific data. This is a robust, community involved activity that ensures maximum science return with minimal sample use.

  7. Mobile/Modular BSL-4 Facilities for Meeting Restricted Earth Return Containment Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Pace, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    NASA robotic sample return missions designated Category V Restricted Earth Return by the NASA Planetary Protection Office require sample containment and biohazard testing in a receiving laboratory as directed by NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 8020.12D - ensuring the preservation and protection of Earth and the sample. Currently, NPR 8020.12D classifies Restricted Earth Return for robotic sample return missions from Mars, Europa, and Enceladus with the caveat that future proposed mission locations could be added or restrictions lifted on a case by case basis as scientific knowledge and understanding of biohazards progresses. Since the 1960s, sample containment from an unknown extraterrestrial biohazard have been related to the highest containment standards and protocols known to modern science. Today, Biosafety Level (BSL) 4 standards and protocols are used to study the most dangerous high-risk diseases and unknown biological agents on Earth. Over 30 BSL-4 facilities have been constructed worldwide with 12 residing in the United States; of theses, 8 are operational. In the last two decades, these brick and mortar facilities have cost in the hundreds of millions of dollars dependent on the facility requirements and size. Previous mission concept studies for constructing a NASA sample receiving facility with an integrated BSL-4 quarantine and biohazard testing facility have also been estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars. As an alternative option, we have recently conducted an initial trade study for constructing a mobile and/or modular sample containment laboratory that would meet all BSL-4 and planetary protection standards and protocols at a faction of the cost. Mobile and modular BSL-2 and 3 facilities have been successfully constructed and deployed world-wide for government testing of pathogens and pharmaceutical production. Our study showed that a modular BSL-4 construction could result in approximately 90% cost reduction when compared to

  8. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  9. Definition of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1982-01-01

    Core meltdown accidents of the types considered in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's) have been predicted to lead to pressures that will challenge the integrity of containment structures. Review of a number of PRA's indicates considerable variation in the predicted probability of containment failure as a function of pressure. Since the results of PRA's are sensitive to the prediction of the occurrence and the timing of containment failure, better understanding of realistic containment capabilities and a more consistent approach to the definition of containment failure pressures are required. Additionally, since the size and location of the failure can also significantly influence the prediction of reactor accident risk, further understanding of likely failure modes is required. The thresholds and modes of containment failure may not be independent

  10. Need for occupational physician: industrial hygienist interaction in biohazards control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial hygienists have knowledge of sampling techniques, aerosol physics, ventilation, filtration as well as personnel protective devices and clothing which provide them with needed skills. They are dedicated to health protection and do not have a personal interest in the success of a particular experiment or analysis. They are familiar with training techniques and may sometimes be more effective in teaching technicians and animal handlers than the M.D., D.V.M. or Ph.D. professional. They have a familiarity with a broad range of health hazards, from carcinogens and toxic chemicals to potentially explosive mixtures, and can monitor and advise on a wide range of laboratory safety problems.

  11. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  12. Definition of containment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Public Law 96-567 Nuclear Safety Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1980, directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide an accelerated and coordinated program for developing practical generic improvements that would enhance the capability for safe, reliable and economical operation of Light Water Nuclear Reactor Power Stations. The DOE approach to defining such a program will consist of two phases, (1) definition of program requirements and (2) implementation of the program plan. This paper summarizes the results of the program definition phase for the containment integrity function. The definition phase effort was carried out by two groups of knowledgeable technical experts from the nuclear industry, one of which addressed containment integrity. Tabulated in the paper are the issues identified by the working groups and their associated priorities. Also tabulated are those high priority issues for which ongoing programs do not appear to provide sufficient information to resolve the issue. The results of this review show that existing programs to a great extent address existing issues in a manner such that the issues should be resolved by the programs

  13. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  14. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    In some nuclear reactor core-melt accidents, a potential exists for molten core-debris to be dispersed into the containment under high pressure. Resulting energy transfer to the containment atmosphere can pressurize the containment. This process, known as direct containment heating (DCH), has been the subject of extensive experimental and analytical programs sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The DCH modeling has been an important focus for the development of the CONTAIN code. Results of a detailed independent peer review of the CONTAIN code were published recently. This paper summarizes work performed in support of the peer review in which the CONTAIN code was applied to analyze DCH experiments. Goals of this work were comparison of calculated and experimental results, CONTAIN DCH model assessment, and development of guidance for code users, including development of a standardized input prescription for DCH analysis

  15. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  16. Status of the CONTAIN computer code for LWR containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Murata, K.K.; Rexroth, P.E.; Clauser, M.J.; Senglaub, M.E.; Sciacca, F.W.; Trebilcock, W.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the CONTAIN code for LWR safety analysis is reviewed. Three example calculations are discussed as illustrations of the code's capabilities: (1) a demonstration of the spray model in a realistic PWR problem, and a comparison with CONTEMPT results; (2) a comparison of CONTAIN results for a major aerosol experiment against experimental results and predictions of the HAARM aerosol code; and (3) an LWR sample problem, involving a TMLB' sequence for the Zion reactor containment

  17. Status of the CONTAIN computer code for LWR containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Murata, K.K.; Rexroth, P.E.; Clauser, M.J.; Senglaub, M.E.; Sciacca, F.W.; Trebilcock, W.

    1982-01-01

    The current status of the CONTAIN code for LWR safety analysis is reviewed. Three example calculations are discussed as illustrations of the code's capabilities: (1) a demonstration of the spray model in a realistic PWR problem, and a comparison with CONTEMPT results; (2) a comparison of CONTAIN results for a major aerosol experiment against experimental results and predictions of the HAARM aerosol code; and (3) an LWR sample problem, involving a TMLB' sequence for the Zion reactor containment

  18. Dry containment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A cask for the dry containment of radioactive fuel elements is described. The cask has a cover which contains valved drain and purge passageways. These passageways are sealed by after purge cover seals which are clamped over them and to the outer surface of the cover. The cover seals are tested by providing them with a pair of concentric ring seal elements squeezed between the cover seal and the outer surface of the cover and by forcing a gas under pressure into the annular region between the seal element

  19. Overpressurization performance of containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.; Bleackley, M.; Harrop, L.P.; Hargreaves, J.; Jowett, J.; Phillips, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The containment building of a PWR is the outermost engineered barrier between the reactor and the environment. The most important element of such a containment system is the pressure boundary structure and its associated seals and penetrations. This containment structure is designed deterministically to withstand a number of loads and load combinations of which the dominant one is generally the internal pressure due to the double-ended guillotine break in one of the primary circuit loops. Typically, the design basis large LOCA produces a peak pressure increase in the region of 0.3 MPa in some 10 seconds and with a duration of up to a few tens of seconds. The assessment of overpressure performance of the containment structure is a key component of the PWR safety case, and is usually carried out by estimating a static factor of safety to some failure limit state. These estimates can be made using simple force-balance calculations or complicated finite element calculations, and both approaches have merit. In this paper we examine these approaches and discuss their value in estimating failure pressures and failure modes for a variety of internal pressurization transients. This discussion covers both general design and risk considerations and is illustrated by numerical examples taken from previous and on-going analysis

  20. The pitfalls of container production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Bell

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes ten of the biggest “pitfalls” or challenges I have encountered in my experience growing southern pine seedlings in containers over the past 30 years. Learning from challenges is an important part of growing successful nursery operations.

  1. CONTAIN calculations of direct containment heating in the Surry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Louie, D.L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The draft NUREG-1150 risk analysis performed for the Surry plant identified direct containment heating (DCH) as a potentially dominant contributor to the total public risk associated with this plant. At that time, however, detailed mechanistic calculations of DCH loads were unavailable. Subsequently, a series of analyses of DCH scenarios using the CONTAIN-DCH code was performed in order to put the treatment of DCH on a firmer basis in the final draft of NUREG-1150. The present paper describes some of the results obtained for the Surry plant. A developmental model for DCH has been incorporated into CONTAIN code. This model includes mechanistic treatments of reasonably well-understood phenomena (e.g., heat and mass transfer), together with a parametric treatment of poorly understood phenomena for which mechanistic models are unavailable (e.g., debris de-entrainment from the gas stream due to debris-structure interactions). The DCH model was described in an earlier report, but the present version incorporates a number of advances, including treatment of the chemical equilibria involved in the iron-steam reaction

  2. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  3. Development of integrated metallic container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, B.

    1985-01-01

    Several alternative designs of the integrated metallic container are being investigated in an effort to obtain an optimal integrated system for transportation, storage and disposal of used fuel from CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations. Three specific designs having thin-wall, medium and thick-walls are being proposed in more detail. A novel, simplified closure system is introduced. Some economic consideration is also presented. Many ideas presented in the report deviate from the currently pursued methodology. They are presented here as an alternative for future considerations

  4. Characterization of aerosols containing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Santos, Maristela Souza

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the main lines of action of the Laboratorio de Caracterizacao de Aerossois (LCA /IRD) in the study of aerosols, the techniques available and the capability of these techniques as a tool in the biokinetics behavior study of radiopharmaceuticals and evaluating the particle exposed individuals containing these molecules. The LCA provides the following analytical techniques: spectrometry alpha, gamma and alpha counting and gross beta; PIXE (Particle Induced X rays Emission) and mass spectrometry-based flight time measurement of molecular ions ( 252 Cf-PDMS - 252 Cf-Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry). This technique is used to identify compounds mass to 10 000 a.m.u. The combination of these techniques has been applied to the study in vitro of the toxicology of the metals and radionuclides both in the respiratory tract as in the gastrointestinal

  5. Development of container failure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    In order to produce a complete performance assessment for a Canadian waste vault some prediction of container failure times is required. Data are limited; however, the effects of various possible failure scenarios on the rest of the vault model can be tested. For titanium and copper, the two materials considered in the Canadian program, data are available on the frequency of failures due to manufacturing defects; there is also an estimate on the expected size of such defects. It can be shown that the consequences of such small defects in terms of the dose to humans are acceptable. It is not clear, from a modelling point of view, whether titanium or copper are preferable

  6. Design of the EPR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appell, B.; Zaiss, W.

    1996-01-01

    In order to respect the safety objectives set for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor), the confinement function must be designed to guard against in the design uncontrolled releases in the environment in all conditions taken into account and to preserve its structural integrity. The concept chosen is a double-wall confinement with technology identical derived from the current French N4 containments and the associated systems ensuring the isolation and the control of leaks. The basic principles aiming to minimize leaks are as follows: no direct leak; state-of-the-art leak tight design of the systems and components passing through the containment building; recovery of potential leaks through the inner wall and the penetration sleeves in the inter-wall space; recovery in the peripheral buildings; and specific measures if necessary. The inner wall is a prestressed concrete shell (55 tendons cables arranged in two horizontal layers and a vertical layer for the barrel) without liner, of free volume 90000 m 3 , an internal diameter of 48 m and 1.3 m thickness. The free volume is chosen so as to rule out the risk of global detonation and the use of catalytic recombiners limits the risk of hydrogen explosion. The design pressure (6.5 bar abs) and temperature of the inner wall are defined for a given volume by the set of three conditions: Pee-4 conditions such as LOCA or SLB, global deflagration of hydrogen and core melt scenario. The rate of leakage in accident conditions from the inner wall must not be higher than 1% per day. The chosen concept must enable satisfactory leak tightness to be preserved for beyond design conditions in order to have margins and to guard against phenomenological uncertainties. The possibility of adding an internal composite liner is being studied. A large scale mockup is being built to validate the hypothesis and methods of leak rates of the inner wall and for the performance testing of the composite liner. The outer wall, made of

  7. Hydrotreating of triglyceride containing gasoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krar, M.; Kasza, T.; Toth, C.; Baladincz, P.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (Hungary)), Email: krarm@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    Because of the disadvantages of biodiesel, it is necessary to develop transformation methods, where excellent quality gas oil blending components are produced from triglycerides. An especially favourable opportunity could be the combination of the conversion of the triglycerides with a simultaneous upgrading of the gas oil stream. The main goal of our experiments was to investigate the feasibility of these two processes simultaneously in one catalytic system. In our experiments, sunflower oil (max. 25 %) gas oil blends were converted into products with gas oil boiling range. On the investigated catalyst under optimal process parameter combinations, product mixtures in the gas oil boiling point range with yield and excellent quality was produced successfully. The cetane number of the product mixtures were increased by 4-16 units, the CFPP values were increased by 5-7 deg C, when feedstock with 25 % sunflower oil content was used instead of feedstocks containing no sunflower oil. The reason is that the triglycerides were converted into normal paraffins, which are having high cetane number and poor cold-flow properties. It was concluded, that the blending of the sunflower oil into the gas oil did not reduce the HDS and HDA activity of the catalyst, however, its HDN activity significantly decreased. (orig.)

  8. Containment of spills from ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  9. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  10. Trends in the development of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turricchia, A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the technical developments which the containment systems of BWRs, PWRs and HWRs have undergone in the USA, Europe and Canada. The great variety of existing containment systems have been classified for each type of reactor, according to: principle of operation (i.e. dry containment; pressure suppression containment; containment with vacuum building; sub-atmospheric containment; etc.); type and number of the physical barriers provided against the dispersion of fission products to the environment (single containment, double containment, single containment with local collection of the leaks from the most probable leakage paths, or with pressurization of the potential leakage paths, etc.); and structural characteristics of the containment barriers (reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, metal containment, liners). In the framework of this classification the main features of the various containment systems are illustrated, with special emphasis on the most modern designs. The difference in trend among various countries and various designers are highlighted. A review is also made of the various containment auxiliary systems which would operate in accident conditions (isolation systems, heat removal system, atmosphere control system, etc.). Also for these systems the main design criteria are set forth and present trends are described. Finally, a brief survey is also made of the present trends with regards to the design of containment structures against external events be they of natural origin (earthquake, tornadoes, etc.) or connected with human activities (airplane crash, explosions, etc.) [fr

  11. T25 Qualification of old containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerning, T.; Kasparek, E.M.; Voelzke, H.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste for final disposal in the repository Konrad has to be packaged in licensed containers. The qualification of containers is performed according the respective standards and BfS requirements. The latter ones differ for different container types with respect to accident resistance based on the release behavior of the waste. Usually qualification of container types is performed before series production. The qualification of already produced containers (''old containers'') is significantly more complicated. The differences of quality assurance and materials properties of the older containers have to be evaluated. A main tool for this evaluation is the numerical re-calculation of accident scenarios for estimation of the safety margins. The validation of appropriate finite element models is available. Based on these date it might be possible to abandon additional drop tests with the existing old containers to prove the structural integrity.

  12. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  13. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers

  14. Performance of containment of Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the various requirements and activities relevant to the testing of containment system of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). All Indian PHWR containments are constructed from concrete either reinforced or prestressed or a combination of both and lined with polymeric coating based on Epoxy or Vinyl in order to achieve the leak tightness necessary from the radiological considerations following an accident. The current concept includes a complete double containment (except the base raft) extended to all penetrations and some of the pipings (those open to the containment atmosphere). The primary containment fitted with a passive pressure suppression system is enveloped in the secondary containment (confinement) where slight vacuum is maintained during normal operation as well as post accident condition. The Integrated leakage Rate Test (ILRT) conducted so far on the containment indicate that the overall leakages from the containment are lower than those necessary to meet the radiological limits following a postulated accident and interception of leakages by secondary containment as per design. The details of the, tests, repairs carried out and observations are given in this paper. The experience of ILRT also indicate improvement in leak tightness in many areas. (author)

  15. Development of a metallic high integrity container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haelsig, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear Packaging, a Pacific Nuclear Company, developed a metallic high integrity container (HIC) for the burial of low level radioactive waste. This class of container has received the most extensive review of any burial container licensed in the United States. It is also the first container that has been licensed to meet the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations 10CFR61. The design and subsequent review considered 300 years corrosion at a depth of 55 feet with no degradation of container structural integrity. The design also included a technical requirement that the container possess a positive vent that would exclude moisture. The alloy that was selected, allows for significant flexibility in container size and configuration which is essential to accommodating the various waste forms. This allowed the development of containers in various sizes and with a variety of closures, that accommodate the internal dimensions of various shipping shields and help minimize radiation exposure during packaging operations. The material used in the metallic container is high corrosion resistant which reduces the need for strict chemical controls at the waste generating facility. This acts to ease the operational requirements in the treatment of several waste streams. The design result is a family of metallic High Integrity Containers (HIC)s that meet all the performance criteria imposed by the regulations, as well as provide a disposable waste container with good transportation efficiency and minimum operational constraints

  16. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  17. Surgical smoke may be a biohazard to surgeons performing laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seock Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Chung, Sung Kwang; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Surgical smoke production is inevitable during surgical procedures. Although many workplaces have adopted smoke-free environments, healthcare workers, especially surgeons, continue to be exposed to surgical smoke. From February 2013 to March 2013, a total of 20 patients underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. A 5-L gas sample was collected 30 min after the electrocautery device was first used and was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Cancer risk was calculated for carcinogenic compounds and hazard quotient was calculated for noncarcinogenic compounds using US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Twenty patients with a median age of 57.5 years were enrolled in the study. Eighteen volatile organic compounds were detected by Japanese indoor air standards mix analysis. The cancer risks were ethanol, 5.10 × 10(-5) ± 6.35 × 10(-5); 1,2-dichloroethane, 4.75 × 10(-3) ± 7.42 × 10(-4); benzene, 1.09 × 10(-3) ± 4.33 × 10(-4); ethylbenzene, 2.87 × 10(-5) ± 1.32 × 10(-5); and styrene, 2.94 × 10(-6) ± 1.16 × 10(-6). The hazard quotients were acetone, 1.88 × 10(-2) ± 7.63 × 10(-3); hexane, 1.48 × 10(-1) ± 8.70 × 10(-2); benzene, 4.66 ± 1.85; toluene, 2.61 × 10(-2) ± 7.23 × 10(-3); p-xylene, 1.81 × 10(-1) ± 6.45 × 10(-2); o-xylene, 2.40 × 10(-2) ± 3.33 × 10(-2); and styrene, 5.15 × 10(-3) ± 2.03 × 10(-3). For five carcinogenic compounds detected, the cancer risk was greater than negligible. For 1,2-dichloroethane and benzene, the risk was classified as unacceptable. Analysis of noncarcinogenic compounds showed that risk reduction measures are needed for benzene. Even though surgical smoke is not an immediate health hazard, operating room personnel should be aware of the potential long-term health risks associated with exposure.

  18. Geologic containment of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work and thoughts on resolving the uncertainties associated with the nature of the solubilities and speciation of actinides, the formation of radiocolloids, the sorption behavior of fission products and actinides, and the transport mechanisms of advection, diffusion, and dispersion for radionuclides under environmental conditions thought to exist at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The research in process on chemical and physical processes important to conducting a performance assessment of this site is presented. 27 refs

  19. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  20. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  1. Performance of Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.; Wassef, W.; Bluhm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation of a steel containment anchorage system during a severe accident may result in a leakage path at the containment boundaries. Current design criteria are based on either ductile or brittle failure modes of headed bolts that do not account for factors such as cracking of the containment basemat or deformation of the anchor bolt that may affect the behavior of the containment anchorage system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of a typical ice condenser containment's anchorage system. This was accomplished by analyzing the Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System. Based on a strength of materials approach and assuming that the anchor bolts are resisting the uplift caused by the internal pressure, one can estimate that the failure of the anchor bolts would occur at a containment pressure of 79 psig. To verify these results and to calibrate the strength of materials equation, the Sequoyah containment anchorage system was analyzed with the ABAQUS program using a three-dimensional, finite-element model. The model included portions of the steel containment building, shield building, anchor bolt assembly, reinforced concrete mat and soil foundation material

  2. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  3. 76 FR 46805 - Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9447-8] Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... Pesticide Container Containment (PCC) Rule regulations. In accordance with State of Utah Agricultural Code...

  4. Analysis of failures in concrete containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Gonzalez, A.

    1989-09-01

    The function of Containment, in an accident event, is to avoid the release of radioactive substances into the surroundings. Containment failure, therefore, is defined as the appearance of leak paths to the external environment. These leak paths may appear either as a result of loss of leaktightness due to degradation of design conditions or structural failure with containment material break. This document is a survey of the state of the art of Containment Failure Analysis. It gives a detailed description of all failure mechanisms, indicating all the possible failure modes and their causes, right from failure resulting from degradation of the materials to structural failure and linear breake failure. Following the description of failure modes, possible failure criteria are identified, with special emphasis on structural failure criteria. These criteria have been obtained not only from existing codes but also from the latest experimental results. A chapter has been dedicated exclusively to failure criteria in conventional structures, for the purpose of evaluating the possibility of application to the case of containment. As the structural behaviour of the containment building is very complex, it is not possible to define failure through a single parameter. It is therefore advisable to define a methodology for containment failure analysis which could be applied to a particular containment. This methodology should include prevailing load and material conditions together with the behaviour of complex conditions such as the liner-anchorage-cracked concrete interaction

  5. Corrosion of metal containers containing cemented radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, G.S.; Farina, S.B.; Schulz, F.M.; Marotta, F

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear activities generate different kinds of radioactive wastes. In the case of Argentina, wastes classified as low and medium level are conditioned in metal drums for final disposal in a repository whose design is based on the use of multiple and independent barriers. Nuclear energy plants generate a large volume of mid-level radioactive wastes, consisting mainly of ion-exchange resins contaminated by fission products. Other contaminated products such as gloves, papers, clothing, rubber and plastic tubing, can be incinerated and the ashes from the combustion also constitute wastes that must be disposed of. These wastes (resins and ashes) must be immobilized in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the environment. The wastes usually undergo a process of cementing to immobilize them. This work aims to systematically study the process of degradation by corrosion of the steel drums in contact with the cemented resins and with the ashes cemented with the addition of different types and concentrations of aggressive compounds (chloride and sulfate). The specimens are configured so that the parameters of interest for the steel in contact with the cemented materials can be measured. The variables of corrosion potential, electric resistivity of the matrix and polarization resistance (PR) were monitored and show that the presence of chloride increases the susceptibility to corrosion of the drum steel that is in contact with the cement resin matrix

  6. Identification of uncommon objects in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Peer-Timo; Kim, Hyojin; Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J.

    2017-09-12

    A system for identifying in an image an object that is commonly found in a collection of images and for identifying a portion of an image that represents an object based on a consensus analysis of segmentations of the image. The system collects images of containers that contain objects for generating a collection of common objects within the containers. To process the images, the system generates a segmentation of each image. The image analysis system may also generate multiple segmentations for each image by introducing variations in the selection of voxels to be merged into a segment. The system then generates clusters of the segments based on similarity among the segments. Each cluster represents a common object found in the containers. Once the clustering is complete, the system may be used to identify common objects in images of new containers based on similarity between segments of images and the clusters.

  7. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  8. Ageing management of CANDUtm concrete containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipose, K.E.; Gregor, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    The containment system in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) provides the final physical barrier against release of radioactive materials to the external environment. Even though there are different physical configurations to meet this fundamental safety function in various reactor types, a common feature is the use of a thick-walled concrete structure as part of the containment system commonly referred to as 'Concrete Containment Building'. In order for the concrete containment buildings to continue to provide the required safety function, it has to maintain its structural integrity. As well, its leak rates under test pressures must be maintained below acceptable limits. As some of the containment buildings of the CANDU nuclear power plants are approaching their fourth decade of successful operation, questions regarding the impact of ageing on their ultimate useful service life emerge. Ageing Management has become the tool for addressing those questions. In this paper, the ageing and ageing management of the CANDU concrete containments are discussed, including the specific programs being implemented to monitor and trend the ageing conditions. Specifically, the usefulness of the embedded strain gauges as a tool for the assessment of the condition of the containment concrete structure is discussed. Some of the operational and test data accumulated over the last 30 years have been evaluated and trended to provide some results and conclusions regarding the satisfactory long-term behaviour of the concrete containment buildings. (authors)

  9. Integral leakage rate tests of containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, M.; Siefart, E.; Walter, R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for the integral leakage rate tests of containments. This method, used in conjunction with statistical methods, provides reliable information on the tightness of the containment. This method forms the basis of DIN 25436/KTA 3405. (orig.) [de

  10. Returnable containers: an example of reverse logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G.M.C. Vrijens

    1996-01-01

    textabstractConsiders the application of returnable containers as an example of reverse logistics. A returnable container is a type of secondary packaging that can be used several times in the same form, in contrast with traditional cardboard boxes. For this equipment to be used, a system for the

  11. The evolution of CANDU containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, Duane R.; Meneley, Daniel A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews Canadian containment design, reflects on forces which have shaped the evolving designs and contemplates future containment design subject to existing constraints of Canadian and International nuclear power regulations. The discussion mentions modifications which could play a role in easing customary restrictions on siting while meeting the intent and literal definition of Canadian licensing requirements. Many different containment concepts have been considered and deployed over the years. Professor Birkhofer points out that the earliest systems installed were 'dry containment'. These rely on large containment buildings designed to contain all the the steam from a loss of coolant. It was soon realized the large water inventory of boiling water reactors would require very large and expensive containment buildings. This led to the development of pressure suppression concepts. Various pressure suppression schemes have been devised to condense steam and thus reduce design pressure and volume requirements. Examples include the forcing of steam into condensing water pools of BWR's steam condensation by passage into arrays of ice, dousing spray systems in CANDU reactors, and the spray condenser systems of late model Soviet designed VVER - 440 reactors. The fundamental concept of energy removal by steam condensation can result in a small containment volume requiring low design pressure capability

  12. Reliability analysis of steel-containment strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greimann, L.G.; Fanous, F.; Wold-Tinsae, A.; Ketalaar, D.; Lin, T.; Bluhm, D.

    1982-06-01

    A best estimate and uncertainty assessment of the resistance of the St. Lucie, Cherokee, Perry, WPPSS and Browns Ferry containment vessels was performed. The Monte Carlo simulation technique and second moment approach were compared as a means of calculating the probability distribution of the containment resistance. A uniform static internal pressure was used and strain ductility was taken as the failure criterion. Approximate methods were developed and calibrated with finite element analysis. Both approximate and finite element analyses were performed on the axisymmetric containment structure. An uncertainty assessment of the containment strength was then performed by the second moment reliability method. Based upon the approximate methods, the cumulative distribution for the resistance of each of the five containments (shell modes only) is presented

  13. Selection of 3013 Containers for Field Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry Peppers; Elizabeth Kelly; James McClard; Gary Friday; Theodore Venetz; Jerry Stakebade

    2007-01-01

    This report revises and combines three earlier reports dealing with the binning, statistical sampling, and sample selection of 3013 containers for field surveillance. It includes changes to the binning specification resulting from completion of the Savannah River Site packaging campaign and new information from the shelf-life program and field surveillance activities. The revised bin assignments result in changes to the random sample specification. These changes are necessary to meet the statistical requirements of the surveillance program. This report will be reviewed regularly and revised as needed. Section 1 of this report summarizes the results of an extensive effort to assign all of the current and projected 3013 containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) inventory to one of three bins (Innocuous, Pressure and Corrosion, or Pressure) based on potential failure mechanisms. Grouping containers into bins provides a framework to make a statistical selection of individual containers from the entire population for destructive and nondestructive field surveillance. The binning process consisted of three main steps. First, the packaged containers were binned using information in the Integrated Surveillance Program database and a decision tree. The second task was to assign those containers that could not be binned using the decision tree to a specific bin using container-by-container engineering review. The final task was to evaluate containers not yet packaged and assign them to bins using process knowledge. The technical basis for the decisions made during the binning process is included in Section 1. A composite decision tree and a summary table show all of the containers projected to be in the DOE inventory at the conclusion of packaging at all sites. Decision trees that provide an overview of the binning process and logic are included for each site. Section 2 of this report describes the approach to the statistical selection of containers for surveillance and

  14. Oxidative Modification of Tryptophan-Containing Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jonas; Christensen, Pia Katrine; Nielsen, Mathias T

    2018-01-01

    We herein present a broadly useful method for the chemoselective modification of a wide range of tryptophan-containing peptides. Exposing a tryptophan-containing peptide to 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) resulted in a selective cyclodehydration between the peptide backbone...

  15. Ventilation of gloveboxes and containment shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetron, R.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper are defined fundamental principles for the ventilation of containment enclosures and gloveboxes, and examined criteria required to maintain containment in normal or accidental conditions. Dimensioning of ventilation network and associated equipment (adjustement and filtering devices). Some examples are given [fr

  16. Present status of nuclear containments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jihong; Hong, Jaekeun; Lee, Byunghoon; Son, Youngho

    2007-01-01

    Since the first nuclear power plant in Korea, Kori unit no.1, was started in commercial service in 1978, 20 units including Kori unit no.1 have been operated and maintained until now in Korea. Recently several units were started to be constructed and also, additionally more than 4 units were planned to be constructed in the near future. The importance of nuclear containments has been always one of the hottest issues for the safety and protection of nuclear power plants until now. At the beginning of nuclear power plants construction in Korea, several typed nuclear containment systems were adopted. For those reasons, various codes, standards, and inspection technologies are applied to nuclear containment systems differently. In this study, the status of inservice inspection performed for the safety and maintenance of nuclear containments in Korea was researched. Overall nuclear containment systems and inspections performed up to recently in Korea including trends, inspection items, periods, and regulations were described briefly. (author)

  17. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Ames, K.R.; Gallucci, R.H.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Reliability Analysis of Containment Isolation System Project. Work was performed in five basic areas: design review, operating experience review, related research review, generic analysis and plant specific analysis. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) reports provided the major sources of containment performance information used in this study. Data extracted from LERs were assembled into a computer data base. Qualitative and quantitative information developed for containment performance under normal operating conditions and design basis accidents indicate that there is room for improvement. A rough estimate of overall containment unavailability for relatively small leaks which violate plant technical specifications is 0.3. An estimate of containment unavailability due to large leakage events is in the range of 0.001 to 0.01. These estimates are dependent on several assumptions (particularly on event duration times) which are documented in the report

  18. Tension tests of concrete containment wall elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.M.; Julien, J.T.; Russel, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    Tension tests of concrete containment wall elements were conducted as part of a three-phase research program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objective of the EPRI experimental/analytical program is twofold. The first objective is to provide the utility industry with a test-verified analytical method for making realistic estimates of actual capacities of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments under internal over-pressurization from postulated degraded core accidents. The second objective is to determine qualitative and quantitative leak rate characteristics of typical containment cross-sections with and without penetrations. This paper covers the experimental portion to the EPRI program. The testing program for Phase 1 included eight large-scale specimens representing elements from the wall of a containment. Each specimen was 60-in (1525-mm) square, 24-in (610-mm) thick, and had full-size reinforcing bars. Six specimens were representative of prototypical reinforced concrete containment designs. The remaining two specimens represented prototypical prestressed containment designs. Various reinforcement configurations and loading arrangements resulted in data that permit comparisons of the effects of controlled variables on cracking and subsequent concrete/reinforcement/liner interaction in containment elements. Subtle differences, due to variations in reinforcement patterns and load applications among the eight specimens, are being used to benchmark the codes being developed in the analytical portion of the EPRI program. Phases 2 and 3 of the test program will examine leak rate characteristics and failure mechanisms at penetrations and structural discontinuities. (orig.)

  19. The impact of BWR MK I primary containment failure dynamics on secondary containment integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    During the past four years, the ORNL BWRSAT Program has developed a series of increasingly sophisticated BWR secondary containment models. These models have been applied in a variety of studies to evaluate the severe accident mitigation capability of BWR secondary containments. This paper describes the results of a recent ORNL study of the impact of BWR MK I primary containment failure dynamics on secondary containment integrity. A 26-cell MELCOR Browns Ferry secondary containment model is described and the predicted thermodynamic response of the secondary containment to a variety of postulated primary containment failure modes is presented. The effects of primary containment failure location, timing, and ultimate hole size on secondary containment response is investigated, and the potential impact of hydrogen deflagrations on secondary containment integrity is explored

  20. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable

  1. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Counts, C.A.

    1984-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is reviewing available information on containment systems design, operating experience, and related research as part of a project being conducted by the Division of Systems Integration, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The basic objective of this work is to collect and consolidate data relevant to assessing the functional performance of containment isolation systems and to use this data to the extent possible to characterize containment isolation system reliability for selected reference designs. This paper summarizes the results from initial efforts which focused on collection of data from available documents and briefly describes detailed review and analysis efforts which commenced recently. 5 references

  2. Synthesis of boron-containing heterocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azev, Yuri; Slepukhina, Irina; Gabel, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of boron-containing 1,3,5-triazines and 1,2,4-triazines is described. Derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine containing the o-carborane cluster have been obtained by reacting the corresponding propargyl derivatives with B 10 H 14 . Derivatives of 1,2,4-triazine containing the B 12 H 12 2- cluster have been obtained by nucleophilic substitution of ethylsulfone derivatives with B 12 H 11 SH 2- . They have been isolated in their ring-protonated form. Reaction of RNH 2 -B 8 H 11 NH-R with stericly demanding heterocycles failed, either for steric or for solubility reasons

  3. Predicting the Lifetimes of Nuclear Waste Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Fraser

    2014-03-01

    As for many aspects of the disposal of nuclear waste, the greatest challenge we have in the study of container materials is the prediction of the long-term performance over periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Various methods have been used for predicting the lifetime of containers for the disposal of high-level waste or spent fuel in deep geological repositories. Both mechanical and corrosion-related failure mechanisms need to be considered, although until recently the interactions of mechanical and corrosion degradation modes have not been considered in detail. Failure from mechanical degradation modes has tended to be treated through suitable container design. In comparison, the inevitable loss of container integrity due to corrosion has been treated by developing specific corrosion models. The most important aspect, however, is to be able to justify the long-term predictions by demonstrating a mechanistic understanding of the various degradation modes.

  4. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.; Hadden, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Research progress for the period June 1, 1980 through May 31, 1981 is reported. Topics include: (1) repair of damage by psoralen plus near-uv light; (2) in vitro repair of transforming DNA; (3) photobiology of halogenated DNA; and (4) DNA repair in toluene-treated Escherichia coli containing BU-DNA

  5. The function of single containment and double containment of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weijing.

    1985-01-01

    The function and structures of single containment and double containment of PWR nuclear power plant were described briefiy. The dissimilarites of diffent type of containments, which effects the impact of environment are discused. The impact of environment, effected by 'source term', containment gas leak rate and diffusion pattern of the released gas, under different operating condition is analysed. Especially, the impact of environment under LOCA accident is fully analysed

  6. Testing of a steel containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Costello, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    A mixed-scale containment vessel model, with 1:10 in containment geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness, was fabricated to represent an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment vessel. A contact structure, installed over the model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. This paper describes the pretest preparations and the conduct of the high pressure test of the model performed on December 11-12, 1996. 4 refs., 2 figs

  7. Impact analysis of a hydrogen isotopes container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. S.; Hwang, C. S.; Jeong, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The container used for the radioactive materials, containing hydrogen isotopes is evaluated in a view of hypothetical accident. The computational analysis is a cost effective tool to minimize testing and streamline the regulatory procedures, and supports experimental programs to qualify the container for the safe transport of radioactive materials. The numerical analysis of 9m free-drop onto a flat unyielding, horizontal surface has been performed using the explicit finite element computer program ABAQUS. Especially free-drop simulations for 30 .deg. C tilted condition are precisely estimated

  8. Apparatus for the storage of transport- and storage-containers containing radioactive fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vox, A.

    1983-01-01

    The invention concerns an apparatus for the storage of transport and storage containers containing radioactive fuel elements. For each transport or storage container there is a separate silo-type container of steel, concrete, prestressed concrete or suchlike breakproof and fireproof material, to be placed in the open, that can be opened for removal and placing of the transport or storage container respectively. (orig.) [de

  9. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle

  10. A method of installing a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenji; Murakawa, Hisao.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To achieve exact installation of a reactor container at a site. Structure: A pole is set upright at the center of a cylindrical base portion, a plurality of beams are disposed around the pole in a radial fashion to form a cone, a plurality of steel plates are mounted successively around the cone through a ring, and the steel plates are welded to each other to assemble and install a reactor container at the same time. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Structural response of rectilinear containment to overpressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Containment structures for nuclear reactors are the final barrier between released radionuclides and the public. Containment structures are constructed from steel, reinforced concrete, or prestressed concrete. US nuclear reactor containment geometries tend to be cylindrical with elliptical or hemispherical heads. The older Soviet designed reactors do not use a containment building to mitigate the effects of accidents. Instead, they employ a sealed set of rectilinear, interconnected compartments, collectively called the accident localization system (ALS), to reduce the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere during accidents. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that can be used to find the structural capacity of reinforced concrete structures. The method is applicable to both cylindrical and rectilinear geometries. As an illustrative example, the methodology is applied to a generic VVER-440/V213 design

  12. Assessment of integrity of structures containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the investigations is to provide a method of assessing the safety and integrity of structures containing cracklike defects. Estimated load at which the cracked structure will fail is compared with the highest load likely to be applied in service

  13. Purging of working atmospheres inside freight containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnier, Robert; Keller, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    This article focuses on prevention of possible exposure to chemical agents, when opening, entering, and stripping freight containers. The container purging process is investigated using tracer gas measurements and numerical airflow simulations. Three different container ventilation conditions are studied, namely natural, mixed mode, and forced ventilation. The tests conducted allow purging time variations to be quantified in relation to various factors such as container size, degree of filling, or type of load. Natural ventilation performance characteristics prove to be highly variable, depending on environmental conditions. Use of a mechanically supplied or extracted airflow under mixed mode and forced ventilation conditions enables purging to be significantly accelerated. Under mixed mode ventilation, extracting air from the end of the container furthest from the door ensures quicker purging than supplying fresh air to this area. Under forced ventilation, purging rate is proportional to the applied ventilation flow. Moreover, purging rate depends mainly on the location at which air is introduced: the most favourable position being above the container loading level. Many of the results obtained during this study can be generalized to other cases of purging air in a confined space by general ventilation, e.g. the significance of air inlet positioning or the advantage of generating high air velocities to maximize stirring within the volume. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  14. Construction of retroviral recombinant containing human tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... Recombinant retroviral vector containing human tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) gene was ..... heavy metal ions, the protein could be express in an .... involves adhesion, degradation and movement. To.

  15. Radiological testing of products containing radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Knight, A.

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive substances are tested by NRPB to determine how much radioactive material is likely to be released from a product if it is misused or accidentally damaged. Such testing is briefly described with particular reference to ionisation chamber smoke detectors, liquid crystal display watches illuminated with gaseous tritium light sources and anti-static brushes containing polonium-210 in the form of ceramic microspheres. (U.K.)

  16. Results of steel containment vessel model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, V.K.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Komine, Kuniaki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Costello, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two tests are being conducted: (1) a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) and (2) a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper summarizes the conduct of the high pressure pneumatic test of the SCV model and the results of that test. Results of this test are summarized and are compared with pretest predictions performed by the sponsoring organizations and others who participated in a blind pretest prediction effort. Questions raised by this comparison are identified and plans for posttest analysis are discussed

  17. Development of metallic high integrity containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temus, C.J.; Porter, S.A.; Kent, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the development program for metallic high integrity containers (HIC's). The need for a high strength, thin walled HIC became apparent with the implementation of 10 CFR 61 in late 1983. The existing containers that were in use at that time were made of either low strength material (polyethylene) or bulky, heavy material (concrete). Neither of these materials met the need for a high strength, volume and weight efficient container that could survive the deep burial environment of sites such as Hanford, Washington. Various alloys were considered for corrosion resistance for a 300 year life, high strength and toughness, and elastic stability to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. The alloy allowed for great flexibility in design to accommodate various waste forms. The containers were developed in various sizes with several different closures designed to minimize operator exposure during the loading operation. These design features provide the industry with efficient, disposable packages for a wide variety of waste forms. The paper describes the analytical methodology and prototype test program. The analytical methods included finite element modeling of the burial conditions, prediction of drop performance,and elastic stability analysis. Prototype testing included leak tests and drop tests at various container orientations from heights of up to 25 feet

  18. PIC-container for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Shinji, Yoshimasa; Maki, Yasuro; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Minegishi, Keiichi; Sudoh, Giichi.

    1981-03-01

    Steel fiber reinforced polymer-impregnated concrete (SFPIC) has been investigated for low and intermediate level radioactive waste containers. The present study has been carried out by the following stages. A) Preliminary evaluation: 60 L size container for cold and hot tests. B) Evaluation of size effect: 200 L size container for cold tests. The 60 L and 200 L containers were designed as pressure-container (without equalizer) for 500 kg/cm 2 and 700 kg/cm 2 . Polymerization of impregnated methylmethacrylate monomer for stage-A and B were performed by 60 Co-γ ray radiation and thermal catalytic polymerization, respectively. Under the loading of 500 kg/cm 2 and 700 kg/cm 2 -outside hydraulic pressure, these containers were kept in their good condition. The observed maximum strains were about 1380 x 10 -6 and 3950 x 10 -6 at the outside central position of container body for circumferential direction of the 60 L and 200 L container, respectively. An accelerated leaching test was performed by charging the concentrate of the liquid radioactive waste from JMTR in JAERI into the container. Although they were immersed in deionized water for 400 days, nuclides were not leached from the container. From results of various tests, it was evaluated that the SFPIC-container was suitable for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. There was not any great difference between the two size containers for the physical and chemical properties except in their preparation process. (author)

  19. Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

  20. Reliability analysis of prestressed concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Zhao, Y.; Sun, J.

    1993-01-01

    The reliability analysis of prestressed concrete containment structures subjected to combinations of static and dynamic loads with consideration of uncertainties of structural and load parameters is presented. Limit state probabilities for given parameters are calculated using the procedure developed at BNL, while that with consideration of parameter uncertainties are calculated by a fast integration for time variant structural reliability. The limit state surface of the prestressed concrete containment is constructed directly incorporating the prestress. The sensitivities of the Choleskey decomposition matrix and the natural vibration character are calculated by simplified procedures. (author)

  1. Container for storage of environmental incompatible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggenthaler, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    The container consists of a cuboid chamber, closed to five sides, just as the cover made of concrete. Iron mountings for use with lifting gears are coupled with the armouring of the container. The cover is made in such a way that mountings are hidden by the recesses at its borders. Therefore it is possible to stick these boxes. Concrete employed for is enriched with sealing materials of synthetics, the box is painted too. Sensors on the outside ensure telemetering of closeness of the boxes. (J.K.) [de

  2. Proof testing of CANDU concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    Prior to commissioning of a CANDU reactor, a proof pressure test is required to demonstrate the structural integrity of the containment envelope. The test pressure specified by AECB Regulatory Document R-7 (1991) was selected without a rigorous consideration of uncertainties associated with estimates of accident pressure and conatinment resistance. This study was undertaken to develop a reliability-based philosophy for defining proof testing requirements that are consistent with the current limit states design code for concrete containments (CSA N287.3).It was shown that the upodated probability of failure after a successful test is always less than the original estimate

  3. Model Based Control of Reefer Container Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær

    This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together with the Da......This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together...

  4. Treatment of spent solutions containing tributylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barinova, Ella A.; Diordiy, Mikhail N.; Karlina, Olga K. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' RADON' , 2/14, 7 th Rostovsky lane, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The realization of the process of treatment of organic radioactive waste (RW) containing tributylphosphate (TBP) in hydrocarbon solvent under the laboratory conditions is considered in this work. The main parameters of the process have been investigated as well as the characteristics of the final process product - sodium-aluminium-phosphate glass matrix. (authors)

  5. Development and optimization of containment structure concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, H.R.; Whitcraft, J.S. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The development of prestressed concrete containment structures for nuclear power plants designed, constructed, and tested by Bechtel Power Corporation has been divided into three general stages or generations. The distinctions that characterize these generations are: the shape of the dome, the number of buttresses, the size and arrangement of the post-tensioning tendons, and the design level of the prestressing forces. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the nucledyne passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This reports contains: (1) an evaluation by Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) of the NucleDyne passive Containment System (PCS) as that conceptual design is applied to a Westinghouse, two loop, Pressurized Water Reactor; (2) an evaluation by Westinghouse of two questions about the impact of the PCS on the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS), which were posed by G/C and best answered by an NSSS vendor; and (3) replies to both the Gilbert/Commonwealth report and the Westinghoue report by NucleDyne Engineering Corporation

  7. Book Analysis of Containing the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    technology embargoes. In effect acknowledging the limitations of economic containment, the Reagan administration called for a policy of " dualism ," removal of...103) When possible though, the U.S. should continue to foster good relations with states, regardless of their ideological leanings, that contribute to

  8. Review of containment vent filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The technology applied for the design and construction of containment vent filters is compiled and reviewed. The national positions leading to the selection of venting or method of filtration are extracted from position papers. Several areas of further information needs are identified

  9. CO2 contain of the electric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2008-02-01

    A recent announcement of the RTE and the ADEME on the CO 2 contain of the electric kW, refuting a 2005 study of EDF and ADEME, perturbed the public opinion and was presented as the proof that the nuclear has no part in the fight against the climatic change. The author aims to set things straight. (A.L.B.)

  10. Development of Severe Accident Containment Analysis Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Min; Seo, Jea-Uk; Lee, Dea-Young; Park, Soon-Ho; Lee, Jae-Gwon; Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Byung-Chul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In safety viewpoint, the pressure and temperature of the containment is the important parameters, of course, the local hydrogen concentration is also the parameter of the major concern because of its flammability and the risk of the detonation. In addition, there are possibilities of occurrence of other relevant phenomena following the reactor core melting such as DCH(direct containment heating) due to HPME(high pressure melt ejection), steam explosion due to fuel-coolant interaction in the reactor cavity and molten core concrete interaction at the late stage. It is important to predict the containment responses during a severe accident by a reasonable accuracy for establishing of effective mitigation strategies and preparation of the safety features required. In this paper, the overview of the SACAP development status is presented. SACAP is developed so as to be able to analyze, so called, Ex-Vessel severe accident phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, combustible gas burn, direct containment heating, steam explosion and molten core-concrete interaction. At the parallel time, SACAP and In-Vessel analysis module named CSPACE are processed for integration through MPI communication coupling. Development of the integrated severe accident analysis code system will be completed in following one year to make the code revision zero to be released.

  11. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion damage that has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loadings. To address these concerns, finite element analyses have been performed for a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment structure. Using ABAQUS, the pressure capacity was calculated for a typical vessel with no corrosion damage. Multiple analyses were then performed with the location of the corrosion and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis. Using a strain-based failure criterion, a open-quotes lower boundclose quotes, open-quotes best estimateclose quotes, and open-quotes upper boundclose quotes failure level was predicted for each case. These limits were established by: determining the amount of variability that exists in material properties of typical containments, estimating the amount of uncertainty associated with the level of modeling detail and modeling assumptions, and estimating the effect of corrosion on the material properties

  12. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR

  13. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR.

  14. Testing, verification and application of CONTAIN for severe accident analysis of LMFBR-containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhans, J.

    1991-01-01

    Severe accident analysis for LMFBR-containments has to consider various phenomena influencing the development of containment loads as pressure and temperatures as well as generation, transport, depletion and release of aerosols and radioactive materials. As most of the different phenomena are linked together their feedback has to be taken into account within the calculation of severe accident consequences. Otherwise no best-estimate results can be assured. Under the sponsorship of the German BMFT the US code CONTAIN is being developed, verified and applied in GRS for future fast breeder reactor concepts. In the first step of verification, the basic calculation models of a containment code have been proven: (i) flow calculation for different flow situations, (ii) heat transfer from and to structures, (iii) coolant evaporation, boiling and condensation, (iv) material properties. In the second step the proof of the interaction of coupled phenomena has been checked. The calculation of integrated containment experiments relating natural convection flow, structure heating and coolant condensation as well as parallel calculation of results obtained with an other code give detailed information on the applicability of CONTAIN. The actual verification status allows the following conclusion: a caucious analyst experienced in containment accident modelling using the proven parts of CONTAIN will obtain results which have the same accuracy as other well optimized and detailed lumped parameter containment codes can achieve. Further code development, additional verification and international exchange of experience and results will assure an adequate code for the application in safety analyses for LMFBRs. (orig.)

  15. Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on Serum Vitamins and Trace Elements in Male Rats. AA Iyanda, JI Anetor, DP Oparinde, FAA Adeniyi. Abstract. Methionine is an effective antidote in the treatment of paracetamol-induced toxicity but at large doses it has been reported to induce or aggravate a ...

  16. Study of audio speakers containing ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R E [34 Gloucester Road, Summit, NJ 07901 (United States); Hirota, Y; Tsuda, S [Ferrotec, 1-4-14 Kyobashi, chuo-Ku, Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan); Raj, K [Ferrotec, 33 Constitution Drive, Bedford, NH 03110 (United States)

    2008-05-21

    This work validates a method for increasing the radial restoring force on the voice coil in audio speakers containing ferrofluid. In addition, a study is made of factors influencing splash loss of the ferrofluid due to shock. Ferrohydrodynamic analysis is employed throughout to model behavior, and predictions are compared to experimental data.

  17. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  18. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  19. Overview of containment integrity test at NUPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takumi, K.; Yamada, T.

    2004-01-01

    NUPEC has started NUPEC Containment Integrity project entitled 'Proving Test on the Reliability for Reactor Containment Vessel' since June 1987. This is the project for the term of twelve years sponsored by MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japanese Government). The test items are (1) Hydrogen mixing and distribution test, (2) Hydrogen Burning Test, (3) Iodine trapping characteristics test, and (4) Structural behavior test. Based on the test results, computer codes are verified and as the results of analysis and evaluation by the computer codes, containment integrity is to be confirmed. This paper indicates the results of hydrogen mixing and distribution test and hydrogen burning test. The NUPEC tests conducted so far suggest that hydrogen will be well mixed in the model containment vessel and the prediction by the computer code is in excellent agreement with the data. The NUPEC hydrogen burning test data is in good agreement with the FITS data at SNL that were obtained at the lower hydrogen concentration condition. (author)

  20. Modular Modeling of a Refrigeration Container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Sørensen, Kresten; Juel Skovrup, Morten; M. Jessen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a refrigeration container for use as a reference for energy-optimizing controller design. The model is based on first principles in order to conserve mass and energy, but various assumptions are used to simplify the equations, resulting in a unified model for t...

  1. Modeling of hydrogen behaviour in a PWR nuclear power plant containment with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobovnik, G.; Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen behavior in the containment during a severe accident in a two-loop Westinghouse-type PWR nuclear power plant was simulated with the CONTAIN code. The accident was initiated with a cold-leg break of the reactor coolant system in a steam generator compartment. In the input model, the containment is represented with 34 cells. Beside hydrogen concentration, the containment atmosphere temperature and pressure and the carbon monoxide concentration were observed as well. Simulations were carried out for two different scenarios: with and without successful actuation of the containment spray system. The highest hydrogen concentration occurs in the containment dome and near the hydrogen release location in the early stages of the accident. Containment sprays do not have a significant effect on hydrogen stratification.(author)

  2. Effect of pipe rupture loads inside containment in the break exclusionary piping outside containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, G.

    1987-01-01

    The plant design for protection against piping failures outside containment should make sure that fluid system piping in containment penetration areas are designed to meet the break exclusionary provisions contained in the BTP MEB 3-1. According to these provisions, following a piping failure (main steam line) inside containment, the part of the flued head connected to the piping outside containment, should not exceed the ASME Code stress limits for the appropriate load combinations. A finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate the stress level in this area. (orig./HP)

  3. 40 CFR 265.171 - Condition of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition of containers. 265.171... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.171 Condition of containers. If a container... transfer the hazardous waste from this container to a container that is in good condition, or manage the...

  4. 40 CFR 264.171 - Condition of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition of containers. 264.171... Use and Management of Containers § 264.171 Condition of containers. If a container holding hazardous... leak, the owner or operator must transfer the hazardous waste from this container to a container that...

  5. Reservoir storage and containment of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, G.J.; White, S.P.; Kissling, W.M. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1995-03-01

    This paper considers the injection of CO{sub 2} into underground reservoirs. Computer models are used to investigate the disposal of CO{sub 2} generated by an 800 MW power station. A number of scenarios are considered, some of which result in containment of the CO{sub 2} over very long time scales and others result in the escape of the CO{sub 2} after a few hundred years.

  6. Evaluation of buckling on containment metallic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Renato Campos da; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    The buckling analysis represents one of the most important aspects of the structural projects of nuclear power plants containment metallic vessels and in this work the Case N-284-1 ASME Code is used for evaluation of those structures submitted to this failure mode. From the stress analysis, performed by using finite element method on discrete structures with shell elements, the procedure of the Code Case are applied to the evaluation of the containment metallic vessel of the Angra 2 nuclear power plant submitted to the own weight, seismic loads and uplift in case of accident. A study of pressure vessel reinforced by rings submit ed to the external pressure. Conclusions and commentaries are established based on the obtained results

  7. Filtered atmospheric venting of LWR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.; Ahlstroem, P.E.; Bachofner, E.; Graeslund, C.; Johansson, K.; Nilsson, L.; Persson, Aa.; Eriksson, B.

    1981-03-01

    The FILTRA project is a cooperative Swedish programme which started in February 1980. It is aimed at investigating the possibility of reducing the risk for a large release of radioactivity, assuming a severe reactor accident. The project has been focused on filtered venting of the reactor containment. The first stage of the project has dealt with two types of severe accident sequences, namely core meltdown as a result of the complete loss of water supplies to the reactor pressure vessel and insufficient cooling of the reactor containment. Some important conclusion are the following. The applicability of computer models used to describe various phenomena in the accident sequence must be scrutinized. The details of the design of the containment are important and must be taken into consideration in a more accurate manner than in previous analyses. A pressure relief area of less than 1 m 2 appears to be adequate. The following principles should guide the technical design of filtered venting systems, namely reduction of the risk for the release of those radioactive substances which could cause long term land contamination, provision for a passive function of the vent filter system during the first 24 hours and achievement of filtering capabilities which make leakages in severe accidents comparable to the leakages of radioactive substances in less severe accidents, which do not necessarily actuate the pressure relief system. Nothing indicates that a system for filtered venting of a BWR containment would have a significant negative effect on the safety within the framework of the design basis. Efforts should be directed towards designing a filtered venting system for a BWR such as Barsebaeck. (authors)

  8. Characterization of cyclic peptides containing disulfide bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mindy; Liu, Mingtao; Struble, Elaine; Hettiarachchi, Kanthi

    2015-01-01

    Unlike linear peptides, analysis of cyclic peptides containing disulfide bonds is not straightforward and demands indirect methods to achieve a rigorous proof of structure. Three peptides that belong to this category, p-Cl-Phe-DPDPE, DPDPE, and CTOP, were analyzed and the results are presented in this paper. The great potential of two dimensional NMR and ESI tandem mass spectrometry was harnessed during the course of peptide characterizations. A new RP-HPLC method for the analysis of trifluor...

  9. The prediction of direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, H.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Theofanous, T.G.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA

    1996-01-01

    A simple analytical model is proposed and shown to capture the essence of the direct containment heating phenomenon. The model is based on assuming thermal/chemical equilibrium in the melt dispersal (flow) process, and separation of the melt out of this 'equilibrium steam' in the intermediate compartment. The model reveals a natural scale (hence named the 'DCH scale') for the DCH phenomenon, and the results are in very good agreement with the integral effects tests series. On this basis, reactor predictions can be made quite simply, provided that the DCH scale for the particular condition of interest is known. This prediction of DCH scale is also addressed by a scaling approach that is shown to be consistent with the experimental data. Finally, reactor predictions (of DCH loads) are also included in generalized terms convenient for use under a wide variety of conditions. In general, the results appear to be well within the structural capability of large dry containments. (orig.)

  10. The radiolysis of solutions containing Pu(6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rance, P.J.W.; Zilberman, B.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of Pu(VI) in nitric acid solutions containing uranium and various fission product elements as a result of both its inherent alpha radiation and also external gamma irradiation at dose rates similar to those experienced by dissolved fuel solutions has been investigated. The presence of the additional metals has been shown to eliminate the induction periods required prior to the reduction of Pu(VI) in nitric acid. G values for the auto-radiolytic reduction of Pu(VI) have been found to be between 0.6 and 1.1 for 3 g/1 Pu solutions containing between 0.12 and 9.2 % 238 Pu (balance 239 Pu). Uranium and palladium have been found to accelerate the reduction of Pu(VI) during gamma irradiation at dose rates of between 0.41 and 1.64 kGy/hour. (authors)

  11. The radiolysis of solutions containing Pu(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rance, P.J.W. [BNFL British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, Research and Technology (United Kingdom); Zilberman, B.Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The reduction of Pu(VI) in nitric acid solutions containing uranium and various fission product elements as a result of both its inherent alpha radiation and also external gamma irradiation at dose rates similar to those experienced by dissolved fuel solutions has been investigated. The presence of the additional metals has been shown to eliminate the induction periods required prior to the reduction of Pu(VI) in nitric acid. G values for the auto-radiolytic reduction of Pu(VI) have been found to be between 0.6 and 1.1 for 3 g/1 Pu solutions containing between 0.12 and 9.2 % {sup 238}Pu (balance {sup 239}Pu). Uranium and palladium have been found to accelerate the reduction of Pu(VI) during gamma irradiation at dose rates of between 0.41 and 1.64 kGy/hour. (authors)

  12. Development of prestressed concrete containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuji, Hideo; Kuniyoshi, Mutsumu; Nagata, Kaoru

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of evaluations for the selection of the structural and prestressing system type to be employed for the first domestic Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) in Japan. This paper also discusses characteristic features in the design of the liner plate system provided on the PCCV inner surface to assure its leak-tight integrity. Prestressed concrete containment vessels so far constructed in foreign countries are to a considerable extent of different structural types, depending on differences in dome shapes, prestressing systems and number of buttresses. These differences are caused not only by differences in design philosophy and construction practices, but also by difference in the level of technology of the times when the individual containment vessels are being constructed. In the investigation reported herein, the most suitable types of PCCV and Prestressing Systems were determined as the results of an overall comparative evaluation of data and information obtained from PCCV's so far constructed from the design, construction and cost aspects, taking into consideration the seismic criteria, available technology, construction practices, regulations and technical standards in Japan. The function of the liner plate system requires the liner to have enough deformability so that the liner deformation can be consistent with the PCCV concrete deformation. Therefore, in the design of the liner plate system a method for evaluating liner deformability was employed, instead of the stress evaluation method which is widely used in the design of ordinary structures. (author)

  13. Performance evaluation of microservices architectures using containers

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Marcelo; Polo, Jordà; Carrera Pérez, David; Mohomed, Iqbal; Unuvar, Merve; Steinder, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Microservices architecture has started a new trend for application development for a number of reasons: (1) to reduce complexity by using tiny services; (2) to scale, remove and deploy parts of the system easily; (3) to improve flexibility to use different frameworks and tools; (4) to increase the overall scalability; and (5) to improve the resilience of the system. Containers have empowered the usage of microservices architectures by being lightweight, providing fast start-up times, and havi...

  14. CONTAIN assessment of the NUPEC mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of the CONTAIN code to predict the thermal hydraulics of five experiments performed in the NUPEC 1/4-scale model containment was assessed. These experiments simulated severe accident conditions in a nuclear power plant in which helium (as a nonflammable substitute for hydrogen) and steam were coinjected at different locations in the facility with and without the concurrent injection of water sprays in the dome. Helium concentrations, gas temperatures and pressures, and wall temperatures were predicted and compared with the data. The use of different flow solvers, nodalization schemes, and analysis methods for the treatment of water sprays was emphasized. As a result, a general procedure was suggested for lumped-parameter code analyses of problems in which the thermal hydraulics are dominated by water sprays

  15. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  16. Stress analysis of HLW containers. Compas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document reports the work carried out for the Compas project which looked at the performance of various computer codes in a selected benchmark exercise. This exercise consisted of several analyses on simplified models which have features typical of HLW containers. These analyses comprise two groups; one related to thick walled, stressed shell overpacks, the other related to thin walled, supported shell overpacks with a lead filler. The first set of analyses looked at an elastic-plastic behaviour and large deformation of a cylinder representative of the main body of thick walled containers). The second set looked at creep behaviour of the lead filler, and the shape the base of thin walled containers will take up, after hundreds of years in the repository. On the thick walled analyses with the cylinder subject to an external pressure all the codes gave consistent results in the elastic region and there is good agreement in the yield pressures. Once in the plastic region there is more divergence in the results although a consistent trend is predicted. One of the analyses predicted a non-axisymmetric mode of deformation as would be expected in reality. Fewer results were received for the creep analysis, however the transient creep results showed consistency, and were bounded by the final-state results

  17. Demonstration of an Emergency Containment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, T.M.; Rogers, M.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A system called an Emergency Containment System (ECS) to be used for tertiary containment of tritium was reported at the 13th Air Cleaning Conference. This system was part of the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory then under construction at Mound Facility. A series of experiments has recently been conducted to evaluate the performance of an ECS in capturing tritium accidentally released into an operating laboratory. The ECS is an automatically actuated laboratory air detritiation system utilizing a catalytic oxidation reactor and presaturated oxide adsorption/exchange columns. In the event of an accidental release of tritium into the laboratory, the ECS is automatically activated, and quick-acting pneumatic dampers divert the laboratory air supply and exhaust through the ECS until room concentrations are returned to safe operating levels. The results of the experiments have shown that a tertiary containment of tritium is feasible. In the event of a catastrophic accident, the ECS is capable of preventing the release of a large quantity of tritium to the environment

  18. Containers of DS-2 Decontaminating Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    percent sodium hydroxide, and the remainder is ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Because of its reactivity, it must be protected from moisture and... carbon dioxide. It has been demonstrated that DS-2 does not corrode terneplate or steel. However, satisfactory terneplate and steel containers are...not produce a pail with a polyethylene insert. However, Mr. Wood told me that Hedwin Corporation (a subsidiary of Solvay ) does produce this kind of

  19. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  20. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  1. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents

  2. Simulation-Based Optimization for Storage Allocation Problem of Outbound Containers in Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage allocation of outbound containers is a key factor of the performance of container handling system in automated container terminals. Improper storage plans of outbound containers make QC waiting inevitable; hence, the vessel handling time will be lengthened. A simulation-based optimization method is proposed in this paper for the storage allocation problem of outbound containers in automated container terminals (SAPOBA. A simulation model is built up by Timed-Colored-Petri-Net (TCPN, used to evaluate the QC waiting time of storage plans. Two optimization approaches, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Genetic Algorithm (GA, are proposed to form the complete simulation-based optimization method. Effectiveness of this method is verified by experiment, as the comparison of the two optimization approaches.

  3. Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yu

    1994-01-01

    A study of the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, the sloshing wave height and associated frequencies, and the base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, the height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids is controlled by three parameters: the height-to-radius ratio and the mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. It is found that some of the response quantities for a tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the corresponding response quantities for an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. ((orig.))

  4. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Landers, N.F.; Turner, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  5. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

  6. Behaviour of prestressed concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, J.G.; Murray, D.W.; Simmonds, S.H.

    1980-05-01

    The most significant finds from a study to assess the response of prestressed concrete secondary containment structures for nuclear reactors under the influence of high internal overpressures are presented. A method of analysis is described for determining the strains and deflections including effects of inelastic behaviour at various points in the structure resulting from increasing internal pressures. Experimentally derived relationships between the strains and crack spacing, crack width and leakage rate are given. These procedures were applied to the Gentilly-2 containment building to obtain the following results: (1) The first through-the-wall cracks would occur in the dome at 48 psi or 2.3 times the proof test pressure. (2) At this pressure leakage would begin and would increase exponentially as the pressure increases such that at 93% of the predicted failure load the calculated leakage rate would be approximately equal to the volume of the containment each second. (3) Assuming the pressurizing medium could be supplied sufficiently rapidly, failure would occur due to rupture of the horizontal tendons at approximately 77 psi. (author)

  7. Conceptual design of K DEMO containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kye Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Hyoung Chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Young Tae [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The most important safety goal of nuclear systems is to prevent the release of radiation into the environment, and fusion power plants should not be an exception. Containment is the final wall to avoid leaking radioactive materials in malfunction of vacuum vessel and fuel cycle failure. It is important barrier to protect the plant against external events such as aircraft crashing, earthquake, and tsunami. After the Fukushima accident in Japan, the passive safety systems are being researched due to their high reliability, simple computation systems and small number of components. However, it is hard to say well because of negative points, which are low efficiency and uncontrollability. So, it is necessary to confirm its performance and suitability using simulation and experiments. Passive safety systems work on the basis of differential head, natural convection and gas compression force without operator and a power supply. Currently, safety systems using the passive power are applied in APR 1400 and next generation of power plants in domestic. However, it's hard to verify the performance of passive safety systems. Though code calculation and numerical analysis are suitable to certain extent for the system(s) with differential head and gas compressive force but these methods are difficult to apply for analysis of natural convection systems. These safety systems are mainly used in containment cooling systems. It is most plausible that such kind of containment cooling system will sustain its design in the next generation nuclear power plants. The application of this safety system requires internal authentication whereas there is not sufficient experimentation or codes for authentication. This paper is written under one program of Nuclear Fusion Research Institute (NRFI). Henceforth, the performance analysis method is being developed for the analysis of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) using the basic accident analysis code for the fission plant. The

  8. Computer aided probabilistic assessment of containment integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.C.; Touchton, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant, there are three probability-based techniques which are widely used for event sequence frequency quantification (including nodal probability estimation). These three techniques are the event tree analysis, the fault tree analysis and the Bayesian approach for database development. In the barrier analysis for assessing radionuclide release to the environment in a PRA study, these techniques are employed to a greater extent in estimating conditions which could lead to failure of the fuel cladding and the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary, but to a lesser degree in the containment pressure boundary failure analysis. The main reason is that containment issues are currently still in a state of flux. In this paper, the authors describe briefly the computer programs currently used by the nuclear industry to do event tree analyses, fault tree analyses and the Bayesian update. The authors discuss how these computer aided probabilistic techniques might be adopted for failure analysis of the containment pressure boundary

  9. Analysis of Electrical Power Consumption in Container Crane of Container Terminal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Masroeri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Container crane electrification is a re-powering process of container cranes from diesel to electricity. In electrification process, it is required an analysis of electrical power consumption that is needed in the operational of container crane. It aims to determine whether the amount of electrical power that is supplied by PLN can be optimally used in the operational of container crane to do loading and unloading activities. To perform the analysis of electrical power consumption, it is required various data and calculations. The required data are container crane specifications and other electrical equipment specifications, the amount of electrical power that is supplied by PLN, also the single line diagram from the electrical system at the port. While, the calculations that is needed to be performed are the calculation of electrical power load in motors and other electrical equipments, the calculation of nominal current and start current, the selection of cable and busbar, and the calculation of wiring diagram junction power. From the calculations that has been done, then the next step is to do the load flow analysis simulation by using software simulation, so an accurate and effective load flow analysis can be obtained to optimize loading and unloading activities at the port. The result of this research, it can be seen that container crane electrification will give advantages in both technical and economical for the company and for the ship, such as accelerate the loading and unloading time of containers and reduce idle time, especially in the operational of diesel generator.

  10. Limit analysis and design of containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Save, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the introduction, the theory of plastic analysis of shells is briefly recalled. Minimum-volume design for assigned load factor at plastic collapse is then considered and optimality criteria are derived for plates and shells of continuously varying or piecewise-constant thickness. In the first part, containers made of metal are examined. Analytical and numerical limit analysis solutions and corresponding experimental results are considered for various types of vessels, including intersecting shells. Attention is given to experimental post-yield behavior. Some tests up to fracture are discussed. New theoretical and experimental results of limit analysis of stiffened cylindrical vessels are presented, in which reinforcing rings are treated as discrete structural element (no smearing out) and due account is taken of their strong curvature. Cases of collapse by instability under internal pressure are pointed out. Minimum-volume design of circular plates and cylindrical shells is then formulated and various examples are presented of sandwich and solid metal structures. Containers of piecewise-constant thickness are given particular attention. Available experimental evidence on minimum-volume design of plates and shells is reviewed and commented upon. The second part deals with reinforced concrete vessels. Cylindrical containers are studied, from both points of view of limit analysis and of limit design with minimum volume of reinforcement. The practical use of the latter solutions is discussed. A third part reviews other loading cases (including cyclic and impact loads) and gives indications on corresponding theories, formulations and solution methods. The last part is devoted to a discussion of the limitations of the methods presented, within the frame of the 'limit states' design philosophy, which is first briefly recalled. Considerations on further research in the field conclude the paper. (orig.)

  11. Container corporation: The financial, management, and operating implications of a universal beverage container recovery system: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains an overview of the system. It discusses containers and container materials, elements of the system, and the container recovery cost structure. It includes a financial evaluation and addresses issues of implementation.

  12. Scanning of containers at Australian ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, P.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray of shipping containers is now a well-established technology, although the cycle of improvement remains rapid. The main challenges are less technological than in choosing solutions adapted to the wide variety of waterfront environments. Different border administrations have taken different paths, from light mobile systems to large fixed installations. Australia has tailored off the shelf technology to achieve a hybrid solution adapted to its peculiar needs. This incorporates a range of other technologies, from x-ray through trace detection to dogs. Increases in the range of issues to be dealt with at the border, as well as countermeasures, are forcing the pace of development of new technology

  13. Scanning of containers at Australian ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, P [Australian Customs, (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    X-ray of shipping containers is now a well-established technology, although the cycle of improvement remains rapid. The main challenges are less technological than in choosing solutions adapted to the wide variety of waterfront environments. Different border administrations have taken different paths, from light mobile systems to large fixed installations. Australia has tailored off the shelf technology to achieve a hybrid solution adapted to its peculiar needs. This incorporates a range of other technologies, from x-ray through trace detection to dogs. Increases in the range of issues to be dealt with at the border, as well as countermeasures, are forcing the pace of development of new technology.

  14. Analysis of anisotropic shells containing flowing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakis, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A general theory for the dynamic analysis of anisotropic thin cylindrical shells containing flowing fluid is presented. The shell may be uniform or non-uniform, provided it is geometrically axially symmetric. This is a finite- element theory, using cylindrical finite elements, but the displacement functions are determined by using classical shell theory. A new solution of the wave equation of the liquid finite element leads to an expression of the fluid pressure, p, as a function of the nodal displacements of the element and three operative forces (inertia, centrifugal and Coriolis) of the moving fluid. (Author) [pt

  15. Hub Status and Indexation of Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-An Park

    2015-06-01

    This study develops two sub-indexes of port classification and capacity, and combines cases of these two sub-indexes into various types in order to find a proper port hub index. The paper demonstrates how different types of port hub index are useful measurements for evaluating outputs and inputs of container ports. In a case analysis we show that the indexes of period variables and lagged variables have more explanatory power with regard to changes of port throughputs and high correlation with inputs.

  16. Fast Generation of Container Vessel Stowage Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario

    that the vessel is stable and seaworthy, and at the same time arrange the cargo such that the time at port is minimized. Moreover, stowage coordinators only have a limited amount of time to produce the plan. This thesis addresses the question of whether it is possible to automatically generate stowage plans...... test instances provided by a major liner shipping company. Improvements to the modeling of vessel stability and an analysis of its accuracy together with an analysis of the computational complexity of the container stowage problem are also included in the thesis, resulting in an overall in...

  17. The containment safety of the Dragon Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullington, G.R.

    1967-08-01

    The original design of the Dragon Reactor was based upon the assumption that fission product emitting fuel elements would be used, leading to two significant considerations. First, a highly active primary circuit would result in normal operation, and second, under accident conditions involving massive core damage and corrosion following a major pressure vessel failure, the bulk of the core burden of fission products would be released. The adoption of coated particle fuel able to retain fission products has changed significantly the philosophy behind the design of the containment. The new philosophy is described and its effect on operating principles is discussed. (UK)

  18. Heuristics for container loading of furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens; Garavelli, Claudio; Lisi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    . In the studied company, the problem arises hundreds of times daily during transport planning. Instances may contain more than one hundred different items with irregular shapes. To solve this complex problem we apply a set of heuristics successively that each solve one part of the problem. Large items...... are combined in specific structures to ensure proper protection of the items during transportation and to simplify the problem. The solutions generated by the heuristic has an average loading utilization of 91.3% for the most general instances with average running times around 100 seconds....

  19. Granulometric analysis of sediments containing transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Additon, M.K.

    1980-11-01

    A dry sieving technique using a sonic sifter was selected for the granulometric analysis of sediment samples containing radionuclide contamination. A sieve facility was established in the 234-5Z building for this purpose. Fifty-two contaminated sediment samples from the 216-Z-1A crib were sieved in the facility at a rate of two to four samples per day with no major problems. A comparison of particle size and radionuclide concentration indicated that there is no obvious benefit to particle size separation as a means of sediment decontamination, though an economic analysis will have to be conducted before a final decision can be made

  20. Stability of tacrolimus solutions in polyolefin containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun H; Goldspiel, Barry R; Ryu, Sujung; Potti, Gopal K

    2016-02-01

    Results of a study to determine the stability of tacrolimus solutions stored in polyolefin containers under various temperature conditions are reported. Triplicate solutions of tacrolimus (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/mL) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were prepared in polyolefin containers. Some samples were stored at room temperature (20-25 °C); others were refrigerated (2-8 °C) for 20 hours and then stored at room temperature for up to 28 hours. The solutions were analyzed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay at specified time points over 48 hours. Solution pH was measured and containers were visually inspected at each time point. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration. All tested solutions retained over 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration at all time points, with the exception of the 0.001-mg/mL solution prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, which was deemed unstable beyond 24 hours. At all evaluated concentrations, mean solution pH values did not change significantly over 48 hours; no particle formation was detected. During storage in polyolefin bags at room temperature, a 0.001-mg/mL solution of tacrolimus was stable for 24 hours when prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and for at least 48 hours when prepared in 5% dextrose injection. Solutions of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL prepared in either diluent were stable for at least 48 hours, and the 0.01-mg/mL tacrolimus solution was also found to be stable throughout a sequential temperature protocol. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development status of compact containment BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Mori, H.; Sekiguchi, K.; Kuroki, M.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, increase of nuclear plant unit capacity has been promoted to take advantage of economies of scale while further enhancing safety and reliability. As a result, more than 50 units of nuclear power plants are playing important role in electric power generation. However, the factors, such as stagnant growth in the recent electricity demand, limitation in electricity grid capacity and limited in initial investment avoiding risk, will not be in favor of large plant outputs. The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response

  2. Failure internal pressure of spherical steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sarmiento, G.

    1985-01-01

    An application of the British CEGB's R6 Failure Assessment Approach to the determination of failure internal pressure of nuclear power plant spherical steel containments is presented. The presence of hypothetical cracks both in the base metal and in the welding material of the containment, with geometrical idealizations according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section XI), was taken into account in order to analyze the sensitivity of the failure assessment with the values of the material fracture properties. Calculations of the elastoplastic collapse load have been performed by means of the Finite Element System SAMCEF. The clean axisymmetric shell (neglecting the influence of nozzles and minor irregularities) and two major penetrations (personnel and emergency locks) have been taken separately into account. Large-strain elastoplastic behaviour of the material was considered in the Code, using lower bounds of true stress-true strain relations obtained by testing a collection of tensile specimens. Assuming the presence of cracks in non-perturbed regions, the reserve factor for test pressure and the failure internal pressure have been determined as a function of the flaw depth. (orig.)

  3. Decontamination of organic wastes containing radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, T.J.; Pimblott, S.M.; Brown, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical oxidation treatment has been developed by Arvia Technology for organic wastes containing radionuclides, in which GIC-bisulphate is used as an adsorbent and electrode. Significant work has been carried out in the irradiation of graphite for medical and nuclear applications and in the use of carbonaceous adsorbents but knowledge of the applicability of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) in these roles is limited. This project will attempt to fill this gap. It will investigate the suitability of GIC-bisulphate as an adsorbent in an electrochemical treatment process for radioactive organic liquids. The process was initially used to treat waste-water from non-nuclear operations and now requires technical knowledge and research to adapt the treatment for the nuclear industry. Adsorption processes involving organic wastes containing mobile radionuclides such as 137 Cs are difficult to understand. The effects of gamma radiation on the chemistry of water and organics could complicate the treatment process further. To ensure the suitability and effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation treatment for radioactive organic wastes, the following effects are being investigated: -) radiolytic degradation of GIC-bisulphate in solution, -) leaching of intercalated ions due to gamma radiation, -) effect of gamma radiation on the adsorption of organics by GIC-bisulphate, -) changes in the sorption behaviour of radioactive contaminants, -) distribution coefficients of contaminants in organic and aqueous phases, and -) selective or competitive adsorption on graphite surface sites

  4. Seismic analysis of a containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, E.M.; Jospin, R.J.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1987-01-01

    A seismic analysis of a nuclear power plant containment vessel is presented. Usual loads in this kind of analysis like SSE, DBE and SSB loadings are considered. With the response spectra, previously obtained, for the above mentioned loadings one uses the response spectrum techniques in order to obtain estimatives for the maximum values of the stresses. Some considerations about the problem and the approcah used herein, are initially described. Next, the analysed structure geometry and some results, compared with those obtained by using computer code ANSYS are shown. (Author) [pt

  5. Inelastic analysis of prestressed concrete secondary containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.; Chitnuyanondh, L.; Wong, C.; Rijub-Agha, K.Y.

    1978-07-01

    An elastic-plastic constitutive model for the simulation of stress-strain response of concrete under any biaxial combination of compressive and/or tensile stresses is developed. An effective tensile stress-strain curve is obtained indirectly from experimental results of a test on a large scale prestressed concrete wall segment. These concrete properties are then utilized in predicting the response of a second test and the results compared with the experiment. Modificications to the BOSOR5 program, in order to incorporate the new constitutive relation into it, are described. Techniques of modelling structures in order to perform inelastic analysis of thin shell axisymmetric prestressed concrete secondary containments are investigated. The results of inelastic BOSOR5 analyses of two different models of the University of Alberta Test Structure are presented. The predicted deterioration of the structure and the limit states associated with its behaviour are determined and discussed. It is concluded that the technique is a practical one which can be used for the inelastic analysis of Gentilly-type containment structures. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Enewetak radioactivity containment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Between 1948 and 1958 the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands was the site of 43 nuclear explosions, part of the government's nuclear testing program. Responding to the demands of the Enewetak people, the government in 1972 decided to rehabilitate the atoll. In the cleanup process, radiologically contaminated soil and debris from many of the atoll's islands were placed in a massive, domed concrete containment structure built over one of the bomb craters on Runit Island. In order to provide the people of Enewetak and the Marshallese Government with an objective assessment of the containment structure's safety, the Defense Nuclear Agency asked the Advisory Board on the Built Environment of the National Research Council to study the matter. The committee appointed to conduct the study concentrated on two issues: (1) the potential hazard of transuranics being transported to the surrounding environment from the structure, and (2) the possible sequence of events that would affect the structure's physical integrity, and the radioactive hazards that would result from breachment of the dome

  7. Comparison of CONTAIN and TCE calculations for direct containment heating of Surry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.; Stuart, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several CONTAIN code calculations used to model direct containment heating (DCH) loads for the Surry plant. The results of these calculations are compared with the results obtained using the two-cell equilibrium (TCE) model for the same set of initial and boundary conditions. This comparison is important because both models have been favorably validated against the available DCH database, yet there are potentially important modeling differences. The comparisons are to quantitatively assess the impact of these differences. A major conclusion of this study is that, for the accident conditions studied and for a broad range of sensitivity cases, the peak pressures predicted by both TCE and CONTAIN are well below the failure pressure for the Surry containment. (orig.)

  8. 40 CFR 265.173 - Management of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of containers. 265.173... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.173 Management of containers. (a) A container... waste. (b) A container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner which...

  9. 40 CFR 264.173 - Management of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of containers. 264.173... Use and Management of Containers § 264.173 Management of containers. (a) A container holding hazardous... container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner which may rupture the...

  10. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15–20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored

  11. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Li-Ming, E-mail: LLo@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States); Tsai, Candace S.-J. [Purdue University (United States); Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States); Ellenbecker, Michael [University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15–20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored.

  12. Analysis of Depressurization Performance in Containment of Wolsong NPP Unit 1 through Containment Filtered Venting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sunghan; Kim, Jinhyuck; Suh, Nam Duk; Cho, Songwon

    2014-01-01

    Containment filtered venting system (CFVS) is designed to open and to close isolation valves passively by an operator. CFVS is operated when the containment pressure exceeds the design pressure (225 kPa(a)) and is closed when the containment pressure decreases below 151 kPa(a). The aim of this study is to analyze the depressurization performance of Wolsong unit 1 through CFVS during SBO. The thermal-hydraulic behavior in containment of Wolsong unit 1 was evaluated using the MELCOR 1.8.6 code developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In addition, in order to evaluate the effects of the CFVS according to the venting area, a sensitivity study depending on different venting area of the CFVS was conducted. Finally, an analysis of the effects of filtering and scrubbing of radioactive material for CFVS is important but not treated in this paper. The SBO accident is chosen to analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior of Wolsong unit 1. During SBO, the analysis of CFVS affecting on the depressurization of the containment was conducted using MELCOR 1.8.6 code. Also, a sensitivity study was carried out to evaluate the depressurization performance according to the venting area of CFVS. The results show that the containment pressure is considerably decreased and the integrity of the containment could be maintained in case of CFVS operating. Therefore, CFVS has the capacity to keep the containment pressure below the design pressure during SBO. In addition, there are large differences in the containment pressure depending on venting area. We found that the decreasing rate of the pressure in the containment and water level in CFVS depends on the venting area. In the future, a proper requirement for CFVS sizing criteria according to accident scenarios such as LBLOCA, SBLOCA and SGTR, etc. should be evaluated in order to review the licensing for CFVS. Finally, analyses of aerosols, fission product, and radioactive material

  13. Evaluation of containment hydrogen and oxygen analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, H.R.; Stanley, L.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains information concerning operation and calibration of detectors utilized at US nuclear power plants for determining concentration of hydrogen and oxygen within the containment structure.A study was prompted by reports that several plants had experienced problems in operating, calibrating, and maintaining the detectors supplied by various vendors. A survey of all nuclear power plants was conducted to identify the specific problems. Discussions were held with key vendors concerning these problems. The major area of interest was centered around problems associated with calibration of the detectors. Many variations from plant-to-plant concerning calibration accuracies, calibration time periods, and frequencies were identified. Another area of prime consideration involved variations as to maintenance of the equipment. Some plants devoted considerable effort to in-house maintenance of equipment while others relied heavily on the vendor for such maintenance. A workshop was conducted with key utility and vendor personnel in attendance to discuss findings of the survey. It was resolved that a much improved coordinated effort between the vendors and utilities would be initiated as a means to resolve existing problems

  14. Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Sarah S; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Matter, Anja; Koulov, Atanas; Singh, Satish K; Germershaus, Oliver; Mathaes, Roman

    2018-04-04

    Prefilled syringes (PFSs) are increasingly preferred over vials as container closure systems (CCSs) for injectable drug products when facilitated or self-administration is required. However, PFSs are more complex compared to CCSs consisting of vial, rubber stopper and crimp cap. Container closure integrity (CCI) assurance and verification has been a specific challenge for PFSs as they feature several sealing areas. A comprehensive understanding of the CCS is necessary for an appropriate CCI assessment as well as for packaging development and qualification. A comprehensive CCI assessment of six different PFSs from three different manufacturers (including one polymeric PFS) was conducted using helium leak testing. PFS components were manipulated to systematically assess the contribution of the different sealing areas to CCI, namely rigid needle shield (RNS)/needle, RNS/tip cone and the individual ribs of a syringe plunger. The polymeric PFS required an equilibrium measurement for accurate CCIT. The different sealing areas and a single plunger rib were shown to provide adequate CCI. Acceptable tip cap movement until the point of CCI failure was estimated. The assessment of acceptable tip cap movement demonstrated the importance of considering the RNS/tip cone seal design to ensure CCI of the PFS upon post assembly possesses and shipment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Alternative containers for low-level wastes containing large amounts of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gause, E.P.; Lee, B.S.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Wiswall, R. Jr.

    1984-11-01

    High-activity tritiated waste generated in the United States is mainly composed of tritium gas and tritium-contaminated organic solvents sorbed onto Speedi-Dri which are packaged in small glass bulbs. Low-activity waste consists of solidified and adsorbed liquids. In this report, current packages for high-activity gaseous and low-activity adsorbed liquid wastes are emphasized with regard to containment potential. Containers for low-level radioactive waste containing large amounts of tritium need to be developed. An integrity may be threatened by: physical degradation due to soil corrosion, gas pressure build-up (due to radiolysis and/or biodegradation), rapid permeation of tritium through the container, and corrosion from container contents. Literature available on these points is summarized in this report. 136 references, 20 figures, 40 tables

  16. Leak rate test of containment personnel lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, J.T.; Peters, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the US NRC Containment Integrity Program, a leak rate test was performed on a full size personnel airlock for a nuclear containment building. The airlock was subjected to conditions simulating severe accident conditions. The objective of the test was to characterize the performance of airlock door seals when subjected to conditions that exceeded design. The seals tested were a double dog-ear configuration and made from EPDM E603. The data obtained from this test will be used by SNL as a benchmark for development of analytical methods. In addition to leak rate information, strain, temperature, displacements, and pressure data were measured and recorded from over 330 transducers. The test lasted approximately 60 hours. Data were recorded at regular intervals and during heating, pressurization and depressurization. The inner airlock door and bulkhead were exposed to a maximum air temperature of 850 F and a maximum air pressure of 300 psig. The airlock was originally designed for 340 F and 60 psig. Two heating and pressurization cycles were planned; one to heat to 400 F and pressurize to 300 psig, and the second to heat to 800 F and pressurize to 300 psig. No significant leakage was recorded during these two cycles. A third cycle was added to the test program. The air temperature was increased to 850 F and held at this temperature for approximately 10 hours. The inner door seal failed quickly at a pressure of 150.5 psig. The maximum leak rate was 706 SCFM

  17. About the movement of an ideal fluid contained in an elastic container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraguela Collar, A.

    1990-11-01

    In this paper one considers the linearized problem about the determination of the movement of an ideal heavy fluid contained in an unbounded container with elastic walls. As initial data one knows the movement of the bottom and of the free surface of the fluid and also the strength of certain perturbation enough to take the bottom out of its rest state. One important point to be considered regards the influence of the bottom's geometry on the propagation of superficial waves. This problem has been already studied in other works without considering the elastic properties of the bottom and considering a cylindrical container with bounded section. (author). 8 refs

  18. Containers for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The container for heat evolving radioactive materials has a metallic outer casing formed with outwardly projecting heat dissipating or cooling members, such as pins or fins, while each of its ends is formed with a flat flange which extends radially beyond the outer ends of the cooling members. A perforated wall extends between the flanges to define with same and with the periphery of the outer casing an annular space within which the cooling members are enclosed. This perforated wall is adapted to support a flexible covering sleeve the ends of which are clamped by inflatable seals between the periphery of the flanges and outer rings removably secured to the latter. Spraying means are provided within the aforesaid space to permit of projecting an uncontaminated liquid on the cooling members to cool the container before and/or while the latter is immersed in a loading and unloading pond with the sleeve mounted in position. The lower flange is provided with liquid collecting and evacuating means and compressed air may be injected into the said space to force the collected liquid outwardly. (auth)

  19. Probability and containment of turbine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.C.K.

    1976-01-01

    With the trend toward ever larger power generating plants with large high-speed turbines, an important plant design consideration is the potential for and consequences of mechanical failure of turbine rotors. Such rotor failure could result in high-velocity disc fragments (turbine missiles) perforating the turbine casing and jeopardizing vital plant systems. The designer must first estimate the probability of any turbine missile damaging any safety-related plant component for his turbine and his plant arrangement. If the probability is not low enough to be acceptable to the regulatory agency, he must design a shield to contain the postulated turbine missiles. Alternatively, the shield could be designed to retard (to reduce the velocity of) the missiles such that they would not damage any vital plant system. In this paper, some of the presently available references that can be used to evaluate the probability, containment and retardation of turbine missiles are reviewed; various alternative methods are compared; and subjects for future research are recommended. (Auth.)

  20. Biologic assessment of copper-containing amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjor, I A; Eriksen, H M; Haugen, E; Skogedal, O

    1977-12-01

    In order to reduce creep and avoid marginal fractures in amalgam restorations, new alloys containing higher proportions of copper have been introduced. Fillings of these materials were placed in cavities prepared in the deciduous teeth of monkeys or placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted subcutaneously in rats. Conventional silver/tin alloys and zinc oxide eugenol cement were used as reference materials. Despite limitations due to the varying depths of cavities and the small number of animals involved it was concluded that the high copper alloys caused more severe pulp damage than the other materials studied. In the implantation studies many of the high copper specimens were exfoliated before the end of the experimental period. It is concluded that in deep cavities these materials require the use of a non-toxic base or lining material although as they are commonly used in young children's teeth the placement of linings and the isolation of the cavity pose problems.

  1. Actions to reduce radioactive emissions: prevention of containment failure by flooding Containment and Reactor Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor cavity of Asco and Vandellos II is dry type, thus a severe accident leading to vessel failure might potentially end up resulting in the loss of containment integrity, depending on the viability to cool the molten core. Therefore, significant radioactive emissions could be released to outside. In the framework of Fukushima Stress Tests, ANAV has analyzed the convenience of carrying out different actions to prevent failure of the containment integrity in order to reduce radioactive emissions. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the main phenomenological aspects associated with two of these actions: containment flooding and reactor cavity flooding.

  2. Pricing Scheme of Ocean Carrier for Inbound Container Storage for Assistance of Container Supply Chain Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the pricing scheme of ocean carrier for inbound container storage so as to assist container supply chain finance. In this paper, how an ocean carrier should set price of inbound container storage to the customer while facing the contract from the container terminal operator is first analyzed. Then, two different contract systems, the free-time contract system which is widely used in practice and the free-space contract system which is newly developed recently, are considered. In the two different contract systems, inbound container storage pricing models are constructed, and accordingly optimal solution approaches for the ocean carrier are provided. For comparison purpose, some numerical experiments for the two different contract systems are conducted to investigate the effects of the container terminal operator’s decision on the system outcomes. Numerical experiments show that (1 the carrier is more flexible in the free-space contract system and can receive more profit by using the free-storage-space as a pooling storage system and (2 the free-space contract system benefits both the carrier in profit and the busy terminal in traffic control.

  3. Retrofit of containers in civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Romano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The solid waste reuse affects all society sectors that have committed to generate the smallest possible impact in the environment. Professionals in the construction industry, from which comes an important part of solid waste, rethink their project decisions about the use of conventional materials, evaluating on a case-by-case costs and benefits of their choices. The recycling or reuse of solid waste in building became a reality and their prudent use a necessity, a fact that enhances the role of academic research involving the subject (Carneiro; CASSA ; BRUM , 2001. Among the materials investigated thoroughly is the container, discard material that can become a problem for the public space and nature, but that is slowly gaining market share due to advantages associated with cost , speed of assembly , durability and reuse residue, or retrofit , which substantially decreases (dis advantages that this type of architecture might suggest, many of them conditioned to merely esthetic analysis (ZOMER , 2009.

  4. Microstructuring of triazene containing copolyester films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, C; Kunz, T; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The growing field of microtechnology has an increasing demand for affordable functional materials. Several strategies exist for improving the ablation behaviour of standard polymers. One is the copolymerization of a standard commercial polymer with a specialty polymer, in our case of a polyester and triazene group containing polyester. For comparison of the copolymers with different fractions of triazene groups we have determined the threshold fluences and the effective absorption coefficients. With respect to these ablation parameters, only small differences were found within the set of copolymers investigated. Only with AFM and SEM it was possible to detect that a minimum content of triazene groups is necessary for defined microstructure with sharp edges, whereby a resolution in the sub {mu}m scale has been achieved. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  5. Identification and assessment of containment and release management strategies for a BWR Mark II containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Lehner, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    Accident management strategies that have the potential to maintain containment integrity and control or mitigate the release of radioactivity following a severe accident at a boiling water reactor with a Mark 2 type of containment are identified and evaluated. The strategies are referred to as containment and release strategies. Using information available from probabilistic risk assessments and other existing severe accident research, and employing simplified containment and release event trees, this report identified the challenges a Mark 2 containment may encounter during a severe accident, the mechanisms behind these challenges, and the strategies that could be used to mitigate the challenge. By means of a safety objective tree, the strategies are linked to the general safety objectives of containment and release management. As part of the assessment process, the strategies are applied to certain severe accident sequence categories deemed important to a Mark 2 containment. These sequence categories exhibit one or more of the following characteristics: high probability of core damage, high consequences, lead to a number of challenges, and involve the failure of multiple systems. The Limerick Generating Station is used as a representative Mark 2 plant to illustrate plant specifics in this report

  6. Energetics of charged metal clusters containing vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosov, Valentin V.; Reva, Vitalii I.

    2018-01-01

    We study theoretically large metal clusters containing vacancies. We propose an approach, which combines the Kohn-Sham results for monovacancy in a bulk of metal and analytical expansions in small parameters cv (relative concentration of vacancies) and RN,v -1, RN ,v being cluster radii. We obtain expressions of the ionization potential and electron affinity in the form of corrections to electron work function, which require only the characteristics of 3D defect-free metal. The Kohn-Sham method is used to calculate the electron profiles, ionization potential, electron affinity, electrical capacitance; dissociation, cohesion, and monovacancy-formation energies of the small perfect clusters NaN, MgN, AlN (N ≤ 270) and the clusters containing a monovacancy (N ≥ 12) in the stabilized-jellium model. The quantum-sized dependences for monovacancy-formation energies are calculated for the Schottky scenario and the "bubble blowing" scenario, and their asymptotic behavior is also determined. It is shown that the asymptotical behaviors of size dependences for these two mechanisms differ from each other and weakly depend on the number of atoms in the cluster. The contribution of monovacancy to energetics of charged clusters and the size dependences of their characteristics and asymptotics are discussed. It is shown that the difference between the characteristics for the neutral and charged clusters is entirely determined by size dependences of ionization potential and electron affinity. Obtained analytical dependences may be useful for the analysis of the results of photoionization experiments and for the estimation of the size dependences of the vacancy concentration including the vicinity of the melting point.

  7. Simulation of containment phenomena during the Phebus FPT1 test with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Mavko, B.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic and aerosol phenomena which occurred in the containment vessel of the Phebus integral experimental facility during the first 30000 s of the Phebus FPT1 test were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. A single-cell input model of the vessel was developed, and boundary and initial conditions that were determined during the experiment were applied. The comparison of experimental and calculated results shows that, although the atmosphere temperature was well simulated, the calculated condensation rate was apparently too high, resulting in a lower pressure of the containment atmosphere. The aerosol deposition process was well simulated.(author)

  8. Behaviour of concrete nuclear containment structures upto ultimate failure with special reference to MAPP-1 containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appa Rao, T.V.S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental methods for investigating the behaviour of concrete secondary containment structures subjected to loads upto their ultimate failure have been discussed in the paper. Need for inelastic nonlinear analysis of containments has been emphasized. Different contitutive models of concrete that can be employed in the nonlinear analysis of concrete structures were briefly reviewed. Based on the experimental results obtained in a 1:12 scale model test conducted at the Structural Engineering Research (Regional) Centre, Madras, behaviour of the MAPP-1 containment to internal pressure loading upto its ultimate failure has been discussed. (author)

  9. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as

  10. Cavity pressure history of contained nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, C E [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Knowledge of pressure in cavities created by contained nuclear explosions is useful for estimating the possibility of venting radioactive debris to the atmosphere. Measurements of cavity pressure, or temperature, would be helpful in evaluating the correctness of present code predictions of underground explosions. In instrumenting and interpreting such measurements it is necessary to have good theoretical estimates of cavity pressures. In this paper cavity pressure is estimated at the time when cavity growth is complete. Its subsequent decrease due to heat loss from the cavity to the surrounding media is also predicted. The starting pressure (the pressure at the end of cavity growth) is obtained by adiabatic expansion to the final cavity size of the vaporized rock gas sphere created by the explosion. Estimates of cavity size can be obtained by stress propagation computer codes, such as SOC and TENSOR. However, such estimates require considerable time and effort. In this paper, cavity size is estimated using a scheme involving simple hand calculations. The prediction is complicated by uncertainties in the knowledge of silica water system chemistry and a lack of information concerning possible blowoff of wall material during cavity growth. If wall material blows off, it can significantly change the water content in the cavity, compared to the water content in the ambient media. After cavity growth is complete, the pressure will change because of heat loss to the surrounding media. Heat transfer by convection, radiation and conduction is considered, and its effect on the pressure is calculated. Analysis of cavity heat transfer is made difficult by the complex nature of processes which occur at the wall where melting, vaporization and condensation of the gaseous rock can all occur. Furthermore, the melted wall material could be removed by flowing or dripping to the cavity floor. It could also be removed by expansion of the steam contained in the melt (blowoff) and by

  11. Possibility of new dibaryons containing heavy flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leandri, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent paper we have shown that the possibility of including heavy flavor in the dibaryon sector can lead to some new favored configurations (relative to the baryon-baryon threshold). In this study we extend our previous work by a systematic study of all the physical Qq 5 systems in a simple chromomagnetic model. In the first part we assume that the q quarks belong to the fundamental irrep of SU(3) F and that the Q quark has infinite mass. These assumptions are subsequently relaxed by introducing two mass parameters δ and η. Once these symmetries are broken we gain access in our model to a large number of new dibaryons containing heavy flavor. Some of them could be stable against decay via strong interactions, and we indicate the most favorable cases

  12. Proof testing of an explosion containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, E.D. [Esparza (Edward D.), San Antonio, TX (United States); Stacy, H.; Wackerle, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A steel containment vessel was fabricated and proof tested for use by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at their M-9 facility. The HY-100 steel vessel was designed to provide total containment for high explosives tests up to 22 lb (10 kg) of TNT equivalent. The vessel was fabricated from an 11.5-ft diameter cylindrical shell, 1.5 in thick, and 2:1 elliptical ends, 2 in thick. Prior to delivery and acceptance, three types of tests were required for proof testing the vessel: a hydrostatic pressure test, air leak tests, and two full design charge explosion tests. The hydrostatic pressure test provided an initial static check on the capacity of the vessel and functioning of the strain instrumentation. The pneumatic air leak tests were performed before, in between, and after the explosion tests. After three smaller preliminary charge tests, the full design charge weight explosion tests demonstrated that no yielding occurred in the vessel at its rated capacity. The blast pressures generated by the explosions and the dynamic response of the vessel were measured and recorded with 33 strain channels, 4 blast pressure channels, 2 gas pressure channels, and 3 displacement channels. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a short summary of the methodology used to predict the design blast loads, a brief description of the transducer locations and measurement systems, some of the hydrostatic test strain and stress results, examples of the explosion pressure and dynamic strain data, and some comparisons of the measured data with the design loads and stresses on the vessel.

  13. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  15. Container code recognition in information auto collection system of container inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jianping; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan; Kang Kejun

    2003-01-01

    Now custom needs electrical application and automatic detection. Container inspection should not only give the image of the goods, but also auto-attain container's code and weight. Its function and track control, information transfer make up the Information Auto Collection system of Container Inspection. Code Recognition is the point. The article is based on model match, the close property of character, and uses it to recognize. Base on checkout rule, design the adjustment arithmetic, form the whole recognition strategy. This strategy can achieve high recognition ratio and robust property

  16. Modeling of hydrogen stratification in a pressurized water reactor containment with the contain computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Skerlavaj, A.; Parzer, I.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution during a severe accident in a nuclear power plant with a two-loop Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor was simulated with the CONTAIN computer code. The accidents is initiated by a large-break loss-of-coolant accident which is nit successfully mitigated by the action of the emergency core cooling system. Cases with and without successful actuation of spray systems and fan coolers were considered. The simulations predicted hydrogen stratification within the containment main compartment with intensive hydrogen mixing in the containment dome region. Pressure and temperature responses were analyzed as well.(author)

  17. Advanced Construction of Compact Containment BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Maruyama, T.; Mori, H.; Hoshino, K.; Hijioka, Y.; Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Hoshi, T.

    2006-01-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a mid/small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. Compact Containment BWR (CCR) is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified safety system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in case of design base accidents including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. CCR's specific self-standing steel high pressure resistible PCV is designed to contain minimum piping and valves inside with reactor pressure vessel (RPV), only 13 m in diameter and 24 m in height. This compact PCV makes it possible to

  18. Immobilization of radwastes in glass containers and products formed thereby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, P.B.; Litovitz, T.A.; Simmons, C.J.; Simmons, J.H.; Lagakos, N.; Tran, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mixture of glass packing and radioactive or other toxic material is placed in a solid glass container, and the container is heated to drive off volatile components and collapse and seal the container

  19. Structural analysis of oil containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badesha, S.S.; Hunt, J.; Wenck, E.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, major oil spills, such as the Exxon Valdez incident, and many smaller spills have given rise to a worldwide marine environmental concern. One of the most successful devices for containing and facilitating the recovery of spilled oil, and one which does not endanger or alter the environment in any way, is the oil containment boom. Described in this paper is a finite element (FE)-based method for structural analysis of oil booms. In general, a number of FE models for a typical oil boom section are set up using the COSMOS FEA code. These models differ from one another in oil boom geometry, deployment configurations, and oil boom components. The FEA (fimite element analysis) models are made from the plate elements (skirt and tube), truss elements (tension members and ballast chain), and beam elements (end connector). Loads due to tow/current velocity, wind velocity, wave action, and ballasting, as determined from aero/hydrodynamics analysis, are applied as distributed pressures on the plate and beam elements. This method will predict boom tensile load strength, detailed stress distribution, and distortion characteristics for a particular boom with specific deployment configuration and environmental condition. The derived information can be used to highlight critical design features, thereby optimizing the oil boom design. Alternatively, this information can be used for the selection of an oil boom suited for a particular application and, more importantly, can provide the user with a control evaluation tool to determine whether a given oil boom design can withstand the stresses of its intended application

  20. Gross Containment Leakage Monitoring System (GCLM) applied to accidental impairment of containment integrity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, Camelia; Talpalariu, A.; Constantinescu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues (NUREG-0933 of October 2006), section 1 task II.E.4 item II.E.4.3 recommends that a method of periodic or continuous testing has to be available, in order to detect unknown gross openings in the nuclear power plants containment structure. The Palisades incident and three other incidents are exemplified, when the reactor was operated for about 1.5 years, while the containment isolation valves in a purge system bypass line were unknowingly locked in the open position. It was estimated that the presence of a GCLM system could identify an unknown breach and reduce the expected unavailability of containment due to containment integrity breach events, to a 1.6x10 -3 /year demand. (authors)

  1. Method of burying vessel containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Yoshihito.

    1989-01-01

    A float having an inert gas sealed therein is attached to a tightly closed vessel containing radioactive wastes. The vessel is inserted and kept in a small hole for burying the tightly closed vessel in an excavated shaft in rocks such as of granite or rock salts, while filling bentonite as shielding material therearound. In this case, the float is so adjusted that the apparent specific gravity is made equal or nearer between the tightly closed vessel and the bentonite, so that the rightly closed vessel does not sink and cause direct contact with the rocks even if bentonite flows due to earthquakes, etc. This can prevent radioactivity contamination through water in the rocks. (S.K.)

  2. Vector coherent state representations of SO5 contains SU2 + SU2 contains U1 + U1 and SO5 contains U1 + U1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng

    1991-01-01

    VCS representations of SO 5 contains SU 2 + SU 2 contains U 1 + U 1 and SO 5 contains U 1 + U 1 are discussed. Reduced matrix elements for SO 5 contains SU 2 + SU 2 are derived. The multiplicity of a weight for SO 5 is determined by using the K-matrix technique

  3. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.M.; Yan, H.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is the first step in the resolution of the Direct Containment Heating (DCH) issue for the Zion Nuclear Power Plant using the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). This report includes the definition of a probabilistic framework that decomposes the DCH problem into three probability density functions that reflect the most uncertain initial conditions (UO 2 mass, zirconium oxidation fraction, and steel mass). Uncertainties in the initial conditions are significant, but our quantification approach is based on establishing reasonable bounds that are not unnecessarily conservative. To this end, we also make use of the ROAAM ideas of enveloping scenarios and ''splintering.'' Two causal relations (CRs) are used in this framework: CR1 is a model that calculates the peak pressure in the containment as a function of the initial conditions, and CR2 is a model that returns the frequency of containment failure as a function of pressure within the containment. Uncertainty in CR1 is accounted for by the use of two independently developed phenomenological models, the Convection Limited Containment Heating (CLCH) model and the Two-Cell Equilibrium (TCE) model, and by probabilistically distributing the key parameter in both, which is the ratio of the melt entrainment time to the system blowdown time constant. The two phenomenological models have been compared with an extensive database including recent integral simulations at two different physical scales. The containment load distributions do not intersect the containment strength (fragility) curve in any significant way, resulting in containment failure probabilities less than 10 -3 for all scenarios considered. Sensitivity analyses did not show any areas of large sensitivity

  4. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  5. Identification and assessment of containment and release management strategies for a BWR Mark III containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Lehner, J.R.; Vandenkieboom, J.J.

    1992-02-01

    This report identifies and assesses accident management strategies which could be important for preventing containment failure and/or mitigating the release of fission products during a severe accident in a BWR plant with a Mark III type of containment. Based on information available from probabilistic risk assessments and other existing severe accident research, and using simplified containment and release event trees, the report identifies the challenges a Mark III containment could face during the course of a severe accident, the mechanisms behind these challenges, and the strategies that could be used to mitigate the challenges. The strategies are linked to the general safety objectives which apply for containment and release management by means of a safety objective tree. The strategies were assessed by applying them to certain severe accident sequence categories deemed important for a Mark III containment because of one or more of the following characteristics: high probability of core damage, high consequences, lead to a number of challenges, and involve the failure of multiple systems

  6. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in zion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.M.; Yan, H.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the first step in the resolution of the Direct Containment Heating (DCH) issue for the Zion Nuclear Power Plant using the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). This report includes the definition of a probabilistic framework that decomposes the DCH problem into three probability density functions that reflect the most uncertain initial conditions (UO 2 mass, zirconium oxidation fraction, and steel mass). Uncertainties in the initial conditions are significant, but the quantification approach is based on establishing reasonable bounds that are not unnecessarily conservative. To this end, the authors also make use of the ROAAM ideas of enveloping scenarios and open-quotes splinteringclose quotes. Two casual relations (CRs) are used in this framework: CR1 is a model that calculates the peak pressure in the containment as a function of the initial conditions, and CR2 is a model that returns the frequency of containment failure as a function of pressure within the containment. Uncertainty in CR1 is accounted for by the use of two independently developed phenomenological models, the Convection Limited Containment Heating (CLCH) model and the Two-Cell Equilibrium (TCE) model, and by probabilistically distributing the key parameter in both, which is the ratio of the melt entrainment time to the system blowdown time constant. The two phenomenological models have been compared with an extensive data base including recent integral simulations at two different physical scales (1/10th scale in the Surtsey facility at Sandia National Laboratories and 1/40th scale in the COREXIT facility at Argonne National Laboratory). The loads predicted by these models were significantly lower than those from previous parametric calculations. The containment load distributions do not intersect the containment strength curve in any significant way, resulting in containment failure probabilities less than 10 -3 for all scenarios considered

  7. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzcinski, Waldemar A.; Matyas, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E 0 , and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E 0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m -3 . Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities

  8. Photochemistry of DNA containing iodinated cytosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, R O; Stafford, R S [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-10-01

    Irradiation at 313 nm of compounds containing iodinated cytosine moieties results in the photolysis of iodine. Photolysis occurs with a quantum yield of 0.022-0.024 for 5-iododeoxycytidine and 5-iododeoxycytidine monophosphate, and 0.004-0.008 for iodinated DNA as well as for iodinated polycytidylate. Photodegradation of the cytosine moiety occurs when air is present during irradiation, presumably due to the reaction of oxygen with the cytosyl radical formed when iodine is lost. This oxygen promoted photodegradation destroys the cytosine chromophore and is complete in the monomers but occurs to only a limited extent in the polymers. In the absence of oxygen or in the presence of ethanol, photodegradation is prevented and the loss of iodine leads exclusively to the formation of the cytosine chromophore. In DNA, the loss of iodine is accompanied by the formation of sugar damage and/or chain breaks. As measured by sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients, approximately one break is made for every six iodines lost in denatured DNA. The frequency of chain breakage per iodine photolyzed is reduced 2-fold in renatured DNA. Analysis in neutral gradients suggests that half of the breaks observed in alkali are alkali-labile bonds. Both ethanol and cysteamine reduce the number of chain breaks in alkali by approximately 3-fold.

  9. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-08-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. The program encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  10. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-12-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. This program, which began in 1975, encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography, the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  11. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig

  12. Contamination detector for inner surface of container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadao.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for detecting contamination of radioactive materials on the inner surface of a vessel upon reutilizing the vessel for containing solidified radioactive wastes and transporting them. Namely, the detecting device has following functions. (1) A radiation detector detects the radioactive materials on the inner surface of the vessel. (2) A plurality of proximity switches measure the distance from the radiation detector to the wall surface of the vessel and are actuated if the distance is decreased to a predetermined value, (3) A vessel inner surface position calculation mechanism calculates the position of the inner surface of the vessel based on the information from a direction indicator and a height indicator. (4) A frontal limit detector detects the limit for allowing the radiation detector to proceed. (5) A vessel inner shape judging mechanism for judging the shape of the inner side of the vessel based on the signals from the proximity switches in a state where the frontal limit detector is operated and a vessel inner surface position signal outputted from the vessel inner surface position calculation mechanism. As a result, the shape of the inner side of the vessel can accurately be recognized, thereby improving accuracy of radiation measurement. (I.S.)

  13. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial number...

  14. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  15. Fabrication of fluorescent chitosan-containing microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang R.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intense emission peaks of Eu(DBM3Phen (DBM and Phen are dibenzoylmethane and 1,10-phenanthroline, respectively in the microcapsules containing molecules of quaternary ammonium chitosan (QACS and sodium alginate are observed. The microcapsules are assembled by using CaCO3 particles as template cores by the layer-by-layer (LbL technique. Observation of microcapsules by the fluorescence mode and the transmission mode in the confocal laser scanning microscopy shows that the microcapsules are intact after core decomposition. Fluorescence under ultraviolet irradiation comes directly from the Eu(DBM3Phen. Homogeneous assembly of Eu(DBM3Phen can be deduced due to the homogeneous fluorescence of the microcapsules in the fluorescence micrographs. The microcapsules show adherence to solid substrates due to large quantities of hydroxyl groups of QACS. AFM measurements of dried hollow microcapsules with only 4 bilayers of (CS/SA fabricated with Eu(DBM3Phen show the intact shell with a thickness of 3.0 nm. Regarding the biocompatible natural polysaccharides and the intense fluorescence emission, the microcapsules in this work might be of great importance in potential application in drug delivery and bioassay.

  16. Numerical simulation of radioisotope's dependency on containment performance for large dry PWR containment under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, Khurram; Xinrong, Cao; Ahmed, Raheel; Ali, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Calculation and comparison of activity of BURN-UP code with ORIGEN2 code. • Development of SASTC computer code. • Radioisotopes dependency on containment ESFs. • Mitigation in atmospheric release with ESFs operation. • Variation in radioisotopes source term with spray flow and pH value. -- Abstract: During the core melt accidents large amount of fission products can be released into the containment building. These fission products escape into the environment to contribute in accident source term. The mitigation in environmental release is demanded for such radiological consequences. Thus, countermeasures to source term, mitigations of release of radioactivity have been studied for 1000 MWe PWR reactor. The procedure of study is divided into five steps: (1) calculation and verification of core inventory, evaluated by BURN-UP code, (2) containment modeling based on radioactivity removal factors, (3) selection of potential accidents initiates the severe accident, (4) calculation of release of radioactivity, (5) study the dependency of release of radioactivity on containment engineering safety features (ESFs) inducing mitigation. Loss of coolant accident (LOCA), small break LOCA and flow blockage accidents (FBA) are selected as initiating accidents. The mitigation effect of ESFs on source term has been studied against ESFs performance. Parametric study of release of radioactivity has been carried out by modeling and simulating the containment parameters in MATLAB, which takes BURN-UP outcomes as input along with the probabilistic data. The dependency of iodine and aerosol source term on boric and caustic acid spray has been determined. The variation in source term mitigation with the variation of containment spray flow rate and pH values have been studied. The variation in containment retention factor (CRF) has also been studied with the ESF performance. A rapid decrease in source term is observed with the increase in pH value

  17. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bum-Jin [Ministry of Science & Technology, Kyunggi-Do (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Kang, Chang-Sun, [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  18. Design of the containment spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The present RFS defines the functional requirements of the containment spray system and proposes certain complementary criteria or methods to be used in its equipment design

  19. Tritium containment of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Tsukumo, Kiyohiko; Suzuki, Tatsushi

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that tritium is used as the fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. The neutrons produced by the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium react with lithium in blankets, and tritium is produced. The blankets reproduce the tritium consumed in the D-T reaction. Tritium circulates through the main cooling system and the fuel supply and evacuation system, and is accumulated. Tritium is a radioactive substance emitting β-ray with 12.6 year half-life, and harmful to human bodies. It is an isotope of hydrogen, and apt to diffuse and leak. Especially at high temperature, it permeates through materials, therefore it is important to evaluate the release of tritium into environment, to treat leaked tritium to reduce its release, and to select the method of containing tritium. The permeability of tritium and its solubility in structural materials are discussed. The typical blanket-cooling systems of nuclear fusion reactors are shown, and the tungsten coating of steam generator tubes and tritium recovery system are adopted for reducing tritium leak. In case of the Tokamak type reactor of JAERI, the tritium recovery system is installed, in which the tritium gas produced in blankets is converted to tritium steam with a Pd-Pt catalytic oxidation tower, and it is dehydrated and eliminated with a molecular sieve tower, then purified and recovered. (Kako, I.)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of ion containing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Shichen

    Two types of ion-containing polymers are included in this dissertation. The first was focused on the rheology, solvation, and correlation length of polyelectrolyte solutions in terms of charge density, solvent dielectric constant, and solvent quality. The second was focused on the PEO-based polyester ionomers as single ion conductors. A series of polyelectrolytes with varied charge density (0.03 residual salt significantly reduces the viscosity of polyelectrolyte solutions at concentrations c salt, with low residual salt, and with high residual salt concentration. PEO-based polyester ionomers were synthesized by melt polycondensation. Mn was determined using the 1H NMR of ionomers. No ion-cluster was observed from the DSC, SAXS, and rheology measurements. Ionic conductivity greatly depends on the Tg, T-T g and ion content of the ionomers. PEG600-PTMO650 (z)-Li copolyester ionomers show microphase separation and much lower ionic conductivity, compared to that of PE600-Li. PTMO650-Li shows nonconductor behavior.

  1. Treatment of radioactive wastes containing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, O.S.; Aparicio, G.; Greco, L.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Salguero, D.; Toubes, B.; Perez, A.E.; Menghini, J.E.; Esteban, A.; Adelfang, P.

    1987-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generated in the process of manufacture and control of experimental fuel rods of mixed oxides, (U,Pu)O 2 , require an specific treatment due to the plutonium content. The composition of liquid wastes, mostly arising from chemical checks, is variable. The salt content, the acidity, and the plutonium and uranium content are different, which makes necessary a chemical treatment before the inclusion in concrete. The solid waste, such as neoprene gloves, PVC sleeves, filter paper, disposable or broken laboratory material, etc. are also included in concrete. In this report the methods used to dispose of wastes at Alpha Facility are described. With regard to the liquid wastes, the glove box built to process them is detailed, as well as the applied chemical treatment, including neutralization, filtration and later solidification. As for the solid wastes, it is described the cementation method consisting in introducing them into an expanded metal matrix, of the basket type, that contains as a concentric drum of 200 liter capacity which is smaller than the matrix, and the filling with wet cement mortar. (Author)

  2. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio; Mozo, Ismael; Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la; Cobos, Jose Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G E ), molar excess enthalpies (H E ), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C P E ) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S CC (0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C P E of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H E (pyridine)>H E (methylpyridine)

  3. Synthesis of microcapsules containing different extractant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, Ángela; Carmona, Manuel; Borreguero, Ana M; de Lucas, Antonio; Rodríguez, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic pollutants, with high capacity of accumulation in living organism, causing important human health problems. Therefore, the mercury removal from water is an important research goal. In a previous work, an extractant agent [di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid] was microencapsulated in poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) by means of suspension polymerisation using toluene as diluent. In this study, this recipe has been modified changing the toluene by heptane and extended to four additional extractants (trioctylamine, trioctylmethylammonium chloride [TOMAC], tributyl phosphate and trioctylphosphine oxide). The polluting potential of the waste liquid from the process was measured by total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand analyses. The morphology, particle size and distribution were studied by scanning electron microscopy and low angle laser light scattering. The amount of extractant agent into the microcapsules and the microencapsulation efficiency were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the mercury removal capacity by equilibrium studies. Microcapsules containing TOMAC demonstrated to be the best material for the mercury removal and retention.

  4. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Gerding, T.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-06-01

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 10 6 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 10 6 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  5. Validation of CONTAIN-LMR code for accident analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, S.; Hering, W.; Schikorr, M.; Stieglitz, R. [Inst. for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology, Campus Nord (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    CONTAIN-LMR 1 is an analytical tool for the containment performance of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this code, the modelling for the sodium fire is included: the oxygen diffusion model for the sodium pool fire, and the liquid droplet model for the sodium spray fire. CONTAIN-LMR is also able to model the interaction of liquid sodium with concrete structure. It may be applicable to different concrete compositions. Testing and validation of these models will help to qualify the simulation results. Three experiments with sodium performed in the FAUNA facility at FZK have been used for the validation of CONTAIN-LMR. For pool fire tests, calculations have been performed with two models. The first model consists of one gas cell representing the volume of the burn compartment. The volume of the second model is subdivided into 32 coupled gas cells. The agreement between calculations and experimental data is acceptable. The detailed pool fire model shows less deviation from experiments. In the spray fire, the direct heating from the sodium burning in the media is dominant. Therefore, single cell modeling is enough to describe the phenomena. Calculation results have reasonable agreement with experimental data. Limitations of the implemented spray model can cause the overestimation of predicted pressure and temperature in the cell atmosphere. The ability of the CONTAIN-LMR to simulate the sodium pool fire accompanied by sodium-concrete reactions was tested using the experimental study of sodium-concrete interactions for construction concrete as well as for shielding concrete. The model provides a reasonably good representation of chemical processes during sodium-concrete interaction. The comparison of time-temperature profiles of sodium and concrete shows, that the model requires modifications for predictions of the test results. (authors)

  6. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, Svatopluk [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: svatopluk.zeman@upce.cz; Trzcinski, Waldemar A. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, PL-00-908 Warsaw 49 (Poland); Matyas, Robert [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E{sub 0}, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E{sub 0} values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities.

  7. The inner containment of an EPR trademark pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostermann, Dirk; Krumb, Christian; Wienand, Burkhard [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    On February 12, 2014 the containment pressure and subsequent leak tightness tests on the containment of the Finnish Olkiluoto 3 EPR trademark reactor building were completed successfully. The containment of an EPR trademark pressurized water reactor consists of an outer containment to protect the reactor building against external hazards (such as airplane crash) and of an inner containment that is subjected to internal overpressure and high temperature in case of internal accidents. The current paper gives an overview of the containment structure, the design criteria, the validation by analyses and experiments and the containment pressure test.

  8. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  9. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.-H.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, T.-K.; Chen, L.-K.; Chou, M.-Y.; Huang, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO 2 -based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO 2 on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO 3 /ZrO 2 /SnO and Nb 2 O 5 , respectively, along with TiO 2 on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  10. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.-H. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-C. [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Min-Hwei College of Health Care Management, Tainan County 736, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-K. [College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-K. [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chou, M.-Y. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-H., E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.t [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-20

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO{sub 2}-based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO{sub 2} on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively, along with TiO{sub 2} on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  11. Storage chamber for container of radiation-contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Masahide.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a storage chamber for containing radiation-contaminated materials in containing tubes and having cooling fluids circulated at the outer side of the containing tubes. The storage chamber comprises a gas supply means connected to the inside of the container tube for supplying a highly heat-conductive gas and a gas exhaustion means for discharging the gas present in the container tube. When containing vessels for radiation-contaminated materials are contained in the container tube, the gases present inside of the container tube is exhausted by means of the gas exhaustion means, and highly heat conductive gases are filled from the gas supply means to the space between the container tube and the containing vessels for the radiation-contaminated materials. When the temperature of the highly heat conductive gas is elevated due to the heat generation of the radiation-contaminated materials, the container tube is heated, and then cooled by the cooling fluid at the outer side of the container tube. In this case, the heat of the radiation-contaminated material-containing vessels is removed by the heat conduction by the highly heat conductive gas to reduce temperature gradient between the containing vessels and the containing tube. This can enhance the cooling effect. (T.M.)

  12. 9 CFR 316.13 - Marking of outside containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of outside containers. 316.13... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.13 Marking of outside containers. (a... domestic commerce is moved from an official establishment, the outside container shall bear an official...

  13. Tracer verification and monitoring of containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.; Dunn, S.D.; Williams, C.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ barrier emplacement techniques and materials for the containment of high-risk contaminants in soils are currently being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). Because of their relatively high cost, the barriers are intended to be used in cases where the risk is too great to remove the contaminants, the contaminants are too difficult to remove with current technologies, or the potential for movement of the contaminants to the water table is so high that immediate action needs to be taken to reduce health risks. Consequently, barriers are primarily intended for use in high-risk sites where few viable alternatives exist to stop the movement of contaminants in the near term. Assessing the integrity of the barrier once it is emplaced, and during its anticipated life, is a very difficult but necessary requirement. Existing surface-based and borehole geophysical techniques do not provide the degree of resolution required to assure the formation of an integral in-situ barrier. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., (SEA) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are developing a quantitative subsurface barrier assessment system using gaseous tracers. Called SEAtrace trademark, this system integrates an autonomous, multipoint soil vapor sampling and analysis system with a global optimization modeling methodology to pinpoint leak sources and sizes in real time. SEAtrace trademark is applicable to impermeable barrier emplacements above the water table, providing a conservative assessment of barrier integrity after emplacement, as well as a long term integrity monitoring function. The SEAtrace trademark system is being developed under funding by the DOE-EM Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area

  14. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in surry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Bergeron, K.D.; Tadios, E.L.; Stamps, D.W.; Spencer, B.W.; Quick, K.S.; Knudson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    In a light-water reactor core melt accident, if the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fails while the reactor coolant system (RCS) at high pressure, the expulsion of molten core debris may pressurize the reactor containment building (RCB) beyond its failure pressure. A failure in the bottom head of the RPV, followed by melt expulsion and blowdown of the RCS, will entrain molten core debris in the high-velocity steam blowdown gas. This chain of events is called a high-pressure melt ejection (HPME). Four mechanisms may cause a rapid increase in pressure and temperature in the reactor containment: (1) blowdown of the RCS, (2) efficient debris-to-gas heat transfer, (3) exothermic metal-steam and metal-oxygen reactions, and (4) hydrogen combustion. These processes, which lead to increased loads on the containment building, are collectively referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). It is necessary to understand factors that enhance or mitigate DCH because the pressure load imposed on the RCB may lead to early failure of the containment

  15. A Survey of Empty Container Flow Balance in Turkish Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal ÖZDEMİR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Container transportation is the most preferred maritime commercial freight distribution in entire world except liquefied product transportation by tankers and bulk carriers. Totally 95% volume of general cargo is transported by container ships in the world due to fast, cheap and safe carrying potential of the goods transfer. Containerization has become recent phenomena in the field of maritime transportation and the quantity of goods transported by containers is increasing day by day as well as the total container number to use for the commercial activity. Due to very high mobility in the field of container transportation, port traffic estimation, availability of containers, storage, deposition and allocation of empty containers have become recent problems in maritime transportation area. In this study some major container ports of Turkey which are stand for 80 % of total container operations are analyzed to seek for empty container balance. After detailed statistical evaluation of national container transportation figures for Haydarpaşa, Kumport, İzmir, Mardaş, Marport and Mersin, several interviews and discussions have been made with port authorities and governing departments. As a result, it is observed that there is no empty container accumulation problem in the examined ports except Haydarpaşa and Kumport. Based on general statistics, Turkish container ports currently do not suffer from empty container problem as overall container circulation close to equilibrium but the problem has a potential to create a risk on developing international trade of Turkey.

  16. Production of nitrogen containing chemicals from cyanophycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könst, P.M.

    2011-01-01


    Currently nitrogen containing bulk chemicals are produced from naphtha. However, as explained in Chapter 1 it would be more energy efficient, less capital intensive and eventually more economical to start from functionalized compounds that already have nitrogen incorporated, such as amino

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOSECURITY MEASURES TO PREVENT WORKPLACE ACCIDENTS THROUGH THE IDENTIFICATION OF BIOHAZARDS IN THE RISK MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geilsa Soraia Cavalcanti Valente

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar na literatura os riscos existentes no ambiente de trabalho através do mapa de risco; descrever as medidas de biossegurança para prevenção de acidentes do trabalho e contaminação por riscos biológicos. Método: Os dados foram obtidos através de revisão de literatura por meio eletrônico a partir de materiais já publicados, realizada na Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS, nas bases de dados LILACS, SCIELO, BDENF e MEDLINE. Resultados: A análise temática de conteúdo permitiu identificar três categorias: a construção de um mapa de risco valorizando a consciência do risco aos profissionais de saúde; acidentes ocupacionais com material biológico envolvendo profissionais de saúde na contaminação de doenças infecciosas; e ações e medidas de biossegurança na prevenção aos acidentes por contaminação biológica aos profissionais de saúde. Conclusão: Verificou-se que as instituições devem implementar ações para a educação permanente voltadas às normas de biossegurança na construção de novas práticas e condutas a todos os profissionais de saúde.

  18. Evaluation of self-contained HEPA filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, T.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a self-contained high-efficiency particulate air filter (SHEPA) used in nuclear applications. A SCHEPA consists of filter medium encapsulated in a casing that is part of the system boundary. The SCHEPA filter serves as a combination of filter housing and filter. The filter medium is attached directly to the casing using adhesive as a bonding agent. A cylindrical connection in the middle of the end caps connects the filter assembly to adjoining ductwork. The SCHEPA must perform the functions of a filter housing, filter frame, and filter. It was recognized that the codes and standards do not address the SCHEPA specifically. Therefore, the investigation evaluated the SCHEPA against current codes and standards related to the functional requirements of an air-cleaning system. The specific standards used are required by DOE Order 6430.1A{sup 1} and include ASME N509{sup 3}, ASME N510{sup 4}, ERDA 76-21{sup 5}, MIL-F-51068F{sup 6}, NFPA 90A, {sup 7} and NFPA 91{sup 8}. The evaluation does not address whether the SCHEPA as a standard (off-the-shelf) filter could be upgraded to meet the current code requirements for an air-cleaning unit. The evaluation also did not consider how the SCHEPA was used in a system (e.g., whether it was under positive or negative pressure or whether it served as an air inlet filter to prevent contamination releases under system pressurization). The results of the evaluation show that, the SCHEPA filter does not meet design, fabrication, testing, and documentation requirements of ASME N509{sup 3} and ASME N510{sup 4}. The paper will identify these deficiencies. Specific exhaust system requirements and application should be considered when an evaluation of the SCHEPA filter is being performed in existing systems. When new designs are being comtemplated, other types of HEPA filter housings can be used in lieu of the SCHEPA filter.

  19. On the complexity of container stowage planning problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the kk-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed in stacks such that at most kk containers must be removed in order to reach containers below them. We first solve an open problem introduced by Avriel et al. (2000) by showing...... that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the complexity of this problem from NP-complete to polynomial. We then examine the complexity of the current state-of-the-art abstraction of container ship stowage planning, wherein containers and slots are grouped together. To do this, we define...... the hatch overstow problem, in which a set of containers are placed on top of the hatches of a container ship such that the number of containers that are stowed on hatches that must be accessed is minimized. We show that this problem is NP-complete by a reduction from the set-covering problem, which means...

  20. Development of safety enhancement technology of containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Y. S.; Choi, I. K.

    2002-04-01

    This study consists of four research areas, (1) Seismic safety assessment, (2) Aging assessment of a containment building, (3) Prediction of long-term behavior and analysis of a containment building, (4) Performance verification of a containment building. In the seismic safety assessment area, responses of a containment building were monitored and the analysis method was verified. Also performed are the identification of earthquake characteristics and improvement of the seismic fragility analysis method. In the area of aging assessment of a containment building, we developed aging management code SLMS and database. Aging tests were performed for containment building materials and aging models were developed. Techniques for investigation, detection, and evaluation of aging were developed. In the area of prediction of long-term behavior and analysis of a containment building, we developed a non-linear structural analysis code NUCAS and material models. In the area of performance verification of a containment building, we analyzed the crack behavior of a containment wall and the behavior of the containment under internal pressure. We also improved the ISI methods for prestressed containment

  1. Analysis of inadvertent containment spray actuation for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, D.; Spalj, S.; Fancev, T.

    2000-01-01

    Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) supplies borated water to the Chemical and Volume Control System, Emergency Core Cooling System and Containment Spray System. In the analyses of the containment external pressure the spray temperature is assumed to be equal to the RWST lower temperature limit. This value ensures that the design negative containment pressure will not be exceeded in the event of inadvertent actuation of the Containment Spray. For NPP Kriko the negative containment pressure has to be kept below 0.1 kp/cm2 to avoid the loss of containment integrity. This paper pursuents the analysis of Inadvertent Containment Spray Actuation in order to check the influence of change in RWST water temperature on containment negative pressure. GOTHIC computer code was used for calculation of containment thermal hydraulic behavior during this accident. (author)

  2. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    DOE's Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ''roadmap'' format

  3. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

  4. Evaluation of advanced containment features proposed to Korean SNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y.; Park, S.Y.; Kim, S.D.; Kim, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) has adopted many advanced design features to enhance its containment performance during severe accidents as well as to reduce changes of core damage. Robust design of containment and hydrogen mixing capability reduced containment failure probability significantly. In addition to these features, new systems are proposed for KSNP: advanced design of cavity geometry, reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen igniter, and containment filtered venting system. Before these proposals are adopted to the KSNP, their effectiveness on containment performance has been assessed systematically. Containment event tree and sensitivity analysis are used to quantify the effectiveness of these design features. The overall results indicate that these new features do not improve the containment performance significantly except the containment filtered venting system. But adoption of the containment filtered venting system should be examined carefully because accidental failure of this system may result in undue risk to public. (author)

  5. Identification and assessment of containment and release management strategies for a BWR Mark I containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Lehner, J.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report identifies and assesses accident management strategies which could be important for preventing containment failure and/or mitigating the release of fission products during a severe accident in a BWR plant with a Mark 1 type of containment. Based on information available from probabilistic risk assessments and other existing severe accident research, and using simplified containment and release event trees, the report identifies the challenges a Mark 1 containment could face during the course of a severe accident, the mechanisms behind these challenges, and the strategies that could be used to mitigate the challenges. A safety objective tree is developed which provides the connection between the safety objectives, the safety functions, the challenges, and the strategies. The strategies were assessed by applying them to certain severe accident sequence categories which have one or more of the following characteristics: have high probability of core damage or high consequences, lead to a number of challenges, and involve the failure of multiple systems. 59 refs., 55 figs., 27 tabs

  6. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Stamps, D.W.; Tadios, E.L.; Knudson, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    Supplement 1 of NUREG/CR-6075 brings to closure the DCH issue for the Zion plant. It includes the documentation of the peer review process for NUREG/CR-6075, the assessments of four new splinter scenarios defined in working group meetings, and modeling enhancements recommended by the working groups. In the four new scenarios, consistency of the initial conditions has been implemented by using insights from systems-level codes. SCDAP/RELAP5 was used to analyze three short-term station blackout cases with Different lead rates. In all three case, the hot leg or surge line failed well before the lower head and thus the primary system depressurized to a point where DCH was no longer considered a threat. However, these calculations were continued to lower head failure in order to gain insights that were useful in establishing the initial and boundary conditions. The most useful insights are that the RCS pressure is-low at vessel breach metallic blockages in the core region do not melt and relocate into the lower plenum, and melting of upper plenum steel is correlated with hot leg failure. THE SCDAP/RELAP output was used as input to CONTAIN to assess the containment conditions at vessel breach. The containment-side conditions predicted by CONTAIN are similar to those originally specified in NUREG/CR-6075

  7. Design and testing of wood containers for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.; Barry, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    A wood container for shipping and storing radioactive waste was designed to eliminate the problems caused by the weight, cost, and shape of the steel containers previously used. Tests specified by federal regulations (compression, free-drop, penetration, and vibration) were conducted on two of the containers, one loaded to 2500 lb and one loaded to 5000 lb. The 5000-lb container failed the free-drop test, but the 2500-lb container easily passed the tests and therefore qualifies as a Type A container. Its simplicity of design, low weight, and ease in handling have proved to be time-saving and cost-effective

  8. Isolation and characterization of human apolipoprotein M-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Axler, Olof

    2006-01-01

    Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a novel apolipoprotein with unknown function. In this study, we established a method for isolating apoM-containing lipoproteins and studied their composition and the effect of apoM on HDL function. ApoM-containing lipoproteins were isolated from human plasma...... with immunoaffinity chromatography and compared with lipoproteins lacking apoM. The apoM-containing lipoproteins were predominantly of HDL size; approximately 5% of the total HDL population contained apoM. Mass spectrometry showed that the apoM-containing lipoproteins also contained apoJ, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoC-I, apo...

  9. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Progress report, February 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: DNA polymerase III dependent repair of x-ray damage in Escherichia coli; regulation of reinsertation of nucleotides by DNA ligase; DNA synthesis in permeabilized CHO cells; measurement of damage to DNA in Bacillus subtilis; repair defect in rec A cells; inactivation of transforming DNA; and mutagenesis of transforming DNA

  10. Development on design methodology of PWR passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Wook

    1998-02-01

    The containment is the most important barrier against the release of radioactive materials into the environment during accident conditions of nuclear power plants. Therefore the development of a reliable containment cooling system is one of key areas in advanced reactor development. To enhance the safety of the containment system, many new containment system designs have been proposed and developed in the world. Several passive containment cooling system (PCCS) concepts for both steel and concrete containment systems are overviewed and assessed comparatively. Major concepts considered are: (a) the spray of water on the outer surface of a steel containment from an elevated tank, (b) an external moat for a steel containment, (c) a suppression pool for a concrete containment, and (d) combination of the internal spray and internal or external condensers for a concrete containment. Emphasis is given to the heat removal principles, the required heat transfer area, system complexity and operational reliability. As one of conceptual design steps of containment, a methodology based on scaling principles is proposed to determine the containment size according to the power level. The AP600 containment system is selected as the reference containment to which the scaling laws are applied. Governing equations of containment pressure are set up in consideration of containment behavior in accident conditions. Then, the dimensionless numbers, which characterize the containment phenomena, are derived for the blowdown dominant and decay heat dominant stage, respectively. The important phenomena in blowdown stage are mass and energy sources and their absorption in containment atmosphere or containment structure, while heat transfer to the outer environment becomes important in decay heat stage. Based on their similarity between the prototype and the model, the containment sizes are determined for higher power levels and are compared with the SPWR containment design values available

  11. Storage Optimization for Export Containers in the Port of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Türsel Eliiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider a real-life export container storage problem at an important container terminal in the Port of Izmir, Turkey. Currently, the container storage decisions at the port are taken by operators manually, which leads to continuous unnecessary re-handling movements of the containers. High transportation costs, waste of time, and inefficient capacity utilization in the container storage area are the consequences of non-optimal decisions. The main goal of this study is to minimize the transportation costs and the number of re-handling moves while storing the export containers at the terminal yard. We formulate the problem in two stages. While the first stage assigns the containers of the same vessel to a group of yard bays via an optimization model, the second stage decides on the exact location of each container with the help of an efficient heuristic approach. The experimental results with real data are presented and discussed.

  12. Commercial disposal of High Integrity Containers (HICs) containing EPICOR-II prefilters from Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Lynch, R.J.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the processes of loading, transporting, and commercially disposing of 45 High Integrity Containers (HICs), each containing an EPICOR-II prefilter. Also described are the improvements that were applied in the disposition of the 45 commercial EPICOR-II prefilters at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), versus those used for the demonstration unit. The significance of this effort was that the commercial disposal campaign involved the first-of-a-kind production use of a reinforced concrete HIC at the US Ecology, Inc. facility in the State of Washington. This allowed for safe disposal of high-specific-activity ion exchange material in EPICOR-II prefilters generated during the cleanup of the Unit-2 Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Building of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. 26 figs

  13. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Progress report, 1 June 1982-31 May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.; Hadden, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    The research program has attempted to determine low environmental agents, especially ionizing radiation, interact with DNA and how the cells respond to the resulting damage. The focus has been on the spectrum of damage generated in DNA, the kinds of damage that can be repaired, and the mechanisms of repair. The effects of radioprotective agents and certain sensitizing conditions on breakage of DNA in bacterial cells by ionizing radiation, and mechanisms of enzymatic excision of pyrimidine dimers and other DNA adducts have been studied

  14. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Final report, January 1, 1973-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, C.T.; Billen, D.

    1986-01-01

    These studies have focussed on agents which cause damage to DNA leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis or faulty DNA replication or repair. The overall goal of this project has been to understand how environmental agents interact with the DNA of cells and how cells cope with any resulting damage. In particular we have been concerned with the nature of the repair systems involved in restoration of damaged DNA and the cellular responses to radiation or chemical damage

  15. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Progress report, October 1, 1976--May 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of environmental agents are known which induce damage in DNA leading to an inhibition of DNA synthesis or faulty replication. Both results may cause cell death or mutation. Both bacteria and mommalian cells are being used to assess the roles of the several known DNA polymerases and other DNA metabolic enzymes and factors in DNA repair, replication and recombination. The many DNA mutants of E. coli and B. subtilis provide a genetic approach to measuring the role of individual components of the DNA repair and replicative system. Because of the advantage of controlling pools and precursors of nucleic acid synthesis we have further developed the use of permeabilized cells for such studies. In addition a series of repair studies with Bacillus subtilis have been carried on because of the unique genetic manipulation of this system which includes the ability of cells to be easily transformed by exogenous DNA. The information obtained with prokaryotes provides leads to assess the details of DNA repair and replication in mammalian systems including man

  16. Effects of aging in containment spray injection system of PWR reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Diogo da S.; Lava, Deise D.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.; Moreira, Maria de L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a contribution to the study of the components aging process in commercial plants of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The analysis is done by applying the method of Fault trees, Monte Carlo Method and Fussell-Vesely Importance Measurement. The study on the aging of nuclear plants, is related to economic factors involved directly with the extent of their operational life, and also provides important data on issues of safety. The most recent case involving the process of extending the life of a PWR plant can be seen in Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant by investing $ 27 million in the installation of a new reactor cover. The corrective action generated an extension of the useful life of Angra 1 estimated in twenty years, and a great savings compared to the cost of building a new plant and the decommissioning of the first, if it had reached the operation time out 40 years. The extension of the lifetime of a nuclear power plant must be accompanied by special attention from the most sensitive components of the systems to the aging process. After the application of the methodology (aging analysis of Containment Spray Injection System (CSIS)) proposed in this paper, it can be seen that increasing the probability of failure of each component, due to the aging process, generate an increased general unavailability of the system that contains these basic components. The final results obtained were as expected and can contribute to the maintenance policy, preventing premature aging in nuclear power systems

  17. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  18. STABILIZATION AND TESTING OF MERCURY CONTAINING WASTES: BORDEN SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...

  19. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.; Hadden, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: (1) DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis; (2) postreplication repair in Rec - mutants of B. subtilis; (3) photobiology of halogenated DNA; (4) effects of caffeine on pyrimidine dimer excision and postreplication repair in B. subtilis; and (5) DNA repair in toluene-treated Escherichia coli

  20. A reference container concept for spent fuel disposal: structural safety for dimensioning of the reference container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jongwon; Kwon, Sangki; Kang, Chulhyung; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical and thermal stress analysis of a disposal canister to provide basic information for dimensioning the canister and configuration of the canister components. The structural stress analysis is carried out using a finite element analysis code, NISA, and focused on the structural strength of the canister against the expected external pressures due to the swelling of the bentonite buffer and the hydrostatic head, and the thermal load build up in the container

  1. Proceedings of the fifth workshop on containment integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, M.B.; Hughey, C.E. [eds.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Fifth Workshop on Containment integrity was held in Washington, DC, on May 12--14, 1992. The purpose of these workshops is to provide an international forum for the exchange of information on performance of containments in nuclear power plants under severe accident loadings. Severe accident investigations of existing containment designs as well as future advanced containments were presented during the workshop. There were 145 participants at the workshop from 15 countries. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Corrosion of radioactive waste containers, case of a container made of low allow steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataillon, C.; Musy, C.; Roy, M.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: radioactive waste concept ANDRA, low alloy steel (XC38) container corrosion under representative storage conditions, corrosion rate and passivation effects, micrographic investigations

  3. Application of containment and release management strategies to PWR dry-containment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.W.; Lehner, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    This report identifies and evaluates accident management strategies that are potentially of value in maintaining containment integrity and controlling the release of radioactivity following a severe accident as a pressurized water reactor with large-dry containment. The strategies are identified using a logic tree structure leading from the safety objectives and safety functions, through the mechanisms that challenge these safety functions, to the strategies. The strategies are applied to severe accident sequences which have one or more of the following characteristics: significant probability of core damage, high consequences, give rise to a number of potential challenges, and include the failure of important safety systems. Zion and Surry are selected as the representative plants for the atmospheric and sub-atmospheric designs, respectively

  4. Effective modeling of hydrogen mixing and catalytic recombination in containment atmosphere with an Eulerian Containment Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, E.; Frepoli, C.; Monti, R.; Notini, V.; Carcassi, M.; Fineschi, F.; Heitsch, M.

    1999-01-01

    Large amounts of hydrogen can be generated in the containment of a nuclear power plant following a postulated accident with significant fuel damage. Different strategies have been proposed and implemented to prevent violent hydrogen combustion. An attractive one aims to eliminate hydrogen without burning processes; it is based on the use of catalytic hydrogen recombiners. This paper describes a simulation methodology which is being developed by Ansaldo, to support the application of the above strategy, in the frame of two projects sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities within the IV Framework Program on Reactor Safety. Involved organizations also include the DCMN of Pisa University (Italy), Battelle Institute and GRS (Germany), Politechnical University of Madrid (Spain). The aims to make available a simulation approach, suitable for use for containment design at industrial level (i.e. with reasonable computer running time) and capable to correctly capture the relevant phenomenologies (e.g. multiflow convective flow patterns, hydrogen, air and steam distribution in the containment atmosphere as determined by containment structures and geometries as well as by heat and mass sources and sinks). Eulerian algorithms provide the capability of three dimensional modelling with a fairly accurate prediction, however lower than CFD codes with a full Navier Stokes formulation. Open linking of an Eulerian code as GOTHIC to a full Navier Stokes CFD code as CFX 4.1 allows to dynamically tune the solving strategies of the Eulerian code itself. The effort in progress is an application of this innovative methodology to detailed hydrogen recombination simulation and a validation of the approach itself by reproducing experimental data. (author)

  5. Exposure to biohazards in wood dust: bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, K U; Mandryk, J; Hocking, A D

    1999-09-01

    Personal exposure to fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan was determined at different woodworking sites--logging sites, sawmills, woodchipping sites, and joineries. Exposure levels to fungi at logging sites and sawmills were in the range of 10(3)-10(4) cfu/m3, at the woodchipping mill, 10(3)-10(5) cfu/m3, and at joineries, 10(2)-10(4) cfu/m3. Although mean endotoxin levels were lower than the suggested threshold value of 20 ng/m3, some personal exposures at sawmills and a joinery exceeded the standard. The geometric mean personal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan exposure level at the woodchipping mill was 2.32 ng/m3, at sawmills, 1.37 ng/m3, at logging sites, 2.02 ng/m3, and at joineries, 0.43 ng/m3. Highly significant associations were found between mean personal inhalable endotoxin exposures and Gram-negative bacteria levels (p 3)-beta-D-glucan exposures and fungi levels (p = 0.0003). The prevalence of cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis, nasal symptoms, frequent headaches, and eye and throat irritations was significantly higher among woodworkers than controls. Dose-response relationships were found between personal exposures and work-related symptoms among joinery workers and sawmill and chip mill workers.

  6. Sythesis and investigation of m-carborane-containing polybenzimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshak, V.V.; Vagin, V.V.; Izyneev, A.A.; Bekasova, N.I.

    1975-01-01

    New m-carborane-containing polybenzimidazoles (PBI) have been obtained by chemical cyclization of m-carborane-containing polyaminoamides (PAA) with the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-sulphuric anhydride complex or polyphosphoric acid esters being used as the cyclodehydrating reagents. The obtained m-carborane-containing PAA and PBI have been tested for solubility, heat resistance and chemical stability. The structure of m-carborane-containing PBI has been determined by abalysis of their infrared spectra

  7. Sythesis and investigation of m-carborane-containing polybenzimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshak, V V; Vagin, V V; Izyneev, A A; Bekasova, N I [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlementoorganicheskikh Soedinenij

    1975-09-01

    New m-carborane-containing polybenzimidazoles (PBI) have been obtained by chemical cyclization of m-carborane-containing polyaminoamides (PAA) with the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-sulphuric anhydride complex or polyphosphoric acid esters being used as the cyclodehydrating reagents. The obtained m-carborane-containing PAA and PBI have been tested for solubility, heat resistance and chemical stability. The structure of m-carborane-containing PBI has been determined by abalysis of their infrared spectra.

  8. Efficient processing of containment queries on nested sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, A.; Fletcher, G.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of computing containment queries on sets which can have both atomic and set-valued objects as elements, i.e., nested sets. Containment is a fundamental query pattern with many basic applications. Our study of nested set containment is motivated by the ubiquity of nested data in

  9. Analysis of safety margins for PuO2 containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Tomachevsky, E.

    1987-11-01

    In the regular manner the containers for PuO 2 transport are type B(U) and give satisfaction to the AIEA proofs. However the vigour of this conception's containers and the analysis of other radioactive containers permit to think that large safety margins exist. In this paper, the importance and the kind of these margins are studied [fr

  10. Periodic inspection of CANDU nuclear power plant containment components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This Standard is one in a series intended to provide uniform requirements for CANDU nuclear power plants. It provides requirements for the periodic inspection of containment components including the containment pressure suppression systems

  11. Description of the containment for a stationary pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermani, S.

    1986-01-01

    The function of the containment is to prevent the inadvertent release of radioactive fission products from the reactor coolant system to the atmosphere and to provide biological shielding during both normal and accident operation. Basically three different containment concepts 1) the dry containment, 2) the subatmospheric containment, and 3) the ice condenser containment, have been developed, based on how the accident energy release from the reactor coolant system is controlled. The containment structure can be either 1) reinforced concrets with inside liner, 2) prestressed concrete with inside, or 3) full steel cylinder or steel sphere with separate concrete shield. The size of the containment is largely dictated by the required net free volume, that satisfies the energy release criteria due to the design basic accident. The design and construction methods applied to this structure guarantee that the containment will carry out its safety function. This was proven by the Three Mile Island accident. (author)

  12. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified

  13. Containment test in area of high latitude and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jiantao; Ni Yongsheng; Jia Wutong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high latitude and low temperature on containment test are detailed analyzed from the view of design, equipment, construct and start-up, and the solution is put forward. The major problems resolved is as below: the effects of low temperature and high wind on defect inspection of the containment surface, the effects of test load on the affiliated equipment of containment in the condition of low temperature, and the effects of low temperature on the containment leak rate measurement. Application in Hongyanhe Unit 1 showed that the proposed scheme can effectively overcome the influence of adverse weather on the containment test. (authors)

  14. Design of a leak detection device for marine airtight container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zhu, Faxin; Lu, Jinshu; Li, Yule; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Qin, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    The ship airtight container as the research object, according to the tightness of the traditional detection methods of sealed container from the shortcomings of the design of modern ship sealed container leak detection device based on the requirements of the use of AutoCAD to design a ship leakage detection device using airtight container, and introduces its working principle and main components. Finally, from the aspects of technology, structure, operation and economy, the feasibility analysis of the leak detection device for marine airtight container is designed, and it is concluded that the device has the advantages of simple operation, short detection time, easy maintenance and cost control, and has high feasibility.

  15. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  16. Comparison of vehicle types at an automated container terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, I.F.A.; Harika, I.

    2004-01-01

    At automated container terminals, containers are transshipped from one mode of transportation to another. Automated vehicles transport containers from the stack to the ship and vice versa. Two different types of automated vehicles are studied in this paper, namely automated lifting vehicles and

  17. Process for the production of superconductor containing filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuominen, Olli P. (Candler, NC); Hoyt, Matthew B. (Arden, NC); Mitchell, David F. (Asheville, NC); Morgan, Carol W. (Asheville, NC); Roberts, Clyde Gordon (Asheville, NC); Tyler, Robert A. (Canton, NC)

    2002-01-01

    Superconductor containing filaments having embedments of superconducting material surrounded by a rayon matrix are formed by preparing a liquid suspension which contains at least 10 weight percent superconducting material; forming a multicomponent filament having a core of the suspension and a viscose sheath which contains cellulose xanthate; and thereafter, regenerating cellulose from the cellulose xanthate to form a rayon matrix.

  18. 7 CFR 160.46 - Identification of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of containers. 160.46 Section 160.46... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Request Inspection by Licensed Inspectors § 160.46 Identification of containers. Containers packed with naval stores which have been inspected, classified, graded, and certified by a...

  19. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  20. A development of containment performance analysis methodology using GOTHIC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. C.; Yoon, J. I. [Future and Challenge Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, C. S.; Lee, J. Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In a circumstance that well-established containment pressure/temperature analysis code, CONTEMPT-LT treats the reactor containment as a single volume, this study introduces, as an alternative, the GOTHIC code for an usage on multi-compartmental containment performance analysis. With a developed GOTHIC methodology, its applicability is verified for containment performance analysis for Korean Nuclear Unit 1. The GOTHIC model for this plant is simply composed of 3 compartments including the reactor containment and RWST. In addition, the containment spray system and containment recirculation system are simulated. As a result of GOTHIC calculation, under the same assumptions and conditions as those in CONTEMPT-LT, the GOTHIC prediction shows a very good result; pressure and temperature transients including their peaks are nearly the same. It can be concluded that the GOTHIC could provide reasonable containment pressure and temperature responses if considering the inherent conservatism in CONTEMPT-LT code.

  1. A development of containment performance analysis methodology using GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. C.; Yoon, J. I.; Byun, C. S.; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, J. Y.

    2003-01-01

    In a circumstance that well-established containment pressure/temperature analysis code, CONTEMPT-LT treats the reactor containment as a single volume, this study introduces, as an alternative, the GOTHIC code for an usage on multi-compartmental containment performance analysis. With a developed GOTHIC methodology, its applicability is verified for containment performance analysis for Korean Nuclear Unit 1. The GOTHIC model for this plant is simply composed of 3 compartments including the reactor containment and RWST. In addition, the containment spray system and containment recirculation system are simulated. As a result of GOTHIC calculation, under the same assumptions and conditions as those in CONTEMPT-LT, the GOTHIC prediction shows a very good result; pressure and temperature transients including their peaks are nearly the same. It can be concluded that the GOTHIC could provide reasonable containment pressure and temperature responses if considering the inherent conservatism in CONTEMPT-LT code

  2. The impact of RFID on management of returnable containers

    OpenAIRE

    Thoroe, Lars; Melski, Adam; Schumann, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Inventory shrinkage is a common problem in the management of returnable containers. RFID-based container tracking systems have been proposed as a possible solution. Benefits of RFID-based tracking of returnable transport items such as pallets, kegs and boxes are documented in several case studies, but have so far hardly been analyzed from a theoretical perspective. In this article, we analyze the impact of RFID on container management using a deterministic inventory model. The analysis focuse...

  3. GEOMETRY OF WAVES GUIDES FOR CONTAINMENT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2011 ... ABSTRACT. We are study de mode fundamental de 1D in the two media (MIM and IMI) of a metallic structure (Ag) (silver) in which a small hole is perforated (as à dielectric medium). We take the conditions that resonant modes (PPSs) are confined or the surface.Via the complex permittivity of the metal and ...

  4. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.; Lee, M. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Won, H. J.; Kang, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lim, S.P.; Kim, Y. E.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, K. P.; Min, B. Y.; Lee, J.K.; Jang, W. S.; Sim, W. B.; Lee, J. C.; Park, M. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Shin, H. E.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, C. Y

    1999-11-01

    A high-integrity radioactive waste container has been developed to immobilize the spent resin wastes from nuclear power plants, protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The polymer concrete container is designed to ensure safe and reliable disposal of the radioactive waste for a minimum period of 300 years. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas. An experimental evaluation of the mechanical, chemical, and biological tests of the container was carried out. The tests showed that the polymer concrete container is adequate for safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  6. 3D impurity inspection of cylindrical transparent containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kragh, Mikkel; Bjerge, Kim; Ahrendt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and three-dimensionally positioning particles based on sequences of 2D images of rotating cylindrical transparent containers. The method can be used in the manufacturing industry by distinguishing between particles residing inside or outside a closed container. A foreign particle on the inside is a cause of rejection, whereas a particle on the outside might represent harmless dirt. The proposed method detects, tracks and positions particles and classifies containers accordingly as either rejected or accepted. Experimental results have shown an accuracy of 85% on a test set of 20 containers and an average execution time per container of 1 s. (technical note)

  7. Sensitivity of Sump Water Temperature to Containment Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This paper is focused on the containment behavior analysis in the above described cases using GOTHIC-IST (generation of thermal-hydraulic information for containments, industry standard toolset). GOTHIC-IST version 7.2a is an integrated, general purpose thermal-hydraulics software package for design, licensing, safety and operating analysis of nuclear power plant containments and other confinement buildings. In this study, we perform the sensitivity the sump water temperature to containment integrity. For 35% RIH break accident with the malfunction of spray system, local air coolers, ECC(emergency core cooling) pump and heat exchanger, the peak pressure at boiler room do not exceed the design pressure 124kPa(g) of the containment and containment integrity is secured. If accompanied the malfunction of heat exchanger or pump in the time of low pressure safety injection, of ECCS, it will be one of the aggravating factors to the integrity of core and containment.

  8. Structural dynamic response of target container against proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Stress waves were analyzed for a target container of neutron science research project using a high-intensity proton accelerator that generates high energy and high current proton beam. In the mercury target, the pulsed proton beam generates intense power density in the course of spallation reaction and causes pressure wave in the mercury and stress wave in the target container due to a sudden temperature change. Structural integrity of the target container depends on the power intensity at a maximum energy deposit. A broad proton profile is favorable to the structural assessment of the container rather than narrow one. Stress wave have propagated in the target container at a speed of sound. It only takes 0.1 ms for the size of 40 cm length stainless steel container. Further assessment is necessary to optimize a geometry of the container and establish a method to evaluate a life time. (author)

  9. Immobilisation of radwastes in glass containers and products formed thereby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, P.B.; Simmons, C.J.; Lagakos, N.; Simmons, J.H.; Tran, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of preventing the dissemination of toxic material to the environment comprises forming an admixture of toxic material and glass packing in a hollow doped glass container of high silica content, or forming the admixture in a first container and then depositing at least a portion of the admixture in a hollow doped glass container of high silica content. The glass container is then heated to collapse its walls and to seal the container so that the toxic material is entrapped and sealed within the collapsed doped glass container. The thermal expansion coefficient of the container may be decreased prior to use by exchanging hydrogen ion in pores thereof with other cations followed by collapsing the pores. (author)

  10. Structural dynamic response of target container against proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hino, Ryutaro

    1997-01-01

    Stress waves were analyzed for a target container of neutron science research project using a high-intensity proton accelerator that generates high energy and high current proton beam. In the mercury target, the pulsed proton beam generates intense power density in the course of spallation reaction and causes pressure wave in the mercury and stress wave in the target container due to a sudden temperature change. Structural integrity of the target container depends on the power intensity at a maximum energy deposit. A broad proton profile is favorable to the structural assessment of the container rather than narrow one. Stress wave have propagated in the target container at a speed of sound. It only takes 0.1 ms for the size of 40 cm length stainless steel container. Further assessment is necessary to optimize a geometry of the container and establish a method to evaluate a life time. (author)

  11. Effects of container cavity size and copper coating on field performance of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood; Mary A. Sword-Sayer; Kristina F. Connor; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings were grown for 27 weeks in 3 container cavity sizes [small (S), medium (M), and large (L)], and half the containers were coated with copper (Cu). In November 2004, we planted 144 seedlings from each of 6 container treatments in each of 4 replications in central LA. All plots were burned in February 2006...

  12. Nondestructive Examination Of Plutonium-Bearing Material Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerger, L.; Mcclard, J.; Traver, L.; Grim, T.

    2010-01-01

    The first nondestructive examination (NDE) of 3013-type containers as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) was performed in February, 2005. Since that date 280 NDE surveillances on 255 containers have been conducted. These containers were packaged with plutonium-bearing materials at multiple DOE sites. The NDE surveillances were conducted at Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Savannah River Site (SRS). These NDEs consisted of visual inspection, mass verification, radiological surveys, prompt gamma analysis, and radiography. The primary purpose of performing NDE surveillances is to determine if there has been a significant pressure buildup inside the inner 3013 container. This is done by measuring the lid deflection of the inner 3013 container using radiography images. These lid deflection measurements are converted to pressure measurements to determine if a container has a pressure of a 100 psig or greater. Making this determination is required by Surveillance and Monitoring Plan (S and MP). All 3013 containers are designed to withstand at least 699 psig as specified by DOE-STD-3013. To date, all containers evaluated have pressures under 50 psig. In addition, the radiography is useful in evaluating the contents of the 3013 container as well as determining the condition of the walls of the inner 3013 container and the convenience containers. The radiography has shown no signs of degradation of any container, but has revealed two packaging anomalies. Quantitative pressure measurements based on lid deflections, which give more information than the 'less than or greater than 100 psig' (pass/fail) data are also available for many containers. Statistical analyses of the pass/fail data combined with analysis of the quantitative data show that it is extremely unlikely that any container in the population of 3013 containers considered in this study (e.g., containers packaged according to the DOE-STD-3013

  13. Polymeric hydrogels containing complexant agents for retention of pollutants containing thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Carreiro, Julio C.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogels of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), constituted of around 90% of water , show properties of retaining great amount of water and consequently can also retain substances that were made soluble, with either particular or specific reactive properties. In the light of this, these matrixes can be used as support for both capture and retention of radioactive substances of contaminated surfaces. Modified hydrogels containing complexant agents had been obtained in solution, in order to capture contaminated substances. The study of the ionizing radiation effect in polymer is of great interest not only to the development of materials which operate in conditions of radiation but also to the usage of the technique with purpose of both polymeric structure modification and acquisition of new materials. Membranes of hydrogels have been obtained with poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-PVP, polyethyleneglycol (PEG), Agar and several concentrations of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sodium citrate. Theses samples were irradiated in 60 Co source, 15 kGy/h dose and submitted to thermal characterization in a Mettler-Toledo SDTA/851 equipment. The hydrogels membranes polymerized by radiation were put in contact with thorium nitrate solution, dehydrated and calcined, after that their ashes were analyzed. In the case of solution containing thorium were analyzed by spectrophotometric. (author)

  14. OPTIMIZING TIME WINDOWS FOR MANAGING ARRIVALS OF EXPORT CONTAINERS AT CHINESE CONTAINER TERMINALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2009-01-01

    of driver and truck waiting time, the cost of container cargo storage time, the truck idle cost and terminal yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the costs, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to optimize the time window arrangement. The optimal solution involves the position and the length...... window management programme that is widely used in Chinese terminals to facilitate the terminal operations and the truck delivery operations. Firstly, the arrangement of time windows is assumed to follow the principle of minimizing the transport costs. A cost function is defined that includes the cost...

  15. Passive filtration of air egressing from nuclear containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, III, John D

    2017-09-26

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a reactor pressure vessel. A radiological containment contains the nuclear reactor. A containment compartment contains the radiological containment. A heat sink includes a chimney configured to develop an upward-flowing draft in response to heated fluid flowing into a lower portion of the chimney. A fluid conduit is arranged to receive fluid from the containment compartment and to discharge into the chimney. A filter may be provided, with the fluid conduit including a first fluid conduit arranged to receive fluid from the containment compartment and to discharge into an inlet of the filter, and a second fluid conduit arranged to receive fluid from an outlet of the filter and to discharge into the chimney. As the draft is developed passively, there is no need for a blower or pump configured to move fluid through the fluid conduit.

  16. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  17. Containment of Nitric Acid Solutions of Plutonium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Silver, G.L.; Pansoy-Hjelvik, L.; Ramsey, K.

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion of various metals that could be used to contain nitric acid solutions of Pu-238 has been studied. Tantalum and tantalum/2.5% tungsten resisted the test solvent better than 304L stainless steel and several INCONEL alloys. The solvent used to imitate nitric acid solutions of Pu-238 contained 70% nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonium hexanitratocerate

  18. Reading device of a radiation image contained in a radioluminescent screen and tomography device containing it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.; Cuzin, M.; Parot, P.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is aimed at improving the random access time to a stimulable radioluminescent screen point (and consequently the reading time of the screen image); it is noticeably useful for longitudinal tomography. The reading device contains a source emitting a stimulation radiation beam towards the stimulable radioluminescent screen, a control mean of the stimulation radiation beam and a deflection mean which allows the beam to scan the screen surface. The device is characterized by the use of a very fast acousto-optical type deflection mean [fr

  19. Containment performance evaluation of prestressed concrete containment vessels with fiber reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Park, Hyung Kui [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Fibers in concrete resist the growth of cracks and enhance the postcracking behavior of structures. The addition of fibers into a conventional reinforced concrete can improve the structural and functional performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants. The influence of fibers on the ultimate internal pressure capacity of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was investigated through a comparison of the ultimate pressure capacities between conventional and fiber-reinforced PCCVs. Steel and polyamide fibers were used. The tension behaviors of conventional concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete specimens were investigated through uniaxial tension tests and their tension-stiffening models were obtained. For a PCCV reinforced with 1% volume hooked-end steel fiber, the ultimate pressure capacity increased by approximately 12% in comparison with that for a conventional PCCV. For a PCCV reinforced with 1.5% volume polyamide fiber, an increase of approximately 3% was estimated for the ultimate pressure capacity. The ultimate pressure capacity can be greatly improved by introducing steel and polyamide fibers in a conventional reinforced concrete. Steel fibers are more effective at enhancing the containment performance of a PCCV than polyamide fibers. The fiber reinforcement was shown to be more effective at a high pressure loading and a low prestress level.

  20. Containment performance evaluation of prestressed concrete containment vessels with fiber reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun; Park, Hyung Kui

    2015-01-01

    Fibers in concrete resist the growth of cracks and enhance the postcracking behavior of structures. The addition of fibers into a conventional reinforced concrete can improve the structural and functional performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants. The influence of fibers on the ultimate internal pressure capacity of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was investigated through a comparison of the ultimate pressure capacities between conventional and fiber-reinforced PCCVs. Steel and polyamide fibers were used. The tension behaviors of conventional concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete specimens were investigated through uniaxial tension tests and their tension-stiffening models were obtained. For a PCCV reinforced with 1% volume hooked-end steel fiber, the ultimate pressure capacity increased by approximately 12% in comparison with that for a conventional PCCV. For a PCCV reinforced with 1.5% volume polyamide fiber, an increase of approximately 3% was estimated for the ultimate pressure capacity. The ultimate pressure capacity can be greatly improved by introducing steel and polyamide fibers in a conventional reinforced concrete. Steel fibers are more effective at enhancing the containment performance of a PCCV than polyamide fibers. The fiber reinforcement was shown to be more effective at a high pressure loading and a low prestress level

  1. Aging of steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-02-01

    Aging of the containment pressure boundary in light water reactor plants is being addressed to understand the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion efficacy of inspection and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of concrete containments. and to make recommendations on use of risk models in regulatory decisions. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of containment related degradation experience is presented. Current and emerging nondestructive examination techniques and a degradation assessment methodology for characterizing and quantifying the amount of damage present are described. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures using time dependent structural reliability analysis methods are summarized. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process. Results of this research provide a means for establishing current and estimating future structural capacity margins of containments, and to address the significance of incidences of reported containment degradation

  2. WGOTHIC analysis of AP1000 passive containment cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Cheng; Wang Yong; Zheng Mingguang; Wang Guodong; Zhang Di; Ni Chenxiao; Wang Minglu

    2013-01-01

    The WGOTHIC code was used to analyze the influence of the containment cooling water inventory to containment safety for different cases. The results show that if passive containment cooling system fails, the pressure in containment is beyond design limit after 1000 s; if cooling water can't be supplied after 72 h, the pressure in containment is beyond design limit after 0.9 d; if cooling water can't be supplied after 19.6 d, the pressure in containment is beyond design limit but less than the breakdown pressure; if cooling water is supplied for 30 d, the air cooling can remove the decay heat without any aid. It is a reference for making emergency plan and improving containment design. (authors)

  3. Feasibility study of cocos, condensation of containment atmosphere on structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rij, H.M. van; Vonka, V.

    1989-12-01

    The aim of this report is to assess the state of the art of the knowledge of the thermo-hydraulic conditions within a LWR containment in order to determine both the radioactive and the non-radioactive aerosol deposition rates during a severe reactor accident. The radioactive aerosol in the containment atmosphere is, together with the noble gases, responsible for the radioactive source term into the biosphere when a containment failure occurs. The dominant aerosol removal mechanisms depend strongly upon the thermal-hydraulic state of the containment atmosphere. It is demonstrated that the thermohydraulic state, determined by heat sources and the sensible heat transport, is predominantly super-heated when fission products are released into the containment. Hence the thermohydraulic conditions are not favorable for an intensive bulk condensation onto aerosol particles during an essential period of time. A station black-out scenario, in which the primary system of the considered 500 MWe PWR with a dry cavity is depressurized prior to vessel failure, is used as an example to demonstrate this effect. The results, obtained with the CONTAIN code, show the relevance of the sensible heat transport in the period of time (c.a. 30 minutes) between the end of the injection of the steam and fission products into the containment, and the molten core concrete interaction. All considered variation of the station black-out scenario, in which the decay heat dissipated in the containment atmosphere has been 10% of the total decay heat, indicate that the atmosphere becomes super-heated within the 30 minutes. Reducing the fraction of the decay heat in the containment from the 10% to 5% increases the time period with saturated conditions. The amount of the decay heat released into the containment atmosphere forms the major factor determining the thermohydraulic state. It influences the duration of the bulk condensation period, which in turn has an influence on the aerosol deposition

  4. Study on the CFD simulation of refrigerated container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Budiyanto, Muhammad; Shinoda, Takeshi; Nasruddin

    2017-10-01

    The objective this study is to performed Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation of refrigerated container in the container port. Refrigerated container is a thermal cargo container constructed from an insulation wall to carry kind of perishable goods. CFD simulation was carried out use cross sectional of container walls to predict surface temperatures of refrigerated container and to estimate its cooling load. The simulation model is based on the solution of the partial differential equations governing the fluid flow and heat transfer processes. The physical model of heat-transfer processes considered in this simulation are consist of solar radiation from the sun, heat conduction on the container walls, heat convection on the container surfaces and thermal radiation among the solid surfaces. The validation of simulation model was assessed uses surface temperatures at center points on each container walls obtained from the measurement experimentation in the previous study. The results shows the surface temperatures of simulation model has good agreement with the measurement data on all container walls.

  5. A calculation technique to improve continuous monitoring of containment integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The containment envelope of nuclear plants is a passive and extremely effective safety feature. World experience indicates, however, that inadvertent breaches of envelope integrity can go undetected for substantial time periods. Consequently, continuous monitoring of integrity is being closely examined by many containment designers and operators. The most promising approach is to use sensors and systems that automatically measure changes in the mass of air in containment, time integrate any known air mass flow rates across containment boundaries, and perform a mass balance to obtain the air mass leaked. As fluctuations in such measurements are typically too large to enable leakage to be calculated to the desired precision, filtering and statistical techniques must be used to filter out random and time-dependent fluctuations. Current approaches cannot easily deal with nonrandom or systematic fluctuations in the measurements, including pressure changes within the containment. As a result, sampling periods must be kept short, or data measured during periods of varying containment pressure must be discarded. The technique described allows for much longer sampling periods under conditions of fluctuating containment pressure and eliminates the invalidation of data when the containment pressure fluctuation is nonrandom. It should therefore yield a much more precise value for the containment leakage characteristic. It also promises to be able to distinguish the presence of systematic errors unrelated to systematic pressure changes and to establish whether the containment leakage characteristic is laminar or turbulent

  6. Instrumentation and testing of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessheimer, M.F.; Pace, D.W.; Klamerus, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    Static overpressurization tests of two scale models of nuclear containment structures - a steel containment vessel (SCV) representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for pressurized water reactors (PWR) - are being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper discusses plans for instrumentation and testing of the PCCV model. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Liquid metal reactor applications of the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.E.; Bergeron, K.D.; Gido, R.; Valdez, G.D.; Scholtyssek, W.

    1988-01-01

    The CONTAIN code is the NRC's best-estimate code for the evaluation of the conditions that may exist inside a reactor containment building during a severe accident. Included in the phenomena modeled are thermal-hydraulics, radiant and convective heat transfer, aerosol loading and transient response, fission product transport and heating effects, and interactions of sodium and corium with the containment atmosphere and structures. CONTAIN has been used by groups in Japan and West Germany to assess its ability to analyze accident consequences for liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants. In conjunction with this use, collaborative efforts to improve the modeling have been pursued. This paper summarizes the current state of the version of CONTAIN that has been enhanced with extra capabilities for LMR applications. A description of physical models is presented, followed by a review of validation exercises performed with CONTAIN. Some demonstration calculations of an integrated LMR application are presented

  8. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. ... interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the ... preferably in the areas of industrial and transport activities. ... For controlling the embedded corrosion sensors, elec- .... danger of corrosion of reinforcement seems to be more.

  9. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  10. Quality control of radioactive waste disposal container for borehole project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Azhar Azmi; Ilham Mukhriz Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explained quality control of radioactive disposal container for the borehole project. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) is one of the quality tool used for evaluating the product. The disposal container is made of 316L stainless steel. The suitable NDT method for this object is radiography, ultrasonic, penetrant and eddy current testing. This container will be filled with radioactive capsules and cement mortar is grouted to fill the gap. The results of NDT measurements are explained and discussed. (author)

  11. A Survey of Empty Container Flow Balance in Turkish Ports

    OpenAIRE

    Ünal ÖZDEMİR; Abdulaziz GUNEROGLU; Süleyman KÖSE; Faruk Buğra DEMİREL

    2015-01-01

    Container transportation is the most preferred maritime commercial freight distribution in entire world except liquefied product transportation by tankers and bulk carriers. Totally 95% volume of general cargo is transported by container ships in the world due to fast, cheap and safe carrying potential of the goods transfer. Containerization has become recent phenomena in the field of maritime transportation and the quantity of goods transported by containers is increasing day by day as...

  12. [Thromboresistance of glucose-containing hydrogels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuev, I L; Valuev, L I; Vanchugova, L V; Obydennova, I V; Valueva, T A

    2013-01-01

    The thromboresistance of glucose-sensitive polymer hydrogels, modeling one of the functions of the pancreas, namely, the ability to secrete insulin in response to the introduction of glucose into the environment, has been studied. Hydrogels were synthesized by the copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate with N-acryloyl glucosamine in the presence of a cross-linking agent and subsequently treated with concanavalin A. Introduction of glucose residues into the hydrogel did not result in significant changes in either the number of trombocytes adhered to the hydrogel or the degree of denaturation of blood plasma proteins interacting with the hydrogel. Consequently, the biological activity of insulin did not change after release from the hydrogel. The use of glucose-sensitive hydrogels is supposed to contribute to the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes.

  13. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, N.; Dayal, R.

    1982-01-01

    This program is sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address basic concerns in assessing the performance of solidified radwaste. Experiments were initiated to address these concerns. In particular, leachability of solidified radwastes and the physical stability of the ensuing waste forms were evaluated. In addition, leaching experiments designed to address the effects of alternating wet/dry cycles and of varying the length of these cycles on the leach behavior of waste forms were initiated

  14. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the action of chloride solutions may intensify the process of corrosion of steel reinforcement in comparison to the converse sequence of the action of mentioned media. At the same time the natrium chloride solution has been shown as a more aggressive medium opposite to the calcium and magnesium chloride solutions.

  15. Axially perpendicular offset Raman scheme for reproducible measurement of housed samples in a noncircular container under variation of container orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy, Pham K; Chang, Kyeol; Sriphong, Lawan; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-03-17

    An axially perpendicular offset (APO) scheme that is able to directly acquire reproducible Raman spectra of samples contained in an oval container under variation of container orientation has been demonstrated. This scheme utilized an axially perpendicular geometry between the laser illumination and the Raman photon detection, namely, irradiation through a sidewall of the container and gathering of the Raman photon just beneath the container. In the case of either backscattering or transmission measurements, Raman sampling volumes for an internal sample vary when the orientation of an oval container changes; therefore, the Raman intensities of acquired spectra are inconsistent. The generated Raman photons traverse the same bottom of the container in the APO scheme; the Raman sampling volumes can be relatively more consistent under the same situation. For evaluation, the backscattering, transmission, and APO schemes were simultaneously employed to measure alcohol gel samples contained in an oval polypropylene container at five different orientations and then the accuracies of the determination of the alcohol concentrations were compared. The APO scheme provided the most reproducible spectra, yielding the best accuracy when the axial offset distance was 10 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the characteristics of photon propagation in the APO scheme and to explain the origin of the optimal offset distance that was observed. In addition, the utility of the APO scheme was further demonstrated by analyzing samples in a circular glass container.

  16. Use of containers with sterilizing filter in autologous serum eyedrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José S; García-Lozano, Isabel

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the use of containers with an adapted sterilizing filter on the contamination of autologous serum eyedrops. Prospective, consecutive, comparative, and randomized study. Thirty patients with Sjögren syndrome. One hundred seventy-six autologous serum containers used in home therapy were studied; 48 of them included an adapted filter (Hyabak; Thea, Clermont-Ferrand, France), and the other 128 were conventional containers. Containers equipped with a filter were tested at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of use, whereas conventional containers were studied after 7 days of use. In addition, testing for contamination was carried out in 14 conventional containers used during in-patient therapy every week for 4 weeks. In all cases, the preparation of the autologous serum was similar. Blood agar and chocolate agar were used as regular culture media for the microbiologic studies, whereas Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol was the medium for fungal studies. Microbiologic contamination of containers with autologous serum eyedrops. Only one of the containers with an adapted sterilizing filter (2.1%) became contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis after 1 month of treatment, whereas the contamination rate among conventional containers reached 28.9% after 7 days of treatment. The most frequent germs found in the samples were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (48.6%). With regard the containers used in the in-patient setting, 2 (14.3%) became contaminated after 2 weeks, 5 (35.7%) became contaminated after 3 weeks, and 5 (50%) became contaminated after 4 weeks, leaving 7 (50%) that did not become contaminated after 1 month of treatment. Using containers with an adapted filter significantly reduces the contamination rates in autologous serum eyedrops, thus extending the use of such container by the patients for up to 4 weeks with virtually no contamination risks. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a ... method, and the particle size analysis was carried out by scanning electron ... capacity of sodium alginate was evaluated in terms of drug to polymer ratio.

  18. Development of Safety Enhancement Technology Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This study is to develop the nondestructive testing method for the detection of internal defects and thickness of concrete using IE(Impact Echo)-SASW(Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave). (author). 20 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Thixotropic Properties of Latvian Illite Containing Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Lakevičs, Vitālijs; Stepanova, Valentīna; Niedra, Santa; Dušenkova, Inga; Ruplis, Augusts

    2015-01-01

    Thixotropic properties of Latvian Devonian and Quaternary clays were studied. Dynamic viscosity of the water clay suspensions were measured with a rotating viscometer. Influence of concentration, pH and modifiers on the thixotropic clay properties was analyzed. It was found that Latvian clays have thixotropic properties. Stability of clay suspensions is described with the thixotropy hysteresis loop. Increasing the speed of the viscometer rotation, dynamic viscosity of the clay suspension decr...

  20. Radiation treatment of polymers containing isobutylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurpik, A.

    1976-01-01

    Homopolymers of isobutylene and copolymers thereof with isoprene (butyl rubber) are subjected to high energy ionizing radiation in the presence of halogenated hydrocarbon radiation catalysts. 5 claims

  1. Processing of uranium-containing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Alvarez, M.

    1987-01-01

    A direct storage of uranium-bearing coal requires the processing of large amounts of raw materials while lacking guarantee of troublefree process cycles. With the example of an uranium-bearing bituminous coal from Stockheim, it was aimed at the production of an uranium ore concentrate by means of mechanical, thermal and chemical investigations. Above all, amorphous pitch blende was detected as a uranium mineralization which occurs homogeneously distributed in the grain size classes of the comminuted raw material with particle diameters of a few μm and, after the combustion, enriches in the field of finest grain of the axis. Heterogeneous and solid-state reactions in the thermal decarburization above 700deg C result in the development of hardly soluble uranium oxides and and calcium uranates as well as in enclosures in mineral glass. Thus, the pre-enrichment has to take place in a temperature range below 600deg C. By means of a sorting classification of the ash at ± 2.0 mm, it is possible to achieve an enrichment of up to factor 15 for a mineral of a mainly low carbonate content and, for a mineral of a rich carbonate content, up to the factor 4. The separation of the uranium from the concentrates produced is possible with a yield of 95% by means of leaching with sulphuric acid at a temperature of 20deg C. As far as their reproducibility was concerned, the laboratory tests were verified on a semi-industrial scale. A processing method is suggested on the basis of the data obtained. (orig.) [de

  2. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  3. Thermohydraulic design of the CAREM reactor's containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis made for the calculation of the temperature and pressure basic charges affecting the CAREM 25 reactor's contention system is presented. The case of a primary cooler loss, with simultaneous loss of electric supply, is analyzed. Different aspects of the numerical model used, are discussed. (Author) [es

  4. Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    minerals especially at sub-toxic and toxic levels of exposure in our earlier study of ... significantly decreased at the end of 48 hours of exposure but copper, niacin and ... homeostatic mechanisms in male Wistar rats can ... received only physiologic saline), 100 mg\\kg BW, ..... dependent enzymes and antioxidant status in.

  5. The WINCON programme - validation of fast reactor primary containment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidoli, J.E.A.; Kendall, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the United Kingdom safety studies for the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) include an assessment of the capability of the primary containment in providing an adequate containment for defence against the hazards resulting from a hypothetical Whole Core Accident (WCA). The assessment is based on calculational estimates using computer codes supported by measured evidence from small-scale experiments. The hydrodynamic containment code SEURBNUK-EURDYN is capable of representing a prescribed energy release, the sodium coolant and cover gas, and the main containment and safety related internal structures. Containment loadings estimated using SEURBNUK-EURDYN are used in the structural dynamic code EURDYN-03 for the prediction of the containment response. The experiments serve two purposes, they demonstrate the response of the CDFR containment to accident loadings and provide data for the validation of the codes. This paper summarises the recently completed WINfrith CONtainment (WINCON) experiments that studied the response of specific features of current CDFR design options to WCA loadings. The codes have been applied to some of the experiments and a satisfactory prediction of the global response of the model containment is obtained. This provides confidence in the use of the codes in reactor assessments. (author)

  6. Structural optimization of reinforced concrete container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, M.

    1984-01-01

    A structural optimization study of reinforced concrete container for transportation and disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in Brazilian nuclear power plants. The code requires the structural integrity of these containers when subjected to fall from specified height, avoiding environmental contamination. The structural optimization allows material and transportation cost reduction by container wall thickness reduction. The structural analysis is performed by tridimensional mathematical model using finite element method. (Author) [pt

  7. Using Frozen Barriers for Containment of Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-21

    barriers are constructed of grout slurry and plastic or steel sheet pilings. Circumferential barriers can be used to completely enclose a source of...2.1.1 Slurry walls A soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall (slurry wall) is excavated and backfilled with grout, cement , or soil-bentonite...installation requires a mixing area, and there is a substantial amount of excavation and the need to dispose of spoil. The advantages of cement -based

  8. Phycoremediation of industrial wastewater containing azo compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Parin D. Shah; Dipti Galani; M S. Rao

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art biological wastewater treatment technique that uses eukaryotic microalgae as well as several prokaryotic photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Micro algae are known to remove dyes by bioadsorption (sorption of dye molecules over the surface of algal cells), biodegradation and bioconversion (diffusion of dye molecules into the algal cells and subsequent conversion). This paper mainly focuses on biodegradation abilities of microalgae for t...

  9. Studies of severe accidents in light water reactors. Containment performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Phillips, D.W.; Young, R.L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The containment system of a LWR is an obvious component of the plant which performs an important safety function in preventing the release of fission products to the environment in the event of design basis accidents. With over 260 LWRs in service worldwide, and others still under construction, there is a considerable diversity of containment types and combinations of containment safeguards systems. All of these satisfy local regulatory requirements which are principally aimed at the design basis accidents, and these requirements naturally have a considerable uniformity. However, their design diversity becomes more relevant to the performance of the containment in severe accident conditions, and this aspect of containment performance is reviewed in this paper. The ability of the containment to mitigate severe accident consequences introduces the potential for accident management and recovery and this in turn points towards a range of new containment systems and concepts. PSA helps in judging these possibilities and in forming policies and procedures for accident management. It is perhaps in accident management that severe accident containment performance will be most beneficial in the future, and where additional effort in containment analysis will be focused

  10. A research on verification of the CONTAIN CODE model and the uncertainty reduction method for containment integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae-Hong; Kim, Moo-Hwan; Bae, Seong-Won; Byun, Sang-Chul [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The final objectives of this study are to establish the way of measuring the integrity of containment building structures and safety analysis in the period of a postuIated severe accidents and to decrease the uncertainty of these methods. For that object, the CONTAIN 1.2 codes model for analyzing the severe accidents phenomena and the heat transfer between the air inside the containment buildings and inner walls have been reviewed and analyzed. For the double containment wall provided to the next generation nuclear reactor, which is different to the previous type of containment, the temperature and pressure rising history were calculated and compared to the results of previous ones.

  11. Synthesis of chalcogen-containing aminoazines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestopalov, A.M.; Sharanin, Yu.A.; Litvinov, V.P.; Mortikov, V.Yu.; Nesterov, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    Unsaturated nitriles with a nucleophobic group in the β position are used in the synthesis of amino heterocyclic compounds. We have studied, for the first time, reactions of these compounds with cyanothioacetamide and with cyanoselenoacetamide. It was found that the reactions of the α,β-unsaturated nitriles with the amides in ethanol in presence of sodium ethoxide at 25-50 0 C go regioselectively with the formation of sodium 2-pyridinethiolate and sodium 2-pyridineselenolate. On the acidification of the salts in water with hydrochloric acid we obtained the 2(1H)-pyridinechalcogenones. This reaction was applied for the synthesis of the pyrimidine, which was prepared analogously from the compounds with the subsequent acidification of the reaction mixture. The IR spectra were determined with a UR-20 spectrometer on samples pelleted with KBr. The PMR spectra were recorded on a Varian FT-80A spectrometer (80 MHz) in DMSO-d 6 ; standard Me 4 Si

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant extracts containing inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiraud, J.P.; Galzy, P.

    1981-10-01

    Inulin-rich extracts of chicory and Jerusalem artichoke are a good potential source of fructose. Total enzymatic hydrolysis of these extracts can be effected by yeast inulinases (EC 3.2.1.7). Chemical prehydrolysis is unfavourable. Enzymatic hydrolysis has advantages over chemical hydrolysis: it does not produce a dark-coloured fraction or secondary substances. It is possible to envisage the preparation of high fructose syrups using this process. (Refs. 42).

  13. Durability of heavyweight concrete containing barite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binici, Hanifi

    2010-01-01

    The supplementary waste barite aggregates deposit in Osmaniye, southern Turkey, has been estimated at around 500 000 000 tons based on 2007 records. The aim of the present study is to investigate the durability of concrete incorporating waste barite as coarse and river sand (RS), granule blast furnace slag (GBFS), granule basaltic pumice (GBP) and ≤ 4 mm granule barite (B) as fine aggregates. The properties of the fresh concrete determined included the air content, slump, slump loss and setting time. They also included the compressive strength, flexural and splitting tensile strengths and Young's modulus of elasticity, resistance to abrasion and sulphate resistance of hardened concrete. Besides these, control mortars were prepared with crushed limestone aggregates. The influence of waste barite as coarse aggregates and RS, GBFS, GBP and B as fine aggregates on the durability of the concretes was evaluated. The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated at photon energies of 1 keV to 100 GeV using XCOM and the obtained results were compared with the measurements at 0.66 and 1.25 MeV. The results showed the possibility of using these waste barite aggregates in the production of heavy concretes. In several cases, some of these properties have been improved. Durability of the concrete made with these waste aggregates was improved. Thus, these materials should be preferably used as aggregates in heavyweight concrete production. (orig.)

  14. Preparation of amphiphilic block copolymer containing triazene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M), the CMC value being of 4.64 × 10. −3 g L. −1 ..... existence of small aggregates could be associated to the low crystallinity extent of ..... support offered by European Social Fund – “Cristofor. I Simionescu” .... Science and. Business Media LLC.

  15. Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    . The background and main targets for this thesis are presented in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, a comprehensive review of the application of group contribution (GC) models such as various forms of UNIFAC and the so-called AFC (Atom and Fragment Contributions) correlation model for Pow (octanol-water partition...

  16. STATIN CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATMENT OF CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Metselaar, J.M.; Storm, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising statin, and especially to the use of such compositions in the treatment of cancer or in the inhibition of cancer growth. More specifically, the invention relates to a method for targeting a statin to tumor tissue.

  17. Containment Safety Of Super Phenix : Essai Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgayrettes, M. F.; Fiche, C.; Hamon, P.

    1985-02-01

    The protection of people and property must be assured by every situation around an industrial power plant. That is why the FRENCH Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has defined the size of the confinement of Super Phenix to withstand the worst highly hypothetical accident. The study of the strength of the confinement has been carried out by two complementary means : - Calculation (Display poster # 491 188), - Experiment : reactor mock-up. The latter is presented in the film. The solution which have been adopted for the problems encountered are emphasied ; the work with high speed camera is presented. The film is illustrated with some fast movie sequences.

  18. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  19. Stability of interstellar clouds containing magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, W.D.; and Bell Laboratories, Crawford Hill Laboratory, Holmdel, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    The stability of interstellar clouds against gravitational collapse and fragmentation in the presence of magnetic fields is investigated. A magnetic field can provide pressure support against collapse if it is strongly coupled to the neutral gas; this coupling is mediated by ion-neutral collisions in the gas. The time scale for the growth of perturbations in the gas is found to be a sensitive function of the fractional ion abundance of the gas. For a relatively large fractional ion abundance, corresponding to strong coupling, the collapse of the gas is retarded. Star formation is inhibited in dense clouds and the collapse time for diffuse clouds cn exceed the limit on their lifetime set by disruptive processes. For a small fractional ion abundance, the magnetic fields do not inhibit collapse and the distribution of the masses of collapsing fragments are likely to be quite different in regions of differing ion abundance. The solutions also predict the existence of large-scale density waves corresponding to two gravitational-magnetoacoustic modes. The conditions which best support these modes correspond to those found in the giant molecular clouds

  20. Investigations of salt mortar containing saliferous clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.

    1992-01-01

    Saliferous clay mortar might be considered for combining individual salt bricks into a dense and tight long-term seal. A specific laboratory program was started to test mortars consisting of halite powder and grey saliferous clay of the Stassfurt from the Bleicherode salt mine. Clay fractions between 0 and 45% were used. The interest focused upon obtaining good workabilities of the mixtures as well as upon the permeability and compression strength of the dried mortar samples. Test results: 1) Without loss of quality the mortar can be mixed using fresh water. Apprx. 18 to 20 weight-% of the solids must be added as mixing water. 2) The porosity and the permeability of the mortar samples increases distinctly when equally coarse-grained salt power is used for mixing. 3) The mean grain size and the grain size distribution of the saliferous clay and the salt powder should be very similar to form a useful mortar. 4) The permeability of the mortar samples decreases with increasing clay fraction from 2 10 -12 m 2 to 2 10 -14 m 2 . The investigated samples, however, were large and dried at 100degC. 5) The uniaxial compressive strength of the clay mortar equals, at an average, only 4 MPa and decreases clearly with increasing clay fraction. Moist mortar samples did not show any measurable compressive strength. 6) Moistened saliferous clay mortar may show little temporary swelling. (orig./HP)

  1. Prediction of failure modes for concrete nuclear-containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The failure modes and associated failure pressures for two common generic types of PWR containments are predicted. One building type is a lightly reinforced, posttensioned structure represented by the Zion nuclear reactor containment. The other is the normally reinforced Indian Point containment. Two-dimensional models of the buildings developed using the finite element method are used to predict the failure modes and failure pressures. Predicted failure modes for both containments involve loss of structural integrity at the intersection of the cylindrical sidewall with the base slab

  2. Removal of organic wastes containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    TBP in dodecane and kerosene is one of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by the Purex process. The following methods were investigated for removing the organic solvents: adsorption on suitable solids, extraction, reaction with neutral salts, and saponification with acids or alkalis. Results showed that the best method of TBP removal is saponification with alkali hydroxides, either with dibutyl phosphate or with ortho-phosphate

  3. Decontamination of Water Containing Radiological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    soil or air, dissolved minerals in water, or mnaterials of construction of thie’ hob n its•llf. So--called "rigged boiihbs" or "salted bo nits...Carbion 2-10 In regard to tire diatomite filter, the coagulated water passes throtugh the filter cake to the interior of each filter clenrnn. Thre filtrale...data indicate the following: a. Nuclear bomb debris from a silicious soil , being essentially insoluble in water, is easily removed by coagulation and

  4. Radiation Treatment of Wastewater Containing Pharmaceutical Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, E.; Wojnárovits, L.; Homlok, R.; Illés, E.; Csay, T.; Szabó, L.; Rácz, G. [Centre for Energy Research, Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-07-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation induced degradation of maleic acid, fumaric acid and 20 aromatic molecules was investigated in air saturated aqueous solutions. Hydroxyl radicals were generated water radiolysis. The decomposition was followed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon content (TOC) measurements. Up to ∼50% decrease of COD the dose dependence was linear. By the ratio of the decrease of COD and the amount of reactive radiolysis intermediates introduced into the solution the oxidation efficiencies were calculated. Efficiencies around 0.5-1 (O{sub 2} molecule built in products/OH) found for most of the compounds show that the one-electron-oxidant OH induces 2-4 electron oxidations. The high oxidation rates were explained by OH addition to unsaturated bonds and subsequent reactions of the dissolved O{sub 2} with organic radicals. In amino substituted molecules or in Acid Red 1 azo dye, O{sub 2} cannot compete efficiently with the unimolecular transformation of organic radicals and the efficiency is lower (0.2-0.5). (author)

  5. Radiation Treatment of Wastewater Containing Pharmaceutical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takács, E.; Wojnárovits, L.; Homlok, R.; Illés, E.; Csay, T.; Szabó, L.; Rácz, G.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation induced degradation of maleic acid, fumaric acid and 20 aromatic molecules was investigated in air saturated aqueous solutions. Hydroxyl radicals were generated water radiolysis. The decomposition was followed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon content (TOC) measurements. Up to ∼50% decrease of COD the dose dependence was linear. By the ratio of the decrease of COD and the amount of reactive radiolysis intermediates introduced into the solution the oxidation efficiencies were calculated. Efficiencies around 0.5-1 (O 2 molecule built in products/OH) found for most of the compounds show that the one-electron-oxidant OH induces 2-4 electron oxidations. The high oxidation rates were explained by OH addition to unsaturated bonds and subsequent reactions of the dissolved O 2 with organic radicals. In amino substituted molecules or in Acid Red 1 azo dye, O 2 cannot compete efficiently with the unimolecular transformation of organic radicals and the efficiency is lower (0.2-0.5). (author)

  6. Antidermatophytic properties of formulated ointments containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant derived medicines have over the years made massive contributions to the well-being of humans. Azadirachta indica (A.indica) is traditionally being exploited in the treatment of diseases such as eczema, ringworm, sore throat, respiratory tract infection and scabies. The seed oil is used in unspecified quantities without ...

  7. Modular simulation of reefer container dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    for faults enabling preventive maintenance. In this paper the feasibility of using different simulation methods is assessed with the goal of identifying a fast but accurate method that works well in a multi-rate environment. A modular multi-rate simulation environment for a dynamical system consisting...

  8. [Characteristics of Lactobacillus strains contained in pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, W; Bucholc, B; Wójcik, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which are components of drugs administered orally in cases of intestinal disturbances, or antibiotic--related diarrhea. Biochemical properties, growth behavior, bile tolerance, and survival at low pH of six LAB strains (four strains L. rhamnosus and two L. acidophilus) were studied. The survival at low pH was determined in MRS broth (Difco) acidified to pH 1; 2; 3; and 4. Bile tolerance was tested on MRS broth with 0.3% oxgall (Difco). Between tested strains differences in ability to grow at low pH and survival in bile were observed. Only 0.01% inoculum of all examined strains survived at pH 1. Differences between strains in survival at low pH (pH 2 and pH 3) and tolerance of bile were observed. However, after 2 h incubation at pH 4, 100% of strains stayed alive. Examined strains demonstrated good 3% bile tolerance. All strains met the criteria for probiotic strains: ability to survive at pH 3 and in the presence of bile.

  9. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  10. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would lower reimb...

  11. Design for containment of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; McDonald, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    Department of Energy, (DOE), facilities across the United States, use wind and tornado design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and Individual Plant Examinations for External Events for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a conservative specification of wind and tornado loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic wind and tornado hazard curves for specification of loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. Lifetime measurements of hadrons containing heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forden, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent lifetime measurements of heavy particles at PETRA and PEP are reviewed. A comparison of the methods used is given. The world averages for the lifetimes of the D 0 and D +- mesons are found to be (tau/dub D/ 0 ) - 3.97 +/- 0.3 x 10 -13 sec and (tau/dub D +-/) = 8.6 +/- 0.7 x 10 -13 sec. This difference in lifetimes is discussed in light of recent information about exclusive decays. The world average for the lifetime of bottom hadrons is determined to be (tau/sub b/) = 11.0 +/- 1.5 x 10 -13 sec and new estimates for the b quark mixing elements, absolute value V/sub bu/ and absolute value V/sub bc/, are given

  13. Final Report Inspection of Aged/Degraded Containments Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL; Ellingwood, B R [Georgia Institute of Technology; Oland, C Barry [ORNL

    2005-09-01

    The Inspection of Aged/Degraded Containments Program had primary objectives of (1) understanding the significant factors relating corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments; (2) providing the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments, and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; (3) providing recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation; and (4) providing technical assistance to the USNRC (as requested) related to concrete technology. Primary program accomplishments have included development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of high-frequency acoustic imaging, magnetostrictive sensor, electromagnetic acoustic transducer, and multimode guided plate wave technologies for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; development of a continuum damage mechanics-based approach for structural deterioration; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion. In addition, data and information assembled under this program has been transferred to the technical community through review meetings and briefings, national and international conference participation, technical committee involvement, and publications of reports and journal articles. Appendix A provides a listing of program reports, papers, and publications; and Appendix B contains a listing of

  14. Decays of mesons containing heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, K.

    1980-01-01

    We find that the spectator model fails to describe the non-leptonic decays satisfactorily because the hadronization of the two quark-antiquark pairs in the final state is not treated properly. A final state q anti q pair, in this model, can be in both color-singlet and color-octet states; however a color-octet q anti q state cannot evolve into ordinary (color-singlet) hadrons without exchanging color with the other color-octet q anti q pair. Such interactions are ignored in the usual treatment. We propose an alternative model - called the color singlet model - where we consider the final state to be made up of jets of only color-singlet (q anti q) states, and the interactions leading to this configuration are described by an effective Hamiltonian. In our model, any final state of the type anti q 1 q 2 anti q 3 q 4 will form two different color-singlet jet configurations vis. (anti q 1 q 2 )(anti q 3 q 4 )(anti q 1 q 4 )(anti q 3 q 2 ). We show that these considerations lead naturally to a difference in the lifetimes of the D 0 and D - mesons. An alternative model discussed in the literature for explaining the difference in D 0 and D + lifetimes is also outlined and a critical account of the differences in the predictions of the two models is presented

  15. Dosimetry of Irradiated Food Containing Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraheem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of ESR technique for checkout the calibration and dose assessment for chicken bone is considered to be a well known application, while the accuracy of this technique is not carefully evaluated yet. This article provide a new approach for optimizing the accuracy of both the calibration curve methods to estimate the ESR absorbed dose and dose assessment in irradiated refrigerated chicken bone. Because of the decay of the radiation-induced free radical, the ESR signal inside chicken bone will be affected. By applying an extensive study for the stability of the ESR signal, the readout was performed only when ESR signal has reached a good stability for bone samples used to establish the calibration curves and also for bones whose dose is required to be assessed. The accuracy for using such method under optimization was good enough to meet previous studies, just using a hypothetical mathematics factors, which occurs from different studies according to the conditions of irradiation and storage, could be used for correction

  16. Fracture mechanics performance of UF6 containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.E.; Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to determine the fracture mechanics performance of UF 6 transport cylinders type ANSI N14.1.30B, which was made from ASTM A 516 Grade 70 steel. It was assumed an internal surface axial crack subjected to stresses due to service, proof and transport accident loads. The KUMAR-GERMAN-SHIH elastoplastic methodology gave adequate results for crack depth estimation. The results validate the leak-before-break criteria for service and proof conditions but not for accident ones. In the last case a non-destructive examination must be done in order to assure the absence of defects larger than one third of the cylinder wall thickness. (Author)

  17. the ffects of a dentifrice containing propolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and are essential in the expression of virulence by these microorganisms. ... using an Ultrasonic scaler. Then, the subjects .... Propolis extract with the highest flavonoid concentration .... oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans count in plaque and ...

  18. Acoustic excitation of containment insulation cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, H.; Rao, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical program has been implemented by NRC-BNL since 1975 at the University of California, Santa Barbara to assess the reliability of the PCRV thermal insulation cover plate and the possible safety problem caused by the failure of this plate. A typical large HTGR PCRV unit [1160 MW(e)] and thermal insulation class A were selected. The upper core cavity is estimated to be the most critical volume where the noise pressure levels are expected to reach 110 to 130 dB (rel. to 2 x 10 -4 dynes/cm 2 ). The noise spectrum in that cavity is a composite of circulator noise, vortex shedding boundary layer turbulence, and flow impingement. Some anticipated safety related problems associated with the thermal insulation failure are examined

  19. Formulation of Thermosensitive Hydrogel Containing Cyclodextrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials. Chitosan (deacetylation degree, DDA = 80 %) was obtained from HiMedia Laboratories Pvt. ... Sterile formulations were ... Chilled β-GP aqueous solution (sterilized through ..... generally decreasing away from the center of the tumor.

  20. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing biosafety of GM plants containing lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    insects. However, since the cry genes are not active against all insects, e.g. sap-sucking insects, other genes coding for proteins such as lectins show promise of complementing the cry genes for insect resistance. As with other novel plants, lectin-expressing plants will need to be assessed...... for their potential risks to human and animal health and the environment. The expressed lectin protein should be assessed on its own for potential toxicity and allergenicity as for any other new protein. Although not many lectins have been thoroughly tested for their toxicity, our evaluation suggests that most...... of the lectins that are potentially useful for insect resistance will pose no health risk in genetically modified (GM) plants. Since some lectins are known for their toxicity to humans, the insertion of lectin genes in food crop plants will have to be assessed carefully. It is expected that in some cases...

  2. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  3. Electron beam irradiation of fluoropolymers containing polyethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucio, E.; Burillo, G.; Tapia, F.; Adem, E.; Cedillo, G.; Cassidy, P. E.

    2009-02-01

    A highly fluorinated monomer, 1,3-bis(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-pentafluorophenyl methoxy-2-propyl)benzene (12F-FBE) was polymerized with some diphenols by polycondensation and then was electron beam irradiated between 100 and 1000 kGy to determine degradation radiochemistry yield ( Gs) by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The samples were characterized after irradiation by DSC, FTIR, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fluoropolymers show apparent degradation in mechanical properties at 300 kGy, except 12F-FBE polymerized with biphenol and bisphenol A, when they did not show any apparent physical change up to 300 kGy; and continue to be flexible and transparent, with a radiochemical yield scission ( Gs) of 0.75, 0.53, 0.88, and 0.38 for 12F-FBE/SDL aliphatic, 12F-FBE/biphenol, 12F-FBE/bisphenol A, and 12F-FBE/bisphenol O, respectively. The number average molecular weights for three of the polymers decrease upon 1000 kGy irradiation to 10% of their original values; however, the polymer from bisphenol A is much more stable and its Mn decreases to only 24% of original.

  4. Coating of waste containing ceramic granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.; Kofler, O.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated high-level waste granules produced by fluidized-bed calcination were overcoated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with pyrocarbon and nickel in laboratory-scale experiments. Successful development enables pyrocrbon deposition at temperatures of 600 to 800 0 K. The coated granules have excellent properties for long-term waste storage

  5. Electron beam irradiation of fluoropolymers containing polyethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucio, E.; Burillo, G.; Tapia, F.; Adem, E.; Cedillo, G.; Cassidy, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A highly fluorinated monomer, 1,3-bis(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-pentafluorophenyl methoxy-2-propyl)benzene (12F-FBE) was polymerized with some diphenols by polycondensation and then was electron beam irradiated between 100 and 1000 kGy to determine degradation radiochemistry yield (G s ) by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The samples were characterized after irradiation by DSC, FTIR, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fluoropolymers show apparent degradation in mechanical properties at 300 kGy, except 12F-FBE polymerized with biphenol and bisphenol A, when they did not show any apparent physical change up to 300 kGy; and continue to be flexible and transparent, with a radiochemical yield scission (G s ) of 0.75, 0.53, 0.88, and 0.38 for 12F-FBE/SDL aliphatic, 12F-FBE/biphenol, 12F-FBE/bisphenol A, and 12F-FBE/bisphenol O, respectively. The number average molecular weights for three of the polymers decrease upon 1000 kGy irradiation to 10% of their original values; however, the polymer from bisphenol A is much more stable and its M n decreases to only 24% of original

  6. Preparation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wetting and disintegration times, water absorption, and in vtro dissolution. Results: Increase in ... reagent were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). ... pressure and the resultant solid dispersions were collected [10]. ... were prepared. Preweighed amount of the ..... It is an ideal choice for low calorie and diabetic ...

  7. Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    decreased at 1000 mg\\kg in comparison with control. (p<0.05). Vitamin E .... selenium in strain, sex and aged-matched rats after 24 hours of .... In selenium in Biology and Human Health. ... Antioxidation and oxidative damage in rat brain. Biol.

  8. Treatment of Molybdate Containing Waste Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the treatment of an aqueous solution comprising sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate and sodium molybdate, said process comprising freeze crystallising the solution at the eutectic freezing point thereof and recovering substantially pure ice crystals,

  9. Method for primary containment of cesium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Arnold, W.D.; Blanco, R.E.; Bond, W.D.; Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zeolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600 0 C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1,000* C. For a suitable duration

  10. An analysis of containment venting as a severe accident mitigation strategy for the BWR Mark II containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.; Galyean, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation of a BWR/4 reactor with a Mark-II containment has identified the effects of containment venting on core damage frequency and containment failure mode, and has performed a limited evaluation of the effects on the off-site consequences. The analysis was founded upon an existing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with the addition of a proposed filtered containment venting system, based on the Swedish Filtra system installed at the Barseback nuclear power station in southern Sweden. Three different containment venting strategies were examined for their effects on plant risk. These are discussed

  11. Life extension of containment structures of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Raghupati; Garg, R.P.; Verma, U.S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Containment structures prevent radioactivity release in the event of any postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) so that the level of radiation in the external environment is within acceptable limits. Containment structures of Indian PHWRs are typically unlined prestressed concrete structures, which are required to maintain its leak tightness characteristics and strength under DBA during the life of the structure. As nuclear power plant structures age, a number of degradation mechanisms begin to affect critical containment structure. Depending on the type and severity of these degradation mechanisms, its adverse effect on the leak tightness and pressure carrying capacity can be significant. Since the containment structures of Indian PHWRs are unlined, the leak tightness characteristics are solely dependent on the concrete properties and the prestressing material. Prestressing, which is introduced to control the deformation and strength requirement, is affected due to aging. Hence, adequacy of prestressing during the life of the structure to withstand internal pressure and the related leak tightness must be ensured for life extension of prestressed concrete containment structure in view of their significant long term losses. Prevention of corrosion in prestressing steel and assessment of the same at the end of extended design life of the structure, require utmost attention in view of their catastrophic nature of failure. This paper describes the various degradation mechanisms pertaining to concrete and their effect on the leak tightness characteristics and the strength requirement. The issues related to prestressing are also discussed in detail in this paper. The requirement of periodic monitoring of the containment structure for assessing its deformation and leak tightness characteristics and development of database for life extension of containment structure is also addressed in this paper. This paper also discusses the various provisions and measures, which are

  12. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and Isotopic Mapping of Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah S.; McNabb, Dennis P.

    2009-03-01

    National security programs have expressed interest in developing systems to isotopically map shipping containers, fuel assemblies, and waste barrels for various materials including special nuclear material (SNM). Current radiographic systems offer little more than an ambiguous density silhouette of a container's contents. In this paper we will present a system being developed at LLNL to isotopically map containers using the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method. Recent experimental measurements on NRF strengths in SNM are discussed.

  13. Development and application of free pretreatment container steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Han, B.; Wei, B.; Wang, S. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Due to economic and environmental advantages pre-treatment containers have good big development prospects, which can avoid shot blasting processes, and decrease the noise and dust pollution. By analyzing requirements of the container steel surface quality, target oxide scale structure of free pretreatment container steel has been determined. Trial process was carried out, and test results showed that the oxide scale achieved the desired objects, oxide scale with outer thin Fe3O4 layer and inner eutectoid α-Fe+Fe3O4. Salt spray test, second adhesion test, and modeling performance basically corroborated the container feasibility.

  14. [Development of injection containers for patient and medical staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yoichi; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a transition from glass to plastic injection containers in Japan. In our previous study, we suggested that plastic containers had less impurity contamination than glass containers. However, the use of some plasticizers has been limited because of their endocrine disrupting effects. Therefore, contamination has been a concern due to chemicals in injection solution packed with plastic containers. Indeed, in our recent study, photoinitiators were detected in an injection solution coming from plastic containers. Photoinitiators mainly exist in ink. We therefore speculated that ink originating from a photoinitiator directly printing on plastic containers had migrated into the injection solutions. In a clinical setting, plastic containers are very tractable because they are lightweight and less breakable. On the other hand, from a safety view point, these containers may be hazardous because of permeation by steam, ambient air or photoinitiators. In the present symposium, we will discuss the risk of photoinitiators leaking into injection solution packed with plastic containers, and countermeasures to avoid this risk.

  15. Compas project stress analysis of HLW containers intermediate testwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ove Arup and Partners London

    1990-01-01

    The Compas project is concerned with the structural performance of metal overpacks which may be used to encapsulate vitrified high-level waste forms before disposal in deep geological repositories. This document describes the series of experiments and associated calculations performed in the Intermediate testwork phase of this project. Seven mild steel, one-third scale simplified models of HLW containers were manufactured in a variety of configurations of geometry and weld type. The effects of reducing the wall thickness, corroding the external surface of the container, and using different welding methods were all investigated. The containers were tested under the action of a uniform external pressure up to their respective failure points. All containers failed by buckling at pressures of between 42 and 87 MPa dependent upon the particular geometric and weld configuration. The outer surface of each container was comprehensively strain-gauged in order to provide strain histories at positions of interest. The Compas project partners, from five different European countries, independently modelled the behaviour of three of the five different containers. Test results and computer predictions were compared and an assessment of the overall performance of the codes demonstrated good agreement in the initial loading of each container. However once stresses exceeded the material yield point there was a considerable spread in the predicted container behaviour

  16. Tetrathionate reductase of Salmonella thyphimurium: a molybdenum containing enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinojosa-Leon, M.; Dubourdieu, M.; Sanchez-Crispin, J.A.; Chippaux, M.

    1986-01-01

    Use of radioactive molybdenum demonstrates that the tetrathionate reductase of Salmonella typhimurium is a molydenum containing enzyme. It is proposed that this enzyme shares with other molybdo-proteins, such as nitrate reductase, a common molybdenum containing cofactor the defect of which leads to the loss of the tetrathionate reductase and nitrate reductase activities

  17. Determining the Coefficient of Discharge for a Draining Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Ashley; Slaton, William

    2014-01-01

    The flow of fluids through open containers is a topic studied frequently in introductory physics classes. A fluid mechanics class delves deeper into the topic of fluid flow through open containers with holes or barriers. The flow of a fluid jet out of a sharp-edged orifice rarely has the same area as the orifice due to a fluid flow phenomenon…

  18. Study on alternatives of inertisation of nuclear power plant containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.H.; Zarate, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the course of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the hydrogen generation and other flammable gases, during the core degradation phase and the interaction corium-concrete, could produce the failure of the containment by overpressure of by combustion. According to the analysis of the potential effects of hydrogen evolution, following accidents inside the containment trough a Defense-in depth principle, which attempts to assure that the containment must not fail catastrophically, two techniques have been evaluated: a: Inertisation pre-accident and b: Inertisation post-accident. The technique of inertisation pre-accident consists in replacing the air of the containment with inert-gas like nitrogen (N 2 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) during the normal operation. The inertisation post-accident in combination with early venting system consists in replacing the air of the containment with inert-gas like nitrogen (N 2 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), immediately after the beginning of the accident, while the radioactivity is still negligible inside the containment. A system of inertisation pre-accident with nitrogen is used on BWR Mark I and Mark II. Investigations on the inertisation post-accident of the containment atmosphere during severe accidents have been carried out with different objectives from principles of the decade of 1980. Studies concerning hydrogen problem for the nuclear power plants Atucha I and CAREM-25 have permitted to know that the hydrogen generation during an accidental sequence with core degradation, would result important, being able to arrive to form explosive mixtures. In the present work, the applicability of the techniques of inertisation is analyzed for the containment of the Atucha I and CAREM-25, considering the particular design characteristics of these plants. (author) [es

  19. Analysis of the metallic containment integrity of Angra I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate the pressure and temperature long-term behavior inside the metalic containment of a PWR building subjected to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The computer program used was CONDRU 4. Calculations were made for Angra I plant assuming the ocurrence of the worst accident to the containment integrity. The results obtained from CONDRU were compared with those from CONTEMPT-LT and COCO, which are codes similar to CONDRU. (Author) [pt

  20. Structural Integrity Assessment of Reactor Containment Subjected to Aircraft Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junyong; Chang, Yoonsuk

    2013-01-01

    When an accident occurs at the NPP, containment building which acts as the last barrier should be assessed and analyzed structural integrity by internal loading or external loading. On many occasions that can occur in the containment internal such as LOCA(Loss Of Coolant Accident) are already reflected to design. Likewise, there are several kinds of accidents that may occur from the outside of containment such as earthquakes, hurricanes and strong wind. However, aircraft crash that at outside of containment is not reflected yet in domestic because NPP sites have been selected based on the probabilistic method. After intentional aircraft crash such as World Trade Center and Pentagon accident in US, social awareness for safety of infrastructure like NPP was raised world widely and it is time for assessment of aircraft crash in domestic. The object of this paper is assessment of reactor containment subjected to aircraft crash by FEM(Finite Element Method). In this paper, assessment of structural integrity of containment building subjected to certain aircraft crash was carried out. Verification of structure integrity of containment by intentional severe accident. Maximum stress 61.21MPa of horizontal shell crash does not penetrate containment. Research for more realistic results needed by steel reinforced concrete model

  1. Capacity assessment of concrete containment vessels subjected to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andonov, Anton; Kostov, Marin; Iliev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach to assess the containment capacity to aircraft impact via fragility curves is proposed. • Momentum over Area was defined as most suitable reference parameter to describe the aircraft load. • The effect of the impact induced damages on the containment pressure capacity has been studied. • The studied containment shows no reduction of the pressure capacity for the investigated scenarios. • The effectiveness of innovative protective structure against aircraft impact has been evaluated. - Abstract: The paper describes the procedure and the results from the assessment of the vulnerability of a generic pre-stressed containment structure subjected to a large commercial aircraft impact. Impacts of Boeing 737, Boeing 767 and Boeing 747 have been considered. The containment vulnerability is expressed by fragility curves based on the results of a number of nonlinear dynamic analyses. Three reference parameters have been considered as impact intensity measure in the fragility curve definition: peak impact force (PIF), peak impact pressure (PIP) and Momentum over Area (MoA). Conclusions on the most suitable reference parameter as well on the vulnerability of such containment vessels are drawn. The influence of the aircraft impact induced damages on the containment ultimate pressure capacity is also assessed and some preliminary conclusions on this are drawn. The paper also addresses a conceptual design of a protective structure able to decrease the containment vulnerability and provide a preliminary assessment of the applicability of such concept.

  2. Alternative containment integrity test methods, an overview of possible techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to develop and analyze alternative methods for testing of containment integrity. The study is focused on techniques for continuously monitoring containment integrity to provide rapid detection of existing leaks, thus providing greater certainty of the integrity of the containment at any time. The study is also intended to develop techniques applicable to the currently required Type A integrated leakage rate tests. A brief discussion of the range of alternative methods currently being considered is presented. The methods include applicability to all major containment types, operating and shutdown plant conditions, and quantitative and qualitative leakage measurements. The techniques are analyzed in accordance with the current state of knowledge of each method. The bulk of the techniques discussed are in the conceptual stage, have not been tested in actual plant conditions, and are presented here as a possible future direction for evaluating containment integrity. Of the methods considered, no single method provides optimum performance for all containment types. Several methods are limited in the types of containment for which they are applicable. The results of the study to date indicate that techniques for continuous monitoring of containment integrity exist for many plants and may be implemented at modest cost

  3. Capacity assessment of concrete containment vessels subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andonov, Anton, E-mail: anton.andonov@mottmac.com; Kostov, Marin; Iliev, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An approach to assess the containment capacity to aircraft impact via fragility curves is proposed. • Momentum over Area was defined as most suitable reference parameter to describe the aircraft load. • The effect of the impact induced damages on the containment pressure capacity has been studied. • The studied containment shows no reduction of the pressure capacity for the investigated scenarios. • The effectiveness of innovative protective structure against aircraft impact has been evaluated. - Abstract: The paper describes the procedure and the results from the assessment of the vulnerability of a generic pre-stressed containment structure subjected to a large commercial aircraft impact. Impacts of Boeing 737, Boeing 767 and Boeing 747 have been considered. The containment vulnerability is expressed by fragility curves based on the results of a number of nonlinear dynamic analyses. Three reference parameters have been considered as impact intensity measure in the fragility curve definition: peak impact force (PIF), peak impact pressure (PIP) and Momentum over Area (MoA). Conclusions on the most suitable reference parameter as well on the vulnerability of such containment vessels are drawn. The influence of the aircraft impact induced damages on the containment ultimate pressure capacity is also assessed and some preliminary conclusions on this are drawn. The paper also addresses a conceptual design of a protective structure able to decrease the containment vulnerability and provide a preliminary assessment of the applicability of such concept.

  4. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  5. The application of PLC in 60Co container inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yibin; Xiang Xincheng

    2001-01-01

    The author discusses the interlock technique of 60 Co container inspection system, and introduces the hardware structure and program of interlock control system using PLC. Due to adopting PLC distributed control, the system works stably and reliably. The successful application of PLC in 60 Co container inspection system has some use for reference in nuclear technology field

  6. Reclosure Efficiency of Plastic Container Used for Multidose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the suitability of packaging aspirin tablets in one thousand tablet packs that require reclosure after dispensing each dose. The reclosure efficiency of the push-fit type closure of a plastic container in preventing moisture entry was determined and compared to a control container. Aspirin ...

  7. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  8. Fragility Modeling of Aging Containment Metallic Pressure Boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.L.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    The containment in a nuclear power plant (NPP) provides a barrier against the release of radioactivity in the event of an accident. Corrosion that has been observed in some steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments has raised questions about their ability to perform this function. The performance of corroded containments during events at or beyond the design basis is impacted by numerous sources of uncertainty. A fragility model of the containment provides a relatively simple depiction of the impact of uncertainties on structural performance and a basis for decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. Moreover, it is a necessary ingredient of any time-dependent structural reliability analysis. A nonlinear finite element analysis of containment response furnishes the necessary platform to perform numerical experiments to determine containment fragility. A statistically-based sampling plan minimizes the finite element computations required to develop the fragility curve. The -percentile (or other fractile) then gives a statistically based indication of the lower bound on containment capacity, and can be used as a screening tool to determine whether more refined further analysis or tests to support service life evaluations are warranted

  9. Stress analysis of HLW containers advanced test work Compas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ove Arup and Partners

    1990-01-01

    The Compas project is concerned with the structural performance of metal overpacks which may be used to encapsulate vitrified high-level waste forms before disposal in deep geological repositories. This document describes the activities performed between June and August 1989 forming the advanced test work phase of this project. This is the culmination of two years' analysis and test work to demonstrate whether the analytical ability exists to model containers subjected to realistic loads. Three mild steel containers were designed and manufactured to be one-third scale models of a realistic HLW container, modified to represent the effect of anisotropic loading and to facilitate testing. The containers were tested under a uniform external pressure and all failed by buckling in the mid-body region. The outer surface of each container was comprehensively strain-gauged to provide strain history data at all positions of interest. In parallel with the test work, Compas project partners, from five different European countries, independently modelled the behaviour of each of the containers using their computer codes to predict the failure pressure and produce strain history data at a number of specified locations. The first axisymmetric container was well modelled but predictions for the remaining two non-axisymmetric containers were much more varied, with differences of up to 50% occurring between failure predictions and test data

  10. Risk-informed assessment of degraded containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Kunsman, D.M.; Graves, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    As nuclear power plants age, a number of degradation mechanisms may begin to affect the ability of critical containment structures to prevent radiation release during a severe accident. A research program is underway to quantify the effects of various types of containment degradation in a risk-informed manner. In this paper, corrosion is assumed to occur in the liner of a reinforced concrete containment at a 'typical' U.S. pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant, and its effect is investigated. Latin hypercube sampling is used in conjunction with finite element models of a typical steel-lined reinforced concrete containment to generate overpressurization fragilities of the containment with and without corrosion. An existing probabilistic risk assessment model of the plant is then used with these fragilities to determine the increase in risk caused by the corrosion. (author)

  11. Seismic damage assessment of reinforced concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, HoHyun; Koh, Hyun-Moo; Hyun, Chang-Hun; Kim, Moon-Soo; Shin, Hyun Mock

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for assessing seismic damage of concrete containment structures using the nonlinear time-history numerical analysis. For this purpose, two kinds of damage index are introduced at finite element and structural levels. Nonlinear finite element analysis for the containment structure applies PSC shell elements using a layered approach leading to damage indices at finite element and structural levels, which are then used to assess the seismic damage of the containment structure. As an example of such seismic damage assessment, seismic damages of the containment structure of Wolsong I nuclear power plant in Korea are evaluated against 30 artificial earthquakes generated with a wide range of PGA according to US NRC regulatory guide 1.60. Structural responses and corresponding damage index according to the level of PGA and nonlinearity are investigated. It is also shown that the containment structure behaves elastically for earthquakes corresponding to or lower than DBE. (author)

  12. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareg, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for confining molten metal. It comprises: containment means having an open side; a magnet capable of generating a mainly horizontal alternating magnetic field. The the magnet is located adjacent to the open side of the containment means whereby the field generated by the magnet is capable of inducing eddy currents in a thin layer at the surface of the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field producing a force that can contain the molten metal within the containment means; wherein the magnet includes: magnetic poles located adjacent to the open side of the confinement means; a core connecting the poles; a coil encircling the core, the coil capable of being responsive to a current source; whereby an alternating magnetic field can be generated between the poles and parallel to the open side of the containment means so that a molten metal can be confined within the confinement means

  13. HAZARDS OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR RADIOLOGICAL CONTAINER ENGULFED IN FIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-05-01

    Fire accidents pose a serious threat to nuclear facilities. It is imperative that transport casks or shielded containers designed to transport/contain radiological materials have the ability to withstand a hypothetical fire. A numerical simulation was performed for a shielded container constructed of stainless steel and lead engulfed in a hypothetical fire as outlined by 10 CFR §71.73. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the thermal response of the container during and after the fire. The thermal model shows that after 30 minutes of fire, the stainless steel will maintain its integrity and not melt. However, the lead shielding will melt since its temperature exceeds the melting point. Due to the method of construction of the container under consideration, ample void space must be provided to allow for thermal expansion of the lead upon heating and melting, so as to not overstress the weldment.

  14. System of two containers contaminated on the inside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, L.; Heller, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two lids coupled together of a system of two containers contaminated on the inside form a frustrum of a cone with an outer surface decreasing smoothly in the same direction. The seats for these lids form two openings of the containers of the frustrum of a cone-shaped jacket matched to the jacket of the two coupled lids. The outsides of the two lids and the outsides of the containers form a surface in the same plane as the openings in the annular regions of at least one of the jacket surfaces of the frustrum of a cone or the seats of the frustrum of a cone jacket. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Containment parametric analysis for loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, L.

    1985-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents parametric analysis of double containment response to LOCA using CONTEMPT-LT/28 code. The influence of the active and passive heat sinks on thermodynamic parameters in the containment after big and small LOCA was considered. (author)

  16. Effect of some metal-containing compounds and fertilizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA, BDH Ltd, UK 39 g/l) medium, maintained on PDA medium and stored at 4°C for further use. In this experiment, the mycelia growth capability of the Trichoderma isolates against some metal-containing compounds and fertilizers, consist of MgSO4.7H2O (containing ...

  17. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beverage. 4.14 Section 4.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose...

  18. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distillates... distillates containing aldehydes. Distillates containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were...

  19. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  20. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... the container, the distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall plainly print, stamp, or stencil with... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller...

  1. Gas flow in and out of a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwahlen, E.D.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-05-01

    We analyze the flow of gases out of and into a high-level-waste container in the unsaturated tuff of Yucca Mountain. Containers are expected to fail eventually by localized cracks and penetrations. Even though the penetrations may be small, argon gas initially in the hot container can leak out. As the waste package cools, the pressure inside the container can become less than atmospheric, and air can leak in. 14 C released from the hot fuel-cladding surface can leak out of penetrations, and air inleakage can mobilize additional 14 C and other volatile radioactive species as it oxidizes the fuel cladding and the spent fuel. In an earlier paper we studied the gas flow through container penetrations occurring at the time of emplacement. Here we analyze the flow of gas for various penetration sizes occurring at 300 years. 3 refs., 2 figs

  2. Determining prestressing forces for inspection of prestressed concrete containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    General Design Criterion 53, ''Provisions for Containment Testing and Inspection,'' of Appendix A, ''General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,'' to 10 CFR Part 50, ''Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,'' requires, in part, that the reactor containment be designed to permit (1) periodic inspection of all important areas and (2) an appropriate surveillance program. Regulatory Guide 1.35, ''Inservice Inspection of Ungrouted Tendons in Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures,'' describes a basis acceptable to the NRC staff for developing an appropriate inservice inspection and surveillance program for ungrouted tendons in prestressed concrete containment structures of light-water-cooled reactors. This guide expands and clarifies the NRC staff position on determining prestressing forces to be used for inservice inspections of prestressed concrete containment structures

  3. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Annotated bibliography on the effects of water containing fluorides on container-grown crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-01-01

    Most of the literature on fluorine and plants relates to damage caused by atmospheric pollution, for example HF from aluminium works etc, which causes much greater damage than is possible with uptake through the roots. However a few papers do deal with uptake via the roots as follows: reviews of a general nature; uptake of fluorine and its effect on oxygen consumption; and fluoride induced chlorosis. The remainder deal with the effects of various concentrations of fluoride on container grown crops. One suggests that fluorine may be an essential trace element although its growth promoting action is not confirmed elsewhere. For the rest, the limits of fluorine tolerance are shown to be variable, related perhaps to the normal F content of the plant. No plant species however is recorded to have been damaged by concentrations of F below 10 ppM. The influence of nutrition on the appearance of symptoms of F toxicity, especially Ca nutrition but also N supply, is emphasized in two papers.

  5. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment

  6. Probabilistic treatment of a PWR containment integrity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    The design analysis for the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) mass and energy release transient and the containment peak pressure transient contain many conservatisms in the parameters and analytical models. The best estimate analysis presented in this report show the large effect these conservatisms have on the design of the containment. Furthermore, the probability analysis presented in this report shows that the probability of the parameters and models being the conservative ones used in the design analysis is extremely small. Also this analysis shows that the probability of exceeding containment design pressure is even smaller. The results of this paper show that a considerable reduction in containment volume could be made while still retaining a large margin for safety. (author)

  7. Reliability assessment of Indian Point Unit 3 containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, J.; Hwang, H.; Chang, M.T.; Reich, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the current design criteria, the load combinations specified for design of concrete containment structures are in the deterministic formats. However, by applying the probability-based reliability method developed by BNL to the concrete containment structures designed according to the criteria, it is possible to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria. For this purpose, the reliability analysis is applied to the Indian Point Unit No. 3 containment. The details of the containment structure such as the geometries and the rebar arrangements, etc., are taken from the working drawings and the final safety analysis reports. Three kinds of loads are considered in the reliability analysis. They are, dead load (D), accidental pressure due to a large LOCA (P), and earthquake ground acceleration (E). Reliability analysis of the containment subjected to all combinations of loads is performed. Results are presented in this report

  8. Tworty Box to Improve the Equipment Logistics of Container Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Malchow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A major share of all empty container positioning (deadheading is resulting from imbalances with regard to container sizes (20ft/40ft. In order to reduce the shipments of 'containerised air' a new type of container has been developed by the author: The Tworty Boxes can either be used as a standard 20ft or in coupled condition as a 40ft container. The outside appearance resembles any standard 20ft container. However the Tworty Box is unique in that it has an additional door at the front side that opens to the inside. This door can be fixed to the ceiling and by using of bonding elements another Tworty Box can be joined up, thereby creating the full 40ft inside space. Operated as a single 20ft box the additional door remains locked, access is only through the existing standard door. Tworty Boxes do not require any additional components and fulfil all ISO and CSC requirements.

  9. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  10. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beverage. 1004.14 Section 1004.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the...

  11. Throughput maximization of parcel sorter systems by scheduling inbound containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Fikse, K.; Clausen, Uwe; ten Hompel, Michael; Meier, J. Fabian

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the inbound container scheduling problem for automated sorter systems in express parcel sorting. The purpose is to analyze which container scheduling approaches maximize the throughput of sorter systems. We build on existing literature, particularly on the dynamic load balancing

  12. Preparation and use of 195m Au-containing liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A 195m Au-containing liquid is prepared by adsorbing 195m-Hg on an adsorption agent and then eluting the daughter radioisotope 195m-Au. A radioisotope generator and the adsorption agent to be used in preparation of 195m Au-containing liquids are also claimed

  13. 3D impurity inspection of cylindrical transparent containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Fly; Bjerge, Kim; Ahrendt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    a closed container. A foreign particle on the inside is a cause of rejection, whereas a particle on the outside might represent harmless dirt. The proposed method detects, tracks and positions particles and classifies containers accordingly as either rejected or accepted. Experimental results have shown...

  14. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  15. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  16. Approximation for maximum pressure calculation in containment of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.L. de

    1989-01-01

    A correlation was developed to estimate the maximum pressure of dry containment of PWR following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident - LOCA. The expression proposed is a function of the total energy released to the containment by the primary circuit, of the free volume of the containment building and of the total surface are of the heat-conducting structures. The results show good agreement with those present in Final Safety Analysis Report - FSAR of several PWR's plants. The errors are in the order of ± 12%. (author) [pt

  17. Generic Containment: Detailed comparison of containment simulations performed on plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelm, St.; Klauck, M.; Beck, S.; Allelein, H.-J.; Preusser, G.; Sangiorgi, M.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Bakalov, I.; Bleyer, A.; Bentaib, A.; Kljenak, I.; Stempniewicz, M.; Kostka, P.; Morandi, S.; Ada del Corno, B.; Bratfisch, C.; Risken, T.; Denk, L.; Parduba, Z.; Paci, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Consequent implementation of the recommendations derived from the OECD/NEA ISP-47. • Phenomenological code-to-code comparison performed on plant scale. • Systematic identification and elimination of the user effect. • Identification of fundamental differences in the model basis. • Application to PAR system analysis. - Abstract: One outcome of the OECD/NEA ISP-47 activity was the recommendation to elaborate a ‘Generic Containment’ in order to allow comparing and rating the results obtained by different lumped-parameter models on plant scale. Within the European SARNET2 project ( (http://www.sar-net.eu)), such a Generic Containment nodalisation, based on a German PWR (1300 MW el ), was defined. This agreement on the nodalisation allows investigating the remaining differences among the results, especially the ‘user-effect’, related to the modelling choices, as well as fundamental differences in the underlying model basis in detail. The methodology applied in order to compare the different code predictions consisted of a series of three benchmark steps with increasing complexity as well as a systematic comparison of characteristic variables and observations. This paper summarises the benchmark series, the lessons learned during specifying the steps, comparing and discussing the results and finally gives an outlook on future steps

  18. Damage assessment of nuclear containment against aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Mohd Ashraf, E-mail: iqbal_ashraf@rediffmail.com; Sadique, Md. Rehan, E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Bhargava, Pradeep, E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ac.in; Bhandari, N.M., E-mail: nmbcefce@iitr.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation.

  19. Pressure release in containments of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, W.; Pellaud, B.; Saitoh, A.

    1992-01-01

    In France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland, the licensing authorities have decided to equip nuclear reactor containments with a filter venting system to ensure survival of the containment after postulated severe nuclear accidents. This is a curious paradox. For years, the established wisdom was unambiguously 'Keep the containment tight. It's the ultimate barrier.' Three Mile Island seemed to prove the point. Yet, an old mechanical engineer's rule is 'Every pressure vessel must have a safety valve.' Filtered containment venting attempts to reconcile these two conflicting objectives by allowing a filtered pressure relief after an accident, in order to prevent containment failure due to overpressure, while keeping the release within acceptable limits. Achieving this dual objective is a matter of proper timing, i.e. pressure relief, not too early, not too late. (author)

  20. Aircraft crash upon outer containment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.; Paul, D.K.; Godbole, P.N.; Nayak, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, analysis of an aircraft crash upon an outer containment of a nuclear power plant is presented. The effect of target yielding is considered simultaneously by calculating the reaction time in a time marching scheme. The concrete model employed is capable of predicting the cracking and yielding. The response for different cracking strains and different locations of aircraft strike for different aircraft has been studied. Critical location of aircraft strike for the containment has been investigated. The analytical procedure and the material model used are found to be capable of representing the aircraft impact response of the containment structure. (orig.)

  1. Effects of radiation on hetero-atom-containing polyacetylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Matsuyama, T.; Masuda, T.; Higashimura, T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of radiation on several substituted polyacetylenes containing hetero-atoms such as silicon and chlorine were studied. All the polymers containing silicon atoms degraded in the presence of air, whereas no degradation proceeded in vacuo. In the case of polymers containing chlorine atoms, degradation and crosslinking occurred simultaneously, both in air and in vacuo. The reaction mode of these polymers was found to be strongly dependent on the nature of the substituents. The relationship between the radiation sensitivity and thermal stability of substituted polyacetylenes is discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (author)

  2. Application of containment codes to LMFBRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the application of containment codes to predict the response of the fast reactor containment and the primary piping loops to HCDAs. Five sample problems are given to illustrate their applications. The first problem deals with the response of the primary containment to an HCDA. The second problem deals with the coolant flow in the reactor lower plenum. The third problem concerns sodium spillage and slug impact. The fourth problem deals with the response of a piping loop. The fifth problem analyzes the response of a reactor head closure. Application of codes in parametric studies and comparison of code predictions with experiments are also discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Application of containment codes to LMFBRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1977-01-01

    The application of containment codes to predict the response of the fast reactor containment and the primary piping loops to HCDAs is described. Five sample problems are given to illustrate their applications. The first problem deals with the response of the primary containment to an HCDA. The second problem deals with the coolant flow in the reactor lower plenum. The third proem concerns sodium spillage and slug impact. The fourth problem deals with the response of a piping loop. The fifth problem analyzes the response of a reactor head closure. Application of codes in parametric studies and comparison of code predictions with experiments are also discussed

  4. Ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU 6 containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, J.P.; Pradolin, L.; Mamet, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical work carried out and the results obtained when determining the ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the containment structures of CANDU 6 nuclear power plants. The purpose of the analysis work was to demonstrate that such containment structures are capable of meeting design requirements under the most severe accident conditions. For this concrete vessel subjected to internal pressure, the UPC was defined as the pressure causing through cracking in the concrete. The present paper deals with the overall behaviour of the containment. The presence of openings, penetrations and the ultimate pressure of the airlocks were considered separately. (author)

  5. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE ROLLING STOCK DESIGN FOR CONTAINERS TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In relation to development of container transportations the demand on the specialized rolling stock best adjusted for transportation of containers is sharply increased. The article is devoted to the review of flat cars for transportation of containers offered by domestic producers. A comparative description of 80-feet flat cars is presented. The joined flat cars widely used in North America andWestern Europe, as well as their analogues developed by the enterprises ofUkraine and Russia, are also considered.

  6. Effect of iron containing supplements on rats' dental caries progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Ar; Kowsari-Isfahan, R; Rezaiefar, M; Razavi, M; Zeighami, S

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children's diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet. Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; group C, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Section method, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III. The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenic diet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (pcariogenic dietary regimen.

  7. Application and Characteristics of Chinese Herbal Medicine Containing Schisandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Mao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Schisandra is the dried and ripe fruit of Chinese magnoliavine, which has the functions of protecting the liver and gallbladder, lowering blood sugar, antibacterial and antiaging. Schisandra contains biological activity is very high. As a commonly used blind Chinese herbal medicine, Schisandra often appear in the treatment of vertigo, palpitations, insomnia in the proprietary Chinese medicine, play a nourishing liver and kidney, nourishing the nerves and so on. Chinese Pharmacopoeia contains a total of 102 kinds of Chinese medicine containing Schisandra, according to the dosage form will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into pills, tablets, granules and other 8 categories, according to the compatibility of Schisandra application, will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine functional Class 9. In this paper, the main clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicines containing Schisandra chinensis was analyzed by analyzing the classification and functional treatment of Chinese medicinal constituents containing Schisandra in pharmacopoeia, and then providing the basis for the analysis of Schisandra in proprietary Chinese medicine and The study is conducted to give guidance.

  8. Capabilities of a mechanistic model for containment condenser simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxtermann, Philipp; Cron, Daniel von der; Allelein, Hans-Josef

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the first application of the new containment COndenser MOdule (COMO) is being presented. COMO, just under development, represents a newly introduced part of the German containment code system COCOSYS and evaluates the contribution of containment condensers (CC) to passive containment cooling. Several next-generation Light Water Reactors (LWR) will feature innovative systems for passive heat removal during accidents from both the primary circuit and the containment. The passivity is based on natural driving forces only, such as gravity and natural circulation. To investigate the complex thermal-hydraulics and their propagation within a containment during accidents, containment code systems have been developed and validated against a wide variety of experiments. Furthermore, these codes are constantly improved to meet the intensified interest and knowledge in single phenomena and the technological evolution of the actual containment systems, e.g. the installation of passive devices. Accordingly, COCOSYS has been developed and is being continuously enhanced by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) and other partners like LRST. As has been shown by GRS and the calculation of the PANDA BC4 experiment, the interaction between a CC and the atmosphere of the surrounding vessel can be reproduced with the help of COCOSYS. However, up to now this has only been achieved on account of good knowledge of the outcome of the experiment, the user's skills and a complex input deck. The main goal of the newly introduced COMO is to improve the simulation of physical processes of CCs. This will be achieved by considering the passive driving forces which the CCs are based on. Up to now, a natural circulation within the CC tubes has been realized. The simulation of boiling conditions and the impact on the flow will be addressed in future studies. Additionally, the application of CCs to reactor simulation is being simplified and thus is supposed to reduce

  9. Parametric study of radioactive release from a breached containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, A.; Hasan, D.; Elias, E.

    1980-01-01

    A hypothetical accident is analyzed, in which an external (out-of-plant) natural or man-made event causes a loss-of-coolant accident after penetrating the containment wall. The computer codes CONTEMPT and RELAP4 have been used to study the containment thermal-hydraulic behavior during the accident. Results are given in the form of graphs showing the thermal-hydraulic response of the containment and the profile of radioactive release to the atmosphere. The physical model and input data are discussed. 13 refs

  10. The contraction of container for shipping antibiotics and serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Romi; Kadarusman; Krismawan

    2003-01-01

    The construction of container for shipping antibiotics and serum. The construction of container is an engineering process to solve problem in shipping of antibiotics and serum to their destinations, in the same time to preserve their quality, in order to be used by the local patients. Inner part of antibiotics containers is made of stainless-steel, guarded by a vacuum and its temperature is conditioned between -10,8 to -20,2 oC so it can preserve the antibiotics and serum up to several days

  11. LWR and HTGR coolant dynamics: the containment of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Gherson, P.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Hu, K.; Iyer, K.; Viskanta, R.; Lommers, L.

    1983-07-01

    This is the final report of a project containing three major tasks. Task I deals with the fundamental aspects of energetic fuel/coolant interactions (steam explosions) as they pertain to LWR core melt accidents. Task II deals with the applied aspects of LWR core melt accident sequences and mechanisms important to containment response, and includes consideration of energetic fuel/coolant interaction events, as well as non-explosive ones, corium material disposition and eventual coolability, and containment pressurization phenomena. Finally, Task III is concerned with HTGR loss of forced circulation accidents. This report is organized into three major parts corresponding to these three tasks respectively

  12. Shielding container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  13. In Vivo Metabolism in Rats of Cyanide -Containing Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iayer chromatography indicated the presence of novel cyanide-containing compounds, which were shown chemically to be cyanohydrin (Rf, 0.25) ands nitrile (Rf, 0.645). Administration of the eluates of those chromatographically identified CN- ...

  14. Excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars: An emerging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences ... This has been associated with the prevalence of diet-induced obesity and type-2 diabetes ... Although sugar-sweetened beverages and foods contain both fructose and glucose, it is ...

  15. The role of nuclear reactor containment in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The containment is a structural envelope which completely surrounds the nuclear reactor system and is designed to confine the radioactive releases in case of an accident. This report summarises the work of an NEA Senior Group of Experts who have studied the potential role of containment in accidents exceeding design specifications (so-called severe accidents). Some possibilities for enhancing the ability of plants to reduce the risk of significant off-site consequences by appropriate management of the acident have been examined

  16. Safety verification of refrigeration containers using barrier certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Lundgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Sørensen, Kresten Kjær

    2016-01-01

    Refrigeration containers make up a large portion of todays global trade, carrying anything from electronics to fresh fruit and vegetables. The containers are transported through varying surrounding temperatures which speeds up the wear and tear of the mechanical parts of the system. It is therefore...... of interest to produce a fault detection scheme, that allows for varying ambient temperature, varying handling standards, varying mechanical state, and accurately predicts if the system is trending towards failure. Lodam Electronics A/S develops control units for refrigeration containers, and are interested...

  17. Process for introducing radioactive articles into a transport and/or storage container and transporting and/or storing the container and later extraction of the article from the container, and container for transporting and/or storing radioactive articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vox, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The articles, for example fuel elements, are introduced into the container and the remaining space inside the container is filled with lead, a salt or a mixture of salts of eutectic composition, which freezes at ambient temperature. This makes dry transport possible. To extract the fuel elements, it is sufficient to heat the container, which softens the protective and shielding material. The salt or mixture of salts is suitable for thermal conduction. (DG) [de

  18. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  19. Effect of high temperature on integrity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on concrete material properties and structural behavior are studied in order to relate these effects to the performance of concrete containment structures. Salient data obtained from a test program undertaken to study the behavior of a restrained concrete structure under thermal gradient loads up to its ultimate limit are described. The preliminary results indicate that concrete material properties can be considered to remain unaltered up to temperatures of 100 0 C. The presence of thermal gradients did not significantly affect the structures ultimate mechanical load capacity. Relaxation of restraint forces due to creep was found to be an important factor. The test findings are compared with the observations made in available literature. The effect of test findings on the integrity analysis of a containment structure are discussed. The problem is studied from the viewpoint of a CANDU heavy water reactor containment

  20. GOTHIC code evaluation of alternative passive containment cooling features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.; Hejzlar, P.; Todreas, N.E.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The GOTHIC code was employed to assess the effectiveness of several original heat rejection features that make it possible to cool large rating containments. The code was first verified and modified for specific containment cooling applications; optimal mesh sizes, computational time steps, and applicable heat transfer correlations were examined. The effect of the break location on circulation patterns that develop inside the containment was also evaluated. GOTHIC was then used to obtain performance predictions for two containment concepts: a 1200 MW e new pressure tube light water reactor, and a 1300 MW e pressurized water reactor. The effectiveness of various containment configurations that include specific pressure-limiting features have been predicted. For the 1200 MW e pressure tube light water reactor, the evaluated pressure-limiting features are: a large water pool connected to the calandria, large containment free volume and an air-convection annulus. For the 1300 MW e pressurized water reactor, an external moat, an internal water pool, and an air-convection annulus were evaluated. The performance of the proposed containment configurations is dependent on the extent of thermal stratification inside the containment. The best-performance configurations/worst-case-accident scenarios that were examined yielded peak pressures of less than 0.30 MPa for the 1200 MW e pressure tube light water reactor, and less than 0.45 MPa for the 1300 MW e pressurized water reactor. The low peak pressure predicted for the 1200 MW e pressure tube light water reactor can be in part attributed to its relatively large free volume, while the relatively high peak pressure predicted for the 1300 MW e pressurized water reactor can be attributed to its relatively small free volume (i.e., the size used was that of a pressurized water reactor containment designed with active heat removal features). (author)

  1. Status of advanced containment systems for next generation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The present IAEA status report is intended to provide information on the current status and development of containment systems of the next generation reactors for electricity production and, particularly, to highlight features which may be considered advanced, i.e. which present improved performance with evolutionary or innovative design solutions or new design approaches. The objectives of the present status report are: To present, on a concise and consistent basis, selected containment designs currently being developed in the world; to review and compare new approaches to the design bases for the containments, in order to identify common trends, that may eventually lead to greater worldwide consensus, to identify, list and compare existing design objectives for advanced containments, related to safety, availability, maintainability, plant life, decommissioning, economics, etc.; to describe the general approaches adopted in different advanced containments to cope with various identified challenges, both those included in the current design bases and those related to new events considered in the design; to briefly identify recent achievements and future needs for new or improved computer codes, standards, experimental research, prototype testing, etc. related to containment systems; to describe the outstanding features of some containments or specific solutions proposed by different parties and which are generally interesting to the international scientific community. 36 refs, 27 figs, 1 tab

  2. GOTHIC code evaluation of alternative passive containment cooling features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.; Todreas, E.N.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Reliance on passive cooling has become an important objective in containment design. Several reactor concepts have been set forth, which are equipped with entirely passively cooled containments. However, the problems that have to be overcome in rejecting the entire heat generated by a severe accident in a high-rating reactor (i.e. one with a rating greater than 1200 MW e ) have been found to be substantial and without obvious solutions. The GOTHIC code was verified and modified for containment cooling applications; optimal mesh sizes, computational time steps and applicable heat transfer correlations were examined. The effect of the break location on circulation patterns that develop inside the containment was also evaluated. The GOTHIC code was then employed to assess the effectiveness of several original heat rejection features that make it possible to cool high-rating containments. Two containment concepts were evaluated: one for a 1200 MW e new pressure tube light-water reactor, and one for a 1300 MW e pressurized-water reactor. The effectiveness of various containment configurations that include specific pressure-limiting features has been predicted. The best-performance configurations-worst-case-accident scenarios that were examined yielded peak pressures of less than 0.30 MPa for the 1200 MW e pressure tube light-water reactor, and less than 0.45 MPa for the 1300 MW e pressurized-water reactor. (orig.)

  3. Seismic transient analysis of a containment vessel with penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Weiner, E.O.

    1979-12-01

    A linear transient analysis of the FFTF containment vessel was conducted with STAGS to justify the load levels used for the seismic qualification testing of the heating and ventiliation valve operators. The modeling consists of a thin axisymmetric shell for the containment vessel with four penetrations characterized by linear and rotational inertias as well as attachment characteristics to the shell. Motions considered are horizontal, rocking and vertical input to the base, and the solution is carried out by direct integration. Results show that the test levels and the approximate analyses considered are conservative. Response spectra for some containment vessel penetrations applicable to the model are presented

  4. COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed

  5. Roles of concrete technology for containment of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Yoshinori; Imamoto, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials was emitted in the environment by the reactor accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Nuclear debris still remains in the reactor container. An investigative committee was organized in Japan Concrete Institute to study on the containment of radioactive materials and the safe utilization of concrete materials. We have investigated the effect of the hydrogen explosion upon the property of concrete and the transfer of materials into the concrete. We also present the outline of the advice made by Japan Concrete Institute about technologies on the concrete materials for the waterproofing in buildings and for water-shielding walls. (J.P.N.)

  6. Airlocks in the containment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    An equipment hatch according to this regulator is a pressure-resisting and technically gas-tight hollow body which is connected with the containment and has got two doors, the inner door connecting the inner space of the hatch with the interior of the containment and the outer door connecting the inner space of the hatch with the exterior. It is exclusively destinied for the transport of material or objects and not of persons. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Evaluation of Biosolids for Use in Biodegradable Transplant Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Peyton Franklin

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability practices are leading to the development and use of alternative products in the floriculture and wastewater industries, such as the use of biodegradable containers instead of plastic containers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of using digested biosolids from a regional wastewater treatment plant as an ingredient in creating a biodegradable transplant biocontainer. The biosolids were tested for metals limits as specified by the U.S. EPA Part 503 Rule...

  8. Containment technology and the success of a joint initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.J. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts of the DuPont Company and DOE on containment of pollution. A test program at the Groundwater Remediation Field Laboratory National Test Site at Dover Air Force Base is discussed

  9. sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. 22 .... Trained and consumer pan- els from the local black ... selected as the best formulations or recipes, as judged by the ... loosening of the sausage from the pan with a.

  10. Elements of thought on corium containment strategy in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As accidents with core fusion are taken into account for the design of third-generation nuclear reactors, this brief document presents the corium containment strategy for a reactor vessel, its limitations, as well as research programs undertaken by the IRSN in this field. The report describes the controlled management of a severe accident, the major objective being to minimise releases in the environment, that which requires to maintain the reactor containment enclosure tightness. Practical actions are briefly indicated. Key points indicating the feasibility of a strategy of containment in vessel are discussed. The impact of reactor power on the robustness of an approach with containment in vessel is also discussed. An overview of technological evolutions and contributions of researches made by the IRSN is finally proposed

  11. The development of ISO freight containers as IP-2 packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicki, M.C.; Vaughan, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Design specifications were developed for ISO freight containers to meet the requirements of the transport regulations in the 1985 Edition of IAEA SS6, and to maximize the technical and commercial benefits offered to consignors by this type of container for the transport and handling of bulk LSA/SCO materials. A range of IP-2 ISO freight containers have been designed and built to these specifications and are in use in the UK. This paper discusses the regulatory considerations which had to be reviewed and interpreted in developing freight containers as Industrial Package Type 2 (IP-2) packagings and the development of performance standards to meet the regulatory requirements. Outline details of the packages developed are indicated together with examples of handling equipment developed to facilitate loading and unloading. (J.P.N.)

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Liquid Loaded Tablets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Containing Docetaxel-Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery ... of docetaxel is a promising approach to achieving a solid dosage form of the .... until freely solubilized drug with stable SNEDDS ... performed using USP dissolution testing.

  13. Dynamic response of domes in CANDU 600 MWe containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.S.; Meng, V.; Alizadeh, A.

    1981-01-01

    CANDU reactors of the 600 MWe type are typically housed in a cylindrical prestressed concrete containment structure; rising from a flat slab and ending in a domed roof. The principal components of this structure are: (a) a circular base slab, (b) a vertical cylinder and (c) a spherical dome cap. A unique feature of a CANDU 600 MWe containment structure is the existence of an inner spherical concrete dome, located below the outer spherical dome, which serves as the bottom of a reservoir for the storage of 560,000 imperial gallons of douzing water. The thickness of the prestressed cylinder wall is approximately doubled between the two domes to create a ring beam. Inside the containment there exists an internal concrete structure which is independent of the containment structure except for support on the base slab. The containment boundary is a fully prestressed concrete structure. This paper deals with the seismic behaviour of the CANDU 600 MWe containment structure and the effect of its unique features; such as the lower dome and the douzing water on this behaviour. The objective of the study is to evaluate the interaction (coupling) effects between the different components of the structure. The approach taken is to study each component of the structure individually, then an assembly of the different components, and finally the total containment structure. This presentation is limited to the vertical response of the structure under a vertical earthquake only. Axisymmetric finite elements were used in all models. The vertical responses at selected points of the structure were obtained by the response spectrum method as well as the time-history method. It was observed that the response spectrum method over-estimates the vertical response of the domes and under-estimates the vertical responses of the ring girder and the containment cylinder compared to the time-history method. (orig./RW)

  14. High temperature performance limit of containment system of transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Osamu; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1998-01-01

    The containment performance of a containment system using elastomer gaskets for transport casks under a high temperature and high pressure was clarified. Major results are as follows; (1) The deformation characteristics of the gaskets were represented by the compressive permanent strain rate (Dp). The temperature and time dependence was shown by Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP). (2) Generally, the high temperature performance limit is obtained by a value of LMP when the Dp value reaches 80%. However, the gaskets (FKM, VMQ, EPDM) used for real transport casks were not damaged and the containment performance was not deteriorated as a conservative condition. (3) Assuming that the service period of the gaskets for transport casks is 3 months or 1 year, the high temperature performance limit of the gasket made of fluorine rubber (FKM) is 202degC or 182degC, respectively, which includes safety margin. (author)

  15. Contestability of Container Liner Shipping Market in Alliance Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enna Hirata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross section panel model is applied to estimate the effect that the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI has on container freight rates for a sample of six major container liner shipping routes during 2009 to 2011. The estimated coefficient of HHI is non-positive and statistically insignificant, indicating that higher concentration level does not lead to high price and the container liner shipping market is contestable for the period under consideration. The suggestion that efficiency can be achieved without actual competition in a contestable market is highly significant for policy makers.

  16. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society international conference on containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The subject of containment was discussed under the major topic headings of: USA views on containment design operation and regulation, containment structure analysis, containment envelope and energy suppression systems, European views on containment design operation and regulation, containment atmosphere control, Canadian views on containment design operation and regulation, containment analysis, and regulatory requirements, testing, and periodic inspection

  17. Observations on analysis, testing and failure of prestressed concrete containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews the mechanics which indicate that a bursting failure with large energy release is the failure mechanism to be expected from ductile lined containment structures pressurized to failure. It reviews a study which shows that, because of leakage, this is not the case for unlined prestressed containments. It argues that current practice, since it does not specifically address the bursting failure problem for lined prestressed containments, is inadequate to ensure that this type of failure could not occur. It concludes that, in view of the inadequacy of the current state-of-the-art to predict leakage from lined structures, the logical remedy is to eliminate all possibility of bursting failure by making provision for venting of containments. (orig.)

  18. Simultaneous Optimization of Container Ship Sailing Speed and Container Routing with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Røpke, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    We introduce a decision support tool for liner shipping companies to optimally determine the sailing speed and needed fleet for a global network. As a novelty we incorporate cargo routing decisions with tight transit time restrictions on each container such that we get a realistic picture...

  19. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    OpenAIRE

    AR. Eshghi; R. Kowsari-Isfahan; M. Rezaiefar; M. Razavi; S. Zeighami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-...

  20. Radiation fixation of vinyl chloride in an insecticide aerosol container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, V.T.; Takemoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a large quantity of vinyl chloride has been used as spraying additive for insecticide aerosols. Since January 1974 when the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America announced that vinyl chloride causes liver cancer, it has been forbidden in Japan and the United States of America to market insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride. In Japan, following a government order, about 20 million insecticide aerosol containers have been collected and put into storage. A report is given on the radiation fixation of vinyl chloride as polyvinylchloride powder by gamma-ray-induced polymerization in the aerosol container. Insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co at room temperature. Vinyl chloride polymerized to form powdered polymer in the container. Polymerization conversion increased with the irradiation dose, and after 10 Mrad irradiation, vinyl chloride was not found in the sprayed gas. This establishes that vinyl chloride can be fixed by gamma-ray irradiation in the aerosol container. To accelerate the reaction rate, the effect of various additives on the reaction was investigated. It was found that halogenated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, accelerated the initiation of the polymerization, and that a vinyl monomer such as vinyl acetate accelerated the reaction rate due to the promotion of the initiation and the high reactivity of the polyvinylacetate radical to vinyl chloride. Consequently, the required irradiation dose for the fixation of vinyl chloride was decreased to less than 5 Mrad by the addition of various kinds of additives. Following the request of the Ministry of Public Welfare, various technical problems for large-scale treatment are being studied with the co-operation of the Federation of Insecticide Aerosols. (author)

  1. Rapid Identification and Verification of Indirubin-Containing Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhigang; Tu, Yuan; Xia, Ye; Cheng, Peipei; Sun, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Guo, Licheng; He, Haibo; Xiong, Chao; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Xiuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Indirubin, one of the key components of medicinal plants including Isatis tinctoria, Polygonum tinctorium, and Strobilanthes cusia, possesses great medicinal efficacy in the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). Due to misidentification and similar name, materials containing indirubin and their close relatives frequently fall prey to adulteration. In this study, we selected an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) for distinguishing these indirubin-containing species from five of the...

  2. Autonomic Vertical Elasticity of Docker Containers with ElasticDocker

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhuraibi , Yahya; Paraiso , Fawaz; Djarallah , Nabil; Merle , Philippe

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Elasticity is the key feature of cloud computing to scale computing resources according to application workloads timely. In the literature as well as in industrial products, much attention was given to the elasticity of virtual machines, but much less to the elasticity of containers. However, containers are the new trend for packaging and deploying microservices-based applications. Moreover, most of approaches focus on horizontal elasticity, fewer works address vertica...

  3. Refining of wax-containing oil by distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-28

    A continuous method is disclosed for producing low cold test oil from wax-containing mineral oil, which comprises continuously heating the oil in a tubular heater with avoidance of cracking, and fractionating the resulting liquid and vapor in a fractionating tower with reflux to produce a wax-containing fraction having therein substantially all of the amorphous wax and being sufficiently free of crystalline wax so as to be waxable by a method suitable for the removal of amorphous wax.

  4. Immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins. Part 2: impact of container closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Basant

    2007-01-01

    Immunogenicity as a potential consequence of therapeutic protein administration is increasingly being scrutinized in the biopharmaceuticals industry, particularly with the imminent introduction of biosimilar products. Immunogenicity is an important safety aspect requiring rigorous investigation to fully appreciate its impact. Factors involved in product handling, such as storage temperature, light exposure, and shaking, have been implicated in immunogenicity, while container closure systems are no less important. Intended to provide a stable environment for the dosage form, container closures may also interact with a product, affecting performance and potentially enhancing immunogenicity. Glass surfaces, air-liquid interfaces, and lubricants can mediate protein denaturation, while phthalates in plastics and latex rubber are sources of extractables and leachates that may contaminate a product, causing allergic reactions and increasing immunogenicity. The manufacture of therapeutic proteins therefore requires rigorous safety evaluations not just in the context of the product, but also product containment.

  5. Corrosion aspects of steel radioactive waste containers in cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Nick Smart from Serco, UK, gave an overview of the effects of cementitious materials on the corrosion of steel during storage and disposal of various low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Steel containers are often used as an overpack for the containment of radioactive wastes and are routinely stored in an open atmosphere. Since this is an aerobic and typically humid environment, the steel containers can start to corrode whilst in storage. Steel containers often come into contact with cementitious materials (e.g. grout encapsulants, backfill). An extensive account of different steel container designs and of steel corrosion mechanisms was provided. Steel corrosion rates under conditions buffered by cementitious materials have been evaluated experimentally. The main conclusion was that the cementitious environment generally facilitates the passivation of steel materials. Several general and localised corrosion mechanisms need to be considered when evaluating the performance of steel containers in cementitious environments, and environmental thresholds can be defined and used with this aim. In addition, the consequences of the generation of gaseous hydrogen by the corrosion of carbon steel under anoxic conditions must be taken into account. Discussion of the paper included: Is crevice corrosion really significant in cementitious systems? Crevice corrosion is unlikely in the cementitious backfill considered because it will tend to neutralise any acidic conditions in the crevice. What is the role of microbially-induced corrosion (MIC) in cementitious systems? Microbes are likely to be present in a disposal facility but their effect on corrosion is uncertain

  6. Sensitivity Study on Analysis of Reactor Containment Response to LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ku Young; Sung, Key Yong

    2010-01-01

    As a reactor containment vessel is the final barrier to the release of radioactive material during design basis accidents (DBAs), its structural integrity must be maintained by withstanding the high pressure conditions resulting from DBAs. To verify the structural integrity of the containment, response analyses are performed to get the pressure transient inside the containment after DBAs, including loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The purpose of this study is to give regulative insights into the importance of input variables in the analysis of containment responses to a large break LOCA (LBLOCA). For the sensitivity study, a LBLOCA in Kori 3 and 4 nuclear power plant (NPP) is analyzed by CONTEMPT-LT computer code

  7. Sensitivity Study on Analysis of Reactor Containment Response to LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ku Young; Sung, Key Yong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    As a reactor containment vessel is the final barrier to the release of radioactive material during design basis accidents (DBAs), its structural integrity must be maintained by withstanding the high pressure conditions resulting from DBAs. To verify the structural integrity of the containment, response analyses are performed to get the pressure transient inside the containment after DBAs, including loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The purpose of this study is to give regulative insights into the importance of input variables in the analysis of containment responses to a large break LOCA (LBLOCA). For the sensitivity study, a LBLOCA in Kori 3 and 4 nuclear power plant (NPP) is analyzed by CONTEMPT-LT computer code

  8. Pressurization of Containment Vessels from Plutonium Oxide Contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  9. Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I 2 . 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Pressure Indication of 3013 Inner Containers Using Digital Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HENSEL, SJ

    2004-01-01

    Plutonium bearing materials packaged for long term storage per the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) are required to be examined periodically in a non-destructive manner (i.e. without compromising the storage containers) for pressure buildup. Radiography is the preferred technology for performing the examinations. The concept is to measure and record the container lid position. As a can pressurizes the lid will deflect outward and thus provide an indication of the internal pressure. A radiograph generated within 30 days of creation of each storage container serves as the baseline from which future surveillance examinations will be compared. A problem with measuring the lid position was discovered during testing of a digital radiography system. The solution was to provide a distinct feature upon the lower surface of the container lid from which the digital radiography system could easily track the lid position

  11. Dissolution test of herbal medicines containing Passiflora sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane R. T. Costa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicines in the solid dosage form for oral use. This work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of three herbal medicines in the form of capsules and tablet containing Passiflora, produced with powder or dried extract. Assay of total flavonoids and dissolution methods were validated and obtained results allowed the quantification of flavonoids with precision, accuracy and selectivity. The percentage of total flavonoids found was 2% for capsule A (containing only powder, 0.97% for capsule B (containing only dried extract and 5.5% for tablet. Although the content was lower, the release of flavonoids present in the capsule containing dried extract was 12% higher over 30 min, with dissolved percentage values of 87 and 75, for the capsules containing extract and powder, respectively. The tablet containing dried extract presented dissolution of 76%, despite the higher content of flavonoids, which may be due to pharmacotechnical problems. Obtained data demonstrated the need to implement these tests in the quality control of herbal medicines, confirming the release of the active ingredients that underlie the pharmacological action of these medicines.

  12. A research on verification of the models in the CONTAIN Code and the uncertainty reduction method for containment integrity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moo Hwan; Seo, Kyoung Woo [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The final goal of this research is to evaluate synthetic results of DCH issue and expose accurate methodology to assess containment integrity about operating PWR in Korea. This research is aimed to expose methodology for synthetic resolution of the DCH issue for KSNPP, and make the guide of DCH issue for containment integrity which will be used to design to nuclear power plants.

  13. Shielding design of disposal container for disused sealed radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRSs), which are stored temporally in the centralized storage facility of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), will be disposed of in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Wolsong. Accordingly, the future plan on DSRS disposal should be established as soon as possible in connection with the construction and operation plan of disposal facility. In this study, as part of developing the systematic management plan, the radiation shielding analysis for three types of disposal container was performed for all kinds of radionuclides (excluding mixed sources) contained in DSRSs generated from domestic area using MicroShield and MCNP5 codes in consideration of the preliminary post-closure safety assessment result for disposal options, source-specific characteristics, and etc. In accordance with the analysis result, thickness of inner container for general disposal container and dimensions (i.e. diameter and height) of inner capsule for two types of special disposal container were determined as 3 mm, OD40×H120 mm (for type 1), and OD100× H240 mm (for type 2), respectively. These values were reflected in the conceptual design of DSRS disposal container, and the structural integrity of each container was confrmed through the structural analysis carried out separately from this study. Given the shielding and structural analysis results, the conceptual design derived from this study sufficiently fulfills the technical standards in force and the design performance level. And consequently, it is judged that the safe management for DSRSs to be disposed of is achieved by utilizing the disposal container with the conceptual design devised.

  14. Shielding design of disposal container for disused sealed radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl

    2017-01-01

    Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRSs), which are stored temporally in the centralized storage facility of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), will be disposed of in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Wolsong. Accordingly, the future plan on DSRS disposal should be established as soon as possible in connection with the construction and operation plan of disposal facility. In this study, as part of developing the systematic management plan, the radiation shielding analysis for three types of disposal container was performed for all kinds of radionuclides (excluding mixed sources) contained in DSRSs generated from domestic area using MicroShield and MCNP5 codes in consideration of the preliminary post-closure safety assessment result for disposal options, source-specific characteristics, and etc. In accordance with the analysis result, thickness of inner container for general disposal container and dimensions (i.e. diameter and height) of inner capsule for two types of special disposal container were determined as 3 mm, OD40×H120 mm (for type 1), and OD100× H240 mm (for type 2), respectively. These values were reflected in the conceptual design of DSRS disposal container, and the structural integrity of each container was confrmed through the structural analysis carried out separately from this study. Given the shielding and structural analysis results, the conceptual design derived from this study sufficiently fulfills the technical standards in force and the design performance level. And consequently, it is judged that the safe management for DSRSs to be disposed of is achieved by utilizing the disposal container with the conceptual design devised

  15. Hybrid laser arc welding of a used fuel container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, C., E-mail: cboyle@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada); Martel, P. [Novika Solutions, La Pocatiere, QC (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has designed a novel Used Fuel Container (UFC) optimized for CANDU used nuclear fuel. The Mark II container is constructed of nuclear grade pipe for the body and capped with hemi-spherical heads. The head-to-shell joint fit-up features an integral backing designed for external pressure, eliminating the need for a full penetration closure weld. The NWMO and Novika Solutions have developed a partial penetration, single pass Hybrid Laser Arc Weld (HLAW) closure welding process requiring no post-weld heat treatment. This paper will discuss the joint design, HLAW process, associated welding equipment, and prototype container fabrication. (author)

  16. Hybrid laser arc welding of a used fuel container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, C. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Martel, P. [Novika Solutions, La Pocatiere, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has designed a novel Used Fuel Container (UFC) optimized for CANDU used nuclear fuel. The Mark II container is constructed of nuclear grade pipe for the body and capped with hemi-spherical heads. The head-to-shell joint fit-up features an integral backing designed for external pressure, eliminating the need for a full penetration closure weld. The NWMO and Novika Solutions have developed a partial penetration, single pass Hybrid Laser Axe Weld (HLAW) closure welding process requiring no post-weld heat treatment. This paper will discuss the joint design, HLAW process, associated welding equipment, and prototype container fabrication. (author)

  17. Development of a container failure function for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Litke, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    A simple approach to the modeling of failure rates for a copper container under Canadian waste disposal conditions is presented. Both uniform corrosion and pitting must be considered. Short-term failures due to fabrication defects must be taken into account. The model allows for short-term sorption of copper by the clay buffer material, and assumes a steady-state condition for uniform corrosion. Using worst-case assumptions, a container penetration time of 3300 years can be predicted

  18. Performance Evaluation of Deep Learning Tools in Docker Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Pengfei; Shi, Shaohuai; Chu, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    With the success of deep learning techniques in a broad range of application domains, many deep learning software frameworks have been developed and are being updated frequently to adapt to new hardware features and software libraries, which bring a big challenge for end users and system administrators. To address this problem, container techniques are widely used to simplify the deployment and management of deep learning software. However, it remains unknown whether container techniques brin...

  19. Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Huiun; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hangon [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Using the Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments (GOTHIC) code, thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the containment have been investigated, along with the preliminary design of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of an innovative pressurized water reactor (PWR). A GOTHIC containment model was constructed with reference to the design data of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400, and report related PCCS. The effects of the design parameters were evaluated for passive containment cooling tank (PCCT) geometry, PCCS heat exchanger (PCCX) location, and surface area. The analyzed results, obtained using the single PCCT, showed that repressurization and reheating phenomena had occurred. To resolve these problems, a coupled PCCT concept was suggested and was found to continually decrease the containment pressure and temperature without repressurization and reheating. If the installation level of the PCCX is higher than that of the PCCT, it may affect the PCCS performance. Additionally, it was confirmed that various means of increasing the external surface area of the PCCX, such as fins, could help improve the energy removal performance of the PCCS. To improve the PCCS design and investigate its performance, further studies are needed.

  20. Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiun Ha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments (GOTHIC code, thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the containment have been investigated, along with the preliminary design of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS of an innovative pressurized water reactor (PWR. A GOTHIC containment model was constructed with reference to the design data of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400, and report related PCCS. The effects of the design parameters were evaluated for passive containment cooling tank (PCCT geometry, PCCS heat exchanger (PCCX location, and surface area. The analyzed results, obtained using the single PCCT, showed that repressurization and reheating phenomena had occurred. To resolve these problems, a coupled PCCT concept was suggested and was found to continually decrease the containment pressure and temperature without repressurization and reheating. If the installation level of the PCCX is higher than that of the PCCT, it may affect the PCCS performance. Additionally, it was confirmed that various means of increasing the external surface area of the PCCX, such as fins, could help improve the energy removal performance of the PCCS. To improve the PCCS design and investigate its performance, further studies are needed.

  1. Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Huiun; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hangon

    2017-01-01

    Using the Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments (GOTHIC) code, thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the containment have been investigated, along with the preliminary design of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of an innovative pressurized water reactor (PWR). A GOTHIC containment model was constructed with reference to the design data of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400, and report related PCCS. The effects of the design parameters were evaluated for passive containment cooling tank (PCCT) geometry, PCCS heat exchanger (PCCX) location, and surface area. The analyzed results, obtained using the single PCCT, showed that repressurization and reheating phenomena had occurred. To resolve these problems, a coupled PCCT concept was suggested and was found to continually decrease the containment pressure and temperature without repressurization and reheating. If the installation level of the PCCX is higher than that of the PCCT, it may affect the PCCS performance. Additionally, it was confirmed that various means of increasing the external surface area of the PCCX, such as fins, could help improve the energy removal performance of the PCCS. To improve the PCCS design and investigate its performance, further studies are needed

  2. Evaluation of disposal site geochemical performance using a containment factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerman, A.; Domenico, P.A.; Bartlett, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The containment factor is a measure of retention by geologic setting of wastes released from a repository. The factor is alternatively defined either in terms of several measurable hydrological and geochemical parameters, or in terms of amounts of waste components that may be released to the geologic setting and, subsequently, to the environment. Containment factors for individual waste components in a given geologic setting are functions of groundwater to rock volume ratios, sorption or exchange characteristics of the rocks, and containment time to groundwater travel time ratios. For high-level radioactive wastes, containment factors based on the NRC and EPA limit values for cumulative releases from waste and to the environment provide a measure of the geochemical performance of the geologic setting in tuff, basalt, and salt. The containment factor values for individual nuclides from high-level wastes indicate that for some of the nuclides containment may be achieved by groundwater travel time along. For other nuclides, additional performance functions need to be allocated to geochemical retention by such processes as sorption, ion-exchange or precipitation

  3. Identification and assessment of containment and release management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Neogy, P.

    1990-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating accident management strategies which could help preserve containment integrity or minimize releases during a severe accident. The objective is to make use of existing plant systems and equipment in innovative ways to reduce the likelihood of containment failure or to mitigate the release of fission products to the environment if failure cannot be prevented. Many of these strategies would be implemented during the later stages of a severe accident (i.e., after vessel breach) and sizeable uncertainties exist regarding some of the phenomena involved. A majority of the strategies identified go well beyond existing procedures and often depend on the specific containment type. Strategies for all of the five different containments used in the U.S. are being considered: BWR Mark I, Mark II, and Mark III, as well as PWR ice condenser and large dry containments. Accident management strategies related to the in-vessel phase of a severe core melt accident are being dealt with under another NRC program. For each containment type the most likely challenges are identified and existing emergency guidelines and procedures are reviewed as to how they address these challenges

  4. Plutonium active operation of the Winfrith modular containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.J.; Pengelly, M.G.A.; McSherry, K.

    1985-01-01

    Three gloveboxes contaminated with plutonium have been dismantled inside the Winfrith Modular Containment System. This system is a portable, demountable pressurised suit area with its own filters and shower entry tunnel. Details of the operation are given. (U.K.)

  5. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing waste (wastewater), which emanates from land-based sources and which directly impact on the marine environment. These sources include sea outfalls, storm water drains, canals, rivers and diffuse sources of pollution. To date ...

  6. Evaluation of Information Contained in Drug Advertisement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Information Contained in Drug Advertisement and Promotion Materials in Nigeria. ... Conclusion: This study reveals that advertising materials used in promoting drugs in Nigeria have incomplete ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  9. Containment integrity of SEP plants under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, T.; Nelson, T.A.; Chen, P.Y.; Persinko, D.; Grimes, C.

    1984-06-01

    Because the containment structure is the last barrier against the release of radioactivity, an assessment was undertaken to identify the design weaknesses and estimate the margins of safety for the SEP containments under the postulated, combined loading conditions of a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) and a design basis accident (DBA). The design basis accident is either a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or a main steam line break (MSLB). The containment designs analyzed consisted of three inverted light-bulb shaped drywells used in boiling water reactor (BWR) systems, and three steel-lined concrete containments and a spherical steel shell used in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems. These designs cover a majority of the containment types used in domestic operating plants. The results indicate that five of the seven designs are adequate even under current design standards. For the remaining two designs, the possible design weaknesses identified were buckling of the spherical steel shell and over-stress in both the radial and tangential directions in one of the concrete containments near its base

  10. Safety (management and technology). Reality of biosafety technology; Anzen (manejimento to tekunoroji). Baio/sefuti gijutsu no jissai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, H. [Chiyoda Technoace Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1994-08-05

    Biosafety, in other words, biohazard countermeasure is to prevent biological disasters, in particular, hazards caused by microbes infecting human beings or things, and they are roughly classified into two kinds. One is a disaster of infection via pathogenic microbes originally existing in the nature or allergens and toxins which microbes produce. The other is a potential, unknown hazards in the field of so-called biotechnology such as gene recombination technology. This paper describes the features of microbe pollution and measures against biohazard. The basis of the biohazard countermeasures is isolation from microbe pollution, and in reality confinement of microbes. As to methods for confining microbes, in addition to physical confinement, there is a biological confinement method using a host-vector system which is hard to exist in conditions other than special incubating conditions in recombination DNA experiments. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Strain sensitivity of band gaps of Sn-containing semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    Tuning of band gaps of semiconductors is a way to optimize materials for applications within photovoltaics or as photocatalysts. One way to achieve this is through applying strain to the materials. We investigate the effect of strain on a range of Sn-containing semiconductors using density...

  12. Locks at reactor safety containments of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The rule is to be applied for material access locks. A material access lock as defined by this rule is a pressure resistant and technically gas-tight hollow body that is connected with the containment and has got two doors, the inner door of which connects the lock chamber with the interior of the containment and the outer door connects the lock chamber with the outside. It serves exclusively for transferring material or objects. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Gestión del riesgo biológico y su integración con la Seguridad y Salud del Trabajo en el Centro de Inmunología y Biopreparados de Cuba Biohazard management and its integration into Labor Health at the Immunology and Bioproducts Centre in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailín Cobos Valdes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de riesgos es útil para planificar y mejorar la Seguridad Biológica, el control de la calidad y la Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, considerando el marco legal vigente en Cuba y la inspección constituye una parte importante de estos procesos. Con el objetivo de identificar y evaluar el riesgo biológico en el Centro de Inmunología y Biopreparados se realizó esta investigación. La misma incluyó la identificación del riesgo biológico en tres áreas, la evolución de inspecciones de Seguridad Biológica y las medidas correctivas recomendadas. Los resultados permitieron diseñar e implementar el Reglamento de Seguridad en el se integraron las funciones de Seguridad Biológica y Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo.Risk assessments are useful to plan and improve biological safety, quality control and in general health and safety at work, taking into account the legal framework in Cuba. Supervision is an important part of these processes. Research was done in order to identify and to evaluate the biohazard in the Immunology and Bioproducts Centre (CIBHO. It included the identification and risk assessment in three areas, the biological safety supervisions and its evolution and the corrective measures recommended. The results allowed to design and to implement a Safety Regulation which includes measures for biological safety and health and safety at work.

  14. Method of judging leak sources in a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable exact judgement for leak sources upon leak accident in a reactor container of BWR type power plants as to whether the sources are present in the steam system or coolant system. Method: If leak is resulted from the main steam system, the hydrogen density in the reactor container is about 170 times as high as the same amount of leak from the reactor water. Accordingly, it can be judged whether the leak source is present in the steam system or reactor water system based on the change in the indication of hydrogen densitometer within the reactor container, and the indication from the drain amount from the sump in the container or the indication of a drain flow meter in the container dehumidifier. Further, I-131, Na-24 and the like as the radioactive nucleides in sump water of the container are measured to determine the density ratio R = (I-131)/(Na-24), and it is judged that the leak is resulted in nuclear water if the density ratio R is equal to that of reactor water and that the leak is resulted from the main steam or like other steam system if the density ratio R is higher than by about 100 times than that of reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Sensitivity analysis of numerical model of prestressed concrete containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bílý, Petr, E-mail: petr.bily@fsv.cvut.cz; Kohoutková, Alena, E-mail: akohout@fsv.cvut.cz

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • FEM model of prestressed concrete containment with steel liner was created. • Sensitivity analysis of changes in geometry and loads was conducted. • Steel liner and temperature effects are the most important factors. • Creep and shrinkage parameters are essential for the long time analysis. • Prestressing schedule is a key factor in the early stages. - Abstract: Safety is always the main consideration in the design of containment of nuclear power plant. However, efficiency of the design process should be also taken into consideration. Despite the advances in computational abilities in recent years, simplified analyses may be found useful for preliminary scoping or trade studies. In the paper, a study on sensitivity of finite element model of prestressed concrete containment to changes in geometry, loads and other factors is presented. Importance of steel liner, reinforcement, prestressing process, temperature changes, nonlinearity of materials as well as density of finite elements mesh is assessed in the main stages of life cycle of the containment. Although the modeling adjustments have not produced any significant changes in computation time, it was found that in some cases simplified modeling process can lead to significant reduction of work time without degradation of the results.

  16. Response of secondary containment to presence of sodium and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleikler, E.L.; Huang, T.C.

    1979-07-01

    As part of an effort to demonstrate that the risk to the public from extremely low probability events in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is bound within an acceptable envelope, containment pressurization by sodium and hydrogen was evaluated. Temperature and pressure histories are presented for typical sodium spray and pool fires and sodium vapor reactions. A review of mechanisms for hydrogen generation and recombination as well as limit for flammability and autocatalytic recombination is provided, and general containment design options to reduce risk are discussed

  17. Assessment of materials for nuclear fuel immobilization containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuttall, K; Urbanic, V F

    1981-09-01

    A wide range of engineering metals and alloys has been assessed for their suitability as container materials for irradiated nuclear fuel intended for permanent disposal in a deep, underground hard-rock vault. The expected range of service conditions in the disposal vault are discussed, as well as the material properties required for this application. An important requirement is that the container last at least 500 years without being breached. The assessment is treated in two parts. Part I concentrates on the physical and mechanical metallurgy, with special reference to strength, weldability, potential embrittlement mechanisms and some economic aspects. Part II discusses possible mechanisms of metallic corrosion for the various engineering alloys and the expected range of environmental conditions in the vault. Localized corrosion and delayed fracture processes are identified as being most likely to limit container lifetime. Hence an essential requirement is that such processes either be absent or proceed at an insignificant rate. Three groups of alloys are recommended for further consideration as possible container materials: AISI 300 series austenitic stainless steels, high nickel-base alloys and very dilute titanium-base alloys. Specific alloys from each group are indicated as having the optimum combination of required properties, including cost. For container designs where the outer container shell does not independently support the service loads, copper should also be considered. The final material selection will depend primarily on the enviromental conditions in the vault. 42 figures, 31 tables.

  18. Simulation of empty container logistic management at depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Sek, Siaw-Ying Doreen; Chiew, Kang-Leng; Tiong, Wei-King

    2017-07-01

    This study focuses on the empty container management problem in a deficit regional area. Deficit area is the area having more export activities than the import activities, which always have a shortage of empty container. This environment has challenged the trading companies in the decision making in distributing the empty containers. A simulation model that fit to the environment is developed. Besides, a simple heuristic algorithm with some hard and soft constraints consideration are proposed to plan the logistic of empty container supply. Then, the feasible route with the minimum cost will be determined by applying the proposed heuristic algorithm. The heuristic algorithm can be divided into three main phases which are data sorting, data assigning and time window updating.

  19. Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service's National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed...

  20. Fast Evaluation of the Reliability of Container Securing Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    of container failures are considered including racking and corner post failure. The associated probability of failure is determined using a FORM approach. The procedure can easily be programmed in a simple spreadsheet and the calculation time is very short due to the use of analytical transfer functions...