WorldWideScience

Sample records for container utilization

  1. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns.

  2. Container Inspection Utilizing 14 MeV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Obhodas, Jasmina

    2016-06-01

    A proposal for an autonomous and flexible ship container inspection system is presented. This could be accomplished by the incorporation of an inspection system on various container transportation devices (straddle carriers, yard gentry cranes, automated guided vehicles, trailers). The configuration is terminal specific and it should be defined by the container terminal operator. This enables that no part of the port operational area is used for inspection. The inspection scenario includes container transfer from ship to transportation device with the inspection unit mounted on it. The inspection is performed during actual container movement to the container location. A neutron generator without associated alpha particle detection is used. This allows the use of higher neutron intensities (5 × 109 - 1010 n/s in 4π). The inspected container is stationary in the “inspection position” on the transportation device while the “inspection unit” moves along its side. The following analytical methods will be used simultaneously: neutron radiography, X-ray radiography, neutron activation analysis, (n, γ) and (n,n'γ) reactions, neutron absorption. and scattering, X-ray backscattering. The neutron techniques will utilize “smart collimators” for neutrons and gamma rays, both emitted and detected. The inspected voxel is defined by the intersection of the neutron generator and the detectors solid angles. The container inspection protocol is based on identification of discrepancies between the cargo manifest, elemental “fingerprint” and radiography profiles. In addition, the information on container weight is obtained during the container transport and screening by measuring of density of material in the container.

  3. A flexible micro biofuel cell utilizing hydrogel containing ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hideaki; Fukushi, Yudai; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a biofuel cell with a dimension of 13×24 mm2 fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate. I its porous carbon-coated platinum (Pt) electrodes of 3 mm in width and 10 mm in length were fabricated using photolithography and screen printing techniques. Porous carbon was deposited by screen printing of carbon black ink on the Pt electrode surfaces in order to increase the effective electrode surface area and to absorb more enzymes on the electrode surfaces. It utilizes a solidified ascorbic acid (AA) aqueous solution in an agarose hydrogel to increase the portability. The maximum power and power density for the biofuel cell with the fuel unit containing 100 mM AA were 0.063 μW and 0.21 μW/cm2 at 0.019 V, respectively.

  4. A flexible micro biofuel cell utilizing hydrogel containing ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hideaki; Fukushi, Yudai; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a biofuel cell with a dimension of 13×24 mm 2 fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate. I its porous carbon-coated platinum (Pt) electrodes of 3 mm in width and 10 mm in length were fabricated using photolithography and screen printing techniques. Porous carbon was deposited by screen printing of carbon black ink on the Pt electrode surfaces in order to increase the effective electrode surface area and to absorb more enzymes on the electrode surfaces. It utilizes a solidified ascorbic acid (AA) aqueous solution in an agarose hydrogel to increase the portability. The maximum power and power density for the biofuel cell with the fuel unit containing 100 mM AA were 0.063 μW and 0.21 μW/cm 2 at 0.019 V, respectively

  5. Utilization of keratin-containing biowaste to produce biohydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, B.; Rakhely, G.; Kovacs, K.L. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics; Bagi, Z.; Perei, K. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Toth, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics

    2005-12-01

    A two-stage fermentation system was constructed to test and demonstrate the feasibility of biohydrogen generation from keratin-rich biowaste. We isolated a novel aerobic Bacillus strain (Bacillus licheniformis KK1) that displays outstanding keratinolytic activity. The isolated strain was employed to convert keratin-containing biowaste into a fermentation product that is rich in amino acids and peptides. The process was optimized for the second fermentation step, in which the product of keratin fermentation-supplemented with essential minerals-was metabolized by Thermococcus litoralis, an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon. T. litoralis grew on the keratin hydrolysate and produced hydrogen gas as a physiological fermentation byproduct. Hyperthermophilic cells utilized the keratin hydrolysate in a similar way as their standard nutrient, i.e., bacto-peptone. The generalization of the findings to protein-rich waste treatment and production of biohydrogen is discussed and possible means of further improvements are listed. (orig.)

  6. The possibilities of the microwave utilization of wastes on the example of materials containing the asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pigiel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper introduce some of the results of the investigations in the utilization of the materials containing asbestos in the existingin Wroclaw University of Technology Institute’s of Technology of Machines and the Automation Foundry and Automation Group themicrowave reactor. In the reactor’s heating chamber there is possible to recycle from 3 up to 5 kg of the batch at once. The temperaturewith which is possible to receive in it is approx. 1400 oC. The time of it’s achievement (in dependence from utilized material can take outfrom 25 up to 40 minutes.

  7. Integrated biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization in an anaerobic reactor containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion, is mainly used in a gas motor for heat and electricity production. However, after removal of CO2, biogas can be upgraded to natural gas quality, giving more utilization possibilities, such as utilization as autogas, or distant utilization by using...... the existing natural gas grid. The current study presents a new biological method for biogas upgrading in a separate biogas reactor, containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and fed with biogas and hydrogen. Both mesophilic- and thermophilic anaerobic cultures were enriched to convert CO2 to CH4...... by addition of H2. Enrichment at thermophilic temperature (55°C) resulted in CO2 and H2 bioconversion rate of 320 mL CH4/(gVSS h), which was more than 60% higher than that under mesophilic temperature (37°C). Different dominant species were found at mesophilic- and thermophilic-enriched cultures, as revealed...

  8. Utility-DOE interface considerations of the universal container systems concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, R.; Smith, M.; Jordan, J.; Supko, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the utility-DOE interface issues that must be addressed by the DOE, the utility industry, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) prior to implementation of a universal container system (UCS) as an alternative to the current Reference Waste Management System. A brief background is presented discussing the reasons a UCS appears to benefit the waste management system, including a reduction in spent fuel handling, simplified DOE storage and transportation systems, and simplified repository design and operation. In December 1992, the Secretary of Energy announced that the current negotiated siting process is not expected to lead to an operational monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility by January 1998. Therefore, DOE outlined a strategy for initiating spent fuel acceptance from utilities in 1998 that includes the use of federal government sites for interim storage and the development of the UCS concept

  9. Utilization of crushed radioactive concrete for mortar to fill waste container void space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko; Oguri, Daiichiro; Ueki, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Minimizing the volume of radioactive waste generated during dismantling of nuclear power plants is a matter of great importance. In Japan waste forms buried in a shallow burial disposal facility as low level radioactive waste must be solidified by cement or other materials with adequate strength and must provide no harmful opening. The authors have developed an improved method to minimize radioactive waste volume by utilizing radioactive concrete for fine aggregate for mortars to fill void space in waste containers. Tests were performed with pre-placed concrete waste and with filling mortar using recycled fine aggregate produced from concrete. It was estimated that the improved method substantially increases the waste fill ratio in waste containers, thereby decreasing the total volume of disposal waste. (author)

  10. Modeling and optimization of a utility system containing multiple extractions steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2011-01-01

    Complex turbines with multiple controlled and/or uncontrolled extractions are popularly used in the processing industry and cogeneration plants to provide steam of different levels, electric power, and driving power. To characterize thermodynamic behavior under varying conditions, nonlinear mathematical models are developed based on energy balance, thermodynamic principles, and semi-empirical equations. First, the complex turbine is decomposed into several simple turbines from the controlled extraction stages and modeled in series. THM (The turbine hardware model) developing concept is applied to predict the isentropic efficiency of the decomposed simple turbines. Stodola's formulation is also used to simulate the uncontrolled extraction steam parameters. The thermodynamic properties of steam and water are regressed through linearization or piece-wise linearization. Second, comparison between the simulated results using the proposed model and the data in the working condition diagram provided by the manufacturer is conducted over a wide range of operations. The simulation results yield small deviation from the data in the working condition diagram where the maximum modeling error is 0.87% among the compared seven operation conditions. Last, the optimization model of a utility system containing multiple extraction turbines is established and a detailed case is analyzed. Compared with the conventional operation strategy, a maximum of 5.47% of the total operation cost is saved using the proposed optimization model. -- Highlights: → We develop a complete simulation model for steam turbine with multiple extractions. → We test the simulation model using the performance data of commercial turbines. → The simulation error of electric power generation is no more than 0.87%. → We establish a utility system operational optimization model. → The optimal industrial operation scheme featured with 5.47% of cost saving.

  11. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Ledakowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h of dewatered sludge. The pilot plant was mounted in a typical mobile container which could provide service to small and medium wastewater treatment plants offering thermal processing of sewage sludge. This unit consists of KENKI contact dryer and „Spirajoule”® pyrolyser supplied with electricity utilizing the Joule effect, and a boiler, wherein the pyrolysis gases and volatile products are burned producing steam sent to the contact dryer. The bio-char produced during sludge pyrolysis could be utilized for agriculture purposes. During preliminary experiments and short-term exploitation of the unit at Elbląg Wastewater Treatment Plant the obtained results allowed us to make a mass and energy balance depended on the process conditions in the pyrolysis temperature range of 400÷800 °C. Based on the obtained results a calculator was created in the Excel , which enables assessment of pyrolysis products content and making mass and energy balances depended on process parameters such as initial moisture of sludge, pyrolysis temperature and installation output.

  12. Installing a HDPE vertical containment and collection system in one pass utilizing a deep trencher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchino, W.M.; Burson, B.

    1997-01-01

    A unique method has been developed to install high density polyethylene (HDPE) vertical containment panels and a horizontal collection system for the containment and collection of contaminated groundwater. Unlike other means of creating this type of system, this barrier wall and collection system is installed in one step and in one narrow trench, utilizing a one-pass deep trencher. Originally HDPE vertical barriers were installed using conventional slurry trenching techniques. Use of this method raised questions of trench stability and disposal costs for the trench spoils. In addition, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells were required. In response to these concerns, a trenchless vibratory installation method was developed. Although this method addressed the concerns of trench stability and disposal costs, it raised a whole new set of concerns dealing with drivable soil conditions, buried debris and obstructions. Again, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells had to be installed. The latest development, the one-pass, deep trencher, has eliminated or significantly reduced the previously discussed construction concerns. The trencher methods reduce the amount of spoils generated because a trench width of 61 cm (24 inches) is constantly maintained by the machine. Additionally, soil classification and density are not as critical as with a vibratory installation. This is due to the trencher's ability to trench in all but the hardest of materials (blow counts exceeding 35 blows/ft). Finally, the cost to add a collection system adjacent to the cutoff wall is substantially reduced and is limited only to the cost of the additional hydraulic fill and 4 inches HDPE collection piping. The trench itself is already constructed with the installation of the wall

  13. Preparation of Microcapsules Containing β-Carotene with Thermo Sensitive Curdlan by Utilizing Reverse Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Taguchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to microencapsulate β-carotene with curdlan of a thermogelation type polysaccharide. Microcapsules were prepared by utilizing reverse dispersion, in which salada oil was the continuous phase (O’ and the curdlan water slurry (W was the dispersed phase. β-carotene (O as a core material was broken into fine oil droplets in the dispersed phase to form the (O/W dispersion. The (O/W dispersion was poured in the continuous phase (O’ and stirred to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion at room temperature and then, temperature of the dispersion was raised to 80 °C to prepare curdlan-microcapusles containing β-carotene. In this microencapsulation process, the concentrations of curdlan and oil soluble surfactant and the impeller speed to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion were mainly changed stepwise. We were able to prepare microcapsules by the microencapsulation method adopted here. The content of core material was increased with the curdlan concentration and decreased with the impeller speed and the oil soluble surfactant concentration. With the curdlan concentration, the drying rate of microcapsules was decreased and the retention ability for water was increased due to the stable preservation of β-carotene.

  14. Preparation of Microcapsules Containing β-Carotene with Thermo Sensitive Curdlan by Utilizing Reverse Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Yoshinari; Ono, Fumiyasu; Tanaka, Masato

    2013-01-01

    We have tried to microencapsulate β-carotene with curdlan of a thermogelation type polysaccharide. Microcapsules were prepared by utilizing reverse dispersion, in which salada oil was the continuous phase (O’) and the curdlan water slurry (W) was the dispersed phase. β-carotene (O) as a core material was broken into fine oil droplets in the dispersed phase to form the (O/W) dispersion. The (O/W) dispersion was poured in the continuous phase (O’) and stirred to form the (O/W)/O’ dispersion at room temperature and then, temperature of the dispersion was raised to 80 °C to prepare curdlan-microcapusles containing β-carotene. In this microencapsulation process, the concentrations of curdlan and oil soluble surfactant and the impeller speed to form the (O/W)/O’ dispersion were mainly changed stepwise. We were able to prepare microcapsules by the microencapsulation method adopted here. The content of core material was increased with the curdlan concentration and decreased with the impeller speed and the oil soluble surfactant concentration. With the curdlan concentration, the drying rate of microcapsules was decreased and the retention ability for water was increased due to the stable preservation of β-carotene. PMID:24300565

  15. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  16. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  17. Biomimetic peptide-based models of [FeFe]-hydrogenases: utilization of phosphine-containing peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Souvik [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Arizona State University; Tempe, USA; Nguyen, Thuy-Ai D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Arizona State University; Tempe, USA; Gan, Lu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Arizona State University; Tempe, USA; Jones, Anne K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Arizona State University; Tempe, USA

    2015-01-01

    Peptide based models for [FeFe]-hydrogenase were synthesized utilizing unnatural phosphine-amino acids and their electrocatalytic properties were investigated in mixed aqueous-organic solvents.

  18. Utilization Of Diets Containing Cashew-Nut Reject Meal By Weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to assess the performance and digestibility of weaner pigs fed diets containing cashew nut reject meal (CNM). A control diet was formulated without cashew nut reject meal while two other diets were also formulated to contain either 50g or 100g/kg diet. The CNM replaced soybean meal in the control ...

  19. Physical experiments on the utility of non-iodine-containing contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, H.; Burmester, U.; Stringaris, K.; Jentsch, F.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the excellent ability of the CT scanner in analyzing absorption, the use of non-iodine-containing contrast media will be discussed. Experimental studies of the chemical elements with the atomic number Z = 1-83 with a scan tension of 120 kV were made to determine how many atoms of a given element are necessary to replace one iodine atom in an iodine-containing contrast medium, whereby the same contrast enhancement in the scan picture as with the iodine-containing contrast medium is produced. (orig.) 891 ORU/orig. 892 MB [de

  20. The utilization of endopower β in commercial feed which contains palm kernel cake on performance of broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, S. S. A.; Tafsin, M.; Ginting, S. P.; Khairani, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Palm kernel cake is an agricultural waste that can be used as raw material in the preparation of poultry rations. The design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Level endopower β used 0 % (R0), 0.02% (R1), 0.04% (R2) and 0.06% (R3). The results showed that R0a and R0b were significantly different from R3 in terms of diet consumption, body weight gain and the conversion ratio The utilization of endopower β in commercial diets containing palm kernel cake in broilers can increase body weight gain, feed consumption, improve feed use efficiency and even energy. It is concluded that utilization endpower β improve performances of broiler chicken fed by diet containing palm kernel cake.

  1. Utilization of ruthenium volatilization at heating of residue containing phosphates and nitrates for ruthenium separation and for its qualitative proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The volatility of ruthenium during the heating of a residue after evaporation of a solution containing ruthenium, phosphates and nitrates may be utilized for the separation of ruthenium from various substances. Sup(103,106) Ru may be rapidly, selectively, and quantitatively separated from fission products mixture. Ruthenium may be also separated in this way from various inorganic salts or from biological material. The volatility of ruthenium may be used also for its qualitative proof. (author)

  2. Expanding the Strained Alkyne Toolbox: Generation and Utility of Oxygen-Containing Strained Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tejas K; Medina, Jose M; Garg, Neil K

    2016-04-13

    We report synthetic methodology that permits access to two oxacyclic strained intermediates, the 4,5-benzofuranyne and the 3,4-oxacyclohexyne. In situ trapping of these intermediates affords an array of heterocyclic scaffolds by the formation of one or more new C-C or C-heteroatom bonds. Experimentally determined regioselectivities were consistent with predictions made using the distortion/interaction model and were also found to be greater compared to selectivities seen in the case of trapping experiments of the corresponding N-containing intermediates. These studies demonstrate the synthetic versatility of oxacyclic arynes and alkynes for the synthesis of functionalized heterocycles, while further expanding the scope of the distortion/interaction model. Moreover, these efforts underscore the value of harnessing strained heterocyclic intermediates as a unique approach to building polycyclic heteroatom-containing frameworks.

  3. Utilizing protein-lean coproducts from corn containing recombinant pharmaceutical proteins for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Moeller, Lorena; Scott, M Paul; Wang, Kan; Glatz, Charles E; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2010-10-13

    Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were evaluated as a potential feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. The levels of residual r-proteins in the coproduct, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein (r-GFP) and a recombinant subunit vaccine of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (r-LTB), primarily expressed in endosperm, and another two corn lines containing recombinant human collagen (r-CIα1) and r-GFP, primarily expressed in germ, were used as model systems. The kernels were either ground and used for fermentation or dry fractionated to recover germ-rich fractions prior to grinding for fermentation. The finished beers of whole ground kernels and r-protein-spent endosperm solids contained 127-139 and 138-155 g/L ethanol concentrations, respectively. The ethanol levels did not differ among transgenic and normal corn feedstocks, indicating the residual r-proteins did not negatively affect ethanol production. r-Protein extraction and germ removal also did not negatively affect fermentation of the remaining mass. Most r-proteins were inactivated during the mashing process used to prepare corn for fermentation. No functionally active r-GFP or r-LTB proteins were found after fermentation of the r-protein-spent solids; however, a small quantity of residual r-CIα1 was detected in DDGS, indicating that the safety of DDGS produced from transgenic grain for r-protein production needs to be evaluated for each event. Protease treatment during fermentation completely hydrolyzed the residual r-CIα1, and no residual r-proteins were detectable in DDGS.

  4. Neutron dosimetry in containment of a pressurized water reactor utilizing the Panasonic UD-802 dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralick, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Panasonic UD-802 dosimeter was evaluated as a potential neutron dosimeter for use in containment of a PWR. The Panasonic UD-802 dosimeter, although designed as a beta and gamma dosimeter, is also sensitive to neutrons. UD-802 dosimeters were mounted on polyethylene phantoms and irradiated to known doses at selected locations in containment. The known neutron dose equivalents were determined based on remmeter dose rate measurements and stay times. The thermoluminescent response of the dosimeters and the known neutron dose equivalents were used to obtain a calibration factor at each location. The average calibration factor was 3.7 (unit of dosimeter response per mrem) and all calibration factors were within +-30% of this mean value. The dosimeter distance from the phantom was found to have minimal effect on the response but the system was directionally dependent, necessitating a correction in the calibration factor. The minimum significant dosimeter response was determined independent of any calibration factor. The minimum significant response of the UD-802 to neutrons is a function of the corresponding gamma exposure rate. It is concluded that the Panasonic UD-802 dosimeter can be used for neutron dosimetry in PWR containment

  5. Utilization of different waste proteins to create a novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Li; Zhao, Jianshu; Huang, Rong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins, while many waste proteins are haphazardly disposed, causing serious environmental pollution. In this study, several waste proteins were used as additives to assist with the reproduction of the functional microbe (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9) inoculated into matured composts to produce BIOs. An optimized composition of solid-state fermentation (SSF) raw materials was predicted by response surface methodology and experimental validation. The results showed that 7.61% (w/w, DW, the same below) rapeseed meal, 8.85% expanded feather meal, 6.47% dewatered blue algal sludge and 77.07% chicken compost resulted in maximum biomass of strain SQR-9 and the maximum amount of lipopeptides 7 days after SSF. Spectroscopy experiments showed that the inner material structural changes in the novel SSF differed from the control and the novel BIO had higher dissolved organic matter. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste proteins for producing economical but high-quality BIO. PMID:25586328

  6. Utilization of different waste proteins to create a novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Li; Zhao, Jianshu; Huang, Rong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins, while many waste proteins are haphazardly disposed, causing serious environmental pollution. In this study, several waste proteins were used as additives to assist with the reproduction of the functional microbe (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9) inoculated into matured composts to produce BIOs. An optimized composition of solid-state fermentation (SSF) raw materials was predicted by response surface methodology and experimental validation. The results showed that 7.61% (w/w, DW, the same below) rapeseed meal, 8.85% expanded feather meal, 6.47% dewatered blue algal sludge and 77.07% chicken compost resulted in maximum biomass of strain SQR-9 and the maximum amount of lipopeptides 7 days after SSF. Spectroscopy experiments showed that the inner material structural changes in the novel SSF differed from the control and the novel BIO had higher dissolved organic matter. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste proteins for producing economical but high-quality BIO.

  7. Functionality and antidiabetic utility of β- and L-cell containing pseudoislets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Alastair D.; Vasu, Srividya; Flatt, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Unavailability of tissue and poor engraftment remain significant obstacles to clinical islet transplantation. Here, the therapeutic potential of pseudoislets generated from the insulin and GLP-1 releasing cell-lines MIN6 and GLUTag was investigated. Glucose and other secretagogues evoked 1.3–5.7 fold increases in insulin secretion from both pseudoislet types. Secretion expressed in relation to basal values did not greatly differ between configurations. Exposure of both types of pseudoislets to ninhydrin, H 2 O 2 , streptozotocin or cytokine cocktails decreased viability and increased apoptosis. However, combined pseudoislets exhibited enhanced resistance (1.2–1.7 fold increased LD 50, 1.2–1.4 fold decreased apoptosis). Implantation of pseudoislets into streptozotocin-diabetic SCID mice precipitated cell masses containing immunoreactive insulin and GLP-1. Implantation of both pseudoislet types was associated with significant reductions in blood glucose, increased plasma insulin, greater bodyweight, decreased polydipsia and improved glucose tolerance. These changes greatly exaggerated in MIN6 pseudoislet recipients, with mice becoming severely hypoglycaemic. In contract, combined pseudoislet recipients achieved tempered restoration of normoglycaemia and exhibited increased plasma GLP-1, decreased plasma and pancreatic glucagon, increased pancreatic insulin and enhancements in islet β:α cells and the ratio of Ki67: TUNEL positive β-cells. MIN6 pseudoislet implantation increased islet β:α cell ratio but did not affect β-cell proliferation or hormone content. Our observations highlight the potential of combining insulin and GLP-1 cell therapy using heterotypic pseudoislets.

  8. Functionality and antidiabetic utility of β- and L-cell containing pseudoislets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Alastair D.; Vasu, Srividya, E-mail: s.vasu@ulster.ac.uk; Flatt, Peter R.

    2016-06-10

    Unavailability of tissue and poor engraftment remain significant obstacles to clinical islet transplantation. Here, the therapeutic potential of pseudoislets generated from the insulin and GLP-1 releasing cell-lines MIN6 and GLUTag was investigated. Glucose and other secretagogues evoked 1.3–5.7 fold increases in insulin secretion from both pseudoislet types. Secretion expressed in relation to basal values did not greatly differ between configurations. Exposure of both types of pseudoislets to ninhydrin, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, streptozotocin or cytokine cocktails decreased viability and increased apoptosis. However, combined pseudoislets exhibited enhanced resistance (1.2–1.7 fold increased LD{sub 50,} 1.2–1.4 fold decreased apoptosis). Implantation of pseudoislets into streptozotocin-diabetic SCID mice precipitated cell masses containing immunoreactive insulin and GLP-1. Implantation of both pseudoislet types was associated with significant reductions in blood glucose, increased plasma insulin, greater bodyweight, decreased polydipsia and improved glucose tolerance. These changes greatly exaggerated in MIN6 pseudoislet recipients, with mice becoming severely hypoglycaemic. In contract, combined pseudoislet recipients achieved tempered restoration of normoglycaemia and exhibited increased plasma GLP-1, decreased plasma and pancreatic glucagon, increased pancreatic insulin and enhancements in islet β:α cells and the ratio of Ki67: TUNEL positive β-cells. MIN6 pseudoislet implantation increased islet β:α cell ratio but did not affect β-cell proliferation or hormone content. Our observations highlight the potential of combining insulin and GLP-1 cell therapy using heterotypic pseudoislets.

  9. Utilization of nitrogen and energy from diets containing protein and fat derived from either goat milk or cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz

    2009-11-01

    Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the

  10. Utilization of inulin-containing waste in industrial fermentations to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Qureshi, Nasib; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Jarodsky, Joshua M; Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Lindquist, Mitchell R

    2017-04-01

    Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. Inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. Plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. To utilize inulin as its carbon and energy source directly, a microorganism requires an extracellular inulinase to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds to release fermentable monosaccharides. Inulinase is produced by many microorganisms, including species of Aspergillus, Kluyveromyces, Penicillium, and Pseudomonas. We review various inulinase-producing microorganisms and inulin feedstocks with potential for industrial application as well as biotechnological efforts underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing inulin-containing crops. A multi-stage biorefinery concept is proposed to convert cellulosic and inulin-containing waste produced at crop processing operations to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as thermochemical treatments.

  11. The pyrolytic-plasma method and the device for the utilization of hazardous waste containing organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opalińska, Teresa [Tele and Radio Research Institute, Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Wnęk, Bartłomiej, E-mail: bartlomiej.wnek@itr.org.pl [Tele and Radio Research Institute, Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Witowski, Artur; Juszczuk, Rafał; Majdak, Małgorzata [Tele and Radio Research Institute, Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Bartusek, Stanilav [VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava − Poruba Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A first stage of the process of waste utilization consisted in pyrolysis of waste. • Then the pyrolytic gas was oxidized with a use of non-equilibrium plasma. • The device for the process implementation was built and characterized. • Correctness of the device operation was proven with a use of the decomposition of PE. • Usefulness of the method was proven in the process of utilization of EW. - Abstract: This paper is focused on the new method of waste processing. The waste, including hazardous waste, contain organic compounds. The method consists in two main processes: the pyrolysis of waste and the oxidation of the pyrolytic gas with a use of non-equilibrium plasma. The practical implementation of the method requires the design, construction and testing of the new device in large laboratory scale. The experiments were carried out for the two kinds of waste: polyethylene as a model waste and the electronic waste as a real waste. The process of polyethylene decomposition showed that the operation of the device is correct because 99.74% of carbon moles contained in the PE samples was detected in the gas after the process. Thus, the PE samples practically were pyrolyzed completely to hydrocarbons, which were completely oxidized in the plasma reactor. It turned out that the device is useful for decomposition of the electronic waste. The conditions in the plasma reactor during the oxidation process of the pyrolysis products did not promote the formation of PCDD/Fs despite the presence of the oxidizing conditions. An important parameter determining the efficiency of the oxidation of the pyrolysis products is gas temperature in the plasma reactor.

  12. Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Kids Fed Expander-extruded Complete Feed Pellets Containing Red Gram ( Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Reddy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A growth and digestibility study was conducted using Osmanabadi goat male kids by feeding complete diets in the form of mash or expander extruded pellets containing different levels of red gram (Cajanus cajan straw (RGS. Two iso-nitrogenous complete diets were prepared by incorporating RGS at 35% and 50% levels. Half the quantity of each complete mash feed was then converted into pellets through expander extruder processing. Thirty two kids of 4 to 5 months age were divided into four groups of eight each and were fed for 150 d with four experimental diets (T1: mash with 35% RGS, T2: mash with 50% RGS, T3: pellets with 35% RGS and T4: pellets with 50% RGS. Pelleting of complete diets significantly (p<0.001 increased the voluntary feed intake (671.45 vs 426.28 g/d at both levels of RGS in the feeds. Average daily gain (ADG, g/d also increased significantly (p<0.001 from 48.79 in kids fed mash diet to 71.29 in those fed with pelleted diets. Feed conversion efficiency (dry matter (DM intake: weight gain was comparable among all the treatment groups. Digestibility of nutrients was not affected by pelleting of the feeds whereas, increasing the level of inclusion of RGS in feeds from 35% to 50% decreased (p<0.05 the digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP resulting in lower (p<0.001 metabolizable energy (ME content (MJ/kg DM in feeds with 50% RGS (7.93 vs 8.75. Daily intake (MJ/kg BW−0.75 of ME decreased (p<0.05 in feeds containing 50% RGS while pelleting of feeds increased (p<0.05 the intake of DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP and ME. It is inferred that expander extruder pelleting can efficiently utilize RGS up to 50% level in complete diets for growing goat kids.

  13. Argonaute Utilization for miRNA Silencing Is Determined by Phosphorylation-Dependent Recruitment of LIM-Domain-Containing Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S. Bridge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As core components of the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC, Argonaute (AGO proteins interact with TNRC6 proteins, recruiting other effectors of translational repression/mRNA destabilization. Here, we show that LIMD1 coordinates the assembly of an AGO-TNRC6 containing miRISC complex by binding both proteins simultaneously at distinct interfaces. Phosphorylation of AGO2 at Ser 387 by Akt3 induces LIMD1 binding, which in turn enables AGO2 to interact with TNRC6A and downstream effector DDX6. Conservation of this serine in AGO1 and 4 indicates this mechanism may be a fundamental requirement for AGO function and miRISC assembly. Upon CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of LIMD1, AGO2 miRNA-silencing function is lost and miRNA silencing becomes dependent on a complex formed by AGO3 and the LIMD1 family member WTIP. The switch to AGO3 utilization occurs due to the presence of a glutamic acid residue (E390 on the interaction interface, which allows AGO3 to bind to LIMD1, AJUBA, and WTIP irrespective of Akt signaling.

  14. Biosensing hydrogen peroxide utilizing carbon paste electrodes containing peroxidases naturally immobilized on coconut (Cocus nucifera L.) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, J V B; Silva, R P; Serrano, S H P; Lima, A W O; Angnes, L

    2007-05-22

    A novel unmediated hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on the incorporation of fibrous tissue of coconut fruit in carbon paste matrix is presented. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were utilized to characterize the main electrochemical parameters and the performance of this new biosensor under different preparation and operation conditions. The resulting H2O2-sensitive biosensors respond rapidly (7 s to attain 90% of the signal), was operated at -0.15 V, presented linear response between 2.0x10(-4) and 3.4x10(-3) mol L(-1), the detection limit was estimated as 4.0x10(-5) mol L(-1). Its operation potential was situated between -0.2 and 0.1 V and the best pH was determined as 5.2. Electrodes containing 5% (w/w) of coconut fiber presented the best signal and their lifetime was extended to 3 months. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant KM(app) and Vmax were estimated to be 8.90 mmol L(-1) and 6.92 mmol L(-1) microA(-1), respectively. The results obtained for determination of hydrogen peroxide in four pharmaceutical products (antiseptic solution, contact lenses cleaning solution, hair coloring cream and antiseptic dental rinse solution) were in agreement with those obtained by the spectrophotometric method. An additional advantage of these biosensors is the capacity to measure hydrogen peroxide even in samples with relatively low pH. To demonstrate the enzymatic activity of the coconut tissue, a very simple way was created during this work. Coconut fibers were immersed in H2O2 solution between two glass slides. Sequential images were taken to show the rapid generation of O2, attesting the high activity of the enzymes.

  15. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing low reluctance rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and rollers including low reluctance rim structures. The magnetic field and the rollers help contain the molten metal from leaking out of the containment structure.

  16. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure.

  17. Algal sludge from Taihu Lake can be utilized to create novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Li, Rong; Cao, Liangliang; Shi, Juanjuan; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Yan; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake result in secondary environmental pollution due to annual refloatation. This study investigated the possibility to produce bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) using algal sludge as a solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium. Results showed that addition of algal sludge contributed to efficient SFF by a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain SQR9 and improved the nutrient contents in the novel BIO. The optimum water content and initial inoculation size were 45% and 5%, respectively. After 6 days of SSF, the biomass of strain SQR9 was increased to a cell density of more than 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1). Microcystins were rapidly degraded, and a high germination index value was observed. Plant growth experiments showed that the produced BIO efficiently promoted plant growth. Additional testing showed that the novel SSF process was also suitable for other PGPR strains. This study provides a novel way of high-value utilization of algal sludge from Taihu Lake by producing low-cost but high-quality BIOs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving the performance of cement-based composites containing superabsorbent polymers by utilization of nano-SiO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourjavadi, Ali; Fakoorpoor, Seyed Mahmoud; Khaloo, Alireza; Hosseini, Payam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano-SiO 2 fully compensates compressive but not flexural strength. ► Nano-SiO 2 has the major contribution both to yield stress and viscosity. ► Lower dosages of SAP could reduce viscosity and yield stress of pastes. -- Abstract: The application of superabsorbent polymer (SAP) as an internal curing agent for cement based composites results in benefits such as reduced autogenous shrinkage and cracking. However, a reduction in compressive and flexural strength usually occurs due to the empty voids remained in the matrix after deswelling of SAP particles. Nanoparticles are good candidates for improving the mechanical performance of cementitious materials, due to their multiple mechanisms of action, not the least their high pozzolanic activity. In the present work, the capability of amorphous nano-SiO 2 (NS) as the most widely used nanoparticle in cementitious materials, for retrieving mechanical properties of SAP-containing pastes was evaluated, and its impact on setting time and rheological properties was measured. It was found that small dosages of NS could offset the negative effect of SAP on compressive strength but flexural strength was not fully compensated. Optimization of the dosages of NS and SAP could reduce the negative influences on the yield stress and viscosity whilst improving mechanical performance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to monitor the changes in microstructure and composition.

  19. Influenza outbreak during Sydney World Youth Day 2008: the utility of laboratory testing and case definitions on mass gathering outbreak containment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J van Hal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza causes annual epidemics and often results in extensive outbreaks in closed communities. To minimize transmission, a range of interventions have been suggested. For these to be effective, an accurate and timely diagnosis of influenza is required. This is confirmed by a positive laboratory test result in an individual whose symptoms are consistent with a predefined clinical case definition. However, the utility of these clinical case definitions and laboratory testing in mass gathering outbreaks remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: An influenza outbreak was identified during World Youth Day 2008 in Sydney. From the data collected on pilgrims presenting to a single clinic, a Markov model was developed and validated against the actual epidemic curve. Simulations were performed to examine the utility of different clinical case definitions and laboratory testing strategies for containment of influenza outbreaks. Clinical case definitions were found to have the greatest impact on averting further cases with no added benefit when combined with any laboratory test. Although nucleic acid testing (NAT demonstrated higher utility than indirect immunofluorescence antigen or on-site point-of-care testing, this effect was lost when laboratory NAT turnaround times was included. The main benefit of laboratory confirmation was limited to identification of true influenza cases amenable to interventions such as antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous re-evaluation of case definitions and laboratory testing strategies are essential for effective management of influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings.

  20. Measurement of the radioactive concentration in consumer's goods containing natural uranium and thorium and evaluation of the exposure by their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Satou, Shigerou; Ohhata, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Ohyama, Ryutaro; Furuya, Hirotaka; Endou, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A number of consumer's goods which contain natural uranium and thorium are circulated in the familiar living environment. Based on various kinds of information sources, 20 kinds of these consumer's goods were collected and their radioactive concentrations were measured by using ICP-MS and Ge semiconductor detector. As this result, it was found that the concentrations of uranium and thorium in the consumer's goods used at home and industries were below 34 Bq/g and below 270 Bq/g, respectively. Next, the concentrations of daughter nuclides were not so different from the ones of uranium or thorium, which showed that the secular radioactive equilibrium held between both concentrations. In addition, the radiation exposures for public consumer were evaluated when four kinds of typical consumer's goods frequently used in daily life are utilized. The results computed by MCNP-4C code were below 250 μSv/y. (author)

  1. Process for assembly and transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a synthetic yeast artificial chromosome containing a multigene cassette to express enzymes that enhance xylose utilization designed for an automated pla

    Science.gov (United States)

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system ...

  2. Knowledge, access and utilization of bed-nets among stable and seasonal migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment area of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyo Than, Wint; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung; Owiti, Philip; Kumar, Binay; Deepak Shewade, Hemant; Zachariah, Rony

    2017-09-14

    Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characteristics, b) contact with health workers and information material, and c) household knowledge, access and utilization of bed nets. Secondary data from community-based surveys on 2484 migrant workers (2013 and 2014, Bago Region) were analyzed of which 37% were seasonal migrants. Bed net access and utilization were assessed using a) availability of at least one bed net per household, and b) one bed net per two persons, and c) proportion of household members who slept under abed net during the previous night (Indicator targets = 100%). Over 70% of all migrants were from unstable work settings with short transitory stays. Average household size was five (range 1-25) and almost half of all households had children under-five years. Roughly 10 % of migrants were night-time workers. Less than 40% of households had contact with health workers and less than 30% had exposure to information education and communication (IEC) materials, the latter being significantly lower among seasonal migrants. About 70% of households were aware of the importance of insecticide-treated bed-nets/long-lasting insecticidal nets (ITNs/LLINs), but knowledge on insecticide impregnation and retreatment of ITNs was poor (Myanmar. Possible ways forward include frequent distribution campaigns to compensate for short transitory stays, matching household distributions to household size, enhanced information campaigns and introducing legislation to make mosquito repellents available for night-time workers at plantations and farms

  3. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  4. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  5. Utilization of fungi for the production of amylolytic enzyme preparations used in the alcohol industry. Enzymic hydrolysis of the starch-containing raw materials used in the alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojocaru, C; Stoica, M

    1966-01-01

    The amylolytic activities of 2 Aspergillus oryzae strains and 2 A. niger strains were investigated in submerged cultures, in order to evaluate the possibility of their utilization in ethanol manufacture as substitutes for malt. Prelimnary laboratory experiments showed a 1.8-3.8% higher ethanol yield by using fungi cultures as compared with malt. On wheat or brain-cereal mash medium, A. niger showed a higher amylolytic activity than A. oryzae.

  6. Effects of diet on resource utilization by a model human gut microbiota containing Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, a symbiont with an extensive glycobiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P McNulty

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is an important metabolic organ, yet little is known about how its individual species interact, establish dominant positions, and respond to changes in environmental factors such as diet. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an artificial microbiota comprising 12 sequenced human gut bacterial species and fed oscillating diets of disparate composition. Rapid, reproducible, and reversible changes in the structure of this assemblage were observed. Time-series microbial RNA-Seq analyses revealed staggered functional responses to diet shifts throughout the assemblage that were heavily focused on carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. High-resolution shotgun metaproteomics confirmed many of these responses at a protein level. One member, Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, proved exceptionally fit regardless of diet. Its genome encoded more carbohydrate active enzymes than any previously sequenced member of the Bacteroidetes. Transcriptional profiling indicated that B. cellulosilyticus WH2 is an adaptive forager that tailors its versatile carbohydrate utilization strategy to available dietary polysaccharides, with a strong emphasis on plant-derived xylans abundant in dietary staples like cereal grains. Two highly expressed, diet-specific polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs in B. cellulosilyticus WH2 were identified, one with characteristics of xylan utilization systems. Introduction of a B. cellulosilyticus WH2 library comprising >90,000 isogenic transposon mutants into gnotobiotic mice, along with the other artificial community members, confirmed that these loci represent critical diet-specific fitness determinants. Carbohydrates that trigger dramatic increases in expression of these two loci and many of the organism's 111 other predicted PULs were identified by RNA-Seq during in vitro growth on 31 distinct carbohydrate substrates, allowing us to better interpret in vivo RNA-Seq and proteomics data. These

  7. Knowledge, access and utilization of bed-nets among stable and seasonal migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment area of Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Phyo Than, Wint; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung; Owiti, Philip; Kumar, Binay; Deepak Shewade, Hemant; Zachariah, Rony

    2017-01-01

    Background Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characterist...

  8. Water Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  9. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  10. Utilization of coal/biomass fly ash and bentonite as a low permeability barrier for the containment of acid-generating mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penney, K.; Mohamedelhassan, E.; Catalan, L.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The control and treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) in decommissioned mine sites is a major environmental challenge. In general, AMD has a low pH, high acidity, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals. This study investigated the use of coal/biomass fly ash (CBFA) and CBFA/bentonite mixtures as a low permeability seal to contain acid generating mine tailings and treat AMD. Although pure CBFA is effective as a reactive barrier to treat most toxic metals in AMD, its initial hydraulic conductivity exceeds the maximum regulatory requirement of 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. Therefore, 3 cases were investigated, notably CBFA only; CBFA amended with low percentages of bentonite; and layering of CBFA and CBFA amended with bentonite. Practical geoenvironmental applications for low permeability CBFA or bentonite/CBFA mixtures include a cap overlying reactive mine tailings, a containment pond liner, and a core in containment dams and dykes. Mixing 10 per cent by mass bentonite with CBFA decreased the hydraulic conductivity to 1 x 10 -7 cm/s or less throughout the entire permeation by water and AMD. The installation of a layer of pure CBFA upstream of the bentonite/CBFA mixture resulted in a further decrease in hydraulic conductivity over time by preventing the collapse of the bentonite double layer and promoting precipitation of gypsum and ettringite in the CBFA layer. The effluent from all tested bentonite/CBFA barriers met the regulatory requirements for chemical parameters, except for aluminum which was leached from the CBFA. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    We synthesized 26 Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26 Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26 Al and 27 Al equilibration and incorporate the 26 Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26 Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26 Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake

  12. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  13. A concept to combine DOE waste minimization goals with commercial utility needs for a universal container system for spent nuclear fuel storage, transportation, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falci, F.P.; Smith, M.L.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of storing, transporting, and disposing of spent fuel using a single package has obvious advantages. Coupling this concept with using contaminated scrap metal from the EM Complex will help reduce a significant portion of waste that would otherwise need to be packaged, stored, and disposed of as low level radioactive waste. Assuming a material of cost of $1 per pound for 800,000 tons of metal needed for universal containers, the potential material cost savings from manufacturing these containers from what would otherwise be a waste product is about $1.5 billion. Clearly, this concept is novel and has significant obstacles that need to be addressed and overcome; particularly in the regulatory arena. However, the potential benefits warrant the evaluation of the proposal on several fronts. DOE OCRWM should seriously consider the universal cask concept for management of spent fuel. DOE EM should pursue the development of melting contaminated scrap for the manufacture of casks. Finally, EM and OCRWM should cooperate on the evaluation of using EM contaminated scrap metal for the manufacture of universal casks for OCRWM spent fuel

  14. Model studies of the Cu(B) site of cytochrome c oxidase utilizing a Zn(II) complex containing an imidazole-phenol cross-linked ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Russell P; Pratt, Derek A; Jeffers, Jerry; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2006-07-21

    Cytochrome c oxidase, the enzyme complex responsible for the four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O, contains an unusual histidine-tyrosine cross-link in its bimetallic heme a3-CuB active site. We have synthesised an unhindered, tripodal chelating ligand, BPAIP, containing the unusual ortho-imidazole-phenol linkage, which mimics the coordination environment of the CuB center. The ligand was used to investigate the physicochemical (pKa, oxidation potential) and coordination properties of the imidazole-phenol linkage when bound to a dication. Zn(II) coordination lowers the pKa of the phenol by 0.6 log units, and increases the potential of the phenolate/phenoxyl radical couple by approximately 50 mV. These results are consistent with inductive withdrawal of electron density from the phenolic ring. Spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations (DFT) were used to establish that the cationic complex [Zn(BPAIP)Br]+ has an axially distorted trigonal bipyramidal structure, with three coordinating nitrogen ligands (two pyridine and one imidazole) occupying the equatorial plane and the bromide and the tertiary amine nitrogen of the tripod in the axial positions. Interestingly, the Zn-Namine bonding interaction is weak or absent in [Zn(BPAIP)Br]+ and the complex gains stability in basic solutions, as indicated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. These observations are supported by theoretical calculations (DFT), which suggest that the electron-donating capacity of the equatorial imidazole ligand can be varied by modulation of the protonation and/or redox state of the cross-linked phenol. Deprotonation of the phenol makes the equatorial imidazole a stronger sigma-donor, resulting in an increased Zn-Nimd interaction and thereby leading to distortion of the axial ligand axis toward a more tetrahedral geometry.

  15. Kinetics of dietary nitrogen utilization in cattle and buffaloes fed diets containing NPN salts, using15N as an isotopic tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhiman, T.R.; Arora, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrogen kinetics was compared in cow and buffalo calves (4 groups). Groups 1 and 3 were fed basal diet supplemented with urea (test diet 1) and group 2 and 4 were fed basal diet supplemented with urea plus ammonium sulphate (test diet 2). Dietary nitrogen metabolized to ammonia in the rumen was 50, 46, 40 and 37% in groups 1 through 4 respectively. Of the total dietary nitrogen, 67-70% was apparently digested in reticulorumen, of which 27, 34, 40 and 48% was used as amino acids and peptides, and the remainder 73, 66, 60 and 52% was degraded to ammonia in groups 1 through 4 respectively. On an average, 65% of the ammonia produced was irreversibly lost and 35% was recycled. Of the ruminal ammonia produced 21% was recycled within nitrogen pools. Higher incorporation of ruminal 15 NH 3 into suspended bacterial-N was observed in test diet 2 as compared to that in test diet 1. Per cent plasma urea-N and urinary-N derived from ruminal ammonia decreased in test diet 2 as compared to that in test diet 1. Better utilization of nitrogen from urea plus ammonium sulphate diets was thus ascribed to additional sulphur availability from ammonium sulphate and proper N : S ratio. (author). 5 tabs., 9 refs

  16. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  17. Gene ercA, encoding a putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase, is involved in regulation of ethanol utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut; Mern, Demissew S

    2013-09-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported.

  18. Utilization of High-Fructose Corn Syrup for Biomass Production Containing High Levels of Docosahexaenoic Acid by a Newly Isolated Aurantiochytrium sp. YLH70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying-Liang; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an agro-source product and has been the most commonly used substitute for sugar as sweetener in food industry due to its low price and high solution property. In this study, the F55 HFCS, rich in fructose and glucose, was first tested for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions as a mixed carbon source by a newly isolated Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70. After the compositions of the HFCS media were optimized, the results showed that the HFCS with additions of metal ion and vitamin at low concentrations was suitable for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions and the metal ion and sea salt had the most significant effects on biomass production. During the 5-l fed-batch fermentation, total HFCS containing 180 g l(-1) reducing sugar was consumed and yields of biomass, lipid, and DHA could reach 78.5, 51, and 20.1 g l(-1), respectively, at 114 h. Meanwhile, the daily productivity and the reducing sugar conversion yield for docosahexaenoic acid were up to 4.23 g l(-1)day(-1) and 0.11 g g(-1). The fatty acid profile of Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 showed that 46.4% of total fatty acid was docosahexaenoic acid, suggesting that Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 was a promising DHA producer.

  19. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  20. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  1. Fibre-concrete container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the fibre-concrete container for radioactive wastes is described. The fibre container is made of fibre-concrete that contains cement, aggregate, sand, filter, flame-silica, super-plastificator, water and scattered metal fibres. The fibre-concrete container has a dice shape with outer dimension 1.7 x 1.7 x 1.7 m. It is mounted of a container body, a container cover and two caps. Total weight of container is 4,240 kg, maximum weight of loaded container do not must exceed 15,000 kg. The physical and mechanical properties of the fibre-concrete container are described in detail. The fibre-concrete container manufactured for storing of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. A fibre-concrete container utilization to store of radioactive wastes solves these problems: increase of stability of stored packages of radioactive waste; watertightness within 300 years at least; static stability of bearing space; better utilization of bearing spaces; insulation of radioactive waste in a case of seismic and geological event; increase of fire resistance; and transport of radioactive waste

  2. Shielding container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  3. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  5. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and sealing...... means (10) wherein the engagement means (7) is adapted, via the sealing means, to seal the opening when the pressure of the container assembly differs from the ambient pressure in such a way that the central portion (5) flexes in the axial direction which leads to a radial tightening of the engagement...... means (7) to the container, wherein the container further comprises locking means (12) that can be positioned so that the central portion is hindered from flexing in at least one direction....

  6. Shielded container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  7. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  8. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Rika; Kawabe, Ryuhei.

    1989-01-01

    A venturi scrubber is connected to a nuclear reactor container. Gases containing radioactive aerosols in the container are introduced into the venturi scrubber in the form of a high speed stream under the pressure of the container. The radioactive aerosols are captured by inertia collision due to the velocity difference between the high speed gas stream and water droplets. In the case of the present invention, since the high pressure of the reactor container generated upon accident is utilized, compressor, etc. is no more required, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the aerosol removing device. Further, since no external power is used, the radioactive aerosols can be removed with no starting failure upon accidents. (T.M.)

  9. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  10. Sharps container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  11. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  12. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  14. Lightweight flywheel containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  15. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  16. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  17. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  18. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. CONTAIN calculations; CONTAIN-Rechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-08-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident `medium-sized leak in the cold leg`, especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  2. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  3. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  4. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  5. Improvements in or relating to containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a container for hydrogen isotopes and more particularly to a container which can be utilized to store, to ship and to dispense gases such as hydrogen isotopes which may be dangerous when released without control. (author)

  6. Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

    2014-03-25

    Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

  7. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  8. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  9. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  10. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  11. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  12. {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing {sup 26}Al as an aluminum tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokel, Robert A. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States) and Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)]. E-mail: ryokel@email.uky.edu; Urbas, Aaron A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Lodder, Robert A. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Selegue, John P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Florence, Rebecca L. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down ({approx}3000- and 850-fold) to prepare {approx}300-400 mg of each SALP. The {sup 26}Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize {sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al equilibration and incorporate the {sup 26}Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the {sup 26}Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was {approx}0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese {approx}0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, {approx}0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  13. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  14. Radioactive materials transporting container and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A container and vehicle therefor for transporting radioactive materials is provided. The container utilizes a removable system of heat conducting fins made of a light weight highly heat conductive metal, such as aluminum or aluminum alloys. This permits a substantial reduction in the weight of the container during transport, increases the heat dissipation capability of the container and substantially reduces the scrubbing operation after loading and before unloading the radioactive material from the container. The vehicle utilizes only a pair of horizontal side beams interconnecting a pair of yoke members to support the container and provide the necessary strength and safety with a minimum of weight

  15. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  16. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  17. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  18. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  19. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  20. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...

  1. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Tooru; Murase, Michio; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Hidaka, Masataka; Sumita, Isao; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a chamber in communication with a wet well of a pressure suppression chamber is disposed and situated to such a position that the temperature is lower than a chamber containing pool water upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident. In addition, the inner surface of the pressure suppression chamber is constituted with steel walls in contact with pool water, and an outer circumferential pool is disposed at the outer circumferential surface thereof. Further, a circulation channel is disposed, and a water intake port is disposed at a position higher than an exit to the pool water, and a water discharge port is opened in the pool water at a position lower than the exit to the pool water. With such a constitution, the allowable temperature of the pressure suppression pool water can be elevated to a saturated steam temperature corresponding to the resistant pressure of the container, so that the temperature difference between the pressure suppression pool and the outer side thereof is increased by so much, to improve thermal radiation performance. Accordingly, it can be utilized as a pressure suppression means for a plant of greater power. Further, thermal conduction efficiency from the pool water region of the pressure suppression chamber to the outer circumferential pool water is improved, or thermal radiation area is enlarged due to the circulation channel, to improve the heat radiation performance. (N.H.)

  2. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  3. Alternative pathways to antimatter containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejcek, J.M.; Browder, M.K.; Fry, J.L.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Antimatter containment is a gateway technology for future advancements in many areas. Immediate applications in propulsion, medicine, and instrumentation have already been envisioned and many others are yet to be considered. Key to this technological advance is identifying one or more pathways to achieve safe reliable containment of antimatter in sufficient quantities to be useful on an engineering and industrial scale. The goal of this paper is to review current approaches and discuss possible alternative pathways to antimatter containment. Specifically, this paper will address the possibility of designing a solid-state containment system that will safely hold antimatter in quantities dense enough to be of any engineering utility. A discussion of the current research, the needed engineering requirements, and a survey of current research is presented

  4. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  5. Container crane for sea freight containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttekes, E.; Rijsenbrij, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to a container crane for loading and unloading seaborne containers. The container crane comprises a bridge girder (7), a jib (8), at least two crabs (11, 12) which can travel along the said bridge girder and/or jib and are provided with hoist means for lifting and lowering the

  6. Continuous containment monitoring with containment pressure fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of the integrity of containments particularly but not exclusively for nuclear plants is dealt with in this invention. While this application is primarily concerned with containment monitoring in the context of the single unit design, it is expected that the concepts presented will be universally applicable to any containment design, including containments for non-nuclear applications such as biological laboratories. The nuclear industry has long been interested in a means of monitoring containment integrity on a continuous basis, that is, while the reactor is operating normally. 12 refs., 2 figs

  7. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  8. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong

    2010-01-01

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  9. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  10. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-15

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g{sup -1}, average value 14 Bq g{sup -1}). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g{sup -1} (average value 81 mBq g{sup -1}). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  11. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g -1 , average value 14 Bq g -1 ). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g -1 (average value 81 mBq g -1 ). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  12. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  13. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  14. SYMPAL: utilities guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The processing code SYMPAL is used to perform the data treatment for creating a new version of the European Activation File (EAF). The entire process is handled by different modules of the code in a sequential and orderly manner. The modular code system accesses, translates and processes cross section data from a wide variety of libraries and calculations with nuclear model codes. Two major data bases are accessed and merged so as to create a new library version. The Master Data File (MDF) contains the original cross section data extracted, unmodified but reformatted, from numerous sources. The Master Parameter File (MPF) contains a compilation of all physical information necessary to renormalise, split and internally validate any particular type of cross section. The combination of these two files generates a new activation library in pointwise and various groupwise formats. The SYMPAL utilities guide describes a set of programs developed to handle certain aspects of the procedure done outside of the main processing tasks. These include counting, translating, selecting and plotting data streams. Special printing and plotting procedures have been written to handle the large amounts of information present in activation libraries. (author)

  15. Empty Container Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Karmelić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast and effective reallocation of empty containers causes high costs and often represents an obstacle affecting the efficiency of port container terminals and inland carriers.In accordance with the above issue, this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the data concerning global container capacities and the roots of container equipment imbalances, with the aim of determining the importance of empty container management and the need for empty container micro-logistic planning at the spread port area.

  16. Empty Container Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jakov Karmelić; Čedomir Dundović; Ines Kolanović

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  17. FAUST/CONTAIN; FAUST/CONTAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-08-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Takenori.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a nuclear reactor container in which heat is removed from a container by external water injection. Heat is removed from the container by immersing the lower portion of the container into water and scattering spary water from above. Thus, the container can be cooled by the spray water falling down along the outer wall of the container to condensate and cool vapors filled in the container upon occurrence of accidents. Further, since the inside of the container can be cooled also during usual operation, it can also serve as a dry well cooler. Accordingly, heat is removed from the reactor container upon occurrence of accidents by the automatic operation of a spray device corresponding to the change of the internal temperature and the pressure in the reactor container. Further, since all of these devices are disposed out of container, maintenance is also facilitated. (I.S.)

  19. FFTF utilization for irradiation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles

  20. Self-folding micropatterned polymeric containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Anum; Laflin, Kate E; Jamal, Mustapha; Fernandes, Rohan; Gracias, David H

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate self-folding of precisely patterned, optically transparent, all-polymeric containers and describe their utility in mammalian cell and microorganism encapsulation and culture. The polyhedral containers, with SU-8 faces and biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) hinges, spontaneously assembled on heating. Self-folding was driven by a minimization of surface area of the liquefying PCL hinges within lithographically patterned two-dimensional (2D) templates. The strategy allowed for the fabrication of containers with variable polyhedral shapes, sizes and precisely defined porosities in all three dimensions. We provide proof-of-concept for the use of these polymeric containers as encapsulants for beads, chemicals, mammalian cells and bacteria. We also compare accelerated hinge degradation rates in alkaline solutions of varying pH. These optically transparent containers resemble three-dimensional (3D) micro-Petri dishes and can be utilized to sustain, monitor and deliver living biological components.

  1. Containment performance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckner, W.; Mitchell, J.; Soffer, L.; Chow, E.; Lane, J.; Ridgely, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) program has been one of the main elements in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) integrated approach to closure of severe accident issues for US nuclear power plants. During the course of the program, results from various probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies and from severe accident research programs for the five US containment types have been examined to identify significant containment challenges and to evaluate potential improvements. The five containment types considered are: the boiling water reactor (BMR) Mark I containment, the BWR Mark II containment, the BWR Mark III containment, the pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice condenser containment, and the PWR dry containments (including both subatmospheric and large subtypes). The focus of the CPI program has been containment performance and accident mitigation, however, insights are also being obtained in the areas of accident prevention and accident management

  2. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  3. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y. L. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Dick, W. A. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

    1998-06-30

    combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  4. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  5. Storage vessel for radiation contaminated container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakatani, Tadatsugu.

    1996-01-01

    In a storage vessel of the present invention, a plurality of radiation contaminated material containing bodies are vertically stacked in a cell chamber. Then, the storage vessel comprises a containing tube for containing a plurality of the containing bodies, cooling coils wound around the containing tube, a cooling medium circulating system connected to the cooling coils and circulating cooling medium, and a heat exchanger interposed to the cooling medium circulating system for removing heat of the cooling medium. Heat of the radioactive material containing bodies is transferred to cooling air and cooling coils by way of the container tube, thereby cooling the containing bodies. By the operation of circulating pumps in a cooling medium circulation system, the cooling medium circulates through a circulation channel comprising a cooling medium transfer pipes, cooling medium branching tubes, cooling coils and the heat exchanger, then heat of the cooling medium is transferred to a heat utilizing system by way of the heat exchanger to attain effective utilization of the heat. In this case, heat can be taken out stably even when the storage amount fluctuates and heat releasing amount is reduced, and improvement of heat transfer promotes the cooling of the containing bodies, which enables minimization of the size of the storage vessel. (T.M.)

  6. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  7. Nuclear reactor containment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the volume of a containment shell and decrease the size of a containment equipment for BWR type reactors by connecting the containment shell and a suppression pool with slanted vent tubes to thereby shorten the vent tubes. Constitution: A pressure vessel containing a reactor core is installed at the center of a building and a containment vessel for the nuclear reactor that contains the pressure vessel forms a cabin. To a building situated below the containment shell, is provided a suppression chamber in which cooling water is charged to form a suppression pool. The suppression pool is communicated with vent tubes that pass through the partition wall of the containment vessel. The vent tubes are slanted and their lower openings are immersed in coolants. Therefore, if accident is resulted and fluid at high temperature and high pressure is jetted from the pressure vessel, the jetting fluid is injected and condensated in the cooling water. (Moriyama, K.)

  8. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  9. Partiality and Container Monads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Tarmo; Veltri, Niccolò

    2017-01-01

    the relationship between containers and lifting monads. We show that the lifting monads usually employed in type theory can be specified in terms of containers. Moreover, we give a precise characterization of containers whose interpretations carry a lifting monad structure. We show that these conditions...

  10. AP1000 Containment Design and Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Richard F.; Ofstun, Richard P.; Bachere, Sebastien

    2002-01-01

    The AP1000 is an up-rated version of the AP600 passive plant design that recently received final design certification from the US NRC. Like AP600, the AP1000 is a two-loop, pressurized water reactor featuring passive core cooling and passive containment safety systems. One key safety feature of the AP1000 is the passive containment cooling system which maintains containment integrity in the event of a design basis accident. This system utilizes a high strength, steel containment vessel inside a concrete shield building. In the event of a pipe break inside containment, a high pressure signal actuates valves which allow water to drain from a storage tank atop the shield building. Water is applied to the top of the containment shell, and evaporates, thereby removing heat. An air flow path is formed between the shield building and the containment to aid in the evaporation and is exhausted through a chimney at the top of the shield building. Extensive testing and analysis of this system was performed as part of the AP600 design certification process. The AP1000 containment has been designed to provide increased safety margin despite the increased reactor power. The containment volume was increased to accommodate the larger steam generators, and to provide increased margin for containment pressure response to design basis events. The containment design pressure was increased from AP600 by increasing the shell thickness and by utilizing high strength steel. The passive containment cooling system water capacity has been increased and the water application rate has been scaled to the higher decay heat level. The net result is higher margins to the containment design pressure limit than were calculated for AP600 for all design basis events. (authors)

  11. Stowing the Right Containers on Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    ’s largest container vessels using standard mathematical programming techniques and off-the-shelf solvers. The presentation will provide basic insight into the domain, with pointers to further information that enable you to join in this promising new path of operations research and business....

  12. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  13. Passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  14. Group 4. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Keiser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the Containment Working Group which met at the Workshop on Radioactive, Hazardous, and/or Mixed Waste Sludge Management. The Containment Working Group (CWG) examined the problems associated with providing adequate containment of waste forms from both short- and long-term storage. By its nature, containment encompasses a wide variety of waste forms, storage conditions, container types, containment schemes, and handling activities. A containment system can be anything from a 55-gal drum to a 100-ft-long underground vault. Because of the diverse nature of containment systems, the CWG chose to focus its limited time on broad issues that are applicable to the design of any containment system, rather than attempting to address problems specific to a particular containment system or waste-form type. Four major issues were identified by the CWG. They relate to: (1) service conditions and required system performance; (2) ultimate disposition; (3) cost and schedule; and (4) acceptance criteria, including quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) concerns. All of the issues raised by the group are similar in that they all help to define containment system requirements

  15. Utility machinery vibration monitoring guide: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.T.; Thomas, C.C.

    1987-08-01

    Section I of this guide presents a methodology for developing machinery vibration monitoring programs specifically designed for application within the utility industry. The methodology is designed to enhance a monitoring program and can be used at the outset of program development or as a reference after programs have been started. Section I evaluates all aspects of the monitoring program, including Objectives and Goals, Information Type, Timing and Format, Data Analysis, Data Acquisition, Measurement and Transducer Selection, Personnel and Organization, Program Instrumentation, Program Costs, Program Justification, and Implementation of a Monitoring Program. The methodology is then applied to two host utility plants in Section II, which contains the monitoring programs developed by Gulf States Utilities and Philadelphia Electric Company using this guide. Section III contains the histories of several different types of existing utility monitoring programs. Some of the lessons learned, including the recommendations of these ''mature'' programs for persons starting new programs, are included

  16. MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske ampersand Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities

  17. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  18. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-09

    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  19. Reactor container structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshimi; Fukuda, Yoshio.

    1993-01-01

    A main container of an FBR type reactor using liquid sodium as coolants is attached to a roof slug. The main container contains, as coolants, lower temperature sodium, and high temperature sodium above a reactor core and a partitioning plate. The main container has a structure comprising only longitudinal welded joints in parallel with axial direction in the vicinity of the liquid surface of high temperature sodium where a temperature gradient is steep and great thermal stresses are caused without disposing lateral welded joints in perpendicular to axial direction. Only the longitudinal welded joints having a great fatigue strength are thus disposed in the vicinity of the liquid surface of the high temperature sodium where axial thermal stresses are caused. This can improve reliability of strength at the welded portions of the main container against repeating thermal stresses caused in vicinity of the liquid surface of the main container from a view point of welding method. (I.N.)

  20. High security container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.J.-M.; Monsterleet, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This invention concerns containments, vessels or tanks for containing and protecting products or installations of various kinds, to be called by the general denomination 'containers'. Such products can be, inter alia, liquids such as natural gas, ammonia, vinyle chloride and hydrocarbons. Far from just forming simple means of storage, the containers used for this must now be capable of withstanding fire, sabotage for instance rocket fire, even impacts from aircraft, earthquakes and other aggressions of the same kind. The particular object of this invention is to create a container withstanding all these various agressions. It must also be considered that this container can not only be used for storing products or materials but also for enclosing particularly dangerous or delicate installations, such as nuclear or chemical reactors [fr

  1. Definition of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1982-01-01

    Core meltdown accidents of the types considered in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's) have been predicted to lead to pressures that will challenge the integrity of containment structures. Review of a number of PRA's indicates considerable variation in the predicted probability of containment failure as a function of pressure. Since the results of PRA's are sensitive to the prediction of the occurrence and the timing of containment failure, better understanding of realistic containment capabilities and a more consistent approach to the definition of containment failure pressures are required. Additionally, since the size and location of the failure can also significantly influence the prediction of reactor accident risk, further understanding of likely failure modes is required. The thresholds and modes of containment failure may not be independent

  2. Radiological containment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to be used as a reference text. It is meant to be used by the working personnel as a guide for using temporary radiological containments. The installing group and health physics group may vary among organizations but responsibilities and duties will not change. It covers installation and inspection containments; working and operating guidelines; operating requirement; emergency procedures; and removal of containments

  3. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  4. Containment safety margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Objective of the Containment Safety Margins program is the development and verification of methodologies which are capable of reliably predicting the ultimate load-carrying capability of light water reactor containment structures under accident and severe environments. The program was initiated in June 1980 at Sandia and this paper addresses the first phase of the program which is essentially a planning effort. Brief comments are made about the second phase, which will involve testing of containment models

  5. Multicusp plasma containment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpaecher, R.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that plasma containment by a chamber having multi-pole magnetic cusp reflecting walls in combination with electronic injection for electrostatic containment provides the means for generating magnetic field free quiescent plasmas for practical application in ion-pumps, electronic switches, and the like. 1250 ''alnico v'' magnets 1/2 '' X 1/2 '' X 1 1/2 '' provide containment in one embodiment. Electromagnets embodying toroidal funneling extend the principle to fusion apparatus

  6. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  7. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  8. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  9. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  10. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  11. 236-Z canyon utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The 236-Z canyon contains equipment for repurification of plutonium and recovery of plutonium from scrap material. To meet production requirements of Fast Flux Test Facility/Clinch River Breeder Reactor oxide with the existing plant, several new pieces of equipment will be needed in the future. More storage space and a better accountability system are needed to support this increased production. The available canyon space needs to be utilized to its fullest in order to accommodate the new equipment. The purpose of this document is to identify the new pieces of equipment, show how they fit into the flowsheet, and locate them in the canyon

  12. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila's Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila's AssetLAN trademark asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN trademark technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed

  13. FAUST/CONTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-01-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  14. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  15. Tougher containment design goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrelly, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  16. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  17. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States

    2001-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

  18. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  19. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  20. US utility partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  1. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  2. Improvements in containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.

    1977-01-01

    An improved container is described for transporting radioactive materials, such as irradiated Magnox fuel elements. It has a lid fixed to the container body and at the corners of the lid has shock absorbers that project from the corners and have part-spheroidal shape. The centre of curvature of the surface of the spheroid is positioned within the lid, so that impact loads on a shock absorber tend to hold it to the container rather than dislodge it. The shock absorbers may be Al-Si alloy castings. (U.K.)

  3. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  4. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  5. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  6. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  7. NucleDyne's passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falls, O.B. Jr.; Kleimola, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A simple definition of the passive containment system is that it is a total safeguards system for light water reactors designed to prevent and contain any accidental release of radioactivity. Its passive features utilize the natural laws of physics and thermodynamics. The system encompasses three basic containments constructed as one integrated structure on the reactor building foundation. The primary containment encloses the reactor pressure vessel and coolant system and passive engineered safety systems and components. Auxiliary containment enclosures house auxiliary systems and components. Secondary containment (the reactor building), housing the primary and auxiliary containment structures, provides a second containment barrier as added defense-in-depth against leakage of radioactivity for all accidents assumed by the industry. The generic features of the passive containment system are applicable to both the boiling water reactors and the pressurized water reactors as standardized features for all power ranges. These features provide for a zero source term, the industry's ultimate safety goal. This paper relates to a four-loop pressurized water reactor

  8. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  9. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  10. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  11. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  12. Containment structure optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, S.; Walser, A.

    1979-01-01

    The major design features investigated are: dome shape, the prestress level provided to counteract accident pressure, the effect of diameter variation, and the design pressure used to size the containment. The optimum dome shape and optimum prestress level are used to investigate the effect of variations in diameter and design pressure on containment cost. The containment internal diameter is fixed at 150 feet for investigation of dome shape, prestress level and design prestress. A hemispherical dome containment with a prestress level of 1.25 P/sub a/ is recommended regardless of design pressure selected. A design pressure of 60 psi is recommended. No significant cost penalty is associated with diameter variation in the range of 145 to 155 feet

  13. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  14. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations avec les Pays hôtes

    2000-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

  15. Fusion impulse containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of impact fusion energy releases are not known sufficiently well to examine in detail specific containment vessel concepts or designs. Therefore it appears appropriate to formulate the impulse containment problem in general and to derive results in the form of explicit expressions from which magnitude estimates and parametric dependencies (trends) can be inferred conveniently and rapidly. In the following presentation we carry out this task using assumptions and approximations that are required to perform the analysis

  16. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  17. Perspectives and utilization technologies of chicory ( Cichorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring and developing multiple utility technologies of plant resources is an alternative way for improving the efficiency of land used for food and fuel production. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) has a nutritional quality comparable to lucerne as it contains similar proportions of protein, lipid, minerals and other nutrients.

  18. Utility portfolio diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffes, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses portfolio analysis as a method to evaluate utility supply decisions. Specifically a utility is assumed to increase the value of its portfolio of assets whenever it invests in a new supply technology. This increase in value occurs because the new asset either enhances the return or diversifies the risks of the firm's portfolio of assets. This evaluation method is applied to two supply innovations in the electric utility industry: jointly-owned generating plants and supply contracts with independent power producers (IPPs)

  19. Component nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  20. Nuclear reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Murase, Michio.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor containing facility, a condensation means is disposed above the water level of a cooling water pool to condensate steams of the cooling water pool, and return the condensated water to the cooling water pool. Upon occurrence of a pipeline rupture accident, steams generated by after-heat of a reactor core are caused to flow into a bent tube, blown from the exit of the bent tube into a suppression pool and condensated in a suppression pool water, thereby suppressing the pressure in the reactor container. Cooling water in the cooling water pool is boiled by heat conduction due to the condensation of steams, then the steams are exhausted to the outside of the reactor container to remove the heat of the reactor container to the outside of the reactor. In addition, since cooling water is supplied to the cooling water pool quasi-permanently by gravity as a natural force, the reactor container can be cooled by the cooling water pool for a long period of time. Since the condensation means is constituted with a closed loop and interrupted from the outside, radioactive materials are never released to the outside. (N.H.)

  1. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  2. Container for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    The improvement of the construction of containers for the transport of nuclear fuels is proposed where above all, the insulating mass suggested is important as it acts as a safeguard in case of an accident. The container consists of a metal casing in which there is a pressure boiler and a gamma-shielding device, spacers between the metal casing and the shielding device as well as an insulation filling the space between them. The insulating material is a water-in-resin emulsion which is hardened or cross-linked by peroxide and which can furthermore contain up to 50 wt.% solid silicious material such as vermuculite or chopped glass fibre. The construction and variations of the insulating mass composition are described in great detail. (HR) [de

  3. Container for liquefied gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, A J

    1967-05-18

    Containers for liquefied gases are of double-wall construction with a vacuum between the 2 walls; the upper end of the neck contains a vapor chamber and is equipped with means for withdrawing gas from the container. According to this invention, the vapor chamber is connected to a damping chamber by means of a choke line which has an internal diameter of at least 1.6 mm and a length equal to at least 52 times the diameter. The damping chamber has a volume of at least 5 cu cm and is larger than the outer part of the chamber. The interior length of the damping chamber is at least twice the diameter of the choke line. (5 claims)

  4. Subatmospheric double containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, D. Jr.; Noble, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A reinforced concrete double wall nuclear containment structure with each wall including an essentially impervious membrane or liner and porous concrete filling the annulus between the two walls is described. The interior of the structure is maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and the annulus between the two walls is maintained at a subatmospheric pressure intermediate between that of the interior and the surrounding atmospheric pressure, during normal operation. In the event of an accident within the containment structure the interior pressure may exceed atmospheric pressure, but leakage from the interior to the annulus between the double walls will not result in the pressure of the annulus exceeding atmospheric pressure so that there is no net outleakage from the containment structure

  5. Advanced Containment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  6. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  7. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable is described. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  8. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require that a dynamic capacity reduction factor be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are recommended. (orig.)

  9. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  10. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  11. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  12. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  13. Concrete containment integrity program at EPRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.; Tang, Y.K.

    1984-01-01

    Many in the nuclear power plant business believe that the catastrophic failure mode for reactor containment structures is unrealistic. One of the goals of the EPRI containment integrity program is to demonstrate that this is true. The objective of the program is to provide the utility industry with an experimental data base and a test-validated analytical method for realistically evaluating the actual over-pressure capability of concrete containment buildings and to predict leakage behavior if higher pressures were to occur. The ultimate goal of this research effort is to characterize the containment leakage mode and rate as a function of internal pressure and time so that the risk can be realistically assessed for hypothetical degraded core accidents. Progress in the first and second phases of the three-phase analytical and testing efforts is discussed

  14. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  15. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  16. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste

  17. Bellefonte primary containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyniec, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the reactor building primary containment structure at the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant involved several specialized construction techniques. This two unit plant is one of the nine nuclear units at six different sites now under construction by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The post-Tensioned, cast-in-place interior steel lined containment structure is unique within TVA. Problems during construction were identified at weekly planning meetings, and options were discussed. Close coordination between craft supervisors and on-site engineering personnel drew together ''hands-on''experience and technical background. Details of the construction techniques, problems, and solutions are presented

  18. Livet er en container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2008-01-01

    Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm.......Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm....

  19. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerville, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  20. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  1. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  2. Material containment enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures are described which are useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. In a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures. 3 figures

  3. Containment heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential

  4. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  5. Confinement contains condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Roberts, C. D.; Shrock, R.

    2012-01-01

    been viewed as constant empirical mass scales that fill all space-time, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical...

  6. Containers, facilitators, innovators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    : are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...

  7. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  8. Containing contraceptive costs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    April 2015, Vol. 105, No. 4. Containing contraceptive costs. There are about 7 billion people living on our planet. In many countries resources are strained and we seek to slow down the rate of population growth. There are obviously many factors that lead to rapid population growth. Contraceptive methods are an important.

  9. CONCRETE REACTOR CONTAINMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumb, Ralph F.; Hall, William F.; Fruchtbaum, Jacob

    1963-06-15

    The results of various leak-rate tests demonstrate the practicality of concrete as primary containment for the maximum credible accident for a research reactor employing plate-type fuel and having a power in excess of one megawatt. Leak-test time was shortened substantially by measuring the relaxation time for overpressure decay, which is a function of leak rate. (auth)

  10. Reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    A cooling space having a predetermined capacity is formed between a reactor container and concrete walls. A circulation loop disposed to the outside of the concrete walls is connected to the top and the bottom of the cooling space. The circulation loop has a circulation pump and a heat exchanger, and a cooling water supply pipe is connected to the upstream of the circulation pump for introducing cooling water from the outside. Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident, cooling water is introduced from the cooling water supply pipe to the cooling space between the reactor container and the concrete walls after shut-down of the reactor operation. Then, cooling water is circulated while being cooled by the heat exchanger, to cool the reactor container by cooling water flown in the cooling space. This can cool the reactor container in a short period of time upon occurrence of the loss of coolant accident. Accordingly, a repairing operation for a ruptured portion can be conducted rapidly. (I.N.)

  11. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  12. Tension tests of concrete containment wall elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.M.; Julien, J.T.; Russel, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    Tension tests of concrete containment wall elements were conducted as part of a three-phase research program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objective of the EPRI experimental/analytical program is twofold. The first objective is to provide the utility industry with a test-verified analytical method for making realistic estimates of actual capacities of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments under internal over-pressurization from postulated degraded core accidents. The second objective is to determine qualitative and quantitative leak rate characteristics of typical containment cross-sections with and without penetrations. This paper covers the experimental portion to the EPRI program. The testing program for Phase 1 included eight large-scale specimens representing elements from the wall of a containment. Each specimen was 60-in (1525-mm) square, 24-in (610-mm) thick, and had full-size reinforcing bars. Six specimens were representative of prototypical reinforced concrete containment designs. The remaining two specimens represented prototypical prestressed containment designs. Various reinforcement configurations and loading arrangements resulted in data that permit comparisons of the effects of controlled variables on cracking and subsequent concrete/reinforcement/liner interaction in containment elements. Subtle differences, due to variations in reinforcement patterns and load applications among the eight specimens, are being used to benchmark the codes being developed in the analytical portion of the EPRI program. Phases 2 and 3 of the test program will examine leak rate characteristics and failure mechanisms at penetrations and structural discontinuities. (orig.)

  13. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  14. Reactor container facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi; Nagasaka, Hideo.

    1990-01-01

    A dry-well pool for spontaneously circulating stored pool water and a suppression pool for flooding a pressure vessel by feeding water, when required, to a flooding gap by means of spontaneous falling upto the flooding position, thereby flooding the pressure vessel are contained at the inside of a reactor container. Thus, when loss of coolant accidents such as caused by main pipe rupture accidents should happen, pool water in the suppression pool is supplied to the flooding gap by spontaneously falling. Further, if the flooding water uprises exceeding a predetermined level, the flooding gap is in communication with the dry-well pool at the upper and the lower portions respectively. Accordingly, flooding water at high temperature heated by the after-heat of the reactor core is returned again into the flooding gap to cool the reactor core repeatedly. (T.M.)

  15. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio; Fujii, Tadashi; Susuki, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    A wet well space above a pressure suppression pool is divided into a first wet well on the side in contact with the pressure suppression pool and a second wet well on the side not in contact with the pool. Cooling water is contained in the second wet well and it is in communication with the first wet well by pipelines. Since steams flown into the second well are condensed in the cooling water, they continuously transfer from the first wet well to the second wet well, thereby capable of eliminating the effects of incondensible gases in the first wet well. With such procedures, the effect of the incondensible gases can be eliminated even without cooling from the outside of the reactor. Heat accumulation can be increased in a container of any material, so that thermal load on cooling circuits for removing after-heat can be mitigated. (T.M.)

  16. Nuclear steam system containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved containment used for radiation shielding and pressure suppression comprising a dry well includes a pressure vessel, a plurality of concentric wall means, said plurality of concentric wall means defining at least three annular regions about said dry well. A first annular region provides the containment used for radiation shielding, a second annular region is substantially dry, a third annular region provides a wet well for relieving fluid pressure released from the pressure vessel into the dry well. Pipe connection means extend in the wet well from the dry well, a pool of liquid is disposed to partially fill said third annular region, the upper end portion of the second and third annular regions having an enclosure, and a plurality of baffle plates extending vertically downward from said enclosure in said third annular region into said pool of liquid so as to circumferentially divide the upper portion of said third annular region into a plurality of circumferential upper portions

  17. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  18. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  19. BWR steel containment corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  20. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  1. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  2. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  3. Container for centrifuging blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narra, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A container is described for use in drawing patient's blood, centrifuging the blood and then labelling the separated red cells with sup(99m)Tc. It consists of a tube with a central chamber and a lower portion provided with an aperture in which a weir is supported and extends into the central chamber. The weir has a central channel. A resilient plug seals the aperture. (author)

  4. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  5. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Cables coverd with non-halogen covering material are used as electric wire cables wired for supplying electric power to a reactor recycling pump. Silicone rubber having specified molecular formula is used for the non-halogen covering material. As a result, formation of chlorine in a nuclear reactor container can be eliminated and increase in the deposited salts to SUS pipeways, etc. can be prevented, to avoid the occurrence of stress corrosion cracks. (H.T.)

  6. Materials designed for containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehl, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    The present article points out that high-tensile fine-grained steels have been used successfully in the construction of reactor containments, spherical gasometers, and pressure vessels. It has been confirmed that their use requires safety measures concerning lay out and production. Viscosity properties of high-tensile, fine-grained steels can be improved significantly by means of electroslag remelting. The extent to which this improvement influences the heat-affected zone is being examined. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Containment structure tendon investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.F.; Murray, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into the possible causes of lower-than-predicted tendon forces which were measured during past tendon surveillances for a concrete containment. The containment is post tensioned by vertical tendons which are anchored into a rock foundation. The tendons were originally stressed in 1969, and lift-off tests were performed on six occasions subsequent to this date over a period of 11 years. The tendon forces measured in these tests were generally lower than predicted, and by 1979 the prestress level in the containment was only marginally above the design requirement. The tendons were retensioned in 1980, and by this time an investigation into the possible causes was underway. Potential causes investigated include the rock anchors and surrounding rock, elastomeric pad creep, wire stresses, thermal effects, stressing equipment and lift-off procedures, and wire stress relaxation. The investigation activities included stress relaxation testing of wires pulled from actual tendons. The stress relaxation test program included wire specimens at several different temperature and initial stress levels and the effect of a varying temperature history on the stress relaxation property of the wires. For purpose of future force predictions of the retensioned tendons, the test program included tests to determine the effect on stress relaxation due to restressing the wires after they had relaxed for 1000 hours and 10,000 hours. (orig./GL)

  8. Container for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Imazu, Takayuki; Ueda, Sabuo; Ueya, Katsumi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To arrange a vapor trapping member of a specific structure at the inlet part of a cylindrical gap formed by the inner peripheral surface of the circular opening of a container and the outer peripheral surface of a rotary plug thereby to prevent ingress of vapor in the upper part of the cylindrical gap for a long period of time. Constitution: A sealing material receiving tray is fitted to the container side of the inlet part of a cylindrical gap, and a partition plate is fitted to the rotary plug side. The tray is filled with a sealing material consisting of a large number of steel balls, mesh wire gages and the like, and the partition plate is placed in the tray thereby to carry out sealing of the container. Liquid metal vapor evaporating from the liquid level of the liquid metal adheres to the sealing material to fill the gap, and therefore ingress of vapor to the upper part of the cylindrical gap is prevented, and there is no possibility of causing seal cutting due to the use for a long period. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. Octopus: LLL's computing utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Laboratory's Octopus network constitutes one of the greatest concentrations of computing power in the world. This power derives from the network's organization as well as from the size and capability of its computers, storage media, input/output devices, and communication channels. Being in a network enables these facilities to work together to form a unified computing utility that is accessible on demand directly from the users' offices. This computing utility has made a major contribution to the pace of research and development at the Laboratory; an adequate rate of progress in research could not be achieved without it. 4 figures

  10. Relations and Utilities Operation monthly report, September, 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1956-10-24

    This document contains the September 1956 management and operations statistics of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation (HAPO) for their ``Relations and Utilities Operations.`` This is a monthly report. (BN)

  11. Combinatorial discovery of enzymes with utility in biomass transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Brian G; Elsen, Nathaniel L

    2015-02-03

    Methods for the cell-free identification of polypeptide and polypeptide combinations with utility in biomass transformation, as well as specific novel polypeptides and cell-free systems containing polypeptide combinations discovered by such methods are disclosed.

  12. Solar energy for self-contained power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobov Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy relevance in self-contained utility system as well as economic feasibility for each class of consumers considered. The article will outline utilising features of self-contained photovoltaic stations in Middle East and Northern Africa.

  13. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  14. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  15. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  16. "Utilizing" signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-09-01

    What do inferring what a person is thinking or feeling, judging a defendant's guilt, and navigating a dimly lit room have in common? They involve perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling face might indicate anger or concentration, for which different responses are appropriate) and behavioral risk (e.g., a cost to making the wrong response). Signal detection theory describes these types of decisions. In this tutorial, we show how incorporating the economic concept of utility allows signal detection theory to serve as a model of optimal decision making, going beyond its common use as an analytic method. This utility approach to signal detection theory clarifies otherwise enigmatic influences of perceptual uncertainty on measures of decision-making performance (accuracy and optimality) and on behavior (an inverse relationship between bias magnitude and sensitivity optimizes utility). A "utilized" signal detection theory offers the possibility of expanding the phenomena that can be understood within a decision-making framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible block copolymers?are described along with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a technique utilized to develop well-defined functional thermo reversible block copolymers. The brief also focuses on Polyrotaxanes and their great potential as stimulus-responsive materials which produce poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based thermo reversible block copolymers.

  18. Containment condensing heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained

  19. Effects of increasing dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish. (Heterobranchus ... (Legendre, 1991) because of its taste, fast growth rate ..... diet containing 40% protein had high growth with low food intake and feed ... protein rate (45%) combined with a bad utilization of.

  20. Self-contained microfluidic systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Moss, Mitchell; Baratchi, Sara; Di Venere, Martina; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-08-16

    Microfluidic systems enable rapid diagnosis, screening and monitoring of diseases and health conditions using small amounts of biological samples and reagents. Despite these remarkable features, conventional microfluidic systems rely on bulky expensive external equipment, which hinders their utility as powerful analysis tools outside of research laboratories. 'Self-contained' microfluidic systems, which contain all necessary components to facilitate a complete assay, have been developed to address this limitation. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of self-contained microfluidic systems. We categorise these systems based on their operating mechanisms into three major groups: passive, hand-powered and active. Several examples are provided to discuss the structure, capabilities and shortcomings of each group. In particular, we discuss the self-contained microfluidic systems enabled by active mechanisms, due to their unique capability for running multi-step and highly controllable diagnostic assays. Integration of self-contained microfluidic systems with the image acquisition and processing capabilities of smartphones, especially those equipped with accessory optical components, enables highly sensitive and quantitative assays, which are discussed. Finally, the future trends and possible solutions to expand the versatility of self-contained, stand-alone microfluidic platforms are outlined.

  1. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Takeo; Ochiai, Kanehiro; Niino, Tsuyoshi; Kodama, Toyokazu; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structures suitable to a container structures for nuclear power plants used in those districts where earthquakes occur frequently, in which no local stresses are caused to the fundamental base portions and the workability for the fundamental structures is improved. Constitution: Basic stabilizers are attached to a nuclear reactor container (PCV) and a basic concrete recess for receiving a basic stabilizer is disposed in basic concretes. A top stabilizer is joined and fixed to a top stabilizer receiving plate at the inside of an outer shielding wall. On the other hand, a PCV top recess for conducting the load of PCV to the top stabilizer is attached to the top of the PCV. By disposing stabilizer structures allowing miner displacements at the two points, that is, the top and the lowermost portion of the PCV, no local stress concentrations can be generated to the extension on the axial direction of components due to the inner pressure of the PCV and to the horizontal load applied to the upper portion of the PCV upon earthquakes. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Definition of containment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Public Law 96-567 Nuclear Safety Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1980, directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide an accelerated and coordinated program for developing practical generic improvements that would enhance the capability for safe, reliable and economical operation of Light Water Nuclear Reactor Power Stations. The DOE approach to defining such a program will consist of two phases, (1) definition of program requirements and (2) implementation of the program plan. This paper summarizes the results of the program definition phase for the containment integrity function. The definition phase effort was carried out by two groups of knowledgeable technical experts from the nuclear industry, one of which addressed containment integrity. Tabulated in the paper are the issues identified by the working groups and their associated priorities. Also tabulated are those high priority issues for which ongoing programs do not appear to provide sufficient information to resolve the issue. The results of this review show that existing programs to a great extent address existing issues in a manner such that the issues should be resolved by the programs

  3. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  4. FY 1998 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. Effective industrial utilization of livestock and fish waste containing keratin and collagen using bio-recycling technology; 1998 nendo Bio recycling gijutsu ni yoru shigen junkangata sangyo no sozo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for the bio-recycling technology, in order to produce the extracts and enzymatically hydrolyzed products from unutilized protein-containing resources, e.g., pig skin and fish scale. This paper summarizes the FY 1998 results. This project uses fish scale and pig skin containing collagen protein, and feather meal containing keratin protein, as the major feedstocks. High-molecular-weight collagen is extracted from the pig skin, and applied to production of cosmetics. It is concluded that the extract is safe to the human skin, and can be commercialized as a stock for cosmetics. A low-molecular-weight oligopeptide is produced from fish scale by enzymatic hydrolysis. It is concluded that the oligopeptide can be commercialized as a stock for health foods, because of its anti-radical activity and function of decreasing blood pressure. The R and D efforts are also directed to development of calcium apatite, recovered from the de-ashed liquid, as the Ca source for health foods, and development of peptide, recovered from feather meal by enzymatic hydrolysis, as a stock for foaming agent. (NEDO)

  5. Storage Optimization for Export Containers in the Port of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Türsel Eliiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider a real-life export container storage problem at an important container terminal in the Port of Izmir, Turkey. Currently, the container storage decisions at the port are taken by operators manually, which leads to continuous unnecessary re-handling movements of the containers. High transportation costs, waste of time, and inefficient capacity utilization in the container storage area are the consequences of non-optimal decisions. The main goal of this study is to minimize the transportation costs and the number of re-handling moves while storing the export containers at the terminal yard. We formulate the problem in two stages. While the first stage assigns the containers of the same vessel to a group of yard bays via an optimization model, the second stage decides on the exact location of each container with the help of an efficient heuristic approach. The experimental results with real data are presented and discussed.

  6. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  7. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  8. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  9. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  10. Role of the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, A.

    1986-03-01

    It is common to say that a nuclear programme needs basic infrastructures such as an appropriate educational system, governmental organizations for regulation, decision and inspection, engineering organizations for design and implementation, industrial infrastructures for manufacturing, erection and commissioning, operation organizations for running and maintaining power plants. This schematic organization is not sufficient to succeed in a nuclear programme: one has to consider very carefully the attribution of responsibilities. It appears, that, among all the different systems which exist in the world for the organization of a nuclear project, it is always the utility which bears the overall responsibility for the implementation of the project. It defines objectives such as production capacity, schedule, price; it takes part in the definition of a national policy for energy supply, for the choice of a type of reactor, for the implementation of a national nuclear industry; it selects sites and conducts feasibility studies including a preliminary project; it participates in the definition of organization charts and selects contractors; it calls for and obtains authorizations from regulatory bodies; it manages the project, coordinates contractors and permanently ensures that goals are attained as regards safety, quality, schedule, costs. The French utility has directly taken charge of all these basic responsibilities and this is commonly considered as a major reason of the success of the French nuclear programme. Depending on its capacities, the utility may delegate some of these responsibilities - mainly concerning engineering and project management - to experienced firms. Nevertheless, one has to remember that the utility bears the final responsibility and that it is probably the organization most fully aware of the fact that the final goal is not the construction of a nuclear power station but the production of nuclear electricity in the best and safest conditions

  11. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  12. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  13. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  14. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1989-01-01

    Aerosol filters considered so far for nuclear reactor containers in conventional BWR type nuclear power plants make the facility larger and involve a risk of clogging. In view of the above, in the present invention, the diameter of a flow channel of gases entering from a bent pipe to a suppression pool is made smaller thereby decreasing the diameter of gas bubbles in the supperssional pool. Since this reduces the force of surface tension, the diameter of resulted gas bubbles is made remarkably smaller as compared with the case where the gases are released from the lower end of the bent pipe. Since the absorption velocity of bubble-entrained aerosols into water is in proportion to the square of the bubble diameter, the absorption efficiency can be increased remarkably by reducing the diameter of the gas bubbles. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the efficiency of eliminating radioactivity of released gases. (K.M.)

  15. AKAVI containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-08-01

    The AKAVI event was detonated in hole U2es of the Nevada Test Site as indicated. The device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 494 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 2, about 90 m above the standing water level and 300 m above the Paleozoic formation. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver. Detonation time was 07:00 PST on December 3, 1981 and 103 minutes later a surface collapse occurred leaving a crater with mean radius of 90.5 m and maximum depth of 19.5 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the AKAVI containment was considered successful.

  16. AKAVI containment data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-08-01

    The AKAVI event was detonated in hole U2es of the Nevada Test Site as indicated. The device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 494 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 2, about 90 m above the standing water level and 300 m above the Paleozoic formation. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes ampersand Narver. Detonation time was 07:00 PST on December 3, 1981 and 103 minutes later a surface collapse occurred leaving a crater with mean radius of 90.5 m and maximum depth of 19.5 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the AKAVI containment was considered successful

  17. Plutonium waste container identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmierer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the parameters of a method for identifying plutonium waste containers. This information will form the basis for a permanent committee to develop a complete identification program for use throughout the world. Although a large portion of the information will be on handwritten notebooks and may not be as extensive as is desired, it will all be helpful. The final information will be programmed into computer language and be available to all interested parties as well as a central control committee which will have the expertise to provide each government with advice on the packaging, storage, and measurement of the waste for which it is responsible. As time progresses, this central control committee should develop permanent storage sites and establish a system of records which will last for hundreds of years

  18. Reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro; Hayagumo, Sunao; Morikawa, Matsuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To safety and simplify the structure in a reactor containment vessel. Constitution: Steam flow channels with steam jetting ports communicating to coolants are provided between a communication channel and coolants in a pressure suppression chamber. Upon loss of coolant accidents, pressure in a dry well will increase, then force downwards water in an annulus portion and further flow out the water through steam jetting ports into a suppression pool. Thus, the steam flow channel is filled with steams or airs present in the dry well, which are released through the steam jetting ports into the pressure suppression chamber. Even though water is violently vibrated owing to the upward movement of air bubbles and condensation of steam bubbles, the annular portion and the steam jetting ports are filled with steams or the like, direct dynamic loads onto the structures such as communication channels can be avoided. (J.P.N.)

  19. Container for irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.

    1978-01-01

    The transport container for irradiated or used nuclear fuel is provided with an identical heat shield against fires on the top and bottom sides. Each heat shield consists of two inner nickel plates, whose contact surfaces are polished to a mirror finish and an outer plate of stainless steel. The nickel plate on the box is spot welded to it while the second nickel plate is spot welded to the steel plate. Both together are in turn welded so as to be leaktight to the edges of the box. For extreme heat effects and based on the different (bimetal) coefficients of expansion, the steel plate with the nickel plate attached to it bulges away from the box. The second nickel plate remains at the box, so that a subpressure space is formed with the mirror nickel surfaces. The heat radiation and heat conduction to the box are greatly reduced by this. (DG) [de

  20. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  1. ITER containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakov, S.; Fauser, F.; Nelson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the results and recommendations of the Containment Structures Design Unit (CSDU) on the containment structures for ITER, made in the context of the Conceptual Design Phase. The document describes the following subsystems: (1) the primary vacuum vessel (VV), (2) the attaching locks (AL) of the invessel components, (3) the plasma passive and active stabilizers, (4) the cryostat vessel, and (5) the machine gravity supports. Although for most components reference designs were selected, for some of these alternative design options were described, because unresolved problems necessitate further research and development. Conclusions and future needs are summarized for each of the above subsystems: (1) a reference VV design was selected, while most critical VV future needs are the feasibility studies of manufacturing, assembly, and the repair/disassembly/reassembly by remote handling. Alternative, thin-wall options appear attractive and should be studied further during the Engineering Design Activities; (2) no reference design solution was selected for the AL system, as AL design requirements are extremely difficult and internally contradictory, while there is no existing tokamak precedent, but instead, five different approaches will be further researched early in the Engineering Design Phase; (3) significant progress is reported on passive loops, for which the ''twin-loops'' concept is ready to be advanced into the Engineering Design Phase, and on active coils, where a new coil positioning prevents interference with the blanket removal paths, and the current joints are located in a secondary vacuum or in the atmosphere of the reactor hall, repairable by remote handling; (4) a full metallic welded cryostat design with increased toroidal resistance was chosen, but with a design based on concrete with a thin inner metallic liner as a back-up in case detailed nuclear shielding requirements would force the cryostat to act as biological shield; (5) out

  2. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  3. Evaluation of isotope utilizations in consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products are generally divided into three groups, according to the state of radioactive material or radiation used. First, there are those intentionally added with radioactive materials, such as self-luminous paints and ionization type smoke detectors, utilizing the ionization and excitation by radiation. Second, there are those utilizing natural radioactive materials like glaze. Third, there are those materials containing intrinsically natural radioactive materials. In the first group, the safety evaluation of self-luminous watches and clocks and the risk-benefit evaluation of ionization type smoke detectors are described, and the approval standards for the consumer products and the R/B evaluation method are explained. There are variety of consumer products utilizing radiation, by the exposure dose caused by them is extremely insignificant, far lower than that due to natural radiation. (J.P.N.)

  4. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman

    1935-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  5. Method of utilization of alum shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlerus, C G

    1908-07-04

    A procedure - by means of reducing smelting of bituminous alum shales in a closed furnace process with or without the use of additional fuel and without adding lime or other slag-forming material - to utilize the hydrocarbons and tar oils formed, and likewise the alkali, nitrogen, and sulfur compositions is given. This is accomplished by making these products follow the furnace gases, and later separating them from the gases by cooling for condensation. The patent contains one more claim.

  6. Evaluation of containment hydrogen and oxygen analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, H.R.; Stanley, L.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains information concerning operation and calibration of detectors utilized at US nuclear power plants for determining concentration of hydrogen and oxygen within the containment structure.A study was prompted by reports that several plants had experienced problems in operating, calibrating, and maintaining the detectors supplied by various vendors. A survey of all nuclear power plants was conducted to identify the specific problems. Discussions were held with key vendors concerning these problems. The major area of interest was centered around problems associated with calibration of the detectors. Many variations from plant-to-plant concerning calibration accuracies, calibration time periods, and frequencies were identified. Another area of prime consideration involved variations as to maintenance of the equipment. Some plants devoted considerable effort to in-house maintenance of equipment while others relied heavily on the vendor for such maintenance. A workshop was conducted with key utility and vendor personnel in attendance to discuss findings of the survey. It was resolved that a much improved coordinated effort between the vendors and utilities would be initiated as a means to resolve existing problems

  7. Utilization of Peanut Skin Extracts as Functional Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a by-product of the blanching industry that have not been utilized to their full potential. They have been found to contain significant quantities of compounds containing phenolic moieties such as catechins, procyanidins, and other polyphenols that have positive associations with h...

  8. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  9. From containment to ... syzygy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, H.M.

    1995-04-18

    The U S. is at an historic crossroads following the end of the Cold War. The old twin themes of containment and deterrence must now give way to a newer vision of the U.S. role as we approach the 21st century. This paper follows a visioning process requiring development of alternatives based on signposts, values and frameworks. Signposts are current domestic and global environments revealing a U.S. in economic trouble with budget and trade defidts, a falling dollar and multiplying peace operations at a time when Europe and Japan are becoming economic superpowers. Although U.S. values must be protected, economic competition requires increased emphasis on realpolitik. A balanced framework of internationalism and reduced multilateralism will suit the current environment and U.S. purposes. Recognizing that the U.S. must retain leadership to protect national interests, the vision unfolds as an alignment of major powers-a syzygy of purpose-with Europe, Japan, and the U.S. in a concert of power, sharing economic, political and military burdens to ensure world stability. Thus, the new U.S. role could be primus inter pares of a Pax Consortis with common interests and goals, allowing the U.S. time to restore its economic vitality.

  10. Containment and release management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing the risk from potentially severe accidents by appropriate accident management strategies is receiving increased attention from the international reactor safety community. Considerable uncertainty still surrounds some of the physical phenomena likely to occur during a severe accident. The USNRC, in developing its research plan for accident management, wants to ensure that both the developers and implementers of accident management strategies are aware of the uncertainty associated with the plant operators' ability to correctly diagnose an accident, as well as the uncertainties associated with various preventive and mitigative strategies. The use of a particular accident management strategy can have both positive and negative effects on the status of a plant and these effects must be carefully weighed before a particular course of action is chosen and implemented. By using examples of severe accident scenarios, initial insights are presented here regarding the indications plant operators may have to alert them to particular accident states. Insights are also offered on the various management actions operators and plant technical staff might pursue for particular accident situations and the pros and cons associated with such actions. The examples given are taken for the most part from the containment and release phase of accident management, since this is the current focus of the effort in the accident management area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 refs

  11. Fission reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1991-01-01

    Cooling water is sent without using dynamic equipments upon loss of coolants accident in a pressure vessel by improving an arrangement of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. That is, a containing space is formed at the center of a suppression chamber for storing cooling water while being partitioned with each other, in which the pressure vessel is placed. Further, a water reservoir is formed above the pressure vessel. Then a water discharge pipe is connected to the reservoir for submerging the stored water over the pressure vessel upon occurrence of loss of coolants accident. Further, a water injection pipe is disposed between the pressure suppression chamber and the pressure vessel for injecting the cooling water in the pressure suppression chamber to the reactor core of the pressure vessel by the difference of a water head upon loss of coolants accident. With such a constitution, the pressure vessel has high earthquake proofness. Further, upon loss of coolants accident of the pressure vessel, the cooling water in the reservoir is discharged to submerge and cool the pressure vessel efficiently. Further, the reactor core of the pressure vessel can certainly be cooled by the cooling water of the pressure suppression chamber without relying on dynamic equipments. (I.S.)

  12. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioiri, Akio.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a vent tube communication port is disposed to a pressure suppression pool at a position higher than the pool water therein for communication with an upper dry well, and the upper end opening of a dry well communication pipe is disposed at a position higher than the communication port. When condensate return pipeline is ruptured in the upper dry well, water in a water source pool is injected to the pressure vessel and partially discharged out of the ruptured port and a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel to the inside of the upper dry well. The discharged water stays in the upper dry well and, when the water level reaches the height of the vent tube communication port, it flows into the pressure suppression pool. Even in a state that the entire amount of water in the water source pool is supplied, since water does not reach the upper opening port of the dry well communication pipe, water does not flow into a lower dry well. Accordingly, the motor of a control rod drives disposed in the lower dry well can be prevented from submerging. The reactor core can be cooled more reliably, to improve the reliability of the pressure suppression function. (N.H.)

  13. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. MCR Container Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-01

    MathWorks' MATLAB is widely used in academia and industry for prototyping, data analysis, data processing, etc. Many users compile their programs using the MATLAB Compiler to run on workstations/computing clusters via the free MATLAB Compiler Runtime (MCR). The MCR facilitates the execution of code calling Application Programming Interfaces (API) functions from both base MATLAB and MATLAB toolboxes. In a Linux environment, a sizable number of third-party runtime dependencies (i.e. shared libraries) are necessary. Unfortunately, to the MTLAB community's knowledge, these dependencies are not documented, leaving system administrators and/or end-users to find/install the necessary libraries either as runtime errors resulting from them missing or by inspecting the header information of Executable and Linkable Format (ELF) libraries of the MCR to determine which ones are missing from the system. To address various shortcomings, Docker Images based on Community Enterprise Operating System (CentOS) 7, a derivative of Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7, containing recent (2015-2017) MCR releases and their dependencies were created. These images, along with a provided sample Docker Compose YAML Script, can be used to create a simulated computing cluster where MATLAB Compiler created binaries can be executed using a sample Slurm Workload Manager script.

  15. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  16. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  17. Reactor utilization, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor operating plan for 1981 was subject to the needs of testing operation with the 80% enriched fuel and was fulfilled on the whole. This annex includes data about reactor operation, review of shorter interruptions due to demands of the experiments, data about safety shutdowns caused by power cuts. Period of operation at low power levels was used mostly for activation analyses, and the operation at higher power levels were used for testing and regular isotope production. Detailed data about samples activation are included as well as utilization of the reactor as neutron source and the operating plan for 1982 [sr

  18. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  19. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  20. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  1. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  2. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  3. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  4. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  5. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    In some nuclear reactor core-melt accidents, a potential exists for molten core-debris to be dispersed into the containment under high pressure. Resulting energy transfer to the containment atmosphere can pressurize the containment. This process, known as direct containment heating (DCH), has been the subject of extensive experimental and analytical programs sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The DCH modeling has been an important focus for the development of the CONTAIN code. Results of a detailed independent peer review of the CONTAIN code were published recently. This paper summarizes work performed in support of the peer review in which the CONTAIN code was applied to analyze DCH experiments. Goals of this work were comparison of calculated and experimental results, CONTAIN DCH model assessment, and development of guidance for code users, including development of a standardized input prescription for DCH analysis

  6. Axially perpendicular offset Raman scheme for reproducible measurement of housed samples in a noncircular container under variation of container orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy, Pham K; Chang, Kyeol; Sriphong, Lawan; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-03-17

    An axially perpendicular offset (APO) scheme that is able to directly acquire reproducible Raman spectra of samples contained in an oval container under variation of container orientation has been demonstrated. This scheme utilized an axially perpendicular geometry between the laser illumination and the Raman photon detection, namely, irradiation through a sidewall of the container and gathering of the Raman photon just beneath the container. In the case of either backscattering or transmission measurements, Raman sampling volumes for an internal sample vary when the orientation of an oval container changes; therefore, the Raman intensities of acquired spectra are inconsistent. The generated Raman photons traverse the same bottom of the container in the APO scheme; the Raman sampling volumes can be relatively more consistent under the same situation. For evaluation, the backscattering, transmission, and APO schemes were simultaneously employed to measure alcohol gel samples contained in an oval polypropylene container at five different orientations and then the accuracies of the determination of the alcohol concentrations were compared. The APO scheme provided the most reproducible spectra, yielding the best accuracy when the axial offset distance was 10 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the characteristics of photon propagation in the APO scheme and to explain the origin of the optimal offset distance that was observed. In addition, the utility of the APO scheme was further demonstrated by analyzing samples in a circular glass container.

  7. Heuristics for container loading of furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens; Garavelli, Claudio; Lisi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    . In the studied company, the problem arises hundreds of times daily during transport planning. Instances may contain more than one hundred different items with irregular shapes. To solve this complex problem we apply a set of heuristics successively that each solve one part of the problem. Large items...... are combined in specific structures to ensure proper protection of the items during transportation and to simplify the problem. The solutions generated by the heuristic has an average loading utilization of 91.3% for the most general instances with average running times around 100 seconds....

  8. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  9. Utilization of 'pluthermal' in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Yoshinobu

    1982-01-01

    The plutonium recycle subscommittee of the atomic energy committee in the Advisory Committee for Energy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry reported that the use of plutonium to thermal reactors should be positively promoted, and the establishment of plutonium technology and the effective utilization of plutonium, which is a semi-domestic resource, should be attempted. The use of plutonium to thermal reactors, specifically to light water reactors, is called ''Pluthermal'', and hereafter, the use of plutonium for this purpose will be written as ''Pluthermal''. In this review, first the outline of the interim report of the plutonium recycle subcommittee is described, next, the plutonium balance, SGR (self generating recycle) and technical problems for ''Pluthermal'', and the ATRs (advanced thermal reactor) for ''Pluthermal'' are discussed. If the present capacity of nuclear power generation is assumed to be 17 million kW, it is estimated that about 10 tons of plutonium is in reactors, and 3 tons or more plutonium are taken out every year, contained in spent fuel. For those, reprocessing techniques must be fully established to prepare for future fast reactor operation. At present, 400 to 500 kg of plutonium is always in a light water reactor. If it is assumed that the MOX (mixed oxide fuel) of 30 % Pu is loaded to these reactors, no essential difference arises because its quantity only becomes about 900 kg. Finally, the results of ''Pulthermal'' in foreign countries are briefly reported. (Sakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Method for aluminium dross utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucheva, B.; Petkov, R.; Tzonev, Tz.

    2003-01-01

    A new hydrometallurgical method has been developed for metal aluminum utilization from secondary aluminum dross. Secondary aluminum dross is a powder product with an average of 35% aluminium content (below 1mm). It is waste from primary aluminum dross pyrometallurgical flux less treatment in rotary DC electric arc furnace. This method is based on aluminum leaching in copper chloride water solution. As a result an aluminum oxychloride solution and solids, consisting of copper and oxides are obtained. In order to copper chloride solution regenerate hydrochloric acid is added to the solids. The process is simple, quick, economic and safe. The aluminum oxychloride solution contains 56 g/l Al 2 O 3 . The molar ratios are Al:Cl=0,5; OH:Al=1. The solution has 32 % basicity and 1,1 g/cm 3 density. For increasing the molar ratio of aluminium to chlorine aluminum hydroxide is added to this solution at 80 o C. Aluminum hydroxide is the final product from the secondary aluminum dross alkaline leaching. As a result aluminum oxychloride solution of the following composition is prepared: Al 2 O 3 - 180 g/l; Al:Cl=1,88; OH:Al=4,64; basicity 82%; density 1,22 g/cm 3 , pH=4 -4,5. Aluminum oxychloride solution produced by means of this method can be used in potable and wastewater treatment, paper making, in refractory mixture as a binder etc. (Original)

  11. Performance-based containment leakage testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reviewing regulatory requirements in an effort to revise those that are marginal to safety but impose significant burdens on licensees. Identification of requirements marginal to safety and development and evaluation of alternatives utilize the NRC safety goals and insights from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Since earlier studies found design-basis containment leakage to be a minor contributor to reactor accident risk, containment leakage testing has been selected as a candidate for change in regulations. This paper summarizes the technical analyses supporting the NRC proposal to amend Appendix J of 10 CFR Part 50 as its first effort to decrease unnecessary regulatory burdens on licensees

  12. Electric power annual 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-17

    This publication presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and state levels. The Industry At A Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. 24 figs., 57 tabs.

  13. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  14. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2002-01-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  15. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  16. Utility prudency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1986-01-01

    The conventional legal standard of prudence found in the common law of public utility regulation precludes a judgment about past decisions based on present knowledge of whether the decisions proved in time to have been right or wrong. The proper inquiry is not whether every management decision proved to be correct. Rather, the proper inquiry as stated by the New York Public Service Commission in Re Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. is ...whether the company's conduct was reasonable at the time, under all of the circumstances, considering that the company had to solve its problems prospectively.... The exercise of prudence does not guarantee performance on schedule or within budget, or the making of correct decisions, when judged after the fact. But it does require or involve the exercise of reasoned decision making within a framework of reasonably available alternatives

  17. A container for containing and protecting a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a container adapted to contain and protect a radio-active substance. That container comprises a heat sensitive device for automatically (and, preferably, sealingly) enclosing and protecting the radio-active substance, should room temperature reach a predetermined level. Thus, the radio-active substance cannot escape in case of fire. Preferably, a bolt is also provided, capable of being actuated at a temperature slightly above the temperature actuating the protective device so as to maintain the radioactive substance protected. This can be applied to containers containing a radio-active substance such as polonium 210 [fr

  18. Container Materials, Fabrication And Robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-01-01

    The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

  19. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  20. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale

  1. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  2. FY 1999 report on the results of a feasibility study on a system for producing useful chemical substances by utilizing CO2-containing natural gas fields. II; 1999 nendo CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper studied the solar energy use methanol synthesis using CO2 as raw material in the natural gas field with which a large quantity of CO2 is associated. This is a report on the FY 1999 survey. It was found that comparatively many natural gas fields containing CO2 exist also in Asia/Oceania regions. It was also found that when considering the climate and the transportation to Japan, Australia has more advantages in terms of the effective desert area, etc. and is the best site for solar system construction. Various solar concentrating/collecting methods now under development are roughly viewed to extract characteristics and developmental conditions. As to the reforming reaction furnace, it is necessary not only to absorb the world technology, but to develop Japan's original one. The conceptual design and assessment of the system were conducted. About the associated CO2, a limit of the concentration for use was estimated at 25%. In the study of elements of system structure, examined was the thermally combined simulation of heat flow and chemical reaction in the solar heat reaction furnace, and simple models were calculated and subjects were extracted. In a comparison with the conventional methanol synthesis method, this system was found to be excellent in conservation of fossil fuel resources and reduction in CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  3. Mobile nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Spurrier, F.R.; Jones, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    A containment vessel for use in mobile nuclear reactor installations is described. The containment vessel completely surrounds the entire primary system, and is located as close to the reactor primary system components as is possible in order to minimize weight. In addition to being designed to withstand a specified internal pressure, the containment vessel is also designed to maintain integrity as a containment vessel in case of a possible collision accident

  4. Beverage containers in municipal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enhoerning, B

    1979-01-01

    The composition of containers (cans, glass) in Sweden's wastes is given. Recycling and reclamation of these containers are discussed. The energy demand of fabricating the containers is analyzed for recycling rates of 0 and 100%. The free forces of the market cannot be depended on to direct the containers back to the manufacturer; only a well-functioning deposit system can do this. 7 figures. (DLC)

  5. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  6. Biomimetic Oxidation Studies. 11. Alkane Functionalization in Aqueous Solution Utilizing in Situ Formed [Fe(2)O(eta(1)-H(2)O)(eta(1)-OAc)(TPA)(2)](3+), as an MMO Model Precatalyst, Embedded in Surface-Derivatized Silica and Contained in Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimann, Karine; Neumann, Ronny; Rabion, Alain; Buchanan, Robert M.; Fish, Richard H.

    1999-07-26

    The biomimetic, methane monooxygenase enzyme (MMO) precatalyst, [Fe(2)O(eta(1)-H(2)O)(eta(1)-OAc)(TPA)(2)](3+) (TPA = tris[(2-pyridyl)methyl]amine), 1, formed in situ at pH 4.2 from [Fe(2)O(&mgr;-OAc)(TPA)(2)](3+), 2, was embedded in an amorphous silicate surface modified by a combination of hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide). The resulting catalytic assembly was found to be a biomimetic model for the MMO active site within a hydrophobic macroenvironment, allowing alkane functionalization with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)/O(2) in an aqueous reaction medium (pH 4.2). For example, cyclohexane was oxidized to a mixture of cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, and cyclohexyl-tert-butyl peroxide, in a ratio of approximately 3:1:2. The balance between poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), tethered on the silica surface, was crucial for maximizing the catalytic activity. The silica-based catalytic assembly showed reactivity somewhat higher in comparison to an aqueous micelle system utilizing the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate at its critical micelle concentration, in which functionalization of cyclohexane with TBHP/O(2) in the presence of 1 was also studied at pH 4.2 and was found to provide similar products: cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexyl-tert-butyl peroxide, in a ratio of approximately 2:3:1. Moreover, the mechanism for both the silica-based catalytic assembly and the aqueous micelle system was found to occur via the Haber-Weiss process, in which redox chemistry between 1 and TBHP provides both the t-BuO(*)() and t-BuOO(*)()( )()radicals. The t-BuO(*)()( )()radical initiates the C-H functionalization reaction to form the carbon radical, followed by O(2) trapping, to provide cyclohexyl hydroperoxide, which produces the cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone in the presence of 1, whereas the coupling product emanates from t-BuOO(*)() and cyclohexyl radicals. A discussion concerning both approaches for

  7. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  8. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  9. Reactor utilization; Eksploatacija reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    In 1962, the RA reactor was operated almost three times more than in 1961, producing total of 25 555 MWh. Diagram containing comparative data about reactor operation for 1960, 1961, and 1962, percent of fuel used and U-235 burnup shows increase in reactor operation. Number of samples irradiated was 659, number of experiments done was 16. mean powered level was 5.93 MW. Fuel was added into the core twice during the reporting year. In fact the core was increased from 56 to 68 fuel channels and later to 84 fuel channels. Fuel was added to the core when the reactivity worth decreased to the minimum operation level due to burnup. In addition to this 5 central fuel channels were exchanged with fresh fuel in february for the purpose of irradiation in the VISA-2 channel.

  10. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  11. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  12. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  13. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Utility application of simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss dynamic system simulation from the perspective of a successful utility user. In it, four aspects of the issue of utility use of simulation will be addressed: (1) What simulation software is available to utilities which can be of practical assistance with a modest investment in staff and training. (2) To what specific problems can utilities apply the technique of simulation and achieve reasonably cost effective results. (3) What the advantages are of in-house dynamic simulation capability, as opposed to depending on NSSS vendors or consultants. (4) What the prospects are for wider use of dynamic simulation in the utility industry

  15. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  16. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  17. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  18. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  19. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  20. Status of the CONTAIN computer code for LWR containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Murata, K.K.; Rexroth, P.E.; Clauser, M.J.; Senglaub, M.E.; Sciacca, F.W.; Trebilcock, W.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the CONTAIN code for LWR safety analysis is reviewed. Three example calculations are discussed as illustrations of the code's capabilities: (1) a demonstration of the spray model in a realistic PWR problem, and a comparison with CONTEMPT results; (2) a comparison of CONTAIN results for a major aerosol experiment against experimental results and predictions of the HAARM aerosol code; and (3) an LWR sample problem, involving a TMLB' sequence for the Zion reactor containment

  1. Status of the CONTAIN computer code for LWR containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Murata, K.K.; Rexroth, P.E.; Clauser, M.J.; Senglaub, M.E.; Sciacca, F.W.; Trebilcock, W.

    1982-01-01

    The current status of the CONTAIN code for LWR safety analysis is reviewed. Three example calculations are discussed as illustrations of the code's capabilities: (1) a demonstration of the spray model in a realistic PWR problem, and a comparison with CONTEMPT results; (2) a comparison of CONTAIN results for a major aerosol experiment against experimental results and predictions of the HAARM aerosol code; and (3) an LWR sample problem, involving a TMLB' sequence for the Zion reactor containment

  2. Overview of Steel Slag Application and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant quantities of steel slag are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel industries. Slag is produced from different types of furnaces with different operating conditions. Slag contains Ferrous Oxide, Calcium Oxide, Silica etc. Physical and chemical properties of slag are affected by different methods of slag solidification such as air cooled, steam, and injection of additives. Several material characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanned Electron Microscopy (SEM and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES are used to determine elemental composition in the steel slag. Therefore, slags can become one of the promising materials in various applications such as in transportation industry, construction, cement production, waste water and water treatment. The various applications of steel slag indicate that it can be reused and utilized rather than being disposed to the landfill. This paper presents a review of its applications and utilization.

  3. Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomers, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

  4. MELCOR/CONTAIN LMR Implementation Report. FY14 Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, Larry L; Louie, David L.Y.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the preliminary implementation of the sodium thermophysical properties and the design documentation for the sodium models of CONTAIN-LMR to be implemented into MELCOR 2.1. In the past year, the implementation included two separate sodium properties from two different sources. The first source is based on the previous work done by Idaho National Laboratory by modifying MELCOR to include liquid lithium equation of state as a working fluid to model the nuclear fusion safety research. To minimize the impact to MELCOR, the implementation of the fusion safety database (FSD) was done by utilizing the detection of the data input file as a way to invoking the FSD. The FSD methodology has been adapted currently for this work, but it may subject modification as the project continues. The second source uses properties generated for the SIMMER code. Preliminary testing and results from this implementation of sodium properties are given. In this year, the design document for the CONTAIN-LMR sodium models, such as the two condensable option, sodium spray fire, and sodium pool fire is being developed. This design document is intended to serve as a guide for the MELCOR implementation. In addition, CONTAIN-LMR code used was based on the earlier version of CONTAIN code. Many physical models that were developed since this early version of CONTAIN may not be captured by the code. Although CONTAIN 2, which represents the latest development of CONTAIN, contains some sodium specific models, which are not complete, the utilizing CONTAIN 2 with all sodium models implemented from CONTAIN-LMR as a comparison code for MELCOR should be done. This implementation should be completed in early next year, while sodium models from CONTAIN-LMR are being integrated into MELCOR. For testing, CONTAIN decks have been developed for verification and validation use.

  5. Tariff rebalancing and price structure in privatised utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyman-Jones, T.; Burns, P.

    1996-01-01

    The document contains the end of award report on research into re-balancing and price structure in privatised utilities, funded by the Economic and Social Science Research Council (ESRC). Ramsey pricing ideas in United Kingdom utilities were modelled under different forms of regulation and cost/price relationships measured. Alternative forms of regulation that permit Ramsey pricing were also evaluated. Option price theory is shown to be central to an understanding of incentive mechanisms and their relationship to regulatory options. (UK)

  6. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  7. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  8. Formerly utilized sites: remedial action, a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on formerly utilized sites included in the Department of Energy's Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: corporate author, personal author, subject, contract number, and report number. (115 abstracts)

  9. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  10. International Containment Technology Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the manuscripts of the papers and posters presented at the 1997 International Containment Technology Conference and Exhibition. These manuscripts represent a valuable compilation of information and data on the environmental challenges and technology-based solutions associated with containment technologies. The purpose of the conference was to promote the advancement of containment technologies by providing a forum from which participants from related disciplines could meet to exchange ideas and information on recent developments. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  11. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  12. Container for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The container of the present invention comprises a container main body having a body portion which can contain spent fuel assemblies and a lid, and heat pipes having an evaporation portion disposed along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies to be contained and a condensation portion exposed to the outside of the container main body. Further, the heat pipe is formed spirally at the evaporation portions so as to surround the outer circumference of the spent fuel assemblies, branched into a plurality of portions at the condensation portion, each of the branched portion of the condensation portion being exposed to the outside of the container main body, and is tightly in contact with the periphery of the slit portions disposed to the container main body. Then, since released after heat is transferred to the outside of the container main body from the evaporation portion of the heat pipe along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies by way of the condensation portion of the heat pipes exposed to the outside of the container main body, the efficiency of the heat transfer is extremely improved to enhance the effect of removing heat of spent fuel assemblies. Further, cooling effect is enhanced by the spiral form of the evaporation portion and the branched condensation portion. (N.H.)

  13. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  14. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  15. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  16. Method of center localization for objects containing concentric arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena G.; Shvets, Evgeny A.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a method for automatic center location of objects containing concentric arcs. The method utilizes structure tensor analysis and voting scheme optimized with Fast Hough Transform. Two applications of the proposed method are considered: (i) wheel tracking in video-based system for automatic vehicle classification and (ii) tree growth rings analysis on a tree cross cut image.

  17. 33 CFR 154.545 - Discharge containment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154... chapter may be utilized in the planning requirements of subpart F and subpart H of this part. [CGD 75-124... material and equipment to contain any oil or hazardous material discharged on the water from operations at...

  18. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  19. Demonstration of an Emergency Containment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, T.M.; Rogers, M.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A system called an Emergency Containment System (ECS) to be used for tertiary containment of tritium was reported at the 13th Air Cleaning Conference. This system was part of the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory then under construction at Mound Facility. A series of experiments has recently been conducted to evaluate the performance of an ECS in capturing tritium accidentally released into an operating laboratory. The ECS is an automatically actuated laboratory air detritiation system utilizing a catalytic oxidation reactor and presaturated oxide adsorption/exchange columns. In the event of an accidental release of tritium into the laboratory, the ECS is automatically activated, and quick-acting pneumatic dampers divert the laboratory air supply and exhaust through the ECS until room concentrations are returned to safe operating levels. The results of the experiments have shown that a tertiary containment of tritium is feasible. In the event of a catastrophic accident, the ECS is capable of preventing the release of a large quantity of tritium to the environment

  20. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Mox fuel utilization in ATR

    OpenAIRE

    下村 和生; 川太 徳夫

    1987-01-01

    ATR, a heavy-water moderated boiling-light-water cooled reactor developed in Japan, is a unique reactor with out-standing flexibility regarding nuclear fuel utilization, because it has superior properties concerning the utilization of plutonium, recovered uranium and depleted uranium. The development of this type of reactor is expected to contribute both to the stable supply of energy and to the establishment of plutonium utilization in Japan. Much effort has been and will be made on the deve...

  2. Utility deregulation and AMR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of deregulation on other utilities and services and examines how the electric utilities can avoid the worst of these effects and capitalize of the best aspects of competition in achieving marketing excellence. The article presents deregulation as a customer service and underscores the need for utilities to learn to compete aggressively and intelligently and provide additional services available through technology such as automated meter reading

  3. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  4. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  5. Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility and Correlation Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable...... aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles....

  6. Methods for assessing NPP containment pressure boundary integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Research is being conducted to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants. Objectives of this research are to (1) understand the significant factors relating to corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and of liners of concrete containments; (2) provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; and (3) provide recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation. Activities include development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of candidate techniques for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion

  7. GPE-BWR and the containment venting and filtering issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, J.; Santiago, J. de

    1988-01-01

    The Spanish Boiling Water Reactor Owner's Group (GPE-BWR) is formed by three utilities, owning four units: Santa Maria de Garona (46 MWe, BWR3, Mark I containment), Cofrentes (975 MWe, BWR6, Mark III containment) and Valdecaballeros (2x975 MWe, BWR6, Mark III containment) - all of the reactors having been supplied by General Electric. One of the GPE-BWR's several committees is the Safety and Licensing Committee, which follows up the evolution of severe accident topics and particularly the containment venting and filtering issue. In September 1987, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), the Spanish Regulatory Body, asked the GPE-BWR to define its position on the installation of a containment venting system. The GPE-BWR created a Working Group which presented a Report on Containment Venting to the CSN in January 1987 gathered from: the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); some US utilities; and several European countries, especially France, Germany and Sweden. CSN's review of the containment venting Report and the Action Plan proposed by the GPE-BWR finished in April 1988. The conclusion of the Report and the proposed Action Plan take into account the US NRC's identified open items on severe accidents and the R and D programs scheduled to close these items

  8. The changing utility workforce and the evolution of utility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.

  9. Tritium containment in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The key environmental control systems that have been identified and are being developed are listed. A brief description of each of the following systems is given: primary process materials, permeation barriers, secondary containment, tritium waste treatment, emergency tritium cleanup, maintenance procedures, and tertiary containment

  10. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  11. Containing health costs in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, P

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, a series of policy measures affecting both demand and supply components of health care have been adopted in different Latin American and Caribbean countries, as well as in Canada and the United States. In applying these measures various objectives have been pursued, among them: to mobilize additional resources to increase operating budgets; to reduce unnecessary utilization of health services and consumption of pharmaceuticals; to control increasing production costs; and to contain the escalation of health care expenditures. In terms of demand management, some countries have established cost-recovery programmes in an attempt to offset declining revenues. These measures have the potential to generate additional operating income in public facilities, particularly if charges are levied on hospital care. However, only scant information is available on the effects of user charges on demand, utilization, or unit costs. In terms of supply management, corrective measures have concentrated on limiting the quantity and the relative prices of different inputs and outputs. Hiring freezes, salary caps, limitations on new construction and equipment, use of drug lists, bulk procurement of medicines and vaccines, and budget ceilings are among the measures utilized to control production costs in the health sector. To moderate health care expenditures, various approaches have been followed to subject providers to 'financial discipline'. Among them, new reimbursement modalities such as prospective payment systems offer an array of incentives to modify medical practice. Cost-containment efforts have also spawned innovations in the organization and delivery of health services. Group plans have been established on the basis of prepaid premiums to provide directly much or all health care needs of affiliates and their families. The issue of intrasectorial co-ordination, particularly between ministries of health and social security institutions, has much relevance for cost

  12. Simplified containment event tree analysis for the Sequoyah Ice Condenser containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galyean, W.J.; Schroeder, J.A.; Pafford, D.J.

    1990-12-01

    An evaluation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PER) ice condenser containment was performed. In this evaluation, simplified containment event trees (SCETs) were developed that utilized the vast storehouse of information generated by the NRC's Draft NUREG-1150 effort. Specifically, the computer programs and data files produced by the NUREG-1150 analysis of Sequoyah were used to electronically generate SCETs, as opposed to the NUREG-1150 accident progression event trees (APETs). This simplification was performed to allow graphic depiction of the SCETs in typical event tree format, which facilitates their understanding and use. SCETs were developed for five of the seven plant damage state groups (PDSGs) identified by the NUREG-1150 analyses, which includes: both short- and long-term station blackout sequences (SBOs), transients, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), and anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). Steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) and event-V PDSGs were not analyzed because of their containment bypass nature. After being benchmarked with the APETs, in terms of containment failure mode and risk, the SCETs were used to evaluate a number of potential containment modifications. The modifications were examined for their potential to mitigate or prevent containment failure from hydrogen burns or direct impingement on the containment by the core, (both factors identified as significant contributors to risk in the NUREG-1150 Sequoyah analysis). However, because of the relatively low baseline risk postulated for Sequoyah (i.e., 12 person-rems per reactor year), none of the potential modifications appear to be cost effective. 15 refs., 10 figs. , 17 tabs

  13. Transient shielded liquid hydrogen containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.P.; Herring, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase has been limited in duration due to the thermal performance constraints of conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers available. Conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers lose hydrogen because of their relatively high heat leak and variations in usage pattern of hydrogen due to shutdowns. Local regulations also discourage venting of hydrogen. Long term storage of Liquid Hydrogen without product loss was usually accomplished using Liquid Nitrogen sacrificial shields. This paper reports on a new low heat leak container developed and patented that will extend the storage time of liquid hydrogen by five hundred percent. The principle of operation of the Transient Shields which makes the extraordinary performance of this container feasible is described in this paper. Also covered are the impact of this new container on present applications of hydrogen and the new opportunities afforded to Liquid hydrogen in the world hydrogen market

  14. Containment integrity analysis under accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge; Zhao Ruichang; Liu Zhitao

    2010-01-01

    Containment integrity analyses for current nuclear power plants (NPPs) mainly focus on the internal pressure caused by design basis accidents (DBAs). In addition to the analyses of containment pressure response caused by DBAs, the behavior of containment during severe accidents (SAs) are also evaluated for AP1000 NPP. Since the conservatism remains in the assumptions,boundary conditions and codes, margin of the results of containment integrity analyses may be overestimated. Along with the improvements of the knowledge to the phenomena and process of relevant accidents, the margin overrated can be appropriately reduced by using the best estimate codes combined with the uncertainty methods, which could be beneficial to the containment design and construction of large passive plants (LPP) in China. (authors)

  15. Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed an Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Agency standard weights and safeguards samples can be stored in the ASCS to provide continuity of knowledge. The ASCS consists of an optically clear cover, a base containing the Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) transmitter, and the AIMS receiver unit for data collection. The ASCS will provide the Inspector with information concerning the status of the system, during a surveillance period, such as state of health, tampering attempts, and movement of the container system. The secure container is located inside a Glove Box with the receiver located remotely from the Glove Box. AIMS technology uses rf transmission from the secure container to the receiver to provide a record of state of health and tampering. The data is stored in the receiver for analysis by the Inspector during a future inspection visit. 2 refs

  16. Ice condenser containment analysis with the GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadon, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical methodologies have recently been developed by Duke Power Company (Duke) to calculate the thermodynamic response of the ice condenser containment buildings at the McGuire and Catawba Nuclear Stations to high-energy line breaks. The GOTHIC computer code (Version 4.0) was utilized for these analyses. In the ice condenser containment design, a large mass of ice stored within the containment building is used to absorb the energy released from high-energy line breaks, thereby limiting the peak pressure and temperature in the containment building to within design limits. The McGuire and Catawba Nuclear Stations (both two-unit, 3411 MWth four-loop Westinghouse plants) are of the ice condenser containment design

  17. Determining prestressing forces for inspection of prestressed concrete containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    General Design Criterion 53, ''Provisions for Containment Testing and Inspection,'' of Appendix A, ''General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,'' to 10 CFR Part 50, ''Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,'' requires, in part, that the reactor containment be designed to permit (1) periodic inspection of all important areas and (2) an appropriate surveillance program. Regulatory Guide 1.35, ''Inservice Inspection of Ungrouted Tendons in Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures,'' describes a basis acceptable to the NRC staff for developing an appropriate inservice inspection and surveillance program for ungrouted tendons in prestressed concrete containment structures of light-water-cooled reactors. This guide expands and clarifies the NRC staff position on determining prestressing forces to be used for inservice inspections of prestressed concrete containment structures

  18. Deflagration in stainless steel storage containers containing plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1996-02-01

    Detonation of hydrogen and oxygen in stainless steel storage containers produces maximum pressures of 68.5 psia and 426.7 psia. The cylinders contain 3,000 g of PuO 2 with 0.05 wt% and 0.5 wt% water respectively. The hydrogen and oxygen are produced by the alpha decomposition of the water. Work was performed for the Savannah River Site

  19. Evaluating Utility Gloves as a Potential Reservoir for Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathy L; Naber, E Donald; Halteman, William A

    2015-08-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the rate and degree to which gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus occurred on the inside of utility gloves used at University of Maine at Augusta, Dental Health Programs' dental hygiene clinic. Five steam autoclave utility gloves were randomly selected to serve as control and a convenience sample of 10 used utility gloves were selected from the sterilization area. A sample was collected from a predetermined surface area from the inside of each steam autoclave utility glove and used utility glove. Each sample was used to inoculate a Petri plate containing 2 types of culture media. Samples were incubated at 37° C for 30 to 36 hours in aerobic conditions. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Confidence intervals (CI) estimated the rate of contamination with gram-negative K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=33 95% CL [0.000, 0.049], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.000, 0.0303]. Data estimated the rate of contamination with gram-positive S. aureus on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=35, 95% CL [0.233, 0.530], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.2730, 0.4975]. Culture media expressed a wide range of CFU from 0 to over 200. The risk of utility glove contamination with gram-negative bacteria is likely low. The expressed growth of S. aureus from steam autoclave utility gloves controls raises questions about the effectiveness and safety of generally accepted sterilization standards for the governmentally mandated use of utility gloves. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, G.J.; Martin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  2. Integrated severe accident containment analysis with the CONTAIN computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Williams, D.C.; Rexroth, P.E.; Tills, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    Analysis of physical and radiological conditions iunside the containment building during a severe (core-melt) nuclear reactor accident requires quantitative evaluation of numerous highly disparate yet coupled phenomenologies. These include two-phase thermodynamics and thermal-hydraulics, aerosol physics, fission product phenomena, core-concrete interactions, the formation and combustion of flammable gases, and performance of engineered safety features. In the past, this complexity has meant that a complete containment analysis would require application of suites of separate computer codes each of which would treat only a narrower subset of these phenomena, e.g., a thermal-hydraulics code, an aerosol code, a core-concrete interaction code, etc. In this paper, we describe the development and some recent applications of the CONTAIN code, which offers an integrated treatment of the dominant containment phenomena and the interactions among them. We describe the results of a series of containment phenomenology studies, based upon realistic accident sequence analyses in actual plants. These calculations highlight various phenomenological effects that have potentially important implications for source term and/or containment loading issues, and which are difficult or impossible to treat using a less integrated code suite

  3. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  4. Passive heat removal from containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a heat removal system for removing heat from a containment of a nuclear reactor. It comprises: a sealed suppression chamber in the containment; means for venting steam from the nuclear reactor into the suppression chamber upon occurrence of an event requiring dissipation of heat from the nuclear reactor. The suppression chamber containing a quantity of water; the suppression chamber having a gas-containing space above the water; a heat exchanger disposed within the gas-containing space of the suppression chamber; the heat exchanger including an enclosed structure for holding a heat-exchange fluid; means for metering a supply of heat-exchange fluid to the heat exchanger to maintain a predetermined level thereof in the enclosed structure. The heat-exchange fluid boiling in the heat exchanger in consequence of heat transfer thereto from steam present in the suppression chamber; means for separating a heat-exchange fluid vapor in the heat exchanger from the heat-exchange fluid; and means for discharging the vapor immediately following its separation from heat-exchange fluid directly from the heat exchanger to a location exterior of the containment, whereby heat is discharged from the suppression chamber, and the containment is maintained at a temperature and pressure below its design value

  5. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  6. Emergency reactor container cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns an emergency cooling facility for a nuclear reactor container having a pressure suppression chamber, in which water in the suppression chamber is effectively used for cooling the reactor container. That is, the lower portion of a water pool in the pressure suppression chamber and the inside of the reactor container are connected by a pipeline. The lower end of the pipeline and a pressurized incombustible gas tank disposed to the outside of the reactor container are connected by a pipeline by way of valves. Then, when the temperature of the lower end of the pressure vessel exceeds a predetermined value, the valves are opened. If the valves are opened, the incombustible gas flows into the lower end of the pipeline connecting the lower portion of the water pool in the pressure suppression chamber and the inside of the reactor container. Since the inside of the pipeline is a two phase flow comprising a mixture of a gas phase and a liquid phase, the average density is decreased. Therefore, the water level of the two phase flow is risen by the level difference between the inside and the outside of the pipeline and, finally, the two phase mixture is released into the reactor container. As a result, the reactor container can be cooled by water in the suppression chamber by a static means without requiring pumps. (I.S.)

  7. Utilization of pulverized fuel ash in Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, Josette; Sammut, Michael; Montesin, Franco E.

    2006-01-01

    In Malta all of the waste produced is mixed and deposited at various sites around the island. None of these sites were purpose built, and all of the waste is above groundwater level. The landfills are not engineered and do not contain any measures to collect leachate and gases emanating from the disposal sites. Another waste, which is disposed of in landfills, is pulverized fuel ash (PFA), which is a by-product of coal combustion by the power station. This has been disposed of in landfill, because its use has been precluded due to the radioactivity of the ashes. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the pulverized fuel ash and to attempt to utilize it as a cement replacement in normal concrete mixes in the construction industry. The levels of radiation emitted from the ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results of this study revealed that although at early ages cement replacement by PFA resulted in a reduction in compressive strength (P = 0), when compared to the reference concrete at later ages the strengths measured on concrete cores were comparable to the reference concrete (P > 0.05). The utilization of PFA up to 20% cement replacement in concrete did not raise the radioactivity of the concrete. In conclusion, utilization of PFA in the construction industry would be a better way of disposing of the ashes rather than controlling the leachate and any radioactivity emitted by the landfilled ashes

  8. Transport containers for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroszlai, P.; Ferroni, F.

    1984-01-01

    A cylindrical container for the transportation of radioactive reactor elements includes a top end, a bottom end and a pair of removable outwardly curved shock absorbers, each including a double-shelled construction having an internal shell with a convex intrados configuration and an external shell with a convex extrados configuration, the shock absorbers being filled with a low density energy-absorbing material and mounted at the top end and the bottom end of the container, respectively, and each of the shock absorbers having a toroidal configuration, and deformable tubes disposed within the shock absorbers and extending in the axial direction of the container

  9. Containment leakage rate testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the status of several documents under revision or development that provide requirements and guidance for testing nuclear power plant containment systems for leakage rates. These documents include the general revision to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J; the regulatory guide affiliated with the revision to Appendix J; the national standard that the regulatory guide endorses, ANSI/ANS-56.8, 'Containment System Leakage Rate Testing Requirements'; and the draft industry Licensing Topical Report, 'Standardized Program for Primary Containment Integrity Testing'. The actual or potential relationships between these documents are also explored

  10. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetters, F.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  11. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  12. Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-18

    For a metal anode in a battery, the capacity fade is a significant consideration. In energy storage devices having an anode that includes Mg, the cycling stability can be improved by an electrolyte having a first salt, a second salt, and an organic solvent. Examples of the organic solvent include diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme, or a combination thereof. The first salt can have a magnesium cation and be substantially soluble in the organic solvent. The second salt can enhance the solubility of the first salt and can have a magnesium cation or a lithium cation. The first salt, the second salt, or both have a BH.sub.4 anion.

  13. Employee Assistance Program Cost Containment through the Utilization of Community-Based, Social Model Treatment Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, John; Lampe, Marc

    Statewide efforts by the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs to secure third-party payments for nonhospital alcoholism services gradually dissolved due to changes in political administration and overall priorities. San Mateo County, however, served as a demonstration county for the effort and has continued to explore third-party…

  14. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Ledakowicz; Paweł Stolarek; A. Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h ...

  15. COMPLEXES CONTAINING HYDRAZINE AND BENZYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Treatment of 2 in refluxing acetone in the presence of the ... Microanalyses were carried out at the Center for Nanotechnology, Department of. Chemistry ... product as mixtures of colourless prisms and needles containing methanol and water of.

  16. Packet D: Fuel containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevskij, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The tasks of the project 'D' are: increase of nuclear safety by fuel containing mass (FCM) characterisation, and development of a preliminary plan for FCM management which should be accomplished by FCM extraction

  17. TMI-2 containment decontamination plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, F.

    1980-01-01

    Because of other priorities such as reentry, purging, and recovery, containment decontamination is only in the preliminary planning stages. This paper summarizes the study with emphasis on the remote decontamination techniques

  18. Lightweight engine containment. [Kevlar shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. T.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar fabric styles and weaves were studied, as well as methods of application for advanced gas turbine engines. The Kevlar material was subjected to high speed impacts by simple projectiles fired from a rifle, as well as more complex shapes such as fan blades released from gas turbine rotors in a spin pit. Just contained data was developed for a variety of weave and/or application techniques, and a comparative containment weight efficiency was established for Kevlar containment applications. The data generated during these tests is being incorporated into an analytical design system so that blade containment trade-off studies between Kevlar and metal case engine structures can be made. Laboratory tests and engine environment tests were performed to determine the survivability of Kevlar in a gas turbine environment.

  19. Shipping container for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    A container for nuclear materials is described wherein a specially and uniquely constructed pressure vessel and gamma shield assembly for holding the nuclear materials is provided in a housing, and wherein a positioning means extends between the housing and the assembly for spacing the same, insulation in the housing essentially filling the space between the assembly and housing, the insulation comprising beads, globules or the like of water encapsulated in plastic and which, in one important embodiment, contains neutron absorbing matter

  20. Transport containers for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibby, D.

    1978-01-01

    A transport container for transporting irradiated nuclear fuel is described comprising a steel flask with detachable cover and having external heat exchange fins. The flask contains a solid annular shield comprised of discrete bodies of Pb or Fe bonded together by a solid matrix, for attenuating gamma rays and neutron emission. This may comprise lead shot bonded together by concrete or polyethylene, or alternatively iron shot bonded by concrete. (UK)

  1. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  2. Dealing with the difficult utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, D.E.; Sundquist, M.J.; Cross, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    STS HydroPower, Ltd. (STS) is an independent hydroelectric power developer involved in the full scope of hydroelectric activities. This includes the permitting, design, financing, turbine design and manufacturing, site construction and operation of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites across the United States. At the present time, STS owns and operates nine sites in four states with a combined capacity of 20 megawatts. In dealing with the implementation of these sites, STS has dealt with five different utilities. In addition, in pursuing additional development opportunities throughout the United States, STS has had contact with numerous other utilities. During this time it would be fair to conclude that each of these utilities has exhibited its own personality with respect to dealing with independent developers. To the credit of the utility industry, the majority of these utilities have been helpful and supportive of independent projects, but a small number of utilities have approached projects from an initial and continuing adversarial position. The purpose of this paper is to examine those options and procedures available to the developer when a utility is encountered with a negative predisposition

  3. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  4. Ecology and utilization of desert shrub rangelands in Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, Derk Catharinus Peter

    1979-01-01

    When grazing is the accepted land use, vegetation is the key resource. The present study deals with the desert shrub rangelands of lraq, which contain the major characteristics of such an area, having been under grazing for many centuries. Emphasis is given to the ecology and utilization of the

  5. A utility perspective on BRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, B.

    1988-01-01

    The author is program manager for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for the Utility Nuclear Waste Management Group (UNWMG), an activity funded by 45 utilities with nuclear power programs. The UNWMG represents the utility industry on high-level and low-level radioactive waste issues in legislative, regulatory, and technical proceedings, and therefore has a strong interest in the progress of below-regulatory-concern (BRC) regulations. The author addresses waste disposal volumes prior to discussing recent developments and status of BRC regulations

  6. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  7. Inelastic analysis of prestressed concrete secondary containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.; Chitnuyanondh, L.; Wong, C.; Rijub-Agha, K.Y.

    1978-07-01

    An elastic-plastic constitutive model for the simulation of stress-strain response of concrete under any biaxial combination of compressive and/or tensile stresses is developed. An effective tensile stress-strain curve is obtained indirectly from experimental results of a test on a large scale prestressed concrete wall segment. These concrete properties are then utilized in predicting the response of a second test and the results compared with the experiment. Modificications to the BOSOR5 program, in order to incorporate the new constitutive relation into it, are described. Techniques of modelling structures in order to perform inelastic analysis of thin shell axisymmetric prestressed concrete secondary containments are investigated. The results of inelastic BOSOR5 analyses of two different models of the University of Alberta Test Structure are presented. The predicted deterioration of the structure and the limit states associated with its behaviour are determined and discussed. It is concluded that the technique is a practical one which can be used for the inelastic analysis of Gentilly-type containment structures. (author)

  8. PARC (Plutonium Accident Resistant Container) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Response by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to a public law limiting the air transport of plutonium resulted in a new Qualification Criteria and led to the PARC project. The PARC project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air transportable radioactive materials package for certification by the NRC. This package, identified by the NRC as the Model PAT-1 Package (PAT = Plutonium Air Transportable), has a mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts; the internal volume of the inner containment vessel is 1460 cm 3 ; the package dimensions are 62 cm (24 - 1/2 in.) O.D. x 108 cm (42 - 1/2 in.) length and a mass of 227 kg (500 lbs). The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-the-art. Optimization design interactions were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to the containment acceptance criteria of the Qualification Criteria and ANSI N 14.5 leaktight standards and the IAEA Safety Series No. 6 A2 radioactive material release quantities. Acceptability of the pre-accident and post-accident package configuration with respect to shielding and criticality standards are ascertained

  9. Understanding utility regulation : a participants' guide to the British Columbia Utilities Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Information regarding British Columbia's regulated energy industries is presented with particular emphasis on the regulatory functions of the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The objective of providing the information is to make the regulatory process as transparent as possible and to make it easy for ratepayers to effectively and economically participate in the regulation of energy utilities. The issue of why electricity and natural gas utilities are regulated is addressed, but the greater part of the report is devoted to describing opportunities for public participation at the BCUC, explaining how to get involved in the Commission's proceedings and the nature of the hearings used by the Commission. An introduction to rate making is also presented, along with an overview of other institutions involved in energy regulation. Appendices contain the text of the Utilities Commission Act (App. A), the Negotiated Settlement Process Policy, Procedures and Guidelines (App. B), Participant Funding and Cost Awards (App. C), and the Integrated Resource Planning Guide (App. D). tabs., figs., 4 appendices

  10. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. Decentralized method for utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh); Magat, W.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new institutional arrangement for regulating utilities is suggested that minimizes the costs of natural monopolies. A mixture of regulation and franchising, the plan draws on the advantages of each and eliminates many of the problems. The proposal allows utilities to set their own price on the basis of demand and marginal-cost projections. Subsidies are provided by the regulatory agency if there is a consumer surplus. The system encourages the utility to select a competitive price and to produce only the amount of service needed. Operating efficiency is encouraged by rewarding cost reductions and discouraging cost overstatement at the rate review. The regulatory agency would not need to take action to bring price and marginal costs into equality. The franchise sale can be made by competitive bidding, in which the bidders would capitalize part or all of the subsidy or the regulatory agency could recover the subsidy in a lump-sum tax on the utility.

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. Medicare Utilization for Part A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  15. Build Resilience at Your Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    CREAT allows users to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on their utility and to evaluate adaptation options to address them using both traditional risk assessment and scenario-based decision making.

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. HUG - the Hydrogen Utility Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Utility Group (HUG) was formally established in October 2005 by a group of leading electric utilities with a common interest in sharing hydrogen experiences and lessons learned. HUG's Mission Statement is: 'To accelerate utility integration of promising hydrogen energy related business applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with key stakeholders, including government agencies and utility support organizations.' In February 2006, HUG members presented a briefing to the US Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus in Washington, DC, outlining the significant role that the power industry should play in an emerging hydrogen economy. This presentation provides an overview of that briefing, summarizing the HUG's ongoing interests and activities

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. Critical paths to coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G R

    1977-01-01

    The present dilemma of energy producers, converters, and policy decision makers is presented. The consequences of environmental control regulations, coupled with the need for conservation and energy, and of energy resources on the increased utilization of coal, are discussed. Several recent technical accomplishments that make possible increased utilization of coal for power generation are described. Groundwork is laid for discussion of the technical development that must occur if the United States is to retain its energy viability.

  2. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  3. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Nuclear fuel element and container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, W.T.; King, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is based on the discovery that a substantial reduction in metal embrittlement or stress corrosion cracking from fuel pellet-cladding interaction can be achieved by the use of a copper layer or liner in proximity to the nuclear fuel, and an intermediate zirconium oxide barrier layer between the copper layer and the zirconium cladding substrate. The intermediate zirconia layer is a good copper diffusion barrier; also, if the zirconium cladding surface is modified prior to oxidation, copper can be deposited by electroless plating. A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises a central core of fuel material and an elongated container using the system outlined above. The method for making the container is again described. It comprises roughening or etching the surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container, oxidizing the resulting container, activating the oxidized surface to allow for the metallic coating of such surfaces by electroless deposition and further coating the activated-oxidized surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container with copper, iron or nickel or an alloy thereof. (U.K.)

  5. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  6. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  7. Hydrogen transport in the containment; Wasserstofftransport im Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royl, P.; Mueller, C.; Travis, J.R.; Wilson, T.

    1995-08-01

    For the description of transport phenomena in water vapor/hydrogen mixtures released in nuclear meltdown accidents, an integrated analytical model is being developed for LWR containments. Thermal and mechanical loads due to recombination and combustion are to be calculable. The 3-dimensional GASFLOW code was taken over from LANL in exchange for HDR experimental results and Battelle BMC program results. (orig.)

  8. Containing method for spent fuel and spent fuel containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Hanada, Yoshine.

    1996-01-01

    Upon containing spent fuels, a metal vessel main body and a support spacer having fuel containing holes are provided. The support spacer is disposed in the inside of the metal vessel main body, and spent fuel assemblies are loaded in the fuel containing holes. Then, a lid is welded at the opening of the metal vessel main body to provide a sealing state. In this state, heat released from the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the wall of the metal vessel main body via the support spacer. Since the support spacer has a greater heat conductivity than gases, heat of the spent fuel assemblies tends to be released to the outside, thereby capable of removing heat of the spent fuel assemblies effectively. In addition, since the surfaces of the spent fuel assemblies are in contact with the inner surface of the fuel containing holes of the support spacer, impact-resistance and earthquake-resistance are ensured, and radiation from the spent fuel assemblies is decayed by passing through the layer of the support spacer. (T.M.)

  9. Building a secondary containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  10. Conceptual study on the containment design aiming at 'no evacuation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Kouji; Takii, Taichi; Kikuyama, Tomohiko; Taminami, Tatsuya

    2003-01-01

    The next generation reactors represented in ABWR-II should enhance not only economics but also safety. Especially, the ideal target of 'No Evacuation', that is, no FP (Fission Product) release in severe accidents should be required. This paper provides the conceptual design achieving 'No Evacuation' by using only the passive systems, that are, the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the large amount of water inside containment, outside pool by utilizing gap between containment and surrounding building, and the natural heat removal from the containment surface to atmosphere. Furthermore, it is also easy to adopt the countermeasure for airplane crash by using a dome shelter and the dispersed layout as an option. At the same time, the amount of the construction material of this concept is competitive comparing with that of the conventional BWR because it is easy to use the steel structure or the steel plate reinforced concrete structure over a wide area. (author)

  11. Selenium-containing indolyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaril, Angela M; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chuang, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    materials, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, within the artery wall. Here we investigated the potential of selenium-containing indoles to afford protection against these oxidants, by determining rate constants (k) for their reaction, and quantifying the extent of damage on isolated ECM proteins......Tyr on HCAEC-ECM were also reduced. These data demonstrate that the novel selenium-containing compounds show high reactivity with oxidants and may modulate oxidative and nitrosative damage at sites of inflammation, contributing to a reduction in tissue dysfunction and atherogenesis....

  12. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  13. Methane from waste containing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-24

    Waste solids containing paper are biologically treated in a system by: fermentation with lactobacilli, separation of the solids, ion exchange of the supernatant from the separation, anaerobic digestion of the ion-exchanged liquor, separation of a liquor from the fermentation, and digestion of the liquor. Thus, a municipal waste containing paper and water was inoculated with Aspergillus niger and lactobacilli for 2 days; the mixture was anaerobically treated and centrifuged; the clear liquor was ion exchanged; and the solid waste was filter pressed. The filter cake was treated with Trichoderma nigricaus and filtered. The filtrate and the ion-exchanged liquor were digested for CH/sub 4/ production.

  14. Dry containment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A cask for the dry containment of radioactive fuel elements is described. The cask has a cover which contains valved drain and purge passageways. These passageways are sealed by after purge cover seals which are clamped over them and to the outer surface of the cover. The cover seals are tested by providing them with a pair of concentric ring seal elements squeezed between the cover seal and the outer surface of the cover and by forcing a gas under pressure into the annular region between the seal element

  15. Containing Terrorism: A Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Zahedzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic interplay between counterterror measures and terror activity is complex. Herein, we propose a dynamic model to depict this interaction. The model generates stylized prognoses: (i under conditions of inefficient counterterror measures, terror groups enjoy longer period of activity but only if recruitment into terror groups remains low; high recruitment shortens the period of terror activity (ii highly efficient counterterror measures effectively contain terror activity, but only if recruitment remains low. Thus, highly efficient counterterror measures can effectively contain terrorism if recruitment remains restrained. We conclude that the trajectory of the dynamics between counterterror measures and terror activity is heavily altered by recruitment.

  16. Investigations on passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Neitzel, H.J.; Erbacher, F.J.; Hofmann, F.

    1997-01-01

    The composite containment design for advanced LWRs that has been examined under the PASCO project is a promising design concept for purely passive decay heat removal after a severe accident. The passive cooling processes applied are natural convection and radiative heat transfer. Heat transfer through the latter process removes at an emission coefficient of 0.9 about 50% of the total heat removed via the steel containment, and thus is an essential factor. The heat transferring surfaces must have a high emission coefficient. The sump cooling concept examined under the SUCO project achieves a steady, natural convection-driven flow from the heat source to the heat sink. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Final Report Inspection of Aged/Degraded Containments Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL; Ellingwood, B R [Georgia Institute of Technology; Oland, C Barry [ORNL

    2005-09-01

    The Inspection of Aged/Degraded Containments Program had primary objectives of (1) understanding the significant factors relating corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments; (2) providing the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments, and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; (3) providing recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation; and (4) providing technical assistance to the USNRC (as requested) related to concrete technology. Primary program accomplishments have included development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of high-frequency acoustic imaging, magnetostrictive sensor, electromagnetic acoustic transducer, and multimode guided plate wave technologies for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; development of a continuum damage mechanics-based approach for structural deterioration; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion. In addition, data and information assembled under this program has been transferred to the technical community through review meetings and briefings, national and international conference participation, technical committee involvement, and publications of reports and journal articles. Appendix A provides a listing of program reports, papers, and publications; and Appendix B contains a listing of

  18. Roles of concrete technology for containment of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Yoshinori; Imamoto, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials was emitted in the environment by the reactor accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Nuclear debris still remains in the reactor container. An investigative committee was organized in Japan Concrete Institute to study on the containment of radioactive materials and the safe utilization of concrete materials. We have investigated the effect of the hydrogen explosion upon the property of concrete and the transfer of materials into the concrete. We also present the outline of the advice made by Japan Concrete Institute about technologies on the concrete materials for the waterproofing in buildings and for water-shielding walls. (J.P.N.)

  19. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The container comprises a cask and a cover made of concrete reinforced with metal fibers and closed with a seal poured in a dovetailed annular space provided between the cask and the cover. The seal is made with the material used for the cask [fr

  20. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tightness, shock resistance and corrosion resistance of containers for storage of radioactive wastes it obtained by complete fabrication with concrete reinforced with metal fibers. This material is used for molding the cask, the cover and the joint connecting both parts. Dovetail grooves are provided on the cask and the cover for the closure [fr

  1. Container for shipping dangerous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  2. The cobalt-60 container scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jigang, A.; Liye, Z.; Yisi, L.; Haifeng, W.; Zhifang, W.; Liqiang, W.; Yuanshi, Z.; Xincheng, X.; Furong, L.; Baozeng, G.; Chunfa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) has successfully designed and constructed a container (cargo) scanner, which uses cobalt-60 of 100-300 Ci as radiation source. The following performances of the Cobalt-60 container scanner have been achieved at INET: a) IQI (Image Quality Indicator) - 2.5% behind 100 mm of steel; b) CI (Contrast Indicator) - 0.7% behind 100 mm of steel; c) SP (Steel Penetration) - 240 mm of steel; d) Maximum Dose per Scanning - 0.02mGy; e) Throughput - twenty 40-foot containers per hour. These performances are equal or similar to those of the accelerator scanners. Besides these nice enough inspection properties, the Cobalt-60 scanner possesses many other special features which are better than accelerator scanners: a) cheap price - it will be only or two tenths of the accelerator scanner's; b) low radiation intensity - the radiation protection problem is much easier to solve and a lot of money can be saved on the radiation shielding building; c) much smaller area for installation and operation; d) simple operation and convenient maintenance; e) high reliability and stability. The Cobalt-60 container (or cargo) scanner is satisfied for boundary customs, seaports, airports and railway stations etc. Because of the nice special features said above, it is more suitable to be applied widely. Its high properties and low price will make it have much better application prospects

  3. Cooling device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Miyuki.

    1996-01-01

    In a cooling device for a reactor container, a low pressure vessel is connected to an incondensible gas vent tube by way of an opening/closing valve. Upon occurrence of a loss of coolant accident, among steams and incondensible gases contained in the reactor container, steams are cooled and condensed in a heat exchanger. The incondensible gases are at first discharged from the heat exchanger to a suppression pool by way of the incondensible gas vent tube, but subsequently, they are stagnated in the incondensible gas vent tube to hinder heat exchanging and steam cooling and condensing effects in the heat exchanger thereby raising temperature and pressure in the reactor. However, if the opening/closing valve is opened when the incondensible gases are stagnated in the incondensible gas vent tube, since the incondensible gases stagnated in the heat exchanger are sucked and discharged to the low pressure vessel, the performance of the heat exchanger is maintained satisfactorily thereby enabling to suppress elevation of temperature and pressure in the reactor container. (N.H.)

  4. The CANDU 3 containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The design of the CANDU 3 nuclear power plant is being developed by AECL CANDU's Saskatchewan office. There are 24 CANDU nuclear power units operating in Canada and abroad and eight units are under construction is Romania and South Korea. The design of the CANDU 3 plant has evolved on the basis of the proven CANDU design. The experiences gained during construction, commissioning and operation of the existing CANDU plants are considered in the design. Many technological enhancements have been implemented in the design processes in all areas. The object has been to develop an improved reactor design that is suitable for the current and the future markets worldwide. Throughout the design phase of CANDU 3, emphasis has been placed in reducing the cost and construction schedule of the plant. This has been achieved by implementing design improvements and using new construction techniques. Appropriate changes and improvements to the design to suit new requirements are also adopted. In CANDU plants, the containment structure acts as an ultimate barrier against the leakage of radioactive substances during normal operations and postulated accident conditions. The concept of the structural design of the containment structure has been examined in considerable detail. This has resulted in development of a new conceptual design for the containment structure for CANDU 3. This paper deals with this new design of the containment structure

  5. Overpressurization performance of containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.; Bleackley, M.; Harrop, L.P.; Hargreaves, J.; Jowett, J.; Phillips, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The containment building of a PWR is the outermost engineered barrier between the reactor and the environment. The most important element of such a containment system is the pressure boundary structure and its associated seals and penetrations. This containment structure is designed deterministically to withstand a number of loads and load combinations of which the dominant one is generally the internal pressure due to the double-ended guillotine break in one of the primary circuit loops. Typically, the design basis large LOCA produces a peak pressure increase in the region of 0.3 MPa in some 10 seconds and with a duration of up to a few tens of seconds. The assessment of overpressure performance of the containment structure is a key component of the PWR safety case, and is usually carried out by estimating a static factor of safety to some failure limit state. These estimates can be made using simple force-balance calculations or complicated finite element calculations, and both approaches have merit. In this paper we examine these approaches and discuss their value in estimating failure pressures and failure modes for a variety of internal pressurization transients. This discussion covers both general design and risk considerations and is illustrated by numerical examples taken from previous and on-going analysis

  6. Talk about high integrity container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The high integrity container (HIC) has been paid great attention to recently in China. The reason and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages are described in this article. The characteristics and fabrications of some foreign HIC and their test procedures have been introduced. Finally, some opinion and discussion related to develop HIC are put forward, too. (author)

  7. Hydrogen transport in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.; Mueller, C.; Travis, J.R.; Wilson, T.

    1995-01-01

    For the description of transport phenomena in water vapor/hydrogen mixtures released in nuclear meltdown accidents, an integrated analytical model is being developed for LWR containments. Thermal and mechanical loads due to recombination and combustion are to be calculable. The 3-dimensional GASFLOW code was taken over from LANL in exchange for HDR experimental results and Battelle BMC program results. (orig.)

  8. Composite containment for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Soeoet, O.

    1977-01-01

    Fundamentally, a nuclear reactor containment structure provides three major functions; namely, (1), to withstand loads due to pressure and temperature increase due to Design Basis Accident (DBA) (2), to withstand environmental loads such as seismic, tornado and normal loads, and (3) act as a radiation shield. Conventional design practise is to employ either a steel vessel and concrete shield building or a steel lined concrete structure. This paper deals with a new concept in which a steel liner is employed which carries much of the primary membrane loads. This type of structure is similar in some aspects to the previously described systems: a) A mat, lined with a thin plate on its top surface, is similar to concrete containment. b) A cylinder and hemispherical dome, made up of steel plate and concrete, is about 2.5 feet thick (the minimum required for radiation shielding). Although the steel plate and concrete are in contact, as in concrete containment, the steel plate in composite containment is much thicker than the liner. There are two main advantages over present practise; namely reduction of materials and therefore reduced capital cost and even more significantly a shortened construction schedule which will permit more flexibility in overall plant construction schedule and will benefit the cash flow situation. (Auth.)

  9. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  10. The pitfalls of container production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Bell

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes ten of the biggest “pitfalls” or challenges I have encountered in my experience growing southern pine seedlings in containers over the past 30 years. Learning from challenges is an important part of growing successful nursery operations.

  11. 27 CFR 30.44 - Weighing containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weighing containers. 30.44... Weighing containers. (a) Weighing containers of more than 10 wine gallons. The weight of containers having.... (b) Weighing containers of 10 wine gallons or less. The weight for containers of a capacity of 10...

  12. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnes, E.M.; Vaahedi, E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures to improve cooperation, a questionnaire was sent to electric utilities and other interested parties on the present extent and future possibilities for inter-utility cooperation. The questionnaire and its results are presented. It was found that there already exists a significant amount of inter-utility cooperation in Canada. Such cooperation generally involves interchanges of economy energy, non-economic capacity and energy, coordinated operation, resource sharing, maintenance scheduling, emergency supports, etc. There is a very limited degree of integrated generation expansion planning. Typically, these agreements are carried out under interconnection agreements negotiated on a bi-lateral basis. The highest current degree of cooperation exists under the auspices of the Alberta interconnected power system pool. Wheeling is limited and generally restricted to cases where the sender and receiver are the same entity or where power is wheeled to a utility purchasing it from the wheeler's system. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Figures on public utilities, 1976/77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Qualified statistical data belong to the instruments of effective association work. Therefore the association, among other activities, carries out statistical investigations on business management among its member enterprises at intervals of two years. This volume contains the results of the business years 1976 and 1977. A main purpose of this statistics is to offer guidelines to the member enterprises, especially figures which allow to compare the evaluated average values of the business with data of the own enterprise, which may be, if necessary, an impetus to think about measures of rationalization. As in former statistics all the results are classified in seven categories that are determined by the size of the enterprise. Compared with the last questionnaire some items have been altered to facilitate the completion. Questions concerning the extent of the public utilities, the structure of the network system and investment planning have been introduced for the first time.

  14. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  15. Standard light source utilizing spontaneous radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, O.; Takenaga, M.; Tsujimoto, Y.

    1975-01-01

    A standard light source is described utilizing spontaneous radiation made by mixing a fluorescent substance LnVO 4 :X (wherein Ln is Y or Gd, and X is Dy or Eu) with a radioactive substance containing a radioactive isotope which is less in the degree of temperature variation of the intensity of emitted light and excellent in stability. Particularly when used in a light-receiving device having photomultiplier tubes, the said light source emits light quite similar to that of a thermoluminescent substance such as CaSO 4 :X (wherein X is Im, Dy, Sm or Mn), LiF or Mg 2 SiO 4 :Tb, and is excellent as a calibration high-stability standard light source for use in the above-mentioned light-receiving device. (auth)

  16. Translation termination in pyrrolysine-utilizing archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalaeva, Elena; Eliseev, Boris; Ambrogelly, Alexandre; Vlasov, Peter; Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Gundllapalli, Sharath; Frolova, Lyudmila; Söll, Dieter; Kisselev, Lev

    2009-11-03

    Although some data link archaeal and eukaryotic translation, the overall mechanism of protein synthesis in archaea remains largely obscure. Both archaeal (aRF1) and eukaryotic (eRF1) single release factors recognize all three stop codons. The archaeal genus Methanosarcinaceae contains two aRF1 homologs, and also uses the UAG stop to encode the 22nd amino acid, pyrrolysine. Here we provide an analysis of the last stage of archaeal translation in pyrrolysine-utilizing species. We demonstrated that only one of two Methanosarcina barkeri aRF1 homologs possesses activity and recognizes all three stop codons. The second aRF1 homolog may have another unknown function. The mechanism of pyrrolysine incorporation in the Methanosarcinaceae is discussed.

  17. Utilization of thorium in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.R.; Nakra, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    Large deposits of thorium are found in India. 233 U produced by neutron capture in 232 Th is a more valuable fuel for thermal reactors than the plutonium that results from capture in 238 U. These two facts are the main reasons for the interest in utilizing thorium in power reactors. But natural thorium does not contain any fissile material and its capture cross section is nearly two and a half times that of 238 U. These have made the fuelling cost high. However, in certain conditions and certain types of reactors the costs are comparable with those using uranium fuel. The relative cost effectiveness of different fuels is discussed. Apart from long term interest, the short term interest of using thorium fuel in RAPP type reactors is also briefly described. Finally the reactor physics experiments using thorium fuel and their comparison with calculations are presented. (author)

  18. CONTAIN calculations of direct containment heating in the Surry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Louie, D.L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The draft NUREG-1150 risk analysis performed for the Surry plant identified direct containment heating (DCH) as a potentially dominant contributor to the total public risk associated with this plant. At that time, however, detailed mechanistic calculations of DCH loads were unavailable. Subsequently, a series of analyses of DCH scenarios using the CONTAIN-DCH code was performed in order to put the treatment of DCH on a firmer basis in the final draft of NUREG-1150. The present paper describes some of the results obtained for the Surry plant. A developmental model for DCH has been incorporated into CONTAIN code. This model includes mechanistic treatments of reasonably well-understood phenomena (e.g., heat and mass transfer), together with a parametric treatment of poorly understood phenomena for which mechanistic models are unavailable (e.g., debris de-entrainment from the gas stream due to debris-structure interactions). The DCH model was described in an earlier report, but the present version incorporates a number of advances, including treatment of the chemical equilibria involved in the iron-steam reaction

  19. Utilization trend of wood species utilized in furniture industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization trend of four commonly used wood species and two lesser used wood species that are used for furniture making was examined. The wood species are Mansonia altissima (Mansonia), Khaya ivorensis (Khaya), Cordia millenii (Cordia) and Tectona grandis (Teak) as commonly used wood species; Aningeria ...

  20. The NRC and utility finances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    In a speech before the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners in November 1991, Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Ivan Selin presented what he called an open-quotes expansion of the concept of safety beyond our previous narrow bounds.close quotes He went on to explain, open-quotes To be seen as successful and safe operators of nuclear facilities, utilities must have safe and predictable cash flows.close quotes While there is little disagreement that the concepts of successful plant operations and financial strength go hand in hand, the relationship between the two is not clear. Which came first, successful operation of generating plants or financial strength? Selin's views on NRC involvement in financial aspects of utility operation in the United States are sure to stimulate debate on the issue

  1. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  2. Calculating utility prudency issue costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

  3. Utility applications and broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R.; Taylor, P.

    2003-02-01

    A detailed analytical model of a cable network that would be capable of providing utilities with such services as automatic meter reading, on-line ability to remotely connect and disconnect commodity service, outage notification, tamper detection, direct utility-initiated load control, indirect user prescribed load control, and user access to energy consumption information, is described. The paper provides an overview of of the zones of focus that must be addressed -- market assessment, competitive analysis, product identification, economic model development, assessment of skill set requirements, performance monitoring and tracking, and various technical issues -- to identify any gaps in the organisation's ability to fully develop such a plan. Developers of the model field tested it in 1995 using some benchmarks that were available at that time, and found that the benefit afforded by direct labor saving was not sufficient to cover the capital expenditure of the advanced utility gateway connected to the cable network. However, since 1995 the unanticipated shift in the derived consumer value from a host of cable-based communications services has rendered these original projections irrelevant. Since national communications organizations concentrate on 'tier one' or at best 'tier two' cities (roughly corresponding to the NFL franchise cities and baseball farm team cities), the uncovered rural and suburban areas of the country create a significant digital divide within the population. The developers of the model contend that these unserviced areas provide utilities, especially municipal utilities, with an excellent opportunity to step into the gap and provide a full range of services that includes water, electricity and communications. The proposed model provides the foundation for utilities upon which to base their ultimate implementation decisions.

  4. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This... the utility supplier to pay the utility bill on behalf of the family. If the PHA elects to pay the utility supplier, the PHA must notify the family of the amount paid to the utility supplier. (3) In the...

  5. 'Utility marketing' as an oxymoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedge, P.

    1996-01-01

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of 'brand' in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described

  6. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  7. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  8. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  9. `Utility marketing` as an oxymoron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedge, P. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of `brand` in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described.

  10. Space-sharing Strategy for Building Dynamic Container Yard Storage Considering Uncertainty on Number of Incoming Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurminarsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AEC (Asian Economic Community leads to demand increase at ports in Indonesia. This increasing demand is followed by operational efficiency at the port as well. In fact, ports in Indonesia have an average dwell time for 5 days. One of the causes of this long dwell time is container transfer inefficiencies during loading process. In this research, we will focus in yard management and increasing land utilization. To increase the land utilization, we develop the space-sharing concept to reduce the initial space needed for a given workload. Since the ships arrivals are also varying, this concept will be possible. We develop the concept by adding uncertainty on number of incoming containers at operational level as the determining factor in planning a shared yard area. We propose a simulation approach to evaluate strategies in making yard template.

  11. Port Security: Container Cargo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladivoj Vlaković

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available illicittrafficking of threat materials, especially explosives, chemicalsubstances and radioactive or nuclear material. The transportof the threat materials by using sea routes is an advantageto te"orists especially because of the possible use of ship containers.The container is the basis of world trade. It is assumed thatthe world total movement in containers is about 200 millionTEUs ("20-foot equivalent units" per year. The list of materialstransported by containers which should be subject to inspectionwith the aim of reducing the acts of te"orism includes explosives,narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicalsand radioactive materials.Of special interest is nuclear te"orism. The risk of nuclearte"orism carried out by sub-national groups should be considerednot only in the construction and/or use of nuclear device,but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urbanareas.The system of ship containers control is an essential componentof «smart border» concept. Modem personnel, parcel,vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imagingtechniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques.The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays(300 keV or more or gamma-rays from radioactive sources(137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV that producea high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately,this information is "non-specific" in that it gives no informationon the nature of objects that do not match_ the travel documentsand are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographicpicture. Moreover, there are regions of the containerwherex and gamma-ray systems are "blind" due to the high averageatomic number of the objects i"adiated that appear asblack spots in the radiographic image.The systems being developed are based on the use of fast, 14Me V, neutrons with detection of associated a-particle from nuclearreactionbywhichneutrons are produced (d+t>a+n.Jnsuch a way the possibility to

  12. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  13. Transport container storage. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, B.; Kuehn, H.D.; Schulz, E.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with mandatory licensing procedures and in the framework of quality control for serially produced containers from spheroidal graphite cast iron of quality grade GGG 40, destined to be used in the transport and storage of radioactive materials, each prototype and each production sample of a design is subjected to comprehensive destructive and non-destructive material tests. The data obtained are needed on the one hand to check whether specified, representative material characteristics are observed; on the other hand they are systematically evaluated to update knowledge and technical standards. The Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing (BAM) has so far examined 528 individual containers (513 production samples and 15 prototypes) of wall thicknesses from 80 millimetres to 500 millimetres in this connection. It has turned out that the measures for quality assurance and quality control as substantiated by a concept of expertise definitely confirm the validity of component test results for production samples. (orig.) [de

  14. Filtered containment venting in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, L.; Ellisson, K.

    1989-01-01

    After the TMI accident, Swedish authorities decided that all Swedish nuclear power plants should be upgraded with respect to mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. One contribution to meet these ends is filtered containment venting, i.e. means to relieve containment overpressure and to clean the relief gas from radioactive components. The first system in operation was built at the Barsebaeck site (2 BWR's) where a gravel bed filter was installed. For the remaining Swedish units (7 BWR's and 3 PWR's) a passive, self-controlling wet scrubber system, FILTRA-MVSS, is now under installation. The principle of the FILTRA-MVSS is a self-controlling, self-pumping venturi collector submerged in a pool, and it is used to filter out emissions of solid and gaseous radioactive components

  15. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Owen, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH and >99.7% for NaI. 7 refs

  16. Shielding container for radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tetsuo; Tosa, Masayoshi; Hatogai, Tatsuaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To effect opening and closing bidirectional radiation used particularly for a gamma densimeter or the like by one operation. Structure: This device comprises a rotatable shielding body for receiving radioactive isotope in the central portion thereof and having at least two radiation openings through which radiation is taken out of the isotope, and a shielding container having openings corresponding to the first mentioned radiation openings, respectively. The radioactive isotope is secured to a rotational shaft of the shielding body, and the shielding body is rotated to register the openings of the shielding container with the openings of the shielding body or to shield the openings, thereby effecting radiation and cut off of gamma ray in the bidirection by one operation. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Dolomitic lime containing hydraulic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagzdina, S.; Sedmalis, U.; Bidermanis, L.; Liepins, J.; Grosvalds, I.

    1997-01-01

    To obtain qualitative dolomitic lime the optimum calcination temperature of dolomite containing about 9 % of clayey substances is 900 deg C. The mechanical strength of dolomitic lime containing 30 % of brick waste additive after 6-9 months of hardening is 1.4-1.5 times higher than that of samples without hydraulic additive, for calcium lime - 2.2-2.6 times higher. Generally the mechanical strength of dolomitic lime is higher than that one of calcium lime. It can be explained by the active role of MgO in the hydration and hardening processes of dolomitic lime. Xray diffraction phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffractometer DPON-3M with Cu-K α emission filter

  18. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  19. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, V F; Shabanova, O V; Pavlov, I V; Pavlov, M V; Shabanov, A V

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM. (paper)

  20. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes

  1. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. F.; Shabanova, O. V.; Pavlov, I. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Shabanov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM.

  2. Query containment in entity SQL

    OpenAIRE

    Rull Fort, Guillem; Bernstein, Philip A.; Garcia dos Santos, Ivo; Katsis, Yannis; Melnik, Sergey; Teniente López, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    We describe a software architecture we have developed for a constructive containment checker of Entity SQL queries defined over extended ER schemas expressed in Microsoft's Entity Data Model. Our application of interest is compilation of object-to-relational mappings for Microsoft's ADO.NET Entity Framework, which has been shipping since 2007. The supported language includes several features which have been individually addressed in the past but, to the best of our knowledge, they have not be...

  3. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  4. Cooling device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    Upon assembling a static container cooling system to an emergency reactor core cooling system using dynamic pumps in a power plant, the present invention provides a cooling device of lowered center of gravity and having a good cooling effect by lowering the position of a cooling water pool of the static container cooling system. Namely, the emergency reactor core cooling system injects water to the inside of a pressure vessel using emergency cooling water stored in a suppression pool as at least one water source upon loss of reactor coolant accident. In addition, a cooling water pool incorporating a heat exchanger is disposed at the circumference of the suppression pool at the outside of the container. A dry well and the heat exchanger are connected by way of steam supply pipes, and the heat exchanger is connected with the suppression pool by way of a gas exhaustion pipe and a condensate returning pipeline. With such a constitution, the position of the heat exchanger is made higher than an ordinary water level of the suppression pool. As a result, the emergency cooling water of the suppression pool water is injected to the pressure vessel by the operation of the reactor cooling pumps upon loss of coolant accident to cool the reactor core. (I.S.)

  5. Nuclear power plant containment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Danisch, R.; Strickroth, E.

    1975-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Containment Construction includes the spherical steel safety enclosure for the reactor and the equipment associated with the reactor and requiring this type of enclosure. This steel enclosure is externally structurally protected against accident by a concrete construction providing a foundation for the steel enclosure and having a cylindrical wall and a hemispherical dome, these parts being dimensioned to form an annular space surrounding the spherical steel enclosure, the latter and the concrete construction heretofore being concentrically arranged with respect to each other. In the disclosed construction the two parts are arranged with their vertical axis horizontally offset from each other so that opposite to the offsetting direction of the concrete construction a relatively large space is formed in the now asymmetrical annular space in which reactor auxiliary equipment not requiring enclosure by the steel containment vessel or safety enclosure, may be located outside of the steel containment vessel and inside of the concrete construction where it is structurally protected by the latter

  6. Isolation of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria from different ecological sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Choudri, S.F.; Hameed, A.

    1991-01-01

    Among the various samples from different ecological sources oil contaminated soil samples and waste from sugar processing industry were found to have bacterial populations with ability of utilizing oil. In addition to oil, molasses base medium was also used to study the utilizing ability. Selection was made on the basis on the high gas production, decrease in pH, percentage of oil consumed and bacterial counts. Fermented scum and oil contaminated soil from Sehala (Islamabad) were found to contain microbes having maximum oil degrading ability. The bacterial isolates belong to the genera of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Escherichia. (author)

  7. Uses of communication satellites in water utility operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, W. S.

    This paper proposes a system to serve the communications needs of the operating side of a water utility and estimates the requirements and capabilities of the equipment needed. The system requires the shared use of a satellite transponder with 100% backup. Messages consist of data packets containing data and control information, plus voice transmission. Satellite communication may have a price advantage in some instances over wire line or VHF radio and have greater survivability in case of a natural disaster. Water and other utilities represent a significant market for low cost mass produced satellite earth terminals.

  8. Decomposing a Utility Function Based on Discrete Distribution Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ying; Dyer, James; Butler, John

    2014-01-01

    For two-attribute decision-making problems, the multilinear utility model cannot be applied when the risk aversion on one attribute depends on the level of the other attribute. We propose a family of general preference conditions called nth-degree discrete distribution independence that can...... accommodate a variety of dependence relationships between two attributes. The special case of second-degree discrete distribution independence is equivalent to the utility independence condition. We focus on third-degree discrete distribution independence that leads to a decomposition formula that contains...

  9. Cork Containing Barks - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Carla; Pereira, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Tree barks are among the less studied forest products notwithstanding their relevant physiological and protective role in tree functioning. The large diversity in structure and chemical composition of barks makes them a particularly interesting potential source of chemicals and bio-products, at present valued in the context of biorefineries. One of the valuable components of barks is cork (phellem in anatomy) due to a rather unique set of properties and composition. Cork from the cork oak (Quercus suber) has been extensively studied, mostly because of its economic importance and worldwide utilization of cork products. However, several other species have barks with substantial cork amounts that may constitute additional resources for cork-based bioproducts. This paper makes a review of the tree species that have barks with significant proportion of cork and on the available information regarding their bark structural and chemical characterization. A general integrative appraisal of the formation and types of barks and of cork development is also given. The knowledge gaps and the potential interesting research lines are identified and discussed, as well as the utilization perspectives.

  10. Simplified compact containment BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Tsutagawa, M.; Hiraiwa, K.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2004-01-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, is expected to prove attractive in the world energy markets due to its flexibility in regard to both energy demands and site conditions, its high potential for reducing investment risk and its safety features facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's small power output of 300 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). CCR is expected to be attractive from view point of investment due to its simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, internal upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure containment concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps and the maintenance of such pumps. The internal upper entry CRDs reduce the height of the reactor vessel (RPV) and consequently reduce the height of the primary containment vessel (PCV). The safety features mainly consist of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), passive auto catalytic recombiner and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in the case of design-base accidents, including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. The recombiner decreases hydrogen concentration in the PCV in the case of a severe accident. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. The feasibility of CCR safety system has been confirmed by LOCA

  11. Thorium utilization in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraceno; Marcos.

    1978-10-01

    In this work the recent (prior to Aug, 1976) literature on thorium utilization is reviewed briefly and the available information is updated. After reviewing the nuclear properties relevant to the thorium fuel cycle we describe briefly the reactor systems that have been proposed using thorium as a fertile material. (author) [es

  12. Breaking into the utility market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.; Rubinoff, M.

    1992-01-01

    The wind energy industry in Canada must displace competition from government protected conventional energy industries if it is to gain a market position. This hypothesis is discussed for the case of Ontario, where the provincial utility has historically focused on nuclear, large hydro, and coal-fired sources. It is alleged that the utility has consistently underestimated costs for conventional energy sources and overestimated those for renewable sources such as wind power. Research by a coalition of environmental groups is cited to show that avoided generation costs in Ontario range from 8 cents/kWh for off-peak periods to a high of 12 cents/kWh during peak periods. At these values, even the utility's high cost estimates of $1,890-$2,600/kW for wind turbines and wind farms indicates cost effectiveness. Estimates of the added costs of conventional energy developments (the costs of environmental impacts not taken into account in conventional utility accounting) range from 1.1 cents/kWh for gas combined cycle cogeneration to 4.4 cents/kWh for existing coal-fired plants. By taking this kind of information to public hearings on energy developments, the wind energy industry can help establish new standards for evaluating conventional energy technology

  13. Natural gas for utility generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasters predict that natural gas will be the dominant fuel choice for utility capacity additions in the coming decade and that power generation will be by far the largest growth market for gas sales. While gas's low emissions, high efficiency potential, and present low cost argue persuasively for a surge in gas-fired generation, many utilities have been slow to commit to a gas future, citing reasoned concern about long-term price trends and the ability of gas suppliers to deliver the fuel where and when it will be needed. Meanwhile, the relatively low cost of gas-fired units is providing an opportunity for independent power producers to compete strongly with utilities for generation contracts. EPRI studies suggest that a sound, competitive strategy will be based not on how much gas a utility burns, but rather on how this capacity fits into its overall generating mix at various fuel price levels. Gas suppliers will need to pay special attention to the operating needs of power generators if they are to solidify this important market

  14. Utilities practices toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The strategy toward a Sustainable Development is not standardised and it is useful to compare approaches of companies. WG C3.03 analysed a number of Sustainability Reports or Environmental Reports, published by Utilities, exposing their current approaches to the three 'Pillars': environmental aspects, society development and economical performances. Case studies, relevant to the three 'Pillars', show examples of practices

  15. Utility of spoken dialog systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the evolution of poken dialog system research in the developed world, and show that the utility of speech is based on user factors and application factors (among others). After adjusting the factors for the developing world context, and plotting...

  16. Utility impact on STARFIRE design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreece, D.A.; Waganer, L.M.; Woklenhauer, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A primary objective of STARFIRE has been to design a tokamak fusion power plant that was attractive to the utilities. To achieve this goal, several utility representatives were directly involved in the decision-making processes as the design evolved. An initial step was to establish the relative importance to the utilities for an extensive list of economic, performance, safety and environmental issues. The top twenty issues were ranked. Cost of electricity was clearly most important with very little spread in the ratings of individual evaluators. Licensing is a go/no-go factor and must be accomplished for the other factors to have meaning. The top nine factors were judged to be very important by all evaluators, as was shown by the spread of ratings from 5 to 10. There is considerably more spread in the bottom eleven, which reflects a lack of consensus as to the relative importance of the evaluation factors. This evaluation was utilized in establishing the initial design concept

  17. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  18. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  19. Utilizing Twitter for Concept Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Armand; Holdan, E. Gregory; Rota, Daniel; McCarthy, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite the perception that face-to-face classrooms provide speaking opportunities, studies by Fassinger (1995), Nunn (1996), and Weimer (2013) have conveyed that there is limited interaction in a traditional college lecture setting. Social media networks such as Twitter provide an opportunity for instructors to utilize popular mobile technology…

  20. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...