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Sample records for container ship model

  1. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...... is included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization...

  2. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...

  3. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    A generic computer model for systematic investigations of container ship designs is described in this paper. The primary statistical data on container ships used for the model development are also presented. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from container ships, including...

  4. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). A calculation procedure to estimate the newly designated Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), which is under development at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), is included in the model. Different ship design parameters have been varied to see the influence......A generic computer model for systematic investigations of container ship designs is described in this paper. The primary statistical data on container ships used for the model development are also presented. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from container ships, including...

  5. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Christian; Galeazzi, Roberto; Rodríguez, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to 40, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head...... seas. A Matlab/Simulinkr parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007). The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll...... is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic...

  6. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  7. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Whipping can contribute to increased fatigue and extreme loading of container ships, and guidelines have been made available by the leading class societies. Reports concerning the hogging collapse of MSC Napoli and MOL Comfort suggest that whipping contributed. The accidents happened in moderate...... to small storms. Model tests of three container ships have been carried out in different sea states under realistic assumptions. Preliminary extrapolation of the measured data suggested that moderate storms are dimensioning when whipping is included due to higher maximum speed in moderate storms...

  8. Model and algorithm for container ship stowage planning based on bin-packing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Ying; Lin, Yan; Ji, Zhuo-Shang

    2005-09-01

    In a general case, container ship serves many different ports on each voyage. A stowage planning for container ship made at one port must take account of the influence on subsequent ports. So the complexity of stowage planning problem increases due to its multi-ports nature. This problem is NP-hard problem. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the problem is decomposed into two sub-problems in this paper. First, container ship stowage problem (CSSP) is regarded as “packing problem”, ship-bays on the board of vessel are regarded as bins, the number of slots at each bay are taken as capacities of bins, and containers with different characteristics (homogeneous containers group) are treated as items packed. At this stage, there are two objective functions, one is to minimize the number of bays packed by containers and the other is to minimize the number of overstows. Secondly, containers assigned to each bays at first stage are allocate to special slot, the objective functions are to minimize the metacentric height, heel and overstows. The taboo search heuristics algorithm are used to solve the subproblem. The main focus of this paper is on the first subproblem. A case certifies the feasibility of the model and algorithm.

  9. Model and algorithm for container ship stowage planning based on bin-packing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In a general case, container ship serves many different ports on each voyage. A stowage planning for container ship made at one port must take account of the influence on subsequent ports. So the complexity of stowage planning problem increases due to its multi-ports nature. This problem is NP-hard problem. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the problem is decomposed into two sub-problems in this paper. First, container ship stowage problem (CSSP) is regarded as "packing problem", ship-bays on the board of vessel are regarded as bins, the number of slots at each bay are taken as capacities of bins, and containers with different characteristics (homogeneous containers group) are treated as items packed. At this stage, there are two objective functions, one is to minimize the number of bays packed by containers and the other is to minimize the number of overstows. Secondly, containers assigned to each bays at first stage are allocate to special slot, the objective functions are to minimize the metacentric height, heel and overstows.The taboo search heuristics algorithm are used to solve the subproblem. The main focus of this paper is on the first subproblem. A case certifies the feasibility of the model and algorithm.

  10. Modeling Liner Shipping Service Selection and Container Flows using a Multi-layer Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Balakrishnan, Anant

    We introduce a new formulation for the tactical planning problem facing container shipping companies of selecting the best subset of sailing routes from a given pool of candidate routes so as to maximize profit. Since most containers are sent directly or transshipped at most twice in current liner...... shipping networks, we impose limits on the number of transshipments for each container (which most previous models do not incorporate). Our multi-layer multi-commodity model associates one commodity with each container origin port, and decides the route for each commodity on a logical network layer whose...... arcs represent segments (pairs of ports between which a container can use a single service). This approach, combined with commodity flow variables that are indexed by segment sequence permits us to incorporate the transshipment limits while also tracking the commodity’s outflow from the system...

  11. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holden

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to +-40 degrees, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head seas. A Matlab/Simulink parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007. The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic results which are in good agreement with the model tank experiments.

  12. Model of Optimal Cargo Transport Structure by Full Container Ship on Predefined Sailing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serđo Kos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model for solving theproblem of defining optimal cargo transport structure, occurringwhen, on a predefined sailing route, adequate number ofcontainers of various types, masses and sizes, possibly includingRO!RO cargo, is to be selected, i.e., a "container lot" is to beestablished in loading ports with the aim of gaining maximumship profit and, at the same time, of exploiting useful load andtransport capacity of container ship as much as possible. Theimplementation of the proposed model enables considerableincrease in the efficiency of container ship operations. Themodel was tested using a numerical example with real data.The applied post-optimal analysis examines the influence ofchange in some values of the mathematical model on the resultingoptimal program.

  13. Multivariable Adaptive Controller for the Nonlinear MIMO Model of a Container Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Brasel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an adaptive multivariable control system for a Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO nonlinear dynamic process. The problems under study are exemplified by a synthesis of a course angle and forward speed control system for the nonlinear four-Degrees-of-Freedom (4-DoF mathematical model of a single-screw, high-speed container ship. The paper presents the complexity of the assumed model to be analyzed and a synthesis method for the multivariable adaptive modal controller. Due to a strongly nonlinear nature of the ship movements equations a multivariable adaptive controller is tuned in relation to changeable hydrodynamic operating conditions of the ship. In accordance with the given operating conditions controller parameters are chosen on the basis of four measured auxiliary signals. The system synthesis is carried out by linearization of the nonlinear model of the ship at its nominal operating points in the steady-state and by means of a pole placement control method. The final part of the paper includes results of simulation tests of the proposed control system carried out in the MATLAB/Simulink environment along with conclusions and final remarks.

  14. Global hydroelastic analysis of ultra large container ships by improved beam structural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjanović, Ivo; Vladimir, Nikola; Tomić, Marko; Hadžić, Neven; Malenica, Šime

    2014-12-01

    Some results on the hydroelasticity of ultra large container ships related to the beam structural model and restoring stiffness achieved within EU FP7 Project TULCS are summarized. An advanced thin-walled girder theory based on the modified Timoshenko beam theory for flexural vibrations with analogical extension to the torsional problem, is used for formulation of the beam finite element for analysis of coupled horizontal and torsional ship hull vibrations. Special attention is paid to the contribution of transverse bulkheads to the open hull stiffness, as well as to the reduced stiffness of the relatively short engine room structure. In addition two definitions of the restoring stiffness are considered: consistent one, which includes hydrostatic and gravity properties, and unified one with geometric stiffness as structural contribution via calm water stress field. Both formulations are worked out by employing the finite element concept. Complete hydroelastic response of a ULCS is performed by coupling 1D structural model and 3D hydrodynamic model as well as for 3D structural and 3D hydrodynamic model. Also, fatigue of structural elements exposed to high stress concentration is considered.

  15. Global hydroelastic analysis of ultra large container ships by improved beam structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senjanović Ivo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some results on the hydroelasticity of ultra large container ships related to the beam structural model and restoring stiffness achieved within EU FP7 Project TULCS are summarized. An advanced thin-walled girder theory based on the modified Timoshenko beam theory for flexural vibrations with analogical extension to the torsional problem, is used for formulation of the beam finite element for analysis of coupled horizontal and torsional ship hull vibrations. Special attention is paid to the contribution of transverse bulkheads to the open hull stiffness, as well as to the reduced stiffness of the relatively short engine room structure. In addition two definitions of the restoring stiffness are considered: consistent one, which includes hydrostatic and gravity properties, and unified one with geometric stiffness as structural contribution via calm water stress field. Both formulations are worked out by employing the finite element concept. Complete hydroelastic response of a ULCS is performed by coupling 1D structural model and 3D hydrodynamic model as well as for 3D structural and 3D hydrodynamic model. Also, fatigue of structural elements exposed to high stress concentration is considered.

  16. Container shipping in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two years, the global maritime trade, and in particular container throughput, has been growing, although more slowly than in the exceptional year 2010, after a rapid collapse in 2009. Container fleet has also been growing well, but financial results achieved by the majority of leading container carrier companies (TOP 20 are very bad. When in 2009 their losses amounted to several billions dollars, carriers explained that it was an exceptional year because of the economic crisis and unusual collapse of container throughput accompanied by increasing expenses (especially on fuel. However, looking at financial results for the four years period of 2008-2011, year 2010 appears to be exceptionally profitable and the sum of financial results for the entire period for fifteen carriers from the TOP 20 group is 5.5 billion dollars loss. Debt of carriers is already over 90 billion dollars. Many of them are actually on the verge of bankruptcy and the prospects are not the best.

  17. Process Analysis in Container Shipping Network Structure Form Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the influence of ship-size and cargo-demand changes on container shipping networks, to reveal the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form, this paper respectively designed the operation models for two major container shipping networks structure forms: Multi-port-calling network and Hub-and-spoke network, to maximizing the investment efficiency. Based on the above models, a comprehensively integrated operation model of container shipping networks is built and the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form with changing of both ship-size and cargo demands is analyzed. Finally, through a case study, results show that the comprehensive integrated operation model is very effective in the analysis of evolution process of container shipping networks structure forms.

  18. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5-10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  19. Modelling the impact of liner shipping network perturbations on container cargo routing: Southeast Asia to Europe application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achurra-Gonzalez, Pablo E; Novati, Matteo; Foulser-Piggott, Roxane; Graham, Daniel J; Bowman, Gary; Bell, Michael G H; Angeloudis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-03

    Understanding how container routing stands to be impacted by different scenarios of liner shipping network perturbations such as natural disasters or new major infrastructure developments is of key importance for decision-making in the liner shipping industry. The variety of actors and processes within modern supply chains and the complexity of their relationships have previously led to the development of simulation-based models, whose application has been largely compromised by their dependency on extensive and often confidential sets of data. This study proposes the application of optimisation techniques less dependent on complex data sets in order to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impacts of disruptive events on liner shipping networks. We provide a categorization of liner network perturbations, differentiating between systemic and external and formulate a container assignment model that minimises routing costs extending previous implementations to allow feasible solutions when routing capacity is reduced below transport demand. We develop a base case network for the Southeast Asia to Europe liner shipping trade and review of accidents related to port disruptions for two scenarios of seismic and political conflict hazards. Numerical results identify alternative routing paths and costs in the aftermath of port disruptions scenarios and suggest higher vulnerability of intra-regional connectivity.

  20. Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels...... on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm....

  1. Network Design for Container Shipping Using Cutting Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The network design problem in container shipping is of increasing importance in the strongly competitive markets where potential cost reductions are of the utmost importance. We combine the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing...... the overall cost. The real-life container shipping network design problem differs in several ways from the standard network design problem. Examples of these differences are the cyclic routes of vessels and the fact that a route is continuously sailed for a given forecast period. To model these real...

  2. Network Design for Container Shipping Using Cutting Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The network design problem in container shipping is of increasing importance in the strongly competitive markets where potential cost reductions are of the utmost importance. We combine the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing...... the overall cost. The real-life container shipping network design problem differs in several ways from the standard network design problem. Examples of these differences are the cyclic routes of vessels and the fact that a route is continuously sailed for a given forecast period. To model these real......-life situations we have introduced a cyclic constraint and included the time of a vessel route in the calculation of the capacity of that route. Moreover we have added an inhomogeneous fleet to the model and included the cost of transshipment, which is one of the major costs for shipping companies. To simulate...

  3. Container shipping service selection and cargo routing with transshipment limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, Anantaram; Karsten, Christian Vad

    2017-01-01

    We address the tactical planning problem faced by container liner shipping companies to select a set of sailing services from a given pool of candidate services and route available cargo over the chosen services so as to maximize profit. One of the distinctive features of our model is that it inc......We address the tactical planning problem faced by container liner shipping companies to select a set of sailing services from a given pool of candidate services and route available cargo over the chosen services so as to maximize profit. One of the distinctive features of our model...... solutions. We report successful computational results for realistic problem instances from a benchmark suite of liner shipping problems, solved using a standard solver applied to our reduced and strengthened model....

  4. Levels of Internationalization in the Container Shipping Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadhia, Hitesh Kumar; Kotzab, Herbert; Prockl, Günter

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization level of the world’s largest container shipping companies by examining their port networks. The results of our analysis show that only three of the nineteen companies could be considered as being truly ‘International’ and service the ‘lion’s share......’ of the major and minor ports distributed across the globe. The port networks of the other companies in our survey, whilst having individualized features, shared common characteristics. Guided by the ‘Uppsala Model of Incremental Internationalization’ (Johanson and Vahlne, 1977), we were able to identify four...... internationalization levels of a container shipping company that are indicated by their port network. We argue that the port network plays an additional role as it contributes to the internationalization level of the container shipping companies. This is important because the internationalization level affects...

  5. High efficiency 200 TEU container ship developed by CSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three years operation, the large, energy-efficient, environment-friendly 200 TEU container ship Changjiang developed by China Changjiang National Shipping Group Corporation (CSC) has become an important force in the fleet of container ships in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in China.

  6. Wind loads on post-panamax container ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of the container configuration on the deck of a 9000+ TEU container ship on wind forces has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests with a 1:450 scale model. An analysis of earlier studies was used to select a series of appropriate loading conditions...... are presented as two different types of non-dimensional coefficients. It was apparent, as expected, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck. The test results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container...

  7. Study of the Optimal Timing of Container Ship Orders Considering the Uncertain Shipping Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Jeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply System Dynamics (SD to analyze the optimal timing of container ship orders by considering the uncertain shipping environment. The collected monthly data for 12 years was obtained from the China seaborne container trade (CSCT and the China Containerized Freight Index (CCFI. Containership fleet development and the prices of new and second-hand container ships were classified based on five container vessel sizes (January of 2004–December of 2015. The period of simulation for this study was from 2004 to 2020. To analyze the optimal timing for the container ship orders, container ship fleet development as a supply factor and the CSCT as a demand factor, both of which are components of CCFI, were simulated. After the first simulation, CCFI was simulated holistically. Based on the CCFI simulation results, it was possible to develop three optimal timing scenarios for ship order placement. The CCFI for October 2016 was in the initial entry status of a short-term rebound, which makes it possible for shipping companies to order ships without the risk of revenue loss. The second best time period is May 2018, before the CCFI recovery of May 2019. The third best time for ship orders is later in 2020 for a CCFI recovery after 2021.

  8. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfection. 83.7 Section 83.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored by...

  9. Influence of Variable Acceleration on Parametric Roll Motion of a Container Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre PEŞMAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship operators increase or decrease thrust force of ships to avoid parametric roll motion. These operations cause varying acceleration values. In this study, influence of variable acceleration and deceleration of ships on roll motion is investigated in longitudinal waves. The method which is referred as simple model is utilized for analysis. Simple Model is one degree of freedom nonlinear parametric roll motion equation which contains changing velocity and restoring moment in waves with respect to time. Ship velocities in waves are predicted by XFlow software for various thrust forces. Results indicate that variable acceleration has significant effect on parametric roll phenomenon.

  10. Lift-based up-ender and methods using same to manipulate a shipping container containing unirradiated nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Michael J.

    2017-08-01

    A shipping container containing an unirradiated nuclear fuel assembly is lifted off the ground by operating a crane to raise a lifting tool comprising a winch. The lifting tool is connected with the shipping container by a rigging line connecting with the shipping container at a lifting point located on the shipping container between the top and bottom of the shipping container, and by winch cabling connecting with the shipping container at the top of the shipping container. The shipping container is reoriented by operating the winch to adjust the length of the winch cabling so as to rotate the shipping container about the lifting point. Shortening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from a horizontal orientation to a vertical orientation, while lengthening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from the vertical orientation to the horizontal orientation.

  11. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or substantial marine pollution. These are the reasons why solutions that will prevent the ship being unable to manoeuvre during her exploitation should be implemented. Therefore, it is necessary to define a propulsion restoration model which would not depend on the primary electrical energy. The paper provides a model of the marine auxiliary system for more reliable propulsion. This includes starting, reversing and stopping of the propulsion engine. The proposed solution of reliable propulsion model based on the use of a shaft generator and an excitation engine enables the restoration of propulsion following total failure of the electrical energy primary production system, and the self-propelled ship navigation. A ship is an important factor in the Technology of Transport, and the implementation of this model increases safety, reduces downtime, and significantly decreases hazards of pollution damage.KEYWORDSreliable propulsion, failure, ship auxiliary system, control, propulsion restoration

  12. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  13. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  14. CAPITAL AND OPERATIONAL CONCENTRATION IN THE CONTAINER SHIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analysis of the processes of concentration in the liner, con-tainer shipping. In the first part it focuses on the capital concentration as a result of organic growth and/or consolidation among container shipping operators (whether mergers or acquisitions - M&A. The second part of this article focuses on the operational concentra-tion of container fleets in a form of chartering vessels from non-operator owners and formation of the global container alliances between “big players”. The last part of this article focuses on threats connected with growing concentration of container fleet and market power in this sector of shipping.

  15. DYNA3D analysis of the DT-20 shipping container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R.W.; Lovejoy, S.C.

    1991-08-22

    A DYNA3D model of the DT-20 shipping container was constructed. Impact onto a rigid steel surface at a velocity of 44 ft/sec (30 foot gravity drop) was studied. The orientation of most interest was a side-drop, but end and corner drops were also studied briefly. The assembly for the baseline side impact contained a 150 lb. payload. During this drop, the outer drum sustains plastic strains of up to 0.15, with most the deformation near the rim. The plywood/Celotex packing is crushed about 3 inches. The inner sealed can sees significant stresses, but barely reaches the onset of yielding in some local areas. Based on hand calculations, the bolts joining the can halves could see stresses near 50 ksi. It is felt that overall, the container should survive this drop. However, detailed modeling of the rim closure and the center bolted joint was not possible due to time constraints. Furthermore, better material models and properties are needed for the Celotex, plywood, and honeycomb in particular. 39 figs., 1 tab.

  16. GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR CONTAINER SHIPPING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shimin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the onset of the first ever Greenhouse Gas (GHG regulation for ships by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO in 2011, the container shipping industry requires the combined use of technical and operational emissions reduction measures to improve the environmental performance of its vessels. Studies show that most existing measures are cost effective with a range of emissions reduction potential. However, the level of implementation is not depicted and the potential of the measures may be over-estimated. An evaluation of the emissions reduction measures is conducted through the examination of 3 factors, namely level of implementation, emissions reduction potential and cost effectiveness. Strategies to overcome the critical barriers of implementation are suggested in this study. Lastly, recommendations for companies with regards to GHG issues are made. The strong link between cost effectiveness and level of implementation is highlighted in this study. It is also shown that there is immense potential to reduce emissions from ships given the availability of measures with significant reduction potential. However, the top barriers of implementation, namely cost of measure and lack of information, need to be addressed for a higher level of adoption. This report serves as the first step to map strategy for managing GHG in the shipping industry. The importance of cost effectiveness in decision making from a ship operators perspective prompts the adoption of measures that are the most cost effective first before measures with high emissions reduction potential. It is prudent for shipping companies to adopt a more environmentally friendly operation as green is the way forward in the shipping industry.

  17. A NUMERICAL APPLICATION TO PREDICT THE RESISTANCE AND WAVE PATTERN OF KRISO CONTAINER SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Hakan Ozdemir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the computational results for KRISO Container Ship (KCS are presented. CFD analyses are performed to simulate free surface flow around KCS by using RANS approach with success. Also the complicated turbulent flow zone behind the ship is well simulated. The RANS equations and the non-linear free surface boundary conditions are discretized by means of a finite volume scheme. The numerical methodology is found to be appropriate for simulating the turbulent flow around a ship in order to estimate ship total resistance and free surface. By the numerical results, total resistance is calculated for the ship model and the result is satisfactory with regard to the experimental one. As a result of well captured free surface, the wave elevation on/around the hull is compared with the experimental results.

  18. Behavior analysis of container ship in maritime accident in order to redefine the operating criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancuţa, C.; Stanca, C.; Andrei, C.; Acomi, N.

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of maritime transport, container ships operators proceeded to increase the sizes of ships. The latest generation of ships in operation has 19,000 TEU capacity and the perspective is 21,000 TEU within the next years. The increasing of the sizes of container ships involves risks of maritime accidents occurrences. Nowadays, the general rules on operational security, tend to be adjusted as a result of the evaluation for each vessel. To create the premises for making an informed decision, the captain have to be aware of ships behavior in such situations. Not less important is to assure permanent review of the procedures for operation of ship, including the specific procedures in special areas, confined waters or separation schemes. This paper aims at analysing the behavior of the vessel and the respond of the structure of a container ship in maritime accident, in order to redefine the operating criteria. The method selected by authors for carrying out the research is computer simulations. Computer program provides the responses of the container ship model in various situations. Therefore, the simulations allow acquisition of a large category of data, in the scope of improving the prevention of accidents or mitigation of effects as much as possible. Simulations and assessments of certain situations that the ship might experience will be carried out to redefine the operating criteria. The envisaged scenarios are: introducing of maneuver speed for specific areas with high risk of collision or grounding, introducing of flooding scenarios of some compartments in loading programs, conducting of complex simulations in various situations for each vessel type. The main results of this work are documented proposals for operating criteria, intended to improve the safety in case of marine accidents, collisions and groundings. Introducing of such measures requires complex cost benefit analysis, that should not neglect the extreme economic impact

  19. A new shipping container for an intense neutron emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Alexander, C.W.; Pace, J.V. III; Simmons, C.M.

    1994-06-01

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter (2.34 {times} 10{sup 12} n/s{center_dot}g) used in medicine, research, and industry. The western world`s sole source of this rare radioisotope is the Californium Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). A project has been initiated at the REDC to design a new Type B Californium Shipping Container. This effort is essential for future transportation of californium to meet the needs of users all over the world. The shipping container must meet all requirements for transport by motor freight, air, vessel, and rail, both domestic and foreign. There are unique problems in the design, fabrication, and licensing of a new Type B shipping container that will accommodate up to 60 milligrams of californium-252. One of the first challenges in the design phase of the project is the selection of a material to shield the high neutron flux. The more stringent safety precautions of today`s world impel us to consider more exotic materials for such a purpose. The candidate materials must be examined not just for their neutron shielding properties, but also in conjunction with other properties such as thermal and structural requirements to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions. The design and building of such a container is a formidable task requiring much planning. The licensing process, with the complex, interactive federal codes, is a special challenge and may be the biggest on the project in terms of time and money.

  20. The development of a performance measurement system for the South African container shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Hector

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is dependent on efficient supply chains and a variety of transport systems. South Africa participates in the world’s economy with an extensive container shipping industry, as well as a road/rail/air distribution system. One of the aims of this research study was to develop a measurement system, or model, that may assist in measuring the performance of a container shipping service, from the time a ship arrives in the harbour, through the process in the container depot until the container arrives at the final customer for imports, and the other way round for exports. The objective was to develop a performance index that would assist management in assessing and/or improving the current system. It is a global phenomenon that inefficiencies cannot be eliminated by a single organisation; it requires the cooperation of all the parties in a supply chain.

  1. Parametric study of propeller boss cap fins for container ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sang-Seop

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF and hub cap for 6,000TEU container ships to improve the propulsion efficiency. The design parameters of PBCF have been selected based on the geometrical shape. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with a propeller open water (POW test was performed to check the validity of CFD analysis. The design of experiment (DOE case was selected as a full factorial design, and the experiment was analyzed by POW and CFD analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to determine the correlation among design parameters. Four design alternatives of PBCF were selected from the DOE. The shape of a propeller hub cap was selected as a divergent shape, and the divergent angle was determined by the DOE. Four design alternatives of PBCF were attached to the divergent hub cap, and the POW was estimated by CFD. As a result, the divergent hub cap with PBCF has a negative effect on the POW, which is induced by an increase in torque coefficient. A POW test and cavitation test were performed with a divergent hub cap with PBCF to verify the CFD result. The POW test result showed that the open water efficiency was increased approximately 2% with a divergent hub cap compared to a normal cap. The POW test result was similar to the CFD result, and the divergent hub cap with the PBCF models showed lower open water efficiency. This was attributed to an increase in the torque coefficient just like the CFD results. A cavitation test was performed using the 2 models selected. The test

  2. A Numerical Model for Torsion Analysis of Composite Ship Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Chirica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology based on a macroelement model proposed for torsional behaviour of the ship hull made of composite material is proposed in this paper. A computer program has been developed for the elastic analysis of linear torsion. The results are compared with the FEM-based licensed soft COSMOS/M results and measurements on the scale simplified model of a container ship, made of composite materials.

  3. Modeling of the electric ship

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As the United States Navy continues to refine its designs for future ships, one approach that it is currently being explored is to use a unified electrical grid to power every system aboard a ship, including propulsion and weapons. Some concerns with this design are estimating the power demands placed upon the grid by various systems and anticipating transients induced on the grid by high power pulsed loads. The first part of this thes...

  4. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy bet...

  5. MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE FABRICATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, C; Allen Smith, A

    2008-05-07

    The Model 9975 Shipping Package is the latest in a series (9965, 9968, etc.) of radioactive material shipping packages that have been the mainstay for shipping radioactive materials for several years. The double containment vessels are relatively simple designs using pipe and pipe cap in conjunction with the Chalfont closure to provide a leak-tight vessel. The fabrication appears simple in nature, but the history of fabrication tells us there are pitfalls in the different fabrication methods and sequences. This paper will review the problems that have arisen during fabrication and precautions that should be taken to meet specifications and tolerances. The problems and precautions can also be applied to the Models 9977 and 9978 Shipping Packages.

  6. Forecasting Container Shipping Freight Rates for the Far East-Northern Europe Trade Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munim, Ziaul Haque; Schramm, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces a state-of-the-art volatility forecasting method for container shipping freight rates. Over the last decade, the container shipping industry has become very unpredictable. The demolition of the shipping conferences system in 2008 for all trades calling a port in the European...

  7. Simultaneous Optimization of Container Ship Sailing Speed and Container Routing with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Røpke, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    We introduce a decision support tool for liner shipping companies to optimally determine the sailing speed and needed fleet for a global network. As a novelty we incorporate cargo routing decisions with tight transit time restrictions on each container such that we get a realistic picture...

  8. Infrared ship/decoy/missile encounter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Josee; Reid, Francoise; Morin, Andre

    1993-08-01

    Simulations of missile-ship-countermeasures engagements are used to determine the effective ways of defending a ship against infrared-guided missile threats. This paper describes one type of simulation that models the engagement of a ship deploying IR decoys by an infrared-guided seeker-head missile. This model was developed to assess the efficiency of IR decoys in protecting ships against these missiles. The simulation, Missile Infrared Decoy And Ship (MIDAS), is composed of three major blocks, the infrared scene generation, the seeker simulation and the missile dynamics simulation. The infrared scene generation block produces a three-dimensional IR scene from the target ship and flare models and transforms it into the two-dimensional IR image viewed by the seeker. The seeker simulation block is based on a generic conical scan seeker which uses a crossed-detector array for target detection. It processes the IR image to select a target and generates a steering command. The missile dynamics block computes the changes in missile trajectory according to the seeker steering command. The computations performed by each of the three blocks are explained in detail.

  9. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Martinović; Mato Tudor; Dean Bernečić

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or su...

  10. The Costs of Container Transport Flow Between Far East and Serbia Using Different Liner Shipping Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkovic Radoslav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping is the most efficient mode of transport for goods. International liner shipping is a sophisticated network of regularly scheduled services that transports goods from anywhere in the world to anywhere in the world at low cost and with greater energy efficiency than any other form of international transportation. Liner shipping connects countries, markets, businesses and people, allowing them to buy and sell goods on a scale not previously possible. Today, the liner shipping industry transports goods representing approximately one-third of the total value of global trade. Ocean shipping contributes significantly to international stability and security. Considering the large and constant struggle in the market in terms of competitive pricing of products, a very important and indispensable role represents the container transport with a clear task to define the final price of the product. This paper analyzes the costs of container transport flow between Far East and Serbia, using different liner shipping services, observing the six world’s largest container operators (Maersk Line, Mediterranean Shipping Company, CMA CGM, Evergreen Line, China Ocean Shipping Company and Hapag-Lloyd and inland (truck-rail-river transport corridors. These corridors include distance between selected Mediterranean ports (Koper, Rijeka, Bar, Thessaloniki, Constanta and Serbia. As a result, in this paper is considered a mathematical model that provides a comparative analysis of transportation costs on the different routes. It is observed already existing transport routes and it is also given hypothetical review to the development of new transport routes. The main goal of this research is to provide an optimal route with lowest transportation cost during container transport. Selection of the best route in the intermodal network is a very difficult and complex task. The costs in all modes of transport and the quality of their services are not constant

  11. The Effects of the Emission Cost on Route Choices of International Container Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangsook Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime freight shipping has increased significantly and air pollution from international ships has grown accordingly, having serious environmental effects all over the world. This paper analyzes the effects of the emission cost on ocean route choices, focusing on international container ships. First, the paper formulates a freight network model that captures decisions and interactions of ocean carriers and port terminal operators in the maritime freight transport system. Then, the emission cost is calculated based on an activity-based approach as a component of the ocean transportation cost function. A case study is examined to find if the emission cost affects ocean route choices. The results indicate that the optimal ocean route and transportation cost are changed distinctively due to the emission cost. The research discusses how the emission cost plays a role in route changes and why ocean carriers have to consider these costs in their routing decisions.

  12. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wind Loads on a Post-Panamax Container Ship as a Function of the Container Configuration on Deck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  13. Effects of national culture on human failures in container shipping: the moderating role of Confucian dynamism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Lai, Kee-hung; Lun, Y H Venus; Cheng, T C E

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports on work safety in container shipping operations highlight high frequencies of human failures. In this study, we empirically examine the effects of seafarers' perceptions of national culture on the occurrence of human failures affecting work safety in shipping operations. We develop a model adopting Hofstede's national culture construct, which comprises five dimensions, namely power distance, collectivism/individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and Confucian dynamism. We then formulate research hypotheses from theory and test the hypotheses using survey data collected from 608 seafarers who work on global container carriers. Using a point scale for evaluating seafarers' perception of the five national culture dimensions, we find that Filipino seafarers score highest on collectivism, whereas Chinese and Taiwanese seafarers score highest on Confucian dynamism, followed by collectivism, masculinity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. The results also indicate that Taiwanese seafarers have a propensity for uncertainty avoidance and masculinity, whereas Filipino seafarers lean more towards power distance, masculinity, and collectivism, which are consistent with the findings of Hofstede and Bond (1988). The results suggest that there will be fewer human failures in container shipping operations when power distance is low, and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance are high. Specifically, this study finds that Confucian dynamism plays an important moderating role as it affects the strength of associations between some national culture dimensions and human failures. Finally, we discuss our findings' contribution to the development of national culture theory and their managerial implications for reducing the occurrence of human failures in shipping operations.

  14. Prediction of ship-ship interactions in ports by a non-hydrostatic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明贵; 邹早建

    2015-01-01

    Complicated channel geometry and currents may aggravate the interactions between passing ships and berthed ships, which should be evaluated and taken into account in a port design. A method for predicting the ship-ship interactions, based on a non-hydrostatic shallow water flow model, is presented in this paper and is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The method is subsequently applied to predict the interaction forces acting on a berthed ship due to a passing ship in ports. The influences of the difference of the water depths between the dock and the main channel, the dock geometry, the current and another berthed ship in the dock on the ship-ship interactions are studied. Analysis based on the numerical results is carried out, which is useful for the port design.

  15. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  16. Statistical modelling for ship propulsion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jóan Petur; Jacobsen, Daniel J.; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art systems approach to statistical modelling of fuel efficiency in ship propulsion, and also a novel and publicly available data set of high quality sensory data. Two statistical model approaches are investigated and compared: artificial neural networks...

  17. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Bielić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introducing teamwork on board the ship. Three examples of the ship’s accidents are studied and evaluated through “Leader - participation” model. The model of participation based management as a model of the teamwork has been applied in studying the cause - and - effect of accidents with the critical review of the communication and managing the human resources on a ship. The results have showed that the cause of all three accidents is the autocratic behaviour of the leaders and lack of communication within teams. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  18. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  19. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  20. Hydro-structural issues in the design of ultra large container ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sime Malenica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural design of the ships includes two main issues which should be checked carefully, namely the extreme structural response (yielding & buckling and the fatigue structural response. Even if the corresponding failure modes are fundamentally different, the overall methodologies for their evaluation have many common points. Both issues require application of two main steps: deterministic calculations of hydro-structure interactions for given operating conditions on one side and the statistical post-processing in order to take into account the lifetime operational profile, on the other side. In the case of ultra large ships such as the container ships and in addition to the classical quasi-static type of structural responses the hydroelastic structural response becomes important. This is due to several reasons among which the following are the most important: the increase of the flexibility due to their large dimensions (Lpp close to 400 m which leads to the lower structural natural frequencies, very large operational speed (20 knots and large bow flare (increased slamming loads. The correct modeling of the hydroelastic ship structural response, and its inclusion into the overall design procedure, is significantly more complex than the evaluation of the quasi static structural response. The present paper gives an overview of the different tools and methods which are used in nowadays practice.

  1. Brownsville Ship Channel Hydrodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    31  Figure 31. Laguna Madre analysis locations...wave resuspension and circulation of sediment in Laguna Madre .2 The navigation impacts are assessed by performing model simulations of the...to better resolve the shallow-water habitats, including South Bay, Bahia Grande, and South Laguna Madre . These habitats are discussed further

  2. The Leeway of Shipping Containers at Different Immersion Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Øyvind; Maisondieu, Christophe; Roth, Jens-Christian; Forest, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    The leeway of 20-foot containers in typical distress conditions is established through field experiments in a Norwegian fjord and in open-ocean conditions off the coast of France with wind speed ranging from calm to 14 m/s. The experimental setup is described in detail and certain recommendations given for experiments on objects of this size. The results are compared with the leeway of a scaled-down container before the full set of measured leeway characteristics are compared with a semi-analytical model of immersed containers. Our results are broadly consistent with the semi-analytical model, but the model is found to be sensitive to choice of drag coefficient and makes no estimate of the cross-wind leeway of containers. We extend the results from the semi-analytical immersion model by extrapolating the observed leeway divergence and estimates of the experimental uncertainty to various realistic immersion levels. The sensitivity of these leeway estimates at different immersion levels are tested using a stoch...

  3. Modelling of U-tube Tanks for ShipMo3D Ship Motion Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    intentionally left blank. ii DRDC Atlantic ECR 2011-300 Executive summary Modelling of U-tube Tanks for ShipMo3D Ship Motion Predictions Kevin McTaggart... ECR 2011-300 iii Sommaire Modelling of U-tube Tanks for ShipMo3D Ship Motion Predictions Kevin McTaggart ; DRDC Atlantic ECR 2011-300 ; Recherche et...Direction, Generic Frigate at 10 knots in Sea State 5, Different U-tube Tank Duct Heights DRDC Atlantic ECR 2011-300 19 6 Conclusions Modelling of U-tube

  4. A LARGE-SCALE SIMULATION OF INTERNATIONAL MARITIME CONTAINER SHIPPING CONSIDERING OPTIMAL BEHAVIOR OF SHIPPERS AND OCEANGOING CARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Tomihiro; Ieda, Hitoshi

    This paper develops a large-scale simulation model of international maritime container shipping industry considering optimal behaviors of both shippers and oceangoing carriers, in order to measure impact of port and international logistics policies for each country including Japan. Concretely, the authors develop a short-term model (income maximization model of carriers) including shippers' choice of carrier when maritime cargo shipping demand between ports are given and a mid-term model (Nash equilibrium model of shippers and carriers) including shippers' choice of import/export port and route of hinterland transport and carriers' profit maximization behavior when cargo shipping demand between regions are given. The developed model is applied to the actual large-scale international maritime container shipping network in Eastern Asia. From a trial calculation based on the actual cargo shipping demand, the performance of the model is validated in terms of convergency and reproducibility. Also, the sensitivity of the model output taking the actual port policies into account is confirmed.

  5. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint... Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service...

  6. A cellular automaton model for ship traffic flow in waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Le; Zheng, Zhongyi; Gang, Longhui

    2017-04-01

    With the development of marine traffic, waterways become congested and more complicated traffic phenomena in ship traffic flow are observed. It is important and necessary to build a ship traffic flow model based on cellular automata (CAs) to study the phenomena and improve marine transportation efficiency and safety. Spatial discretization rules for waterways and update rules for ship movement are two important issues that are very different from vehicle traffic. To solve these issues, a CA model for ship traffic flow, called a spatial-logical mapping (SLM) model, is presented. In this model, the spatial discretization rules are improved by adding a mapping rule. And the dynamic ship domain model is considered in the update rules to describe ships' interaction more exactly. Take the ship traffic flow in the Singapore Strait for example, some simulations were carried out and compared. The simulations show that the SLM model could avoid ship pseudo lane-change efficiently, which is caused by traditional spatial discretization rules. The ship velocity change in the SLM model is consistent with the measured data. At finally, from the fundamental diagram, the relationship between traffic ability and the lengths of ships is explored. The number of ships in the waterway declines when the proportion of large ships increases.

  7. The logistics management in the sizing of the fleet of containers per ships in dedicated route - The use of computer simulation: A Brazilian shipping company case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves de Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is provide the use of the simulation in the discrete event to manage one important point in the logistics systems to shipping companies that is the imbalance of containers, movement of empty containers from surplus ports to deficit ports. From a survey of data from a shipping company operating in Brazil, at various ports, it was possible to model and simulate the needs in six major domestic ports of empty and full containers and seek to meet demand in the shipping market, reducing storage of containers and maintaining the level of excellence in service. Based on the discrete event simulation it was possible to analyze the problem of empty and full containers at the ports in the maritime transportation system. It was possible study the imbalance situation in the ports e provide one tool the companies to manage yours service. The data are confined to one company located in São Paulo and operating in Brazil at maritime transportation. The research shows that the imbalance problem between full and empty containers is a real case to all companies in the maritime transportation and can have effective solutions using discrete event simulation. To have excellent supply chain management it is important to have also one effective transportation system. This paper contributes to research in the inbound and outbound part of the supply chain management.

  8. Overview of Modular Design Strategy of the Shipping Container Architecture in Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zexin; Mei, Hongyuan; Ni, Ruixian

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the shipping container architecture, as an emerging green building mode, has grown in popularity. In this article, we analyse the advantages of applying shipping container architecture in cold regions, such as shortening the construction cycle, saving construction materials, reducing energy consumption and adapting to diverse sites. Then we analyze the modular design strategy and the modular design strategy in architecture. In the end we introduce the modular design strategy of shipping container architecture in cold regions with the technology roadmap, classification and combination.

  9. Hydroelastic response of 19,000 TEU class ultra large container ship with novel mobile deckhouse for maximizing cargo capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Il Im

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to structural design evaluation of 19,000 TEU ultra large container ship, dealing with hydroelastic response, i.e. springing and whipping. It illustrates application of direct calculation tools and methodologies to both fatigue and ultimate strength assessment, simultaneously taking into account ship motions and her elastic deformations. Methodology for springing and whipping assessment within so called WhiSp notation is elaborated in details, and in order to evaluate innovative container ship design with increased loading capacity, a series of independent hydroelastic computations for container ship with mobile deckhouse and conventional one are performed with the same calculation setup. Fully coupled 3D FEM – 3D BEM model is applied, while the ultimate bending capacity of hull girder is determined by means of MARS software. Beside comparative analysis of representative quantities for considered ships, relative influence of hydroelasticity on ship response is addressed.

  10. Modeling and Solving the Liner Shipping Service Selection Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Balakrishnan, Anant

    served less shipping costs. We propose a new hop-constrained multi-commodity arc flow model for the LSSSP that is based on an augmented network containing, for each candidate route, an arc (representing a sub-path) between every pair of ports that the route visits. This sub-path construct permits us...... to accurately model transshipment costs and incorporate routing policies such as maximum transit time, maritime cabotage rules, and operational alliances. Our hop-indexed arc flow model is smaller and easier to solve than path flow models. We outline a preprocessing procedure that exploits both the routing...

  11. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Neng-Jian

    2005-09-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment. According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into, three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  12. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment.According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network, makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  13. Productivity of Full Container Ship and Energy-Economy of its Propulsion Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serđo Kos

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers some clear-cut equations and coefficientsexpressing the basic forms of productivity of the container carrierin service: specifically, the productivity of TEU-capacity,the tonnage productivity and transportation efficiency of thecontainer ships. In addition, the power economy of the containership's propelling plant is being analysed from the viewpointof transportation engineering and an equation is introducedthat enables us to establish the degree of transport economyof the container ship.

  14. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Qing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL. In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, respectively. When the rudder angles and ship forward speed vary rapidly with time, the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions and their interactions become strong. To accurately predict the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions in unsteady maneuvering, a universal method for arbitrary ship hull requires physics-based fully-nonlinear models for ship motion and for rudder forces and moments. The numerical simulations will be benchmarked by experimental data of the Pre-Contract DDG51 design and an Experimental Hull Form. The benchmarking shows a good agreement between numerical simulations by the enhancement DiSSEL and experimental data. No empirical parameterization is used, except for the influence of the propeller slipstream on the rudder, which is included using a flow acceleration factor.

  15. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    and slender bow and stern sections) and their normal cargo loading condition, container ships are typically operated in a still-water hogging condition (tension in deck and compression in the bottom structure). The wave-induced bending moment is added to the still-water bending moment, which, together...... ships with focus on the assessment of the influence of the wave-induced high-frequency hull girder vibrations. In several cases, the high-frequency contribution to the fatigue damage is dominating the estimated fatigue damage. Spectral formulations for estimating fatigue damage from bi-modal processes...... with the smaller design hogging bending moment, generally makes the wave-induced hogging bending moment more critical than the sagging bending moment in the operation of container ships. As container ships of today become larger, their natural vibration frequencies become lower and approach the typical encounter...

  16. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  17. A Base Integer Programming Model and Benchmark Suite for Liner-Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Alvarez, Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2014-01-01

    sources of liner shipping for OR researchers in general. We describe and analyze the liner-shipping domain applied to network design and present a rich integer programming model based on services that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. We prove the liner-shipping network design...... problem to be strongly NP-hard. A benchmark suite of data instances to reflect the business structure of a global liner shipping network is presented. The design of the benchmark suite is discussed in relation to industry standards, business rules, and mathematical programming. The data are based on real......The liner-shipping network design problem is to create a set of nonsimple cyclic sailing routes for a designated fleet of container vessels that jointly transports multiple commodities. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport while minimizing the costs of operation...

  18. Integrated hedging and network planning for container shipping's bunker fuel management

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Wang; Chee-Chong Teo

    2013-01-01

    Bunker fuel costs could account for 50–60 per cent of a ship's total operating cost in times of high fuel prices. The volatility of the bunker market over recent years has contributed to significant instability of cash flows for shipping lines. In this study, we consider two of the bunker fuel risk management measures employed by container shipping companies to reduce bunker fuel price risk – re-planning of network configuration and financial hedging of bunker fuel prices. The current industr...

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory shipping containers for radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The types of containers used at ORNL for the transport of radioactive materials are described. Both returnable and non-returnable types are included. Containers for solids, liquids and gases are discussed. Casks for the shipment of uranium, irradiated fuel elements, and non-irradiated fuel elements are also described. Specifications are provided. (DC)

  20. Safety guidelines of ultimate hull girder strength for grounded container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, Jeom Kee;

    2013-01-01

    Various accidents commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. In this regard, an accidental risk-based approach that is in line with the Goal Based Standard (GBS) of the International Maritime...... damage criteria and making rapid salvage plans or rescue schemes for container ships that have sustained a grounding accident. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. A Review of the Maritime Container Shipping Industry as a Complex Adaptive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caschili

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available If we consider the worldwide maritime shipping industry as a system, we observe that a large number of independent rational agents such as port authorities, shipping service providers, shipping companies, and commodity producers play a role in achieving predominant positions and in increasing market share. The maritime shipping industry can, from this perspective, be defined as a Complex System composed of relatively independent parts that constantly search, learn and adapt to their environment, while their mutual interactions shape obscure but recognizable patterns. In this work we examine the maritime shipping industry through the Complex Adaptive System (CAS. Although CAS has been applied widely to the study of biological and social systems, its application in maritime shipping is scant. Therefore, our objective in the present paper is to provide a literature review that examines the international maritime industry through the lens of CAS. We also present some of the goals that may be achieved by applying the CAS approach to the container shipping industry in particular. The construction of a tenable ontological framework will give scholars a comprehensive view of the maritime industry and allow them to test the stability and efficiency of the framework to endogenous and exogenous shocks.

  2. 3D Modeling of sediment movement by ships-generated wakes in confined shipping channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengcheng JI; Abdellatif OUAHSINE; Hassan SMAOUI; Philippe SERGENT

    2014-01-01

    Ship-generated waves and return currents are capable of re-suspending significant quantities of bottom and bank sediments. However, most of the previous studies done on the subject do not show how and where sediment is re-suspended by the wakes and the directions of net transport. In this paper, a 3D numerical model based on hydro-sedimentary coupling is presented to search the relationship between the sediment movement, and the pattern of ship-generated waves around and far away from the vessel and the return currents around the ships. The hydrodynamic model is based on 3D Navier-Stokes equations including the standard k-ε model for turbulence processes, and the sediment transport model is based on a 3D equation for the re-suspended sediment transport. The computation results show that the areas of sediment concentration and transport (whether by resuspension or by the bedload) depend mainly on the position, the speed of the ship in the waterways, the kinematics of ship-generated waves and on the return flows. Thus, a map of sediment distribution and the modes of sediment transport generated by the passage of the ship are presented.

  3. Symbolic Configuration for Interactive Container Ship Stowage Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroer, Christian; Svendsen, Martin Kjær; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    to exceptions and operational disruptions. This article introduces an approach for modifying a stowage plan interactively without breaking its constraints. We focus on rearranging the containers in a single-bay section and show two approaches for providing complete and backtrack-free decision support using...

  4. Emissions from main propulsion engine on container ship at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A.; Henningsen, Svend; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.

    2010-12-01

    Emission measurements were made for major gases and PM2.5 mass for a post PanaMax Class container vessel operating on heavy fuel oil at sea. Additional measurements were made for PM composition, elemental and organic carbon, select hydrocarbons, including PAHs, carbonyls, and n-alkanes. The testing followed the International Standard Organization protocols for emission measurements and operating test cycle. Results showed the weighted emission factor for NOx and PM2.5 were 19.77 ± 0.28 and 2.40 ± 0.05 g/kWh, respectively. The study provided a rare opportunity to repeat measurements made three years earlier on the same vessel. Emission factors of CO2 and NOx closely matched the earlier values, suggesting a low deterioration factor. Results showed the black carbon emission factor was 0.007 ± 0.001 g/kWh, an important metric for determining the radiative forcing contribution of marine engines.

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, B. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Jurgensen, M. C.; Seagren, R. D.; Box, W. D.

    1978-04-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  6. Homotopy method for inverse design of the bulbous bow of a container ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-jia; Feng, Bai-wei; Hou, Guo-xiang; Gao, Liang; Xiao, Mi

    2017-03-01

    The homotopy method is utilized in the present inverse hull design problem to minimize the wave-making coefficient of a 1300 TEU container ship with a bulbous bow. Moreover, in order to improve the computational efficiency of the algorithm, a properly smooth function is employed to update the homotopy parameter during iteration. Numerical results show that the homotopy method has been successfully applied in the inverse design of the ship hull. This method has an advantage of high performance on convergence and it is credible and valuable for engineering practice.

  7. Modeling and simulation of five DOF motions for SWATH ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Jianwen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To develop marine simulators of Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH ships and gain a better understanding of the maneuverability of the SWATH, a mathematical model with five Degree of Freedom(DOFfor SWATH has been established, in which the surge, sway, yaw, roll and pitch motions are all considered. The characteristics of the SWATH ship form and the hydrodynamic interaction among the twin bodies, twin propellers and twin rudders are taken into consideration on the basis of the three DOF maneuvering mathematical model. To verify the effectiveness of the modeling and ensure the use of the model in marine handling simulators, a detailed model is tentatively established on the basis of empirical formulas. Based on the acquired results, tests were performed to simulate the steady turning and zigzag motions of the ship. The results are in accordance with regular pattern and trend of motion of SWATH ships. This verifies the effectiveness of the mathematical model of the turning movement.

  8. Five Mass Power Transmission Line of a Ship Computer Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakoff Alexander Borisoff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work, presented in this paper, appears to be a natural continuation of the work presented and reported before, on the design of power transmission line of a ship, but with different multi-mass model. Some data from the previous investigations are used as a reference data, mainly from the analytical investigations, for the developed in the previ- ous study, frequency and modal analysis of a five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship. In the paper, a profound dynamic analysis of a concrete five mass dynamic model of the power transmission line of a ship is performed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, based on the previously recommended model, investigated in the previous research and reported before. Thus, the partially validated by frequency analysis five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship is subjected to dynamic analysis. The objective of the work presented in this paper is dynamic modelling of a five mass transmission line of a ship, partial validation of the model and von Mises stress analysis calculation with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA and comparison of the derived results with the analytically calculated values. The partially validated five mass power transmission line of a ship can be used for definition of many dy- namic parameters, particularly amplitude of displacement, velocity and acceleration, respectively in time and frequency domain. The frequency behaviour of the model parameters is investigated in frequency domain and it corresponds to the predicted one.

  9. 9 CFR 93.302 - Inspection of certain aircraft and other means of conveyance and shipping containers thereon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.302 Inspection of certain aircraft and... contaminated with material of animal (including poultry) origin, such as, but not limited to, meat, organs... determines that a means of conveyance or shipping container is contaminated with material of animal origin so...

  10. Modeling the seakeeping performance of luxury cruise ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Yu, Bao-Jun; Wang, Jian-Fang

    2010-09-01

    The seakeeping performance of a luxury cruise ship was evaluated during the concept design phase. By comparing numerical predictions based on 3-D linear potential flow theory in the frequency domain with the results of model tests, it was shown that the 3-D method predicted the seakeeping performance of the luxury cruise ship well. Based on the model, the seakeeping features of the luxury cruise ship were analyzed, and then the influence was seen of changes to the primary design parameters (center of gravity, inertial radius, etc.). Based on the results, suggestions were proposed to improve the choice of parameters for luxury cruise ships during the concept design phase. They should improve seakeeping performance.

  11. USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Bradley [Savannah River National Laboratory; Koenig, Richard [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-08

    The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

  12. Modeling the behavior of the helmsman steering a ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuyzen, W.; Stassen, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    A supertanker is considered as a nonlinear system which responds very slowly to changes in the rudder position. Moreover this type of ship is often unstable in loaded condition. In order to model the helmsman's behavior, a number of tests were performed using a ship maneuvering simulator. The trained subjects had to steer a 200,000 tons tanker along a varying course. The results obtained from these trials are presented.

  13. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  14. A study of the temporal robustness of the growing global container-shipping network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nuo; Wu, Nuan; Dong, Ling-Ling; Yan, Hua-Kun; Wu, Di

    2016-10-07

    Whether they thrive as they grow must be determined for all constantly expanding networks. However, few studies have focused on this important network feature or the development of quantitative analytical methods. Given the formation and growth of the global container-shipping network, we proposed the concept of network temporal robustness and quantitative method. As an example, we collected container liner companies' data at two time points (2004 and 2014) and built a shipping network with ports as nodes and routes as links. We thus obtained a quantitative value of the temporal robustness. The temporal robustness is a significant network property because, for the first time, we can clearly recognize that the shipping network has become more vulnerable to damage over the last decade: When the node failure scale reached 50% of the entire network, the temporal robustness was approximately -0.51% for random errors and -12.63% for intentional attacks. The proposed concept and analytical method described in this paper are significant for other network studies.

  15. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid ship power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorcik, Christopher J.

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the performance of naval ship power systems requires integrated design and coordination of the respective subsystems (sources, converters, and loads). A significant challenge in the system-level integration is solving the Power Management Control Problem (PMCP). The PMCP entails deciding on subsystem power usages for achieving a trade-off between the error in tracking a desired position/velocity profile, minimizing fuel consumption, and ensuring stable system operation, while at the same time meeting performance limitations of each subsystem. As such, the PMCP naturally arises at a supervisory level of a ship's operation. In this research, several critical steps toward the solution of the PMCP for surface ships have been undertaken. First, new behavioral models have been developed for gas turbine engines, wound rotor synchronous machines, DC super-capacitors, induction machines, and ship propulsion systems. Conventional models describe system inputs and outputs in terms of physical variables such as voltage, current, torque, and force. In contrast, the behavioral models developed herein express system inputs and outputs in terms of power whenever possible. Additionally, the models have been configured to form a hybrid system-level power model (HSPM) of a proposed ship electrical architecture. Lastly, several simulation studies have been completed to expose the capabilities and limitations of the HSPM.

  16. Identifying modeled ship noise hotspots for marine mammals of Canada's Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Erbe

    Full Text Available The inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC, Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called "hotspot" maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert. These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise.

  17. A Conceptual Model to Optimize Operating Cost of Passenger Ships in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-long Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate more convenient travel as the economy of Macau expands, the government of Macau has allowed shipping companies to add passenger ships and shipping lines. This paper demonstrates how shipping companies can reduce costs by optimizing passenger ships and crew size. It analyzes operating conditions for each shipping depot, including transit time, ships, and volume of passengers. A series of integer programming models is proposed. After a practical demonstration using Excel to solve the LP model, we show that the reduction in the number of passenger ships and crew size could reach 22.6% and 29.4%, respectively.

  18. Physics-Based Learning Models for Ship Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Weymouth, Gabriel D

    2014-01-01

    We present the concepts of physics-based learning models (PBLM) and their relevance and application to the field of ship hydrodynamics. The utility of physics-based learning is motivated by contrasting generic learning models for regression predictions, which do not presume any knowledge of the system other than the training data provided with methods such as semi-empirical models, which incorporate physical insights along with data-fitting. PBLM provides a framework wherein intermediate models, which capture (some) physical aspects of the problem, are incorporated into modern generic learning tools to substantially improve the predictions of the latter, minimizing the reliance on costly experimental measurements or high-resolution high-fidelity numerical solutions. To illustrate the versatility and efficacy of PBLM, we present three wave-ship interaction problems: 1) at speed waterline profiles; 2) ship motions in head seas; and 3) three-dimensional breaking bow waves. PBLM is shown to be robust and produce ...

  19. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  20. Parameter Identifiability of Ship Manoeuvring Modeling Using System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the feasibility of system identification in the prediction of ship manoeuvrability, several measures are presented to deal with the parameter identifiability in the parametric modeling of ship manoeuvring motion based on system identification. Drift of nonlinear hydrodynamic coefficients is explained from the point of view of regression analysis. To diminish the multicollinearity in a complicated manoeuvring model, difference method and additional signal method are employed to reconstruct the samples. Moreover, the structure of manoeuvring model is simplified based on correlation analysis. Manoeuvring simulation is performed to demonstrate the validity of the measures proposed.

  1. Structural Topology Design of Container Ship Based on Knowledge-Based Engineering and Level Set Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔进举; 王德禹; 史琪琪

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) is introduced into the ship structural design in this paper. From the implementation of KBE, the design solutions for both Rules Design Method (RDM) and Interpolation Design Method (IDM) are generated. The corresponding Finite Element (FE) models are generated. Topological design of the longitudinal structures is studied where the Gaussian Process (GP) is employed to build the surrogate model for FE analysis. Multi-objective optimization methods inspired by Pareto Front are used to reduce the design tank weight and outer surface area simultaneously. Additionally, an enhanced Level Set Method (LSM) which employs implicit algorithm is applied to the topological design of typical bracket plate which is used extensively in ship structures. Two different sets of boundary conditions are considered. The proposed methods show satisfactory efficiency and accuracy.

  2. Modelling and Forecasting in the Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation proposes strategies not only for modelling price behavior in the dry bulk market, but also for modelling relationships between economic and technical variables of dry bulk ships, by using modern time series approaches, Monte Carlo simulation and other economic techniques. The time

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation Cloud Model for Ship Navigation Adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Man Zhu; Y.Q. Wen; Zhou, C. H.; C.S. Xiao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, using cloud model and Delphi, we build a comprehensive evaluation cloud model to solve the problems of qualitative description and quantitative transformation in ship navigation adaptability comprehensive evaluation. In the model, the normal cloud generator is used to find optimal cloud models of reviews and evaluation factors. The weight of each evaluation factor is determined by cloud model and Delphi. The floating cloud algorithm is applied to aggregate the bottom level’s ev...

  4. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173.

  5. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173.

  6. Container Shipping Network Efficiency Comparison in Indonesia: Nusantara Pendulum and Sea Tollway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafida Fahmiasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The disparity of the trading activities in Indonesia has triggered Indonesia Port Corporation to come up with the plan of Nusantara Pendulum, the future network of container shipping in Indonesia. The Sea Tollway plan is the modification of Nusantara Pendulum that is also envisioned by Indonesia President for Indonesia future backbone container plan. Both networks were designed to increase Indonesia container shipping flow from west to east and vice versa like a pendulum, thus results the reduced transport cost. This paper depicts the comparison of network efficiency analysis between these networks: Nusantara Pendulum, Sea Tollway, and the existing network. Two main methods that are used are Nagurney-Qiang and Jenelius-Peterson-Mattson. Mainly, these two methods use the efficiency calculation by considering parameters of demand (goods flow between each region and maritime transportation cost. It is concluded afterward that: 1 Sea Tollway is 8% more efficient than Nusantara Pendulum; 2 Sea Tollway and Nusantara Pendulum are ten times more efficient than current network; 3 Eastern ports in Indonesia (Bitung and Sorong urgently requisite a development.

  7. Necessity of Proper Lashing of Containers on the Ship's Deck as Part of Optimization of the Sea Voyage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radišić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available These days we are witnessing an increase of container trafficin general and at sea in particular. In order to economizetheir business the ship owners are building bigger container vesselswhich can carry up to 8000 TEUs (Maersk line and otherbig carriers are following suit. On the drawing board is the vesselof 12000 TEUs from the mentioned ship owner. Obviously,such large quantity of containers requires highly efficient lashingequipment in order to secure them, particularly thosestowed on the deck Under the deck, almost as a rule all contemporarycontainer ships have cell guides as securing devices.Attention in this work is focused on container lashing systemexposed on the ship's deck and the relevant forces acting on thelash system during transportation at sea. Once containers areloaded on the ship's deck they should be safely secured by oneof the lashing systems in order to prevent damage and that is theprincipal task of the lashing equipment engaged within theframe of the lash system. In order to fulfill its objective theforces acting on the container should be properly calculated.The acting forces, their influence and the way of calculatingthem have been explained for all the major ship movementsand suggestions for optimum lashing equipment are given.

  8. Effects of drift angle on model ship flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, J.; Stern, F.

    The effects of drift angle on model ship flow are investigated through towing tank tests for the Series 60 CB=0.6 cargo/container model ship. Resistance, side force, drift moment, sinkage, trim, and heel data are procured for a range of drift angles β and Froude numbers (Fr) and the model free condition. Detailed free-surface and mean velocity and pressure flow maps are procured for high and low Fr=0.316 and 0.16 and β=5° and 10° (free surface) and β=10° (mean velocity and pressure) for the model fixed condition (i.e. fixed with zero sinkage, trim, and heel). Comparison of results at high and low Fr and previous data for β=0° enables identification of important free-surface and drift effects. Geometry, conditions, data, and uncertainty analysis are documented in sufficient detail so as to be useful as a benchmark for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The resistance increases linearly with β with same slope for all Fr, whereas the increases in the side force, drift moment, sinkage, trim, and heel with β are quadratic. The wave profile is only affected near the bow, i.e. the bow wave amplitude increases/decreases on the windward/leeward sides, whereas the wave elevations are affected throughout the entire wave field. However, the wave envelope angle on both sides is nearly the same as β=0°, i.e. the near-field wave pattern rotates with the hull and remains within a similar wave envelope as β=0°. The wave amplitudes are significantly increased/decreased on the windward/leeward sides. The wake region is also asymmetric with larger wedge angle on the leeward side. The boundary layer and wake are dominated by the hull vortex system consisting of fore body keel, bilge, and wave-breaking vortices and after body bilge and counter-rotating vortices. The occurrence of a wave-breaking vortex for breaking bow waves has not been previously documented in the literature. The trends for the maximum vorticity, circulation, minimum axial velocity, and

  9. Design and modelling of innovative machinery systems for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik

    Eighty percent of the growing global merchandise trade is transported by sea. The shipping industry is required to reduce the pollution and increase the energy efficiency of ships in the near future. There is a relatively large potential for approaching these requirements by implementing waste heat...... parameters for marine WHR. Using this mentioned methodology, regression models are derived for the prediction of the maximum obtainable thermal efficiency of ORCs. A unique configuration of the Kalina cycle, the Split-cycle, is analysed to evaluate the fullest potential of the Kalina cycle for the purpose...

  10. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Models, Methods and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    and scheduling. This includes a review on existing literature, modelling approaches, solution methods as well as an analysis of the current status and future opportunities of research within tramp ship routing and scheduling. We argue that rather than developing new solution methods for the basic routing...... to mergers, pooling, and collaboration efforts between shipping companies, the fleet sizes have grown to a point where manual planning is no longer adequate in a market with tough competition and low freight rates. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive introduction to tramp ship routing...... and scheduling problem, focus should now be on extending this basic problem to include additional real-world complexities and develop suitable solution methods for those extensions. Such extensions will enable more tramp operators to benefit from the solution methods while simultaneously creating new...

  11. A Ship Propulsion System Model for Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    . The propulsion system model is presented in two versions: the first one consists of one engine and one propeller, and the othe one consists of two engines and their corresponding propellers placed in parallel in the ship. The corresponding programs are developed and are available....

  12. A Simple Cloud Reflectance Model for Ship Tracks in Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    A Simple Cloud Reflectance Model 01 for Ship Tracks in Clouds I OTIOSt 9L1, FIF MAR 16 1992J R. A. Siquig Forecast Guidance and Naval Systems...because of increased absorption. Note that this is based on the results for four wavelengths. Because of the undulatory nature of the imaginary part of

  13. Innovative technologies to accurately model waves and moored ship motions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van der Molen, W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Late in 2009 CSIR Built Environment in Stellenbosch was awarded a contract to carry out extensive physical and numerical modelling to study the wave conditions and associated moored ship motions, for the design of a new iron ore export jetty for BHP...

  14. Surprises perilous: toxic health hazards for employees unloading fumigated shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, Alexandra M; Budnik, Lygia T; Hampel, Eva; Baur, Xaver

    2011-08-01

    The fumigation of freight containers to protect transported goods from fungal and pest infestation has increased worldwide in the last five years due to international regulations requiring fumigation or heat treatment of wooden packaging material and dunnage. We have found in 2008 that every sixth container and its contents do retain harmful concentrations of various fumigants and chemicals, representing a significant health risk for port and transport workers, customs officials, warehousemen, store employees and consumers. The shipping documents of these containers did not provide any information about the fumigation procedure or the used fumigant. We report here the cases of 26 patients introduced to our outpatient clinic with presumed intoxication to fumigants, or with symptoms due to inhaling the air out of fumigated containers. All patients were examined from 2007 to 2010 according to a standardized comprehensive diagnostic program. We were able to confirm the diagnosis based on typical symptoms and extensive clinical examination; by laboratory analysis we identified ethylene dichloride, methyl bromide, phosphine and methylene chloride. The predominant symptoms were headaches, concentration and memory problems, dizziness and nausea, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes and a reduced ability to do exercise. In addition to the neurological and neuropsychological impairments our analyses verified the development of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) in 14 of 26 patients with long lasting symptoms due to their contact with fumigants. Intoxications with fumigants are serious and could be avoided. These systematical explored cases show the sustainable impact for health and socio-economic wellbeing. These findings also emphasize the necessity for international standards on permitted fumigants, appropriate labeling in the shipping documents and handling of fumigated containers.

  15. Attenuation Characteristic Modeling of Power-line Channel in Cargo Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Shinji; Ishii, Seiichiro; Nishioka, Jun; Yamada, Yoshio

    Power-line communication (PLC) based local area network (LAN) in cargo ships is one of the promising applications of the PLC technology. In this paper, the signal attenuation characteristic when transmitting with the differential-mode (DIF) and the common-mode (COM) has been modeled respectively to design the PLC network in a cargo ship. The characteristic has been analyzed from the measured transfer function of 440V power-line channels for reefer containers in two typical ships. The measured transfer function was averaged from 2M to 30MHz (or until the measurement limit frequency) and approximated by the number of branches and the length of a signal propagating route. The mean accuracy of the obtained approximation equations was ±4dB. The area where the signal attenuation of COM transmission is less than that of DIF transmission has been studied from the equations.

  16. The vulnerability of the global container shipping network to targeted link disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Nadia M.; Joubert, Johan W.

    2016-11-01

    Using complex network theory to describe the relational geography of maritime networks has provided great insights regarding their hierarchy and evolution over the past two decades. Unlike applications in other transport fields, notably air transport, complex network theory has had limited application in studying the vulnerability of maritime networks. This study uses targeted link disruption to investigate the strategy specific vulnerability of the network. Although nodal infrastructure such as ports can render a network vulnerable as a result of labour strikes, trade embargoes or natural disasters, it is the shipping lines connecting the ports that are more probably disrupted, either from within the industry, or outside. In this paper, we apply and evaluate two link-based disruption strategies on the global container shipping network, one based on link betweenness, and the other on link salience, to emulate the impact of large-scale service reconfiguration affecting priority links. The results show that the network is by and large robust to such reconfiguration. Meanwhile the flexibility of the network is reduced by both strategies, but to a greater degree by betweenness, resulting in a reduction of transshipment and dynamic rerouting potential amongst the busiest port regions. The results further show that the salience strategy is highly effective in reducing the commonality of shortest path sets, thereby diminishing opportunities for freight consolidation and scale economies.

  17. Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility in the Container Shipping Industry: A Case Study of the Triple E as part of Maersk's Sustainability Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Andrés Latapí Agudelo 1986

    2017-01-01

    The oversupply within the Container Shipping Industry in combination with a global trade slowdown of the last decade has set an unprecedented financial pressure on Container Shipping Liners over the world. This expressed itself in the record low shipping rates in 2016 for the Asia-Europe route and ultimately the bankruptcy of Hanjin Shipping in August 2016. Given this context, the present study analyses the relevance of Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (SCSR) to improve the industry´...

  18. Multi-objectives fuzzy optimization model for ship form demonstration based on information entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Selecting optimization ship form scheme is an important content in the process of concept design of ship. Multi-objective fuzzy decision-making model for ship form demonstration is set up according to the fuzzy pattern-recognition theory. Weight coefficients of each target of ship form scheme are determined by information entropy and individual subjective partiality. This model is used to select the optimal ship form scheme,the example shows that the model is exact and the result is credible. It can provide a reference for choosing the optimization scheme of ship form.

  19. Validation of the global hydroelastic model for springing & whipping of ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derbanne, Q.; Malenica, Š.; Tuitman, J.T.; Bigot, F.; Chen, X.B.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroelastic response of the ship can represent an important part of the overall structural response. This is true both for the extreme ship structural response as well as for the fatigue loads of some structural details. Several full scale monitoring campaigns on the container ships clearly show an

  20. Extreme value prediction of the wave-induced vertical bending moment in large container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    in the present paper is based on time series of full scale measurements from three large container ships of 8600, 9400 and 14000 TEU. When carrying out the extreme value estimation the peak-over-threshold (POT) method combined with an appropriate extreme value distribution is applied. The choice of a proper...... increase the extreme hull girder response significantly. Focus in the present paper is on the influence of the hull girder flexibility on the extreme response amidships, namely the wave-induced vertical bending moment (VBM) in hogging, and the prediction of the extreme value of the same. The analysis...... threshold level as well as the statistical correlation between clustered peaks influence the extreme value prediction and are taken into consideration in the present paper....

  1. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr.; Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  2. FLOW NOISE MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE SHIP WITH TOWED MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a new acoustic test technique using towed model was introduced to study flow noise caused by a surface ship. The project of model test was be properly designed for acoustic signal collecting and with the help of appropriate data processing method different kinds of acoustic sources could be successfully identified. A lot of work about fuid noise could be carried on with the towed model, and the noise corresponding to low frequency which is especially interested for its long distance radiating with small attenuation could also be studied in this way.

  3. An Analysis of Starting Points for Setting Up a Model of a More Reliable Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martinović, Dragan; Tudor, Mato; Bernečić, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the important requirement for ship propulsion necessary for its immaculate operation, since any failure can endanger the ship and render it useless. Particular attention is given to the failure of auxiliary engines that can also seriously jeopardise the safety of the ship. Therefore the paper presents preliminary investigations for setting up models of reliable ship propulsion accounting for the failure of auxiliary engines. Models of most frequent implementations of e...

  4. A Branch and Cut algorithm for the container shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Pisinger, David

    programming model minimizing the overall cost. To better reflect the real-life situation we take into account the cost of transhipment, a heterogeneous fleet, route dependant capacities, and butterfly routes. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time an exact solution method to the problem considers...... transhipment cost. The problem is solved with branch-and-cut using clover and transhipment inequalities. Computational results are reported for instances with up to 15 ports.......The network design problem in liner shipping is of increasing importance in a strongly competitive market where potential cost reductions can influence market share and profits significantly. In this paper the network design and fleet assignment problems are combined into a mixed integer linear...

  5. 3D flare particle model for ShipIR/NTCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2016-05-01

    A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new 3D flare particle model in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The 3D particles of each flare sub-munition are modelled stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a model from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new model also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous model which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare model during a missile engagement.

  6. Modelling of the Internal Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    on the stiffness and the strength is considered as well. In order to include the coupling effects between local and global failure of the structure, the usual non-linear finite-element technique is applied. In order to deal with the gap and contact conditions between the striking and the struck ships, gap....../contact elements are employed. Dynamic effects are considered by inclusion of the influence of strain-Rate sensitivity in the material model. On the basis of the theory a computer program has been written. The procedure is verified by a comparison of experimental results obtained from test models of double...

  7. Ship speed optimization: Concepts, models and combined speed-routing scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues as regards ship speed optimization at the operational level and develop models that optimize ship speed for a spectrum of routing scenarios in a single ship setting. The paper's main contribution is the incorporation of those fundament...

  8. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubour, Jean; Jenson, Katherine; Richter, Hannah; Yarbrough, Josiah; Oden, Z Maria; Schuler, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed "the sterile box," is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings.

  9. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Boubour

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed "the sterile box," is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings.

  10. Infrared decoy and obscurant modelling and simulation for ship protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Brian; Nicholls, Edgar; Walmsley, Roy; Ayling, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Imaging seekers used in modern Anti Ship Missiles (ASMs) use a variety of counter countermeasure (CCM) techniques including guard gates and aspect ratio assessment in order to counter the use of IR decoys. In order to improve the performance of EO/IR countermeasures it is necessary to accurately configure and place the decoys using a launcher that is trainable in azimuth and elevation. Control of the launcher, decoy firing times and burst sequences requires the development of algorithms based on multi-dimensional solvers. The modelling and simulation used to derive the launcher algorithms is described including the countermeasure, threat, launcher and ship models. The launcher model incorporates realistic azimuth and elevation rates with limits on azimuth and elevation arcs of fire. A Navier Stokes based model of the IR decoy includes thermal buoyancy, cooling of the IR smoke and its extinction properties. All of these factors affect the developing size, shape and radiance of the decoy. The hot smoke also influences the performance of any co-located chaff or other obscurant material. Typical simulations are described against generic imaging ASM seekers using shape discrimination or a guard gate.

  11. Stopping of Ships Equipped with Azipods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nowicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of different possibilities of stopping a large ship equipped with azipods. The model tests were carried out to compare the effectiveness of stopping the ship using the different methods. The ship model used in stopping tests reproduces a large LNG carrier of capacity ~150 000 m3

  12. Modeling deep ocean shipping noise in varying acidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A; Duda, Timothy F; Doney, Scott C; Lima, Ivan D

    2010-09-01

    Possible future changes of ambient shipping noise at 0.1-1 kHz in the North Pacific caused by changing seawater chemistry conditions are analyzed with a simplified propagation model. Probable decreases of pH would cause meaningful reduction of the sound absorption coefficient in near-surface ocean water for these frequencies. The results show that a few decibels of increase may occur in 100 years in some very quiet areas very far from noise sources, with small effects closer to noise sources. The use of ray physics allows sound energy attenuated via volume absorption and by the seafloor to be compared.

  13. In the O&C Building, the P3 truss, an ISS segment, is revealed inside its shipping container

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, cranes lift the top of the shipping container containing the port-side P3 truss, a segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The truss is scheduled to be added to the ISS on mission STS-115 in 2002 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The second port truss segment, P3 will be attached to the first port truss segment (P1).

  14. Radiant heat testing of the H1224A shipping/storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, D.C.; Bobbe, J.G.; Stenberg, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1994-05-01

    H1224A weapons containers have been used for years by the Departments of Energy and Defense to transport and store W78 warhead midsections. Although designed to protect the midsections only from low-energy impacts, a recent transportation risk assessment effort has identified a need to evaluate the container`s ability to protect weapons in more severe accident environments. Four radiant heat tests were performed: two each on an H1224A container (with a Mk12a Mod 6c mass mock-up midsection inside) and two on a low-cost simulated H1224A container (with a hollow Mk12 aeroshell midsections inside). For each unit tested, temperatures were recorded at numerous points throughout the container and midsection during a 4-hour 121{degrees}C (250{degrees}F) and 30-minute 1010{degrees}C (1850{degrees}F) radiant environment. Measured peak temperatures experienced by the inner walls of the midsections as a result of exposure to the high-temperature radiant environment ranged from 650{degrees} C to 980{degrees} C (1200{degrees} F to 1800{degrees}F) for the H1224A container and 770 {degrees} to 990 {degrees}C (1420{degrees} F to 1810{degrees}F) for the simulated container. The majority of both containers were completely destroyed during the high-temperature test. Temperature profiles will be used to benchmark analytical models and predict warhead midsection temperatures over a wide range of the thermal accident conditions.

  15. Influence of climate model variability on projected Arctic shipping futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Scott R.; Smith, Laurence C.

    2015-11-01

    Though climate models exhibit broadly similar agreement on key long-term trends, they have significant temporal and spatial differences due to intermodel variability. Such variability should be considered when using climate models to project the future marine Arctic. Here we present multiple scenarios of 21st-century Arctic marine access as driven by sea ice output from 10 CMIP5 models known to represent well the historical trend and climatology of Arctic sea ice. Optimal vessel transits from North America and Europe to the Bering Strait are estimated for two periods representing early-century (2011-2035) and mid-century (2036-2060) conditions under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5), assuming Polar Class 6 and open-water vessels with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Results illustrate that projected shipping viability of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and Northwest Passage (NWP) depends critically on model choice. The eastern Arctic will remain the most reliably accessible marine space for trans-Arctic shipping by mid-century, while outcomes for the NWP are particularly model-dependent. Omitting three models (GFDL-CM3, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, and MPI-ESM-MR), our results would indicate minimal NWP potential even for routes from North America. Furthermore, the relative importance of the NSR will diminish over time as the number of viable central Arctic routes increases gradually toward mid-century. Compared to vessel class, climate forcing plays a minor role. These findings reveal the importance of model choice in devising projections for strategic planning by governments, environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry.

  16. Container Logistic Transport Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study proposed a stochastic method of container logistic transport in order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings. Container transport has rapidly developed into a modern means of transportation because of their significant advantages. With the development, it also exacerbated the flaws of transport in the original. One of the most important problems was that the invalid transport had not still reduced due to the congenital imbalances of transportation. Container transport exacerbated the invalid transport for the empty containers. To solve the problem, people made many efforts, but they did not make much progress. There had two theoretical flaws by analyzing the previous management methods in container transport. The first one was the default empty containers inevitability. The second one was that they did not overall consider how to solve the problem of empty containers allocation. In order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings, the study re-built the container transport planning model-gravity model. It gave the general algorithm and has analyzed the final result of model.

  17. Analysis of railcar-shipping container system response to impact conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, R.J.; Butler, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    An existing mathematical model for simulating railcar-container system response to coupling impacts was revised to simulate configurations that were tested in full-scale experiments. The structural model is represented with the lumped-parameter technique. The resulting equations are linear except for those for the coupler forces experienced during the impact. Results from the mathematical model are compared with load and acceleration data obtained during the full-scale tests. The model predicts actual response accurately enough to make it useful as a design and safety analysis tool.

  18. Interference Resistance of Pentamaran Ship Model With Asymmetric Outrigger Configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanuar; Ibadurrahman; Kurniawan T. Waskito; S. Karim; M. Ichsan

    2017-01-01

    An experimental investigation is performed to assess the relation of interference performance on the total resistance of a pentamaran model advancing in calm water. For this motivation, the total drag of the ship is performed for several values of asymmetric outrigger configuration and hull separation, altering the Froude number in the range 0.3–0.9. Our results indicate that remarkable changes in resistance require notable changes in transverse distance values (hull separation) when wave interference may occur. In addition, there is no single configuration that consistently outperforms the other configurations across the entire speed range and the optimum interference factor?0.2 appears at a Froude number of 0.45 in S/L=0.33 with the outrigger outer position: asymmetric outboard for A3 configuration.

  19. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

  20. A Branch and Cut algorithm for the container shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    The network design problem in liner shipping is of increasing importance in a strongly competitive market where potential cost reductions can influence market share and profits significantly. In this paper the network design and fleet assignment problems are combined into a mixed integer linear...

  1. Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Koning, Jos

    2013-01-01

    to ship-wave interactions in a seaway. In the paper, sea state estimates are produced by three means: the wave buoy analogy, relying on shipboard response measurements, a wave radar system, and a system providing the instantaneous wave height. The presented results show that for the given data, recorded...

  2. Design of a ship model for hydro-elastic experiments in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marón Adolfo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large size ships have a very flexible construction resulting in low resonance frequencies of the structural eigen-modes. This feature increases the dynamic response of the structure on short period waves (springing and on impulsive wave loads (whipping. This dynamic response in its turn increases both the fatigue damage and the ultimate load on the structure; these aspects illustrate the importance of including the dynamic response into the design loads for these ship types. Experiments have been carried out using a segmented scaled model of a container ship in a Seakeeping Basin. This paper describes the development of the model for these experiments; the choice was made to divide the hull into six rigid segments connected with a flexible beam. In order to model the typical feature of the open structure of the containership that the shear center is well below the keel line of the vessel, the beam was built into the model as low as possible. The model was instrumented with accelerometers and rotation rate gyroscopes on each segment, relative wave height meters and pressure gauges in the bow area. The beam was instrumented with strain gauges to measure the internal loads at the position of each of the cuts. Experiments have been carried out in regular waves at different amplitudes for the same wave period and in long crested irregular waves for a matrix of wave heights and periods. The results of the experiments are compared to results of calculations with a linear model based on potential flow theory that includes the effects of the flexural modes. Some of the tests were repeated with additional links between the segments to increase the model rigidity by several orders of magnitude, in order to compare the loads between a rigid and a flexible model.

  3. Calculation models for prediction of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing during ship transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miana, Mario; Hoyo, Rafael del; Rodrigalvarez, Vega; Valdes, Jose Ramon [Instituto Tecnologico de Aragon, Area de Investigacion, Desarrollo y Servicios Tecnologicos, Maria de Luna 7, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Llorens, Raul [ENAGAS SA, Direccion de Ingenieria y Tecnologia del Gas, Autovia A - 2, km. 306.4, 50012 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A group of European gas transportation companies within the European Gas Research Group launched in 2007 the 'MOLAS' Project to provide a software program for the analysis of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing process during ship transportation. This program contains two different modeling approaches: a physical algorithm and an 'intelligent' model. Both models are fed with the same input data, which is composed of the ship characteristics (BOR and capacity), voyage duration, LNG composition, temperature, pressure, and volume occupied by liquid phase at the port of origin, together with pressure at the port of destination. The results obtained are the LNG composition, temperature and liquid volume at the port of destination. Furthermore, the physical model obtains the evolution over time of such variables en route as it is based on unsteady mass balances over the system, while the i-model applies neural networks to obtain regression coefficients from historical data composed only of origin and destination measurements. This paper describes both models and validates them from previous published models and experimental data measured in ENAGAS LNG regasification plants. (author)

  4. NAPA STEEL in structural design for large container ships%NAPA STEEL在大型集装箱船结构设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 陈磊

    2015-01-01

    The 3-D design software has been widely used in the ship production design at home, however, its application in the basic design and detail design is still in research and developing stage. NAPA Steel is a ship structural design module in Naval Architecture Software Package (NAPA) that was developed by NAPA Finland. This paper carries out the structural aided design of two 10 000 TEU container ships by NAPA Steel, and fuliflls the 2D drawing, weight estimation, sofeware interface of the classiifcation society and the output of FEM during the basis design and detailed design stage. It explores the capability of NAPA Steel for the parameterization modeling of the large container ships to ifnish the structural aided design, and summaries some valuable experience.%目前众多三维设计软件在国内船舶生产设计中的应用已相当成熟,而在基本设计和详细设计中的应用尚处于摸索和发展阶段。NAPA STEEL 是芬兰NAPA公司开发的船舶设计软件包中的结构设计模块。文章利用NAPA STEEL对2艘万箱级集装箱船进行结构辅助设计,在基本设计和详细设计阶段中参与完成了二维出图、质量统计、船级社软件接口及有限元输出的任务,探索了利用NAPA STEEL软件对大型集装箱船进行参数化建模以完成结构辅助设计的方法,并总结出一些宝贵的经验。

  5. a Novel Ship Detection Method for Large-Scale Optical Satellite Images Based on Visual Lbp Feature and Visual Attention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigang, Sui; Zhina, Song

    2016-06-01

    Reliably ship detection in optical satellite images has a wide application in both military and civil fields. However, this problem is very difficult in complex backgrounds, such as waves, clouds, and small islands. Aiming at these issues, this paper explores an automatic and robust model for ship detection in large-scale optical satellite images, which relies on detecting statistical signatures of ship targets, in terms of biologically-inspired visual features. This model first selects salient candidate regions across large-scale images by using a mechanism based on biologically-inspired visual features, combined with visual attention model with local binary pattern (CVLBP). Different from traditional studies, the proposed algorithm is high-speed and helpful to focus on the suspected ship areas avoiding the separation step of land and sea. Largearea images are cut into small image chips and analyzed in two complementary ways: Sparse saliency using visual attention model and detail signatures using LBP features, thus accordant with sparseness of ship distribution on images. Then these features are employed to classify each chip as containing ship targets or not, using a support vector machine (SVM). After getting the suspicious areas, there are still some false alarms such as microwaves and small ribbon clouds, thus simple shape and texture analysis are adopted to distinguish between ships and nonships in suspicious areas. Experimental results show the proposed method is insensitive to waves, clouds, illumination and ship size.

  6. A NOVEL SHIP DETECTION METHOD FOR LARGE-SCALE OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES BASED ON VISUAL LBP FEATURE AND VISUAL ATTENTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haigang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliably ship detection in optical satellite images has a wide application in both military and civil fields. However, this problem is very difficult in complex backgrounds, such as waves, clouds, and small islands. Aiming at these issues, this paper explores an automatic and robust model for ship detection in large-scale optical satellite images, which relies on detecting statistical signatures of ship targets, in terms of biologically-inspired visual features. This model first selects salient candidate regions across large-scale images by using a mechanism based on biologically-inspired visual features, combined with visual attention model with local binary pattern (CVLBP. Different from traditional studies, the proposed algorithm is high-speed and helpful to focus on the suspected ship areas avoiding the separation step of land and sea. Largearea images are cut into small image chips and analyzed in two complementary ways: Sparse saliency using visual attention model and detail signatures using LBP features, thus accordant with sparseness of ship distribution on images. Then these features are employed to classify each chip as containing ship targets or not, using a support vector machine (SVM. After getting the suspicious areas, there are still some false alarms such as microwaves and small ribbon clouds, thus simple shape and texture analysis are adopted to distinguish between ships and nonships in suspicious areas. Experimental results show the proposed method is insensitive to waves, clouds, illumination and ship size.

  7. Surface contamination of hazardous drug pharmacy storage bins and pharmacy distributor shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redic, Kimberly A; Fang, Kayleen; Christen, Catherine; Chaffee, Bruce W

    2016-11-17

    This study was conducted to determine whether there is contamination on exterior drug packaging using shipping totes from the distributor and carousel storage bins as surrogate markers of external packaging contamination. A two-part study was conducted to measure the presence of 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and paclitaxel using surrogate markers for external drug packaging. In Part I, 10 drug distributor shipping totes designated for transport of hazardous drugs provided a snapshot view of contamination from regular use and transit in and out of the pharmacy. An additional two totes designated for transport of non-hazardous drugs served as controls. In Part II, old carousel storage bins (i.e. those in use pre-study) were wiped for snapshot view of hazardous drug contamination on storage bins. New carousel storage bins were then put into use for storage of the five tested drugs and used for routine storage and inventory maintenance activities. Carousel bins were wiped at time intervals 0, 8, 16 and 52 weeks to measure surface contamination. Two of the 10 hazardous shipping totes were contaminated. Three of the five-old carousel bins were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. One of the old carousel bins was also contaminated with ifosfamide. There were no detectable levels of hazardous drugs on any of the new storage bins at time 0, 8 or 16 weeks. However, at the Week 52, there was a detectable level of 5-FU present in the 5-FU carousel bin. Contamination of the surrogate markers suggests that external packaging for hazardous drugs is contaminated, either during the manufacturing process or during routine chain of custody activities. These results demonstrate that occupational exposure may occur due to contamination from shipping totes and storage bins, and that handling practices including use of personal protective equipment is warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. System Dynamics Modeling for Determining Optimal Ship Sizes and Types in Coastal Liner Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-il Park

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining the required ship investment for deployment is an ongoing problem faced by governments and ship operators. The nature of ship investment is capital-intensive and the return on investment is often take long time. This paper attempts to establish system dynamics modeling (SDM to simulate and solve this problem in order to help ship operators make effective strategic decisions. A case study of coastal liner services between Incheon and Baengnyeong Island in South Korea was performed. Using scenario analysis, the possible ship sizes (small: 350 tons; large: 2,500 tons and types (new or used were considered by comparing potential revenue with costs. The results indicated that putting a used large-sized ship into operation would accommodate the increasing passenger and cargo volumes, and improve customer services.

  9. Ship speed optimization: Concepts, models and combined speed-routing scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues as regards ship speed optimization at the operational level and develop models that optimize ship speed for a spectrum of routing scenarios in a single ship setting. The paper's main contribution is the incorporation of those fundamental...... parameters and other considerations that weigh heavily in a ship owner's or charterer's speed decision and in his routing decision, wherever relevant. Various examples are given so as to illustrate the properties of the optimal solution and the various trade-offs that are involved....

  10. Study on the Digital Manufacturing System of Ship Model Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Linsen; TANG Yangping; BIN Hongzan; FENG Qingxiu; XIONG Zhengpeng

    2006-01-01

    Because a ship model surface (SMS) is a large double-curved 3-D surface, the machining efficiency of the current handcraft manufacturing method are very low, and the precision is difficult to control also. In order to greatly improve the machining efficiency and precision of SMS, based on the CAD/CAM/CNC technology, this paper proposed a model of SMS digital manufacturing system, which is composed of five functional modules (preprocess module, CAD module, CAM module, post-process module and CNC module), and a twin-skeg SMS as an example, the key technologies & design principle of the modules were investigated also. Based on the above research works, the first set of 4-axis SMS Digital Manufacturing System in China has been successfully developed, which can reduce the machining time of the twin-skeg SMS from 30 working days needed for the current handcrafting manufacturing method to 8 hours now, and which can control more effectively the precision of SMS also.

  11. Ship emitted NO2 in the Indian Ocean: comparison of model results with satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of NOx emission from international shipping has been evaluated by comparing NO2 tropospheric columns derived from the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY (January 2003 to February 2008, GOME (January 1996 to June 2003, and GOME-2 (March 2007 to February 2008 to NO2 columns calculated with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 (January 2000 to October 2005. The data set from SCIAMACHY yields the first monthly analysis of ship induced NO2 enhancements in the Indian Ocean. For both data and model consistently the tropospheric excess method was used to obtain mean NO2 columns over the shipping lane from India to Indonesia, and over two ship free regions, the Bay of Bengal and the central Indian Ocean. In general, the model simulates the differences between the regions affected by ship pollution and ship free regions reasonably well. Minor discrepancies between model results and satellite data were identified during biomass burning seasons in March to May over India and the Indochinese Peninsula and August to October over Indonesia. We conclude that the NOx ship emission inventory used in this study is a good approximation of NOx ship emissions in the Indian Ocean for the years 2002 to 2007. It assumes that around 6 Tg(N yr−1 are emitted by international shipping globally, resulting in 90 Gg(N yr−1 in the region of interest when using Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVER or 72 Gg(N yr−1 when using the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS as spatial proxy. The results do not support some previously published lower ship emissions estimates of 3–4 Tg(N yr−1 globally, making this study the first that evaluates atmospheric response to NOx ship emission estimates from space.

  12. “Pack 'em, rack 'em and stack 'em”: The appropriateness of the use and reuse of shipping containers for prison accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maree Grant

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping containers are gaining increasing recognition for their apparent durability, adaptability, light weight, ‘low cost' and ease of stacking, spurring a  trend that has resulted in shipping container sculpture, homes, housing, hotels, and museums. The use of prefabricated, pre-manufactured and prototype building methods for prison construction has grown considerably as some jurisdictions attempt to deal with the construction of prisons with speed and economy. In the last three years, shipping containers have been used in the prison sector as a way of managing burgeoning prison populations. Recent prison developments in both Australia and New Zealand where shipping containers have been employed for prisoner housing are of considerable interest. In this article, the financial, functional, structural, technical, environmental and architectonic impacts of this approach are discussed.

  13. Research on integrated naval ship design model and its intelligent algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yuan-hang; HUANG Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pointing at naval ship projects creation and evaluation at stage of naval ship concept design,in the mechanism of integrated design based on naval ship synthesis model, ship projects creation and intelligent fuzzy evaluation method is researched, thus the applicability of each algorithm is obtained. Firstly,the naval ship synthesis model is introduced to design process, value and application status of synthesis model in integrated design is then exposed. Then the applicability of single target and multi targets SA algorithm is improved, and the quick generation of naval ship projects is done. After that, multiple projects evaluation method based on Vague fuzzy set is introduced to established the intelligent evaluation model, which can integrate effectively the quantitative and qualitative indexes. At last, the analysis of results comparison shows the advancement and rationality of each method. The example shows the integrated design process researched in this paper can be a great orientation of naval ship project design, and can also be used in other parts of naval ship development.

  14. Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encountering situation of multi-ships is constructed, then the three-dimensional image and spatial curve of the risk index are figured out. Finally, single chip microcomputer is used to realize the model. And attaching this single chip microcomputer to ARPA is helpful to the decision-making of the marine navigators.

  15. A Fully Nonlinear, Dynamically Consistent Numerical Model for Ship Maneuvering in a Seaway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Qing Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL. In this paper we report our results on modeling ship maneuvering in arbitrary seaway that is one of the most challenging and important problems in seakeeping. In our modeling, we developed an adaptive algorithm to maintain dynamical balances numerically as the encounter frequencies (the wave frequencies as measured on the ship varying with the ship maneuvering state. The key of this new algorithm is to evaluate the encounter frequency variation differently in the physical domain and in the frequency domain, thus effectively eliminating possible numerical dynamical imbalances. We have tested this algorithm with several well-documented maneuvering experiments, and our results agree very well with experimental data. In particular, the numerical time series of roll and pitch motions and the numerical ship tracks (i.e., surge, sway, and yaw are nearly identical to those of experiments.

  16. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  17. Discrete element modeling of ice loads on ship hulls in broken ice fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shunying; LI Zilin; LI Chunhua; SHANG Jie

    2013-01-01

    Ice loads on a ship hull affect the safety of the hull structure and the ship maneuvering performance in ice-covered regions. A discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate the interaction between drifting ice floes and a moving ship. The pancake ice floes are modelled with three-dimensional (3-D) dilated disk elements considering the buoyancy, drag force and additional mass induced by the current. The ship hull is modelled with 3D disks with overlaps. Ice loads on the ship hull are determined through the contact detection between ice floe element and ship hull element and the contact force calculation. The influences of different ice conditions (current velocities and directions, ice thicknesses, concentrations and ice floe sizes) and ship speeds are also examined on the dynamic ice force. The simulated results are compared qualitatively well with the existing field data and other numerical results. This work can be helpful in the ship structure design and the navigation security in ice-covered fields.

  18. Modeling the effects of ship emissions on coastal air quality: A case study of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Satish; Dabdub, Donald

    2008-05-01

    Impact of emissions from ocean-going ships on ozone and particulate matter concentrations is quantified using UCI-CIT model for the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB). The modeling domain encompasses Los Angeles and Long Beach ports and part of the Pacific Ocean that is traversed by ships to visit these ports. Impacts are assessed for a base year (2002) and a future year (2020) by analyzing results from simulations of a three-day summer episode. Contribution of ship emissions to peak 1-h and 8-h ozone concentrations is predicted to be up to 29 and 24 ppb, respectively, for the year 2002. Similarly, particulate nitrate and sulfate concentrations increase up to 12.8 and 1.7 μg m-3, respectively, in the basin when ship emissions are included. Maximum impacts are predicted to occur along the coasts of Ventura and Los Angeles and also at inland locations near Simi Valley. Future year simulations show substantial increase in impacts from ships due to expected growth in ship emissions. Ozone increases are as high as 59 ppb for land-based locations when estimates of ship emissions for 2020 are included. Similarly, particulate nitrate and sulfate increase up to 14 and 2.5 μg m-3. The results of this study show that control of ship emissions is important to mitigate air pollution.

  19. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  20. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (autonomous seafloor-mounted acoustic recorder were combined with ship passage information from the Automatic Identification System. This approach allowed for detailed measurements (i.e., source level, sound exposure level, and transmission range) on ships of opportunity. A key result was different acoustic levels and spectral shapes observed from different ship-types. A 54 kGT container ship had the highest broadband source level at 188 dB re 1 μPa@1m; a 26 kGT chemical tanker had the lowest at 177 dB re 1 μPa@1m. Bulk carriers had higher source levels near 100 Hz, while container ship and tanker noise was predominantly below 40 Hz. Simple models to predict source levels of modern merchant ships as a group from particular ship characteristics (e.g., length, gross tonnage, and speed) were not possible given individual ship-type differences. Furthermore, ship noise was observed to radiate asymmetrically. Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments.

  1. Analysis of the Ship Ops Model’s Accuracy in Predicting U.S. Naval Ship Operating Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this report are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy or...Dean Graduate School of Business and Public Policy iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ANALYSIS OF THE SHIP OPS MODEL’S ACCURACY...of Model Accuracy using backcast : 1997-2002 Year SF SU SR SO Total 1997 $24,654 $4,315 $12,748 $6,626 $48,343 1998 $29,890 $5,853 $15,300 $9,046

  2. Probability modeling for robustness of multivariate LQG designing based on ship lateral motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The robustness of LQG designing for latitudinal movement of ship is mainly discussed, when its hydrodynamic parameters fluctuate around criterion value at random on the proportional distributing. When a given ship state at the speed of 18 kn and the course of 45° under Rank 5 state of sea, and the hydrodynamic parameters of the ship fluctuate at random on the proportional distributing with a range of ±10%,±20%,±30%, the robustness of multivariate LQG designing for ship is analyzed with applying the probability modeling of relative controlling effect. The result of simulating shows that when the hydrodynamic parameters of ship fluctuates the relative controlling effect of the LQG designing submit to normal distribution and the mean value of relative controlling effect has no remarkable changes comparing to that without perturbation of hydrodynamic parameter.

  3. Models and Algorithms for Container Vessel Stowage Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto

    Containerized seaborne trade has played a key role in the transformation of the global economy in the last 50 years. In liner shipping companies, at the heart of this operation, several planning decisions are made based on the stowage capabilities of container vessels, from strategic decisions (e.......g., selection of vessels to buy that satisfy specific demands), through to operational decisions (e.g., selection of containers that optimize revenue, and stowing those containers into a vessel). This thesis addresses the question of whether it is possible to formulate stowage optimization models...... container of those to be loaded in a port should be placed in a vessel, i.e., to generate stowage plans. This thesis explores two different approaches to solve this problem, both follow a 2-phase decomposition that assigns containers to vessel sections in the first phase, i.e., master planning...

  4. Measurements in a container ship of wave-induced hull girder stresses in excess of design values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes full-scale measurements of the wave-induced vertical bending moment amidships a 9400 TEU container carrier and focuses on the effect of the hydro-elastic high-frequency vibration on the extreme hogging wave bending moment. One extreme event, where the vertical wave-induced ho......This paper describes full-scale measurements of the wave-induced vertical bending moment amidships a 9400 TEU container carrier and focuses on the effect of the hydro-elastic high-frequency vibration on the extreme hogging wave bending moment. One extreme event, where the vertical wave......-frequency vibrations caused by impulsive loads are observed to be of the same magnitude as the rigid-body wave-induced response and thus acts to double the total vertical bending moment amidships. It was also found that even though the ship is sailing in bow quartering seas, only the 2-node vertical vibration mode...

  5. Recommended Paint System for Use on Ship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS AREA I 9O~i 911’ MNUiT. R AN David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research and Program Element 62543N Development Center Task Area 421-252...after 9 days. After 24 days: The same as after 9 days. .. Rating on Blisters: Exellent Rating on Slime: Excellent ,- Remark: Good finish on fiberglass 30

  6. Infrared ship signature prediction, model validation and sky radiance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The increased interest during the last decade in the infrared signature of (new) ships results in a clear need of validated infrared signature prediction codes. This paper presents the results of comparing an in-house developed signature prediction code with measurements made in the 3-5 μm band in b

  7. 基于市场细分的集装箱班轮运输舱位分配%Container Liner Shipping Slot Allocation Based on Market Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华龙; 夏秋; 刘迪

    2013-01-01

    To optimization of slot allocation of container liner shipping the theories of revenue management and market segmentation is applied. The container liner shipping market is divided into general customer segment and rush customer segment according to its heterogeneous aspect. The Prob function and NORMINV function are employed to obtain the amount of preserved slots for each part of the multi-ports route for the rush customer segment and the necessary amount of slots needed for general customer segment. With the priciple, a random programming model for the container slot allocation with the allocation and transport of empty containers is established and its relevant algorithm is designed. Example analysis shows the effectiveness of the model and of the algorithm.%为解决集装箱班轮运输的舱位分配优化问题,运用收益管理和市场细分理论,根据客户的异质性将集装箱班轮运输市场细分为普通客户市场和加急客户市场,利用Prob函数和NORMINV函数计算出多港挂靠航线某航次各航段上加急客户市场应预留的舱位数量以及可以接受普通客户订舱的舱位数量.在此基础上,建立了包含空箱调运问题的舱位分配随机规划模型,设计了相应的算法,算例分析显示了该模型及算法的有效性.

  8. A Path Based Model for a Green Liner Shipping Network Design Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Mads K. Jepsen; Berit Lofstedt; Christian E. M. Plum; David Pisinger; Mikkel M. Sigurd

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping networks are the backbone of international trade providing low transportation cost, which is a major driver of globalization. These networks are under constant pressure to deliver capacity, cost effectiveness and environmentally conscious transport solutions. This article proposes a new path based MIP model for the Liner shipping Network Design Problem minimizing the cost of vessels and their fuel consumption facilitating a green network. The proposed model reduces problem size...

  9. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified.

  10. Parameter Identification of Ship Maneuvering Models Using Recursive Least Square Method Based on Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of ship maneuvering models is a tough task of ship maneuverability prediction. Among several prime approaches of estimating ship maneuvering models, system identification combined with the full-scale or free- running model test is preferred. In this contribution, real-time system identification programs using recursive identification method, such as the recursive least square method (RLS, are exerted for on-line identification of ship maneuvering models. However, this method seriously depends on the objects of study and initial values of identified parameters. To overcome this, an intelligent technology, i.e., support vector machines (SVM, is firstly used to estimate initial values of the identified parameters with finite samples. As real measured motion data of the Mariner class ship always involve noise from sensors and external disturbances, the zigzag simulation test data include a substantial quantity of Gaussian white noise. Wavelet method and empirical mode decomposition (EMD are used to filter the data corrupted by noise, respectively. The choice of the sample number for SVM to decide initial values of identified parameters is extensively discussed and analyzed. With de-noised motion data as input-output training samples, parameters of ship maneuvering models are estimated using RLS and SVM-RLS, respectively. The comparison between identification results and true values of parameters demonstrates that both the identified ship maneuvering models from RLS and SVM-RLS have reasonable agreements with simulated motions of the ship, and the increment of the sample for SVM positively affects the identification results. Furthermore, SVM-RLS using data de-noised by EMD shows the highest accuracy and best convergence.

  11. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  12. Impact testing of the H1224A shipping/storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, D.C.; Bobbe, J.G.; Stenberg, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1994-05-01

    H1224A weapons containers have been used for years by the Department of Energy and Department of Defense to transport and store W78 warhead midsections. Although designed to protect these midsections only in low-energy handling drop and impact accidents, a recent transportation risk assessment effort has identified a need to evaluate the container`s ability to protect weapons in higher-energy environments. Four impact tests were performed on H1224A containers with W78 Mod 6c mass mockup midsections inside, onto an essentially unyielding target. Dynamic acceleration and strain levels were recorded during the side-on and end-on impacts, each at 12.2 m/s (40 ft/s) and 38.1 m/s (125 ft/s). Measured peak accelerations experienced by the midsections during lower velocity impacts ranged from 250 to 600 Gs for the end-on impact and 350 to 600 Gs for the side-on impact. Measured peak accelerations of the midsections during the higher velocity impacts ranged from 3,000 to 10,000 Gs for the end-on impact and 8,000 to 10,000 Gs for the side-on impact. Deformations in the H1224A container ranged from minimal to severe buckling and weld tearing. At higher impact velocities, the H1224A container may not provide significant energy absorption for the re-entry vehicle midsection but can provide some confinement of potentially damaged components.

  13. Instruments and Methods for Measuring the Flow of Water Around Ships and Ship Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-03-01

    Showing Arrangement of Orifices Figure 2 - Cylindrical Pitot Tube tubes convenient for observation, or, in the mercury manometer , to bring the water...investigate the wake of models at high* er speeds, it became necessary to have an instrument with a greater range of measurement. A 13-tube mercury ... manometer was designed for this purpose. This iU Figure 9 - Spherical Pltot Tube and Manometer Mounted on Model Th« position of the sphere relative

  14. An integer programming model and benchmark suite for liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfstedt, Berit; Alvarez, Jose Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    along with a rich integer programming model based on the services, that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. The model may be relaxed as well as decomposed. The design of a benchmark suite of data instances to reflect the business structure of a global liner shipping network......Maritime transportation is accountable for 2.7% of the worlds CO2 emissions and the liner shipping industry is committed to a slow steaming policy to provide low cost and environmentally conscious global transport of goods without compromising the level of service. The potential for making cost...... effective and energy efficient liner shipping networks using operations research is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon operations research has enhanced performance of both airlines, railways and general transportation companies, but within the field of liner...

  15. Rapid prediction of damage on a struck ship accounting for side impact scenario models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, Aditya Rio; Bae, Dong Myung; Sohn, Jung Min; Zakki, Ahmad Fauzan; Cao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    The impact phenomenon is inseparable part of every physical things, from substantial particle until macrostructure namely ship. In ship collisions, short-period load is distributed during impact process from striking ship into struck ship. The kinetic energy that is used to move striking ship is absorbed by struck ship that makes its structure undergoes plastic deformation and failure. This paper presents study that focuses on predicting occurred damage on side hull of struck ship for various impact scenario models. These scenarios are calculated by finite element approach to obtain characteristic on damage, energy as well as load during and after impact processes. The results indicate that the damages on impact to longitudinal components such as main and car decks are smaller than impact to transverse structure components. The damage and deformation are widely distributed to almost side structures including inner structure. The width between outer and inner shells is very affecting the damage mode where the width below the two meters will make inner shell experience damage beyond plastic deformation. The contribution of structure components is proofed deliver significant effect to damage mode and material strengths clearly affect the results in energy and load characteristic.

  16. Contributing to shipping container security: can passive sensors bring a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G; De Roo, F; Janssens, W

    2010-02-01

    Illicit trafficking of fissionable material in container cargoes is recognized as a potential weakness in Nuclear Security. Triggered by the attacks of 11 September 2001, measures were undertaken to enhance maritime security in extension to the Safety Of Life At Sea Convention and in line with the US Container Security Initiatives. Effective detection techniques are needed that allow the inspector to intercept illicit trafficking of nuclear weapons components or components of other nuclear explosive devices. Many security measures focus on active interrogation of the container content by X-ray scan, which might be extended with the newly developed tagged neutron inspection system. Both active interrogation techniques can, with the current huge volume of container traffic, only be applied to a limited number of selected containers. The question arises whether a passive detection technique can offer an alternative solution. This study investigates if containers equipped with a small passive detector will register during transport the neutron irradiation by fissionable material such as plutonium in a measurable way. In practice, 4/5 of the containers are about 1/8 filled with hydrogenous material and undergo a typical 2 months route. For this reference case, it was found that the most compatible passive detector would be an activation foil of iridium. Monte-Carlo simulations showed that for the reference case the activity of a 250 microm thin foil with 6 cm(2) cross-section would register 1.2 Bq when it is irradiated by a significant quantity of Reactor-Grade PuO(2). However this activity drops with almost two orders of magnitude for other fillings and other isotopic compositions and forms of the Pu-source. The procedure of selecting the target material for Pu detection is detailed with the theoretical methods, in order to be useful for other applications. Moreover the value of such additional passive sensors for securing maritime container transport is situated

  17. Source identification and budget analysis on elevated levels of formaldehyde within ship plumes: a photochemical/dynamic model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; von Glasow, R.; Brimblecombe, P.; Kim, J.; Park, R. J.; Woo, J. H.

    2010-06-01

    Elevated levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) along the ship corridors have been observed by satellite sensors, such as ESA/ERS-2 GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), and were also predicted by global 3-D chemistry-transport models. In this study, three likely sources of the elevated HCHO levels were investigated to identify the detailed sources and examine the contributions of the sources (budget) of the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors using a newly-developed ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model: (1) primary HCHO emission from ships; (2) secondary HCHO production via the atmospheric oxidation of Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted from ships; and (3) atmospheric oxidation of CH4 within the ship plumes. From multiple ship-plume model simulations, CH4 oxidation by elevated levels of in-plume OH radicals was found to be the main factor responsible for the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors. More than ~91% of the HCHO for the base ship plume case (ITCT 2K2 ship-plume case) is produced by this atmospheric chemical process, except in the areas close to the ship stacks where the main source of the elevated HCHO levels would be primary HCHO from the ships (due to the deactivation of CH4 oxidation from the depletion of in-plume OH radicals). Because of active CH4 oxidation (chemical destruction of CH4) by OH radicals, the instantaneous chemical lifetime of CH4 (τ CH4) decreased to ~0.45 yr inside the ship plume, which is in contrast to τ CH4 of ~1.1 yr in the background (up to ~41% decrease). A variety of likely ship-plume situations at three locations at different latitudes within the global ship corridors was also studied to determine the extent of the enhancements in the HCHOlevels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) influenced by ship emissions. It was found that the ship-plume HCHO levels could be 20.5-434.9 pptv higher than the background HCHO levels depending on the latitudinal locations of the ship plumes (i

  18. Modeling the regional impact of ship emissions on NOx and ozone levels over the Eastern Atlantic and Western Europe using ship plume parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pisoft

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, regional and global chemistry transport models apply instantaneous mixing of emissions into the model's finest resolved scale. In case of a concentrated source, this could result in erroneous calculation of the evolution of both primary and secondary chemical species. Several studies discussed this issue in connection with emissions from ships and aircraft. In this study, we present an approach to deal with the non-linear effects during dispersion of NOx emissions from ships. It represents an adaptation of the original approach developed for aircraft NOx emissions, which uses an exhaust tracer to trace the amount of the emitted species in the plume and applies an effective reaction rate for the ozone production/destruction during the plume's dilution into the background air. In accordance with previous studies examining the impact of international shipping on the composition of the troposphere, we found that the contribution of ship induced surface NOx to the total reaches 90% over remote ocean and makes 10–30% near coastal regions. Due to ship emissions, surface ozone increases by up to 4–6 ppbv making 10% contribution to the surface ozone budget. When applying the ship plume parameterization, we show that the large scale NOx decreases and the ship NOx contribution is reduced by up to 20–25%. A similar decrease was found in the case of O3. The plume parameterization suppressed the ship induced ozone production by 15–30% over large areas of the studied region. To evaluate the presented parameterization, nitrogen monoxide measurements over the English Channel were compared with modeled values and it was found that after activating the parameterization the model accuracy increases.

  19. Modeling the regional impact of ship emissions on NOx and ozone levels over the Eastern Atlantic and Western Europe using ship plume parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pisoft

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, regional and global chemistry transport models apply instantaneous mixing of emissions into the model's finest resolved scale. In case of a concentrated source, this could result in erroneous calculation of the evolution of both primary and secondary chemical species. Several studies discussed this issue in connection with emissions from ships and aircrafts. In this study, we present an approach to deal with the non-linear effects during dispersion of NOx emissions from ships. It represents an adaptation of the original approach developed for aircraft NOx emissions, which uses an exhaust tracer to trace the amount of the emitted species in the plume and applies an effective reaction rate for the ozone production/destruction during the plume's dilution into the background air. In accordance with previous studies examining the impact of international shipping on the composition of the troposphere, we found that the contribution of ship induced surface NOx to the total reaches 90% over remote ocean and makes 10–30% near coastal regions. Due to ship emissions, surface ozone increases by up to 4–6 ppbv making 10% contribution to the surface ozone budget. When applying the ship plume parameterization, we showed that the large scale NOx decreases and the ship NOx contribution is reduced by up to 20–25%. Similar decrease was found in case of O3. The plume parameterization suppressed the ship induced ozone production by 15–30% over large areas of the focused region. To evaluate the presented parameterization, nitrogen oxide measurements over the English Channel were compared with modeled values and it was found that after activating the parameterization the model accuracy increases.

  20. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  1. Evaluation of Response Prediction Procedures using Full Scale Measurements for a Container Ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2013-01-01

    on superposition of sinus-oidal components. The conditional processes do not need offline training and will be applied to measured time series in order to evaluate the accuracy of response predictions within the next 1-30 seconds. The number of measured points and the time distances between them are varied......This paper deals with the analysis of recent full-scale strain measurements in the hull of a large container carrier covering several months of operation. The focus is on the real-time prediction accuracy of responses 5-15 seconds ahead of the measurements. Such results are less applicable...... to determine the best solutions. A procedure based on 11 measured points spaced 1 sec, covering the last 10 sec of the instantaneous measured signal seems generally able to give fair predictions up to 5-10 sec ahead of the current time. The full-scale data is provided through the EU FP7 project Tools for Ultra...

  2. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of transs......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither.......The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...

  3. A New Rational-based Optimal Design Strategy of Ship Structure Based on Multi-level Analysis and Super-element Modeling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sun; Deyu Wang

    2011-01-01

    A new multi-level analysis method of introducing the super-element modeling method,derived from the multi-level analysis method first proposed by O.F.Hughes,has been proposed in this paper to solve the problem of high time cost in adopting a rational-based optimal design method for ship structural design.Furthermore,the method was verified by its effective application in optimization of the mid-ship section of a container ship.A full 3-D FEM model of a ship,suffering static and quasi-static loads,was used as the analyzing object for evaluating the structural performance of the mid-ship module,including static strength and buckling performance.Research results reveal that this new method could substantially reduce the computational cost of the rational-based optimization problem without decreasing its accuracy,which increases the feasibility and economic efficiency of using a rational-based optimal design method in ship structural design.

  4. Numerical Prediction on the Propulsion Performance of a Container Ship%某集装箱船推进性能的数值预报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊鹰; 刘志华

    2011-01-01

    分析了船体兴波作用对推进性能的影响,提出将兴波计算从自航船模流场计算中分离的简化计算模型,并研究了船模预报实船自航点和推进因子的数值方法,同时对KCS缩尺船模推进性能进行了预报,预报结果与试验吻合较好.通过对6条不同缩尺比的KCS自航船模的计算,分析了尺度效应对推进性能预报的影响.%The prediction of propulsion factors of propelled ship model is an integrative problem that involves calculations on ship-propeller and air-water two phases viscous flow field. Based on the analysis of the influence of the wave making on the propulsion factors, a simplification numerical model to calculate the propulsion factors of self-propulsion ship model is presented, in which the wave making simulation is separated form the calculation on the flow field of the propelled ship model. The numerical methods for predicting the self-propulsion point and propulsion factors of full scale ship by ship model are studied, and the propulsion performance of scaled KCS ship model under experimental condition is numerically calculated by the methods; the numerical results are in good agreement with experiment data. The influence of the scale effect on propulsion factors prediction is studied by the calculation on 6 different KCS scaled propelled models with different scaled ratios. And some meaningful conclusions are drawn.

  5. Hydrodynamic optimization of twin-skeg LNG ships by CFD and model testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunjae Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SSPA experiences a growing interest in twin skeg ships as one attractive green ship solution. The twin skeg concept is well proven with obvious advantages for the design of ships with full hull forms, restricted draft or highly loaded propellers. SSPA has conducted extensive hull optimizations studies of LNG ships of different size based on an extensive hull data base with over 7,000 models tested, including over 400 twin skeg hull forms. Main hull dimensions and different hull concepts such as twin skeg and single screw were of main interest in the studies. In the present paper, one twin skeg and one single screw 170 K LNG ship were designed for optimally selected main dimension parameters. The twin skeg hull was further optimized and evaluated using SHIPFLOW FRIENDSHIP design package by performing parameter variation in order to modify the shape and positions of the skegs. The finally optimized models were then built and tested in order to confirm the lower power demand of twin skeg designed compaed with the signle screw design. This paper is a full description of one of the design developments of a LNG twin skeg hull, from early dimensional parameter study, through design optimization phase towards the confirmation by model tests.

  6. Hydrodynamic optimization of twin-skeg LNG ships by CFD and model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keunjae; Tillig, Fabian; Bathfield, Nicolas; Liljenberg, Hans

    2014-06-01

    SSPA experiences a growing interest in twin skeg ships as one attractive green ship solution. The twin skeg concept is well proven with obvious advantages for the design of ships with full hull forms, restricted draft or highly loaded propellers. SSPA has conducted extensive hull optimizations studies of LNG ships of different size based on an extensive hull data base with over 7,000 models tested, including over 400 twin skeg hull forms. Main hull dimensions and different hull concepts such as twin skeg and single screw were of main interest in the studies. In the present paper, one twin skeg and one single screw 170 K LNG ship were designed for optimally selected main dimension parameters. The twin skeg hull was further optimized and evaluated using SHIPFLOW FRIENDSHIP design package by performing parameter variation in order to modify the shape and positions of the skegs. The finally optimized models were then built and tested in order to confirm the lower power demand of twin skeg designed compaed with the signle screw design. This paper is a full description of one of the design developments of a LNG twin skeg hull, from early dimensional parameter study, through design optimization phase towards the confirmation by model tests.

  7. A path based model for a green liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping networks are the backbone of international trade providing low transportation cost, which is a major driver of globalization. These networks are under constant pressure to deliver capacity, cost effectiveness and environmentally conscious transport solutions. This article proposes...... a new path based MIP model for the Liner shipping Network Design Problem minimizing the cost of vessels and their fuel consumption facilitating a green network. The proposed model reduces problem size using a novel aggregation of demands. A decomposition method enabling delayed column generation...

  8. Trend modelling of wave parameters and application in onboard prediction of ship responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, J. Juncher

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a trend analysis for prediction of sea state parameters onboard shipsduring voyages. Given those parameters, a JONSWAP model and also the transfer functions, prediction of wave induced ship responses are thus made. The procedure is tested with full-scale data of an in-service ......This paper presents a trend analysis for prediction of sea state parameters onboard shipsduring voyages. Given those parameters, a JONSWAP model and also the transfer functions, prediction of wave induced ship responses are thus made. The procedure is tested with full-scale data of an in...

  9. A Dynamic Model for Roll Motion of Ships Due to Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented of the roll motion of damaged RoRo vessels which couples the internal cross-flooding flow and the air action in the equalizing compartment. The cross flooding flow and the air motion are modelled by a modified Bernoulli equation, where artificial damping is introduced...... to avoid modal instability based on the original Bernoulli equation. The fluid action of the flooded water on the ship is expressed by its influence on the moment of inertia of the ship and the heeling moment, which is a couple created by the gravitational force of the flooded water and the change...... of buoyancy of the ship.Two limiting flooding cases are examined in the present analysis: The sudden ingress of a certain amount of water to the damaged compartment with no further water exchange between the sea and the flooded compartment during the roll motion, and the continuous ingress of water through...

  10. Productivity simulation model for optimization of maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen TWRDY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a proposed productivity simulation model enabling container terminal operators to find optimization possibilities. A research of more than forty terminals has been done, in order to provide a helping tool for maritime container terminals. By applying an adequate simulation model, it is possible to measure and increase the productivity in all subsystem of the maritime container terminal. Management of a maritime container terminal includes a vast number of different financial and operational decisions. Financial decisions are often in a direct connection with investments in infrastructure and handling equipment. Such investments are very expensive. Therefore, they must give back the invested money as soon as possible. On the other hand, some terminals are limited by the physical extension and are forced to increase annual throughput only with sophisticated equipment on the berth side and on the yard as well. Considering all these important facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation model gives a helping tool for checking the productivity and its time variation and monitoring competitiveness of a certain maritime terminal with terminals from the same group.

  11. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  12. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  13. Mean velocity and moments of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the wake of a model ship propulsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pego, J.P. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, LSTM, Erlangen, Lehrstuhl fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Erlangen (Germany); Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Lienhart, H.; Durst, F. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, LSTM, Erlangen, Lehrstuhl fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Pod drives are modern outboard ship propulsion systems with a motor encapsulated in a watertight pod, whose shaft is connected directly to one or two propellers. The whole unit hangs from the stern of the ship and rotates azimuthally, thus providing thrust and steering without the need of a rudder. Force/momentum and phase-resolved laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were performed for in line co-rotating and contra-rotating propellers pod drive models. The measurements permitted to characterize these ship propulsion systems in terms of their hydrodynamic characteristics. The torque delivered to the propellers and the thrust of the system were measured for different operation conditions of the propellers. These measurements lead to the hydrodynamic optimization of the ship propulsion system. The parameters under focus revealed the influence of distance between propeller planes, propeller frequency of rotation ratio and type of propellers (co- or contra-rotating) on the overall efficiency of the system. Two of the ship propulsion systems under consideration were chosen, based on their hydrodynamic characteristics, for a detailed study of the swirling wake flow by means of laser Doppler anemometry. A two-component laser Doppler system was employed for the velocity measurements. A light barrier mounted on the axle of the rear propeller motor supplied a TTL signal to mark the beginning of each period, thus providing angle information for the LDA measurements. Measurements were conducted for four axial positions in the slipstream of the pod drive models. The results show that the wake of contra-rotating propeller is more homogeneous than when they co-rotate. In agreement with the results of the force/momentum measurements and with hypotheses put forward in the literature (see e.g. Poehls in Entwurfsgrundlagen fuer Schraubenpropeller, 1984; Schneekluth in Hydromechanik zum Schiffsentwurf, 1988; Breslin and Andersen in Hydrodynamics of ship propellers, 1996

  14. Mean velocity and moments of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the wake of a model ship propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pêgo, J. P.; Lienhart, H.; Durst, F.

    2007-08-01

    Pod drives are modern outboard ship propulsion systems with a motor encapsulated in a watertight pod, whose shaft is connected directly to one or two propellers. The whole unit hangs from the stern of the ship and rotates azimuthally, thus providing thrust and steering without the need of a rudder. Force/momentum and phase-resolved laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were performed for in line co-rotating and contra-rotating propellers pod drive models. The measurements permitted to characterize these ship propulsion systems in terms of their hydrodynamic characteristics. The torque delivered to the propellers and the thrust of the system were measured for different operation conditions of the propellers. These measurements lead to the hydrodynamic optimization of the ship propulsion system. The parameters under focus revealed the influence of distance between propeller planes, propeller frequency of rotation ratio and type of propellers (co- or contra-rotating) on the overall efficiency of the system. Two of the ship propulsion systems under consideration were chosen, based on their hydrodynamic characteristics, for a detailed study of the swirling wake flow by means of laser Doppler anemometry. A two-component laser Doppler system was employed for the velocity measurements. A light barrier mounted on the axle of the rear propeller motor supplied a TTL signal to mark the beginning of each period, thus providing angle information for the LDA measurements. Measurements were conducted for four axial positions in the slipstream of the pod drive models. The results show that the wake of contra-rotating propeller is more homogeneous than when they co-rotate. In agreement with the results of the force/momentum measurements and with hypotheses put forward in the literature (see e.g. Poehls in Entwurfsgrundlagen für Schraubenpropeller, 1984; Schneekluth in Hydromechanik zum Schiffsentwurf, 1988; Breslin and Andersen in Hydrodynamics of ship propellers, 1996

  15. Structural modeling and fuzzy-logic based diagnosis of a ship propulsion benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.; Katebi, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of structural model of a ship propulsion benchmark leads to identifying the subsystems with inherent redundant information. For a nonlinear part of the system, a Fuzzy logic based FD algorithm with adaptive threshold is employed. The results illustrate the applicability of structural...... analysis as well as fuzzy observer....

  16. Structural modeling and fuzzy-logic based diagnosis of a ship propulsion benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.; Katebi, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of structural model of a ship propulsion benchmark leads to identifying the subsystems with inherent redundant information. For a nonlinear part of the system, a Fuzzy logic based FD algorithm with adaptive threshold is employed. The results illustrate the applicability of structural...... analysis as well as fuzzy observer...

  17. 3DFEM-3DBEM model for springing and whipping analysis of ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenica, S.; Tuitman, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the modeling of the wave induced ship structural vibrations. The presented method is fully integrated in both the linear frequency domain and non-linear time domain seakeeping calculations. Due to the transient non-linear nature of slamming loading, the corresponding whipping re

  18. Model Tests for Shallow-Water Ship Maneuverability in Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Chuang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts calibration tests on the shallow-water maneuverability of 1:100 ship models for the typical navigation fleets in Three Gorges Reservoir. Major influential factors for the maneuverability similitude between models and prototypes and for scale effect were identified. A correction method for model scale was also established through model tests. Test results indicate that, by correcting the model scales of various fleets based on scale effect, the maneuverability indexes K’ (dimensionless of K and T’ (dimensionless of T of ship models are suitable for shallow-water tests, and properly reflect the maneuvering characteristics of prototypes. The findings provide an experimental basis for the navigation safety in Three Gorges Reservoir.

  19. Dynamic modelling of check valves in shipping terminals; Modelagem dinamica de valvulas de retencao em terminais maritimos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luis F.G.; Barreto, Claudio V.; Sarmento, Renata C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT)

    2005-07-01

    As usual a shipping terminal contains a header and its diameter is smaller than the main pipeline diameter. This diameter reduction amplifies the effects caused by hydraulic transients. It was noticed during simulations that check valves without dynamic modeling may introduce some error in the maximum pressure results without a dynamic model approach. The current paper uses commercial pipeline simulation software to model the dynamic behavior of the check valves. It was studied the header diameter influence and how the check valve model type may change the maximum pressure in the pipeline. It was proved that even a pipeline that works with low pressure and small elevation drop needs a detailed valve modeling to prevent the calculation of unreal pressure values in the region with diameter reduction. (author)

  20. Intelligent hybrid genetic algorithm for container ship loading%集装箱船装载问题的混合遗传智能优化算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莹; 向先波; 杨运桃; 王英伟

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of optimizing the efficiency of the container,a mathematical model of con-tainer ship loading problem was established with the goal of maximizing the utilization of space.An intelligent hybrid genetic algorithm combined with a new encoding method consisting of the sequence and the placement of the cargo was presented.The genetic operators including partial mapped cross-over operator,two-point crossover operator,sequence reversed mutation operator and basic bit muta-tion operator were applied to the loading problem.Simulations were performed to validate the pro-posed algorithm.By taking two sets of test data in the classic Loh′s algorithm test,the space utiliza-tion respectively reached 94.31% and 91.41% which had an obvious improvement compared with the other algorithms.The results show the effectiveness of the intelligent hybrid genetic algorithm for ad-dressing the container ship loading problem.%为了提高集装箱的利用率,以空间利用率最大化为优化目标,建立集装箱船装载问题的数学模型,提出了一种新型混合遗传智能算法.算法中设计了一种包含货物装填顺序和放置状态的两段编码方式,构造适应集装箱船装载问题的部分映射交叉算子、两点交叉算子、顺序逆转变异算子和基本位变异算子,并对此算法进行了仿真验证.以 Loh 和 Nee 的两组经典测试数据为实例进行算法测试,空间利用率分别达到94.3%和91.4%,与相同类型装箱算法进行对比,空间利用率有明显提升,验证了混合遗传智能优化算法的有效性.

  1. A RANS modelling approach for predicting powering performance of ships in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windén Björn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modelling technique for simulating self-propelled ships in waves is presented. The flow is modelled using a RANS solver coupled with an actuator disk model for the propeller. The motion of the ship is taken into consideration in the definition of the actuator disk region as well as the advance ratio of the propeller. The RPM of the propeller is controlled using a PID-controller with constraints added on the maximum permissible RPM increase rate. Results are presented for a freely surging model in regular waves with different constraints put on the PID-controller. The described method shows promising results and allows for the studying of several factors relating to selfpropulsion. However, more validation data is needed to judge the accuracy of the model.

  2. Modular Modeling of a Refrigeration Container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Sørensen, Kresten; Juel Skovrup, Morten; M. Jessen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a refrigeration container for use as a reference for energy-optimizing controller design. The model is based on first principles in order to conserve mass and energy, but various assumptions are used to simplify the equations, resulting in a unified model for t...... for the Star Cool refrigeration unit, the container and the cargo. Comparisons between simulations using the model and measurements from a real container show an average error of less than ±1K on the states important for control....

  3. The Control and Modeling of Diesel Generator Set in Electric Propulsion Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Luo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the characteristics of power system on electric propulsion ship. The mathematical model and simulation model of diesel engine PID speed control system and synchronous generator’s AVR+PSS excitation control system was built. At last the simulation test of suddenly add load was did in MATLAB/simulink environment. The result shows that the speed control and excitation control system has well stability, rapidity and some robustness.

  4. Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Jacob, D.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    We present a computationally efficient approach to account for the non-linear chemistry occurring during the dispersion of ship exhaust plumes in a global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem). We use a plume-in-grid formulation where ship emissions age chemically for 5 h before being relea

  5. Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Jacob, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. We present a computationally efficient approach to account for the non-linear chemistry occurring during the dispersion of ship exhaust plumes in a global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem). We use a plume-ingrid formulation where ship emissions age chemically for 5 h before be

  6. Operational modal analysis of a ship model in the presence of harmonic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junchen; Hong, Ming; Liu, Xiaobing

    2013-03-01

    A ship is operated under an extremely complex environment, and waves and winds are assumed to be the stochastic excitations. Moreover, the propeller, host and mechanical equipment can also induce the harmonic responses. In order to reduce structural vibration, it is important to obtain the modal parameters information of a ship. However, the traditional modal parameter identification methods are not suitable since the excitation information is difficult to obtain. Natural excitation technique-eigensystem realization algorithm (NExT-ERA) is an operational modal identification method which abstracts modal parameters only from the response signals, and it is based on the assumption that the input to the structure is pure white noise. Hence, it is necessary to study the influence of harmonic excitations while applying the NExT-ERA method to a ship structure. The results of this research paper indicate the practical experiences under ambient excitation, ship model experiments were successfully done in the modal parameters identification only when the harmonic frequencies were not too close to the modal frequencies.

  7. Contribution to the Development of Simulation Model of Ship Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Ratko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation modelling, performed by System Dynamics Modelling Approach and intensive use of computers, is one of the most convenient and most successful scientific methods of analysis of performance dynamics of nonlinear and very complex natural technical and organizational systems [1]. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the successful application of system dynamics simulation modelling at analyzing performance dynamics of a complex system of ship’s propulsion system. Gas turbine is a complex non-linear system, which needs to be systematically investigated as a unit consisting of a number of subsystems and elements, which are linked by cause-effect (UPV feedback loops (KPD, both within the propulsion system and with the relevant surrounding. In this paper the authors will present an efficient application of scientific methods for the study of complex dynamic systems called qualitative and quantitative simulation System Dynamics Methodology. Gas turbine will be presented by a set of non-linear differential equations, after which mental-verbal structural models and flowcharts in System dynamics symbols will be produced, and the performance dynamics in load condition will be simulated in POWERSIM simulation language.

  8. Modelling of Surface Ships using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Jensen, F. M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    are costly and time consuming - at least in the context of sampling sufficient data for statistical analyses purposes. Furthermore, a modelling of the process of navigating could be used in a vessel autopilot to guide a vessel on a fixed heading (course - keeping) or a new heading (course -changing)....

  9. Blind source separation of ship-radiated noise based on generalized Gaussian model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Wei; Yang Bin

    2006-01-01

    When the distribution of the sources cannot be estimated accurately, the ICA algorithms failed to separate the mixtures blindly. The generalized Gaussian model (GGM) is presented in ICA algorithm since it can model nonGaussian statistical structure of different source signals easily. By inferring only one parameter, a wide class of statistical distributions can be characterized. By using maximum likelihood (ML) approach and natural gradient descent, the learning rules of blind source separation (BSS) based on GGM are presented. The experiment of the ship-radiated noise demonstrates that the GGM can model the distributions of the ship-radiated noise and sea noise efficiently, and the learning rules based on GGM gives more successful separation results after comparing it with several conventional methods such as high order cumulants and Gaussian mixture density function.

  10. Single supplier single retailer inventory model controlled by the reorder and shipping points with sharing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Tsung; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the integrated stochastic inventory problem for a two-stage supply chain consisting of a single retailer and a single supplier. By using batch shipment policy, the expected total cost can be significantly reduced. An equally sized batch shipment model, controlled by both the reorder and shipping points, with sharing information by enterprise resource planning and radio frequency identification is constructed. The problem is solved optimally by the proposed algorithm that determines the economic lot size, the optimal batch sizes and number of batches. A numerical example is included to illustrate the algorithmic procedures and to prove that the model controlled both by the reorder and shipping points is superior to the classic model controlled only by the reorder point.

  11. Dynamic behavior of a direct expansion evaporator under frosting condition. Part II. Field investigation on a shipping container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, C.P. [Multimedia University, Melaka (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering and Technology; Cheng, Y.C.; Lai, A.C.K. [Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 634798 (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2006-06-15

    A field investigation is performed on the frost formation at an evaporator of a commercial full-scale refrigerated container that uses R-12 as the working refrigerant. Results when compared with those from a numerical model presented earlier show that the model is capable of predicting the dynamic behavior of a direct expansion evaporator under both non-frosting and frosting conditions. The air outlet and energy transferred compare well between experiment and model, and within 20% for the air pressure drop. The frost occurrence and propagation agree well generally, with the frost formation first occurring at the first row where the refrigerant enters the evaporator. (author)

  12. Application of Process Modeling Tools to Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Release; Distribution is unlimited. Different People – Different Preferences • We need to view process data in multiple formats. – DSM – GANTT Charts...CertificatePrograms/tRI Scheduling Software Spreadsheet Software Info Modeling Software DSM Tool Schedules IDEF Diagrams Spreadsheets DSM Schema 6/2...Chart Gantt Chart DSM Flow Chart by Geography 6/2/2011 3:41 PM 16Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is unlimited. Multi-domain

  13. Defining Service Quality in Tramp Shipping: Conceptual Model and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh V. Thai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tramp shipping constitutes a prominent segment of the shipping market. As customers increasingly seek value from service providers for low price but yet high quality services, there is a pressing need to understand critically what construe the service quality for the tramp sector. In this respect, however, no prior research has been conducted for this market segment. This study recognises the gap in the existing maritime literature and aimed to propose and validate a service quality (SQ model to address such a gap. The study employs a triangulation approach, utilising literature review, interviews and surveys to develop, refine and verify the SQ model proposed. Interviews were conducted with various parties in the tramp sector while a survey using a sample size of 343 tramp shippers and 254 tramp service providers was also conducted with tramp shippers and tramp service providers. It was revealed that the SQ model of six dimensions of Corporate Image, Customer Focus, Management, Outcomes, Personnel and Technical, and their 18 associated attributes could be used as a reliable tool to measure service quality in tramp shipping. This research contributes to fill the gap in the existing literature by introducing and validating a new SQ model specifically for tramp shipping. Meanwhile, the model can also be used by practitioners to receive their customers’ evaluation of their service quality as well as a benchmarking tool for continuous improvement. This study is, however, confined to a small-sized data collected in Singapore and to the bulk commodity context. Further studies on the practicality of the SQ model involving larger sample size and in other regions and for the general and specialized cargoes would be required to enhance its reliability.

  14. Development of a Relationship Between Residual Ultimate Longitudinal Strength Versus Grounding Damage Index Diagram For Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Various accidents such as grounding, collision, fire, and explosion commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. Therefore, an accidental risk- based approach that is in line with the goal-based standard...

  15. The Effects of Voyaging on the Magnetization of Ship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-05

    time-effect must be analyzed for more accurate prediction of voyage effects. Finally, experiments must be conducted with samples of HY80 steel , for...models were tested by subjecting two sample rods, one of HY1O0 steel and one of HY130 steel to an apparatus for supply of cyclic stress of two amplitudes...Entered) WI UNCLASSIFIED I SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Of T"IS PAGE (Whm Da ffIfete 0. 0.CONTIN(UMD steel , and these were compared with the slope of the

  16. Climate impact of biofuels in shipping: global model studies of the aerosol indirect effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Mattia; Klinger, Carolin; Eyring, Veronika; Hendricks, Johannes; Lauer, Axel; Petzold, Andreas

    2011-04-15

    Aerosol emissions from international shipping are recognized to have a large impact on the Earth's radiation budget, directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by altering cloud properties. New regulations have recently been approved by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) aiming at progressive reductions of the maximum sulfur content allowed in marine fuels from current 4.5% by mass down to 0.5% in 2020, with more restrictive limits already applied in some coastal regions. In this context, we use a global bottom-up algorithm to calculate geographically resolved emission inventories of gaseous (NO(x), CO, SO(2)) and aerosol (black carbon, organic matter, sulfate) species for different kinds of low-sulfur fuels in shipping. We apply these inventories to study the resulting changes in radiative forcing, attributed to particles from shipping, with the global aerosol-climate model EMAC-MADE. The emission factors for the different fuels are based on measurements at a test bed of a large diesel engine. We consider both fossil fuel (marine gas oil) and biofuels (palm and soy bean oil) as a substitute for heavy fuel oil in the current (2006) fleet and compare their climate impact to that resulting from heavy fuel oil use. Our simulations suggest that ship-induced surface level concentrations of sulfate aerosol are strongly reduced, up to about 40-60% in the high-traffic regions. This clearly has positive consequences for pollution reduction in the vicinity of major harbors. Additionally, such reductions in the aerosol loading lead to a decrease of a factor of 3-4 in the indirect global aerosol effect induced by emissions from international shipping.

  17. Global hydroelastic ship response comparison of numerical model and WILS model tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigot, F.; Derbanne, Q.; Sireta, F.X.; Malenica, S.; Tuitman, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    It is nowadays well recognized that the hydroelastic ship response might be an important part of the overall ship structural response. We usually talk about two phenomena: namely springing and whipping, even if sometimes it is not trivial to distinguish between the two of them. Usually, springing is

  18. Ship plume dispersion rates in convective boundary layers for chemistry models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chosson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Detailed ship plume simulations in various convective boundary layer situations have been performed using a Lagrangian Dispersion Model driven by a Large Eddy Simulation Model. The simulations focus on early stage (1–2 h of plume dispersion regime and take into account the effects of plume rise on dispersion. Results are presented in an attempt to provide to chemical modellers community a realistic description of the impact of characteristic dispersion on exhaust ship plume chemistry. Plume dispersion simulations are used to derive analytical dilution rate functions. Even though results exhibit striking effects of plume rise parameter on dispersion patterns, it is shown that initial buoyancy fluxes at ship stack have minor effect on plume dilution rate. After initial high dispersion regimes a simple characteristic dilution time scale can be used to parameterize the subgrid plume dilution effects in large scale chemistry models. The results show that this parameter is directly related to the typical turn-over time scale of the convective boundary layer.

  19. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Vibration Characteristics of a Loaded Ship Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Liang; Ming Hong; Zheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the vibration characteristics of the structure in the finite fluid domain are analyzed using a coupled finite element method. The added mass matrix is calculated with finite element method (FEM) by 8-node acoustic fluid elements. The vibration characteristics of the structure in the finite fluid domain are calculated combining structure FEM mass matrix. By writing relevant programs, the numerical analysis on vibration characteristics of a submerged cantilever rectangular plate in finite fluid domain and loaded ship model is performed. A modal identification experiment for the loaded ship model in air and in water is conducted and the experiment results verify the reliability of the numerical analysis. The numerical method can be used for further research on vibration characteristics and acoustic radiation problems of the structure in the finite fluid domain.

  1. Ship waste quantities prediction model for the port of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADANKA PRESBURGER ULNIKOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and especially in the port of Belgrade. Data on solid waste, waste oils, oily waters, gray water and black water have been collected for a period of five years. The methodology of data collection is presented. Trends of data were analyzed and the regression model was used to predict the waste quantities in the Belgrade port. This data could be utilized as a basis for the calculation of the equipment capacity for waste selective collection, treatment and storage. The results presented in this study establish the need for an orga¬nized management system for this type of waste which can be achieved either by constructing and providing new specialized terminal or by providing mobile floating facilities and other plants in the Port of Belgrade for these kinds of ser¬vices. In addition to the above, the legislative and organizational strategy of waste management has been explored to complete the study because the im¬pact of good waste management on environment and prevention of environ¬mental accidents would be highly beneficial. This study demonstrated that ad¬dressing these issues should be considered at international as well as national level.

  2. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2013-01-01

    , because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  3. Geometry Modeling of Ship Hull Based on Non-uniform B-spline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hu; ZOU Zao-jian

    2008-01-01

    In order to generate the three-dimensional (3-D) hull surface accurately and smoothly, a mixed method which is made up of non-uniform B-spline together with an iterative procedure was developed. By using the iterative method the data points on each section curve are calculated and the generalized waterlines and transverse section curves are determined. Then using the non-uniform B-spline expression, the control vertex net of the hull is calculated based on the generalized waterlines and section curves. A ship with tunnel stern was taken as test case. The numerical results prove that the proposed approach for geometry modeling of 3-D ship hull surface is accurate and effective.

  4. Development of Bayesian Network Models for Risk-Based Ship Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitris Konovessis; Wenkui Cai; Dracos Vassalos

    2013-01-01

    In the past fifteen years,the attention of ship safety treatment as an objective rather than a constraint has started to sweep through the whole maritime industry.The risk-based ship design (RBD) methodology,advocating systematic integration of risk assessment within the conventional design process has started to takeoff.Despite this wide recognition and increasing popularity,important factors that could potentially undermine the quality of the results come from both quantitative and qualitative aspects during the risk assessment process.This paper details a promising solution by developing a formalized methodology for risk assessment through effective storing and processing of historical data combined with data generated through first-principle approaches.This method should help to generate appropriate risk models in the selected platform (Bayesian networks) which can be employed for decision making at design stage.

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  6. A Matlab Toolbox for Parametric Identification of Radiation-Force Models of Ships and Offshore Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a Matlab toolbox for parametric identification of fluid-memory models associated with the radiation forces ships and offshore structures. Radiation forces are a key component of force-to- motion models used in simulators, motion control designs, and also for initial performance evaluation of wave-energy converters. The software described provides tools for preparing non-parmatric data and for identification with automatic model-order detection. The identification problem is considered in the frequency domain.

  7. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adeli, Khosrow [Division of Clinical Biochemistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Meshkani, Reza, E-mail: rmeshkani@tums.ac.ir [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  8. Predicting Modeling Method of Ship Radiated Noise Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the forming mechanism of underwater acoustic signal is complex, it is difficult to establish the accurate predicting model. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear predicting modeling method of ship radiated noise based on genetic algorithm. Three types of ship radiated noise are taken as real underwater acoustic signal. First of all, a basic model framework is chosen. Secondly, each possible model is done with genetic coding. Thirdly, model evaluation standard is established. Fourthly, the operation of genetic algorithm such as crossover, reproduction, and mutation is designed. Finally, a prediction model of real underwater acoustic signal is established by genetic algorithm. By calculating the root mean square error and signal error ratio of underwater acoustic signal predicting model, the satisfactory results are obtained. The results show that the proposed method can establish the accurate predicting model with high prediction accuracy and may play an important role in the further processing of underwater acoustic signal such as noise reduction and feature extraction and classification.

  9. Hierarchical modeling and analysis of container terminal operations

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Hacı Murat; Ozdemir, Haci Murat

    2003-01-01

    After the breakdown of trade barriers among countries, the volume of international trade has grown significantly in the last decade. This explosive growth in international trade has increased the importance of marine transportation which constitutes the major part of the global logistics network. The utilization of containers and container ships in marine transportation has also increased after the eighties due to various advantages such as packaging, flexibility, and reliability. Parallel to...

  10. Model Based Control of Reefer Container Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær

    This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together with the Da......This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together...

  11. Impacts of Implementation of the Effective Maritime Security Management Model (EMSMM on Organizational Performance of Shipping Companies1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sadovaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the impacts of the Effective Maritime Security Management Model (EMSMM on organizational performance of shipping companies. For this purpose, a survey was administered to collect data from shipping and ship management companies worldwide. The hypotheses in this study were tested using the structural equation modelling (SEM. It was found that the proposed model has direct positive impacts on security, business resilience and customer performance, as well as indirect positive relationship with security-related, and time market performance. Besides, the categorization of organizational performance of shipping companies, proposed and empirically validated in this study, can be used by the companies to measure the impacts of security management.

  12. The empty container allocation strategy of the shipping company on the new port%船公司在新港口上的空箱分配策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓龙; 种道坤

    2016-01-01

    In view of the shipping company in the new port about the empty container allocation problem, based on similar to new port transportation situation of existing port throughput calendar year, the Data Regression Analysis method is used to establish a new port container forecast distribu-tion model, and the model analysis is solved to predict new port container throughput in the future by using MATLAB linear programming method, at last an new port of empty container allocation strate-gy is designed based on the forecast and the analysis results. The result of the model shows that the company on the new port needs to buy containers 126 210 TEU and long-term leasing container 10 090 TEU for ten years to make the cost about the container on the new port smallest. According to the analysis, the container buy oneself is the first choice for shipping company on the financing a-bility permits, combining with the reality, however, the basic strategy is the container buying oneself and container leasing. The empty container allocation strategy and optimization calculation model proposed can be used for reference in the shipping companies engaged in container shipping.%针对航运公司在新开发港口的集装箱空箱的分配问题进行研究,基于与新港口运输情况相似的已有港口的历年吞吐量,采用数据回归分析方法建立了新港口集装箱预测分配模型,利用MATLAB线性规划求解方法对模型进行求解分析,预测新港口未来的集装箱吞吐量,最后基于预测量与分析结果设计新港口的空箱分配策略。模型计算表明航运公司应在新港口自购箱126210 TEU,长租箱10090 TEU,且一次租赁10年,才能使得花费在新港口集装箱上的费用最小。通过分析发现在融资能力允许的情况下,自购箱是航运公司第一首选,但结合现实情况,自购箱和租箱混合才是基本策略。所提出的空箱分配策略及预测分配模型可供从事集装箱运输的航运公司参考。

  13. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawindaran Nair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  14. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    processed LCA data in the tool contain the key factors to make it possible to perform life cycle analyses of such a complex 'product' as a ship and the sea transport activity performed by the ship. The calculated environmental impact can also be analysed with respect to different operations, life cycle phases etc. To make comparisons easier between ship concepts etc., the calculated environmental impact can be evaluated with different categorisations and valuation models in an analyses module.

  15. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    processed LCA data in the tool contain the key factors to make it possible to perform life cycle analyses of such a complex 'product' as a ship and the sea transport activity performed by the ship. The calculated environmental impact can also be analysed with respect to different operations, life cycle phases etc. To make comparisons easier between ship concepts etc., the calculated environmental impact can be evaluated with different categorisations and valuation models in an analyses module.

  16. Cost-Benefit Assessment of Inspection and Repair Planning for Ship Structures Considering Corrosion Model Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dian-qing; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun

    2005-01-01

    Owing to high costs and unnecessary inspections necessitated by the traditional inspection planning for ship structures, the risk-based inspection and repair planning should be investigated for the most cost-effective inspection. This paper aims to propose a cost-benefit assessment model of risk-based inspection and repair planning for ship structures subjected to corrosion deterioration. Then, the benefit-cost ratio is taken to be an index for the selection of the optimal inspection and repair strategy. The planning problem is formulated as an optimization problem where the benefit-cost ratio for the expected lifetime is maximized with a constraint on the minimum acceptable reliability index. To account for the effect of corrosion model uncertainty on the cost-benefit assessment, two corrosion models, namely, Paik's model and Guedes Soares' model, are adopted for analysis. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed method. Sensitivity studies are also provided. The results indicate that the proposed method of risk-based cost-benefit analysis can effectively integrate the economy with reliability of the inspection and repair planning. A balance can be achieved between the risk cost and total expected inspection and repair costs with the proposed method, which is very effective in selecting the optimal inspection and repair strategy. It is pointed out that the corrosion model uncertainty and parametric uncertainty have a significant impact on the cost-benefit assessment of inspection and repair planning.

  17. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  18. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-10-01

    As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers ({approx}70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing

  19. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... research....

  20. Construction of monitoring model and algorithm design on passenger security during shipping based on improved Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Qingnian; Ji, Wenfeng

    2014-01-01

    A large number of data is needed by the computation of the objective Bayesian network, but the data is hard to get in actual computation. The calculation method of Bayesian network was improved in this paper, and the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was obtained. Then, the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was used to reason Bayesian network model when the data is limited. The security of passengers during shipping is affected by various factors, and it is hard to predict and control. The index system that has the impact on the passenger safety during shipping was established on basis of the multifield coupling theory in this paper. Meanwhile, the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was applied to monitor the security of passengers in the shipping process. The model was applied to monitor the passenger safety during shipping of a shipping company in Hainan, and the effectiveness of this model was examined. This research work provides guidance for guaranteeing security of passengers during shipping.

  1. A Decision Mixture Model-Based Method for Inshore Ship Detection Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fukun; Chen, Jing; Zhuang, Yin; Bian, Mingming; Zhang, Qingjun

    2017-06-22

    With the rapid development of optical remote sensing satellites, ship detection and identification based on large-scale remote sensing images has become a significant maritime research topic. Compared with traditional ocean-going vessel detection, inshore ship detection has received increasing attention in harbor dynamic surveillance and maritime management. However, because the harbor environment is complex, gray information and texture features between docked ships and their connected dock regions are indistinguishable, most of the popular detection methods are limited by their calculation efficiency and detection accuracy. In this paper, a novel hierarchical method that combines an efficient candidate scanning strategy and an accurate candidate identification mixture model is presented for inshore ship detection in complex harbor areas. First, in the candidate region extraction phase, an omnidirectional intersected two-dimension scanning (OITDS) strategy is designed to rapidly extract candidate regions from the land-water segmented images. In the candidate region identification phase, a decision mixture model (DMM) is proposed to identify real ships from candidate objects. Specifically, to improve the robustness regarding the diversity of ships, a deformable part model (DPM) was employed to train a key part sub-model and a whole ship sub-model. Furthermore, to improve the identification accuracy, a surrounding correlation context sub-model is built. Finally, to increase the accuracy of candidate region identification, these three sub-models are integrated into the proposed DMM. Experiments were performed on numerous large-scale harbor remote sensing images, and the results showed that the proposed method has high detection accuracy and rapid computational efficiency.

  2. A Decision Mixture Model-Based Method for Inshore Ship Detection Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukun Bi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of optical remote sensing satellites, ship detection and identification based on large-scale remote sensing images has become a significant maritime research topic. Compared with traditional ocean-going vessel detection, inshore ship detection has received increasing attention in harbor dynamic surveillance and maritime management. However, because the harbor environment is complex, gray information and texture features between docked ships and their connected dock regions are indistinguishable, most of the popular detection methods are limited by their calculation efficiency and detection accuracy. In this paper, a novel hierarchical method that combines an efficient candidate scanning strategy and an accurate candidate identification mixture model is presented for inshore ship detection in complex harbor areas. First, in the candidate region extraction phase, an omnidirectional intersected two-dimension scanning (OITDS strategy is designed to rapidly extract candidate regions from the land-water segmented images. In the candidate region identification phase, a decision mixture model (DMM is proposed to identify real ships from candidate objects. Specifically, to improve the robustness regarding the diversity of ships, a deformable part model (DPM was employed to train a key part sub-model and a whole ship sub-model. Furthermore, to improve the identification accuracy, a surrounding correlation context sub-model is built. Finally, to increase the accuracy of candidate region identification, these three sub-models are integrated into the proposed DMM. Experiments were performed on numerous large-scale harbor remote sensing images, and the results showed that the proposed method has high detection accuracy and rapid computational efficiency.

  3. Probability of Ship on Collision Courses Based on the New PAW Using MMG Model and AIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Sindhu Asmara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an estimation method for ships on collision courses taking crash astern maneuvers based on a new potential area of water (PAW for maneuvering. A crash astern maneuver is an emergency option a ship can take when exposed to the risk of a collision with other ships that have lost control. However, lateral forces and yaw moments exerted by the reversing propeller, as well as the uncertainty of the initial speed and initial yaw rate, will move the ship out of the intended stopping position landing it in a dangerous area. A new PAW for crash astern maneuvers is thus introduced. The PAW is developed based on a probability density function of the initial yaw rate. Distributions of the yaw rates and speeds are analyzed from automatic identification system (AIS data in Madura Strait, and estimated paths of the maneuvers are simulated using a mathematical maneuvering group model.

  4. Development of a simple model for batch and boundary information updation for a similar ship's block model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Hyeon-deok; SON Myeong-jo; OH Min-jae; LEE Hyung-woo; KIM Tae-wan

    2012-01-01

    In early 2000,large domestic shipyards introduced shipbuilding 3D computer-aided design (CAD)to the hull production design process to define manufacturing and assembly information.The production design process accounts for most of the man-hours (M/H) of the entire design process and is closely connected to yard production because designs must take into account the production schedule of the shipyard,the current state of the dock needed to mount the ship's block,and supply information.Therefore,many shipyards are investigating the complete automation of the production design process to reduce the M/H for designers.However,these problems are still currently unresolved,and a clear direction is needed for research on the automatic design base of manufacturing rules,batches reflecting changed building specifications,batch updates of boundary information for hull members,and management of the hull model change history to automate the production design process.In this study,a process was developed to aid production design engineers in designing a new ship's hull block model from that of a similar ship previously built,based on AVEVA Marine.An automation system that uses the similar ship's hull block model is proposed to reduce M/H and human errors by the production design engineer.First,scheme files holding important information were constructed in a database to automatically update hull block model modifications.Second,for batch updates,the database's table,including building specifications and the referential integrity of a relational database were compared.In particular,this study focused on reflecting the frequent modification of building specifications and regeneration of boundary information of the adjacent panel due to changes in a specific panel.Third,the rollback function is proposed in which the database (DB) is used to return to the previously designed panels.

  5. Modeling Ships and Space Craft The Science and Art of Mastering the Oceans and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Hagler, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Modeling Ships and Space Craft: The Science and Art of Mastering the Oceans and Sky begins with the theories of Aristotle and Archimedes, moving on to examine the work of Froude and Taylor, the early aviators and the Wright Brothers, Goddard and the other rocket men, and the computational fluid dynamic models of our time. It examines the ways each used fluid dynamic principles in the design of their vessels. In the process, this book covers the history of hydrodynamic (aero and fluid) theory and its progression – with some very accessible science examples – including seminal theories. Hydrodynamic principles in action are also explored with examples from nature and the works of man. This is a book for anyone interested in the history of technology – specifically the methods and science behind the use of scale models and hydrodynamic principles in the marine and aeronautical designs of today.

  6. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  7. System identification modelling of ship manoeuvring motion based onε- support vector regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪刚; 邹早建; 侯先瑞; 徐锋

    2015-01-01

    Based on theε-support vector regression, three modelling methods for the ship manoeuvring motion, i.e., the white-box modelling, the grey-box modelling and the black-box modelling, are investigated. Theoo10/10,oo20/20 zigzag tests and the o35 turning circle manoeuvre are simulated. Part of the simulation data for theoo20/20 zigzag test are used to train the support vectors, and the trained support vector machine is used to predict the wholeoo20/20 zigzag test. Comparison between the simula- ted and predictedoo20/20 zigzag test shows a good predictive ability of the three modelling methods. Then all mathematical models obtained by the modelling methods are used to predict theoo10/10 zigzag test ando35 turning circle manoeuvre, and the predicted results are compared with those of simulation tests to demonstrate the good generalization performance of the mathematical models. Finally, the modelling methods are analyzed and compared with each other in terms of the application conditions, the prediction accuracy and the computation speed. An appropriate modelling method can be chosen according to the intended use of the mathematical models and the available data for the system identification.

  8. FACSIM/MRS (Monitored Retrievable Storage)-2: Storage and shipping model documentation and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Otis, P.T.; Sovers, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a stochastic computer model, FACSIM/MRS, to assist in assessing the operational performance of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) waste-handling facility. This report provides the documentation and user's guide for FACSIM/MRS-2, which is also referred to as the back-end model. The FACSIM/MRS-2 model simulates the MRS storage and shipping operations, which include handling canistered spent fuel and secondary waste in the shielded canyon cells, in onsite yard storage, and in repository shipping cask loading areas.

  9. 亚洲集装箱港口的全球班轮网络地位%Position of the Asian Container Ports in Global Liner Shipping Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振福; 史砚磊; 徐梦俏; 张小玲

    2016-01-01

    As the container shipping system is improved,competition among those container ports is getting much intense,thus results a differentiation in their positions in global liner shipping.Based on centrality indicators for node importance from complex network theory,this paper assesses the position of the Asian container ports from a perspective of global liner service network.Through degree analysis,strength analysis and eigenvector analysis in the liner service networks of COSCON and Maersk line,we find that the positions of Shanghai,Singapore,Shenzhen,Ningbo,Hong Kong and Busan are relatively high,meanwhile Chinese ports such as Guangzhou,Tianjin and Dalian are of great potentials.Finally,some suggestions for the development of Chinese ports are put forward according to the results in this paper.%运用复杂网络理论中节点重要性的分析方法,从班轮公司全球海运服务网络的角度对亚洲集装箱港口的地位进行评估.通过对中远集运和马士基全球班轮海运服务网络中港口节点的度、点强度和特征向量指标计算,发现上海、新加坡、深圳、宁波、香港和釜山几个亚洲港口在两个网络中都具有很高的地位;同时,广州、天津、大连等中国港口存在较大的发展潜力.最后,为中国港口的发展提出了建议.

  10. The use of network theory to model disparate ship design information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigterink Douglas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the use of network theory to model and analyze disparate ship design information. This work will focus on a ship’s distributed systems and their intra- and intersystem structures and interactions. The three system to be analyzed are: a passageway system, an electrical system, and a fire fighting system. These systems will be analyzed individually using common network metrics to glean information regarding their structures and attributes. The systems will also be subjected to community detection algorithms both separately and as a multiplex network to compare their similarities, differences, and interactions. Network theory will be shown to be useful in the early design stage due to its simplicity and ability to model any shipboard system.

  11. Bifurcation and Resonance of a Mathematical Model for Non-Linear Motion of a Flooded Ship in Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, S.; Aihara, K.; Komuro, M.

    1999-02-01

    A flooded ship can exhibit undesirable non-linear roll motion even in waves of moderate amplitude. In order to understand the mechanism of this non-linear phenomenon, the non-linearly coupled dynamics of a ship and flood water are considered using a mathematical model for the simplified motion of a flooded ship in regular beam waves. This paper describes bifurcation and resonance of this coupled system. A bifurcation diagram shows that large-amplitude subharmonic motion exists in a wide range of parameters, and that the Hopf bifurcation is observed due to the dynamic effects of flood water. Resonance frequencies can be determined by linearization of this model. Comparison between the resonant points and the bifurcation curves suggests that non-linear resonance of this model can bring about large-amplitude subharmonic motion, even if it is in the non-resonate state of the linearized system.

  12. Global-mean temperature change from shipping toward 2050: improved representation of the indirect aerosol effect in simple climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Eyring, Veronika; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hendricks, Johannes; Lauer, Axel; Lee, David; Righi, Mattia

    2012-08-21

    We utilize a range of emission scenarios for shipping to determine the induced global-mean radiative forcing and temperature change. Ship emission scenarios consistent with the new regulations on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) from the International Maritime Organization and two of the Representative Concentration Pathways are used as input to a simple climate model (SCM). Based on a complex aerosol-climate model we develop and test new parametrizations of the indirect aerosol effect (IAE) in the SCM that account for nonlinearities in radiative forcing of ship-induced IAE. We find that shipping causes a net global cooling impact throughout the period 1900-2050 across all parametrizations and scenarios. However, calculated total net global-mean temperature change in 2050 ranges from -0.03[-0.07,-0.002]°C to -0.3[-0.6,-0.2]°C in the A1B scenario. This wide range across parametrizations emphasizes the importance of properly representing the IAE in SCMs and to reflect the uncertainties from complex global models. Furthermore, our calculations show that the future ship-induced temperature response is likely a continued cooling if SO(2) and NO(x) emissions continue to increase due to a strong increase in activity, despite current emission regulations. However, such cooling does not negate the need for continued efforts to reduce CO(2) emissions, since residual warming from CO(2) is long-lived.

  13. Assessment of ship manoeuvrability by using a coupling between a nonlinear transient manoeuvring model and mathematical programming techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical method based on a coupling between a mathematical model of nonlinear transient ship manoeu-vring motion in the horizontal plane and Mathematical Programming (MP) techniques is proposed. The aim of the proposed proce-dure is an efficient estimation of optimal ship hydrodynamic parameters in a dynamic model at the early design stage. The proposed procedure has been validated through turning circle and zigzag manoeuvres based on experimental data of sea trials of the 190 000-dwt oil tanker. Comparisons between experimental and computed data show a good agreement of overall tendency in manoeuvring trajectories.

  14. Characterization of the B-1023 furnace for use in hypothetical thermal accident testing of shipping containers in accordance with 10 CFR, Part 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The B-1023 furnace, located in Building 9204-4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee, is used for hypothetical thermal accident (HTA) testing of shipping containers that carry radioactive materials, in accordance with 10 CFR, Pt. 71.73(c)(3). This code requires a specific radiant (and convective) thermal environment during HTA tests. Experiments were performed to determine the furnace surface temperatures during these tests, which thus determine the radiant thermal environment. Several conclusions drawn from these experiments are presented. It is possible to perform conforming HTA tests in this furnace if a specific test routine is carefully followed. Recommendations concerning the procedure to be used during future tests are made.

  15. A Physical Optics Approach to the Electromagnetic Field Scattered by Simplified Ship-Sea Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    N60530-76-C-018A UCLASSIFI FD ESL -C7 6 4R2 -2 ml 0 * I+ PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET LEVEL__ LIxINVENTORY 00 ESL (78) ’fA 8 - 0 ~DOCUMENT IDENTIFICATION Cov*if...MAGNETIC FIELD SCATTERED BY SIMPLIFIED Technical SHIP-SEA MODELS j ESL C7 RG REPORT NUM.ER: | ESL 784428-2I AUTHOR(1) 0 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...31., c U~uI.. ST)I)t5 y 9 7 317 r,,i*Oi,/~ t,/ T.T.T41 .)NIr, 9PT AL vHA . ALP. %4,j 0- 32b. rUPE 9 EI ’r N’#E 32?. -4 rH I 321,e Tg. F)’LL~kIjG SETS UP

  16. An investigation of forecast horizon and observation fit’s influence on an econometric rate forecast model in the liner shipping industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Jiang, Liping; Rytter, Niels Gorm Malý

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of forecast horizon and observation fit on the robustness and performance of a specific freight rate forecast model used in the liner shipping industry. In the first stage of the research, a forecast model used to predict container freight rate development...... of the forecast horizon and observation fit and their interactions on the forecast model's performance. The results underline the complicated nature of creating a suitable forecast model by balancing business needs, a desire to fit a good model and achieve high accuracy. There is strong empirical evidence from...... this study; that a robust model is preferable, that overfitting is a true danger, and that a balance must be achieved between forecast horizon and the number of observations used to fit the model. In addition, methodological guidance has also been provided on how to test, design, and choose the superior...

  17. Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Vinken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a computationally efficient approach to account for the non-linear chemistry occurring during the dispersion of ship exhaust plumes in a global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem. We use a plume-in-grid formulation where ship emissions age chemically for 5 h before being released in the global model grid. Besides reducing the original ship NOx emissions in GEOS-Chem, our approach also releases the secondary compounds ozone and HNO3, produced during the 5 h after the original emissions, into the model. We applied our improved method and also the widely used "instant dilution" approach to a 1-yr GEOS-Chem simulation of global tropospheric ozone-NOx-VOC-aerosol chemistry. We also ran simulations with the standard model (emitting 10 molecules O3 and 1 molecule HNO3 per ship NOx molecule, and a model without any ship emissions at all. The model without any ship emissions simulates up to 0.1 ppbv (or 50% lower NOx concentrations over the North Atlantic in July than our improved GEOS-Chem model. "Instant dilution" overestimates NOx concentrations by 0.1 ppbv (50% and ozone by 3–5 ppbv (10–25%, compared to our improved model over this region. These conclusions are supported by comparing simulated and observed NOx and ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere over the Pacific Ocean. The comparisons show that the improved GEOS-Chem model simulates NOx concentrations in between the instant dilution model and the model without ship emissions, which results in lower O3 concentrations than the instant dilution model. The relative differences in simulated NOx and ozone between our improved approach and instant dilution are smallest over strongly polluted seas (e.g. North Sea, suggesting that accounting for in-plume chemistry is most relevant for pristine marine areas.

  18. An Enterprise Model of Rising Ship Costs: Loss of Learning Due to Time between Ships and Labor Force Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-30

    worked as a Programmer/Analyst at SAIC in support of NASA programs. She was Manager of the Risk and Cost Analysis Department and worked mainly in...the experience-level problem, and built a Markov Chain model for labor experience. We know, for example, that layoffs were LIFO (last-in-first-out

  19. Experimental Investigation of Wave-Induced Ship Hydroelastic Vibrations by Large-Scale Model Measurement in Coastal Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship hydroelastic vibration is an issue involving mutual interactions among inertial, hydrodynamic, and elastic forces. The conventional laboratory tests for wave-induced hydroelastic vibrations of ships are performed in tank conditions. An alternative approach to the conventional laboratory basin measurement, proposed in this paper, is to perform tests by large-scale model measurement in real sea waves. In order to perform this kind of novel experimental measurement, a large-scale free running model and the experiment scheme are proposed and introduced. The proposed testing methodology is quite general and applicable to a wide range of ship hydrodynamic experimental research. The testing procedure is presented by illustrating a 5-hour voyage trial of the large-scale model carried out at Huludao harbor of China in August 2015. Hammer tests were performed to identify the natural frequencies of the ship model at the beginning of the tests. Then a series of tests under different sailing conditions were carried out to investigate the vibrational characteristics of the model. As a postvoyage analysis, load, pressure, acceleration, and motion responses of the model are studied with respect to different time durations based on the measured data.

  20. Inspection Uncertainty and Model Uncertainty Updating for Ship Structures Subjected to Corrosion Deterioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDian-qing; ZHANGSheng-kun

    2004-01-01

    The classical probability theory cannot effectively quantify the parameter uncertainty in probability of detection.Furthermore,the conventional data analytic method and expert judgment method fail to handle the problem of model uncertainty updating with the information from nondestructive inspection.To overcome these disadvantages,a Bayesian approach was proposed to quantify the parameter uncertainty in probability of detection.Furthermore,the formulae of the multiplication factors to measure the statistical uncertainties in the probability of detection following the Weibull distribution were derived.A Bayesian updating method was applied to compute the posterior probabilities of model weights and the posterior probability density functions of distribution parameters of probability of detection.A total probability model method was proposed to analyze the problem of multi-layered model uncertainty updating.This method was then applied to the problem of multilayered corrosion model uncertainty updating for ship structures.The results indicate that the proposed method is very effective in analyzing the problem of multi-layered model uncertainty updating.

  1. Development of Tsunami Numerical Model Considering the Disaster Debris such as Cars, Ships and Collapsed Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozono, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Sakuraba, M.; Nojima, K.

    2016-12-01

    A lot of debris by tsunami, such as cars, ships and collapsed buildings were generated in the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. It is useful for rescue and recovery after tsunami disaster to predict the amount and final position of disaster debris. The transport form of disaster debris varies as drifting, rolling and sliding. These transport forms need to be considered comprehensively in tsunami simulation. In this study, we focused on the following three points. Firstly, the numerical model considering various transport forms of disaster debris was developed. The proposed numerical model was compared with the hydraulic experiment by Okubo et al. (2004) in order to verify transport on the bottom surface such as rolling and sliding. Secondly, a numerical experiment considering transporting on the bottom surface and drifting was studied. Finally, the numerical model was applied for Kesennuma city where serious damage occurred by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. In this model, the influence of disaster debris was considered as tsunami flow energy loss. The hydraulic experiments conducted in a water tank which was 10 m long by 30 cm wide. The gate confined water in a storage tank, and acted as a wave generator. A slope was set at downstream section. The initial position of a block (width: 3.2 cm, density: 1.55 g/cm3) assuming the disaster debris was placed in front of the slope. The proposed numerical model simulated well the maximum transport distance and the final stop position of the block. In the second numerical experiment, the conditions were the same as the hydraulic experiment, except for the density of the block. The density was set to various values (from 0.30 to 4.20 g/cm3). This model was able to estimate various transport forms including drifting and sliding. In the numerical simulation of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, the condition of buildings was modeled as follows: (i)the resistance on the bottom using Manning roughness coefficient (conventional method), and (ii)structure of

  2. An adaptive grid to improve the efficiency and accuracy of modelling underwater noise from shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Leah; Chen, Feng; Shapiro, Georgy; Ingram, Simon; Embling, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Underwater noise from shipping is becoming a significant concern and has been listed as a pollutant under Descriptor 11 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Underwater noise models are an essential tool to assess and predict noise levels for regulatory procedures such as environmental impact assessments and ship noise monitoring. There are generally two approaches to noise modelling. The first is based on simplified energy flux models, assuming either spherical or cylindrical propagation of sound energy. These models are very quick but they ignore important water column and seabed properties, and produce significant errors in the areas subject to temperature stratification (Shapiro et al., 2014). The second type of model (e.g. ray-tracing and parabolic equation) is based on an advanced physical representation of sound propagation. However, these acoustic propagation models are computationally expensive to execute. Shipping noise modelling requires spatial discretization in order to group noise sources together using a grid. A uniform grid size is often selected to achieve either the greatest efficiency (i.e. speed of computations) or the greatest accuracy. In contrast, this work aims to produce efficient and accurate noise level predictions by presenting an adaptive grid where cell size varies with distance from the receiver. The spatial range over which a certain cell size is suitable was determined by calculating the distance from the receiver at which propagation loss becomes uniform across a grid cell. The computational efficiency and accuracy of the resulting adaptive grid was tested by comparing it to uniform 1 km and 5 km grids. These represent an accurate and computationally efficient grid respectively. For a case study of the Celtic Sea, an application of the adaptive grid over an area of 160×160 km reduced the number of model executions required from 25600 for a 1 km grid to 5356 in December and to between 5056 and 13132 in August, which

  3. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships. The contribution from major ship types and ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2008-10-01

    A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), N2O, BC (Black Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions. A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over western North America (contribution 15 25%) and western Europe (5 15%). The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5 6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition

  4. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2009-03-01

    A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), N2O, BC (Black Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions. A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15-25%) and Western Europe (5-15%). The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5-6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition

  5. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds, N2O, BC (Black Carbon and OC (Organic Carbon. The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions.

    A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15–25% and Western Europe (5–15%. The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5–6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With

  6. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships. The contribution from major ship types and ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds, N2O, BC (Black Carbon and OC (Organic Carbon. The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions.

    A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over western North America (contribution 15–25% and western Europe (5–15%. The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5–6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With

  7. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 30, 1979 - Study of plutonium oxide leak rates from shipping containers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Madia, W.J.; Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Owzarski, P.C.; Bander, T.J.; Schmidt, E.W.; Yesso, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The study was initiated in October 1976, as outlined in the 189 research proposal submitted previously. Several tasks are to be undertaken in this study which, when combined, have the end objective of defining the leak rates of plutonium oxide powder from characterized leaks. Progress during the reporting period is briefly described on the following tasks: review of the literature and theoretical work relating to transmission of particles through channels; investigation of the relationship of gas flow rates, leak geometries, pressure and temperatures; measurement of the transmission of a well-characterized simulant (UO/sub 2/ powder) through leaks characterized in Task B; measurement of the fuel grade PuO/sub 2/ leaks through a standard leak incorporated into a suitable container; and investigation of PuO/sub 2/ leaks through simulated defected containers. (TFD)

  8. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) – A MIP model for handling disruptions in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Dirksen, Jakob; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    Containerized transport by liner shipping companies is a multi billion dollar industry carrying a major part of the world trade between suppliers and customers. The liner shipping industry has come under stress in the last few years due to the economic crisis, increasing fuel costs, and capacity...

  9. Collected Experimental Resistance Component and Flow Data for Three Surface Ship Model Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    in alphabetical order: Bulgarian Ship Hydro. Centre (BSHC) Centre Stud, di Tecnica Navale (CETENA) China Ship Scientific Res. Center (CSSRC) David...test in a run. 26 PRACTICAL EXAMPLES 2 Because the sinkage is proportional to V , the differences between the experi- mental a’s at the two

  10. MODELING OF OPERATION MODES OF SHIP POWER PLANT OF COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX WITH CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Yushkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Designing of diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the ship power plant (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC for decreasing operational loss and increasing fuel efficiency with simultaneous load limiting on medium revolutions diesel generator (MRDG by criterion reducing of wear and increasing operation time between repairs. Methodology. After analyzing of ship power plant modes of CPC proposed diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the above mentioned complex. The model based on using of electronic controllers in automatic regulation and control systems for diesel and thruster which allow to actualize more complicated control algorithm with viewpoint of increasing working efficiency of ship power plant at normal and emergency modes. Results. Determined suitability of comparative computer modeling in MatLab Simulink for building of imitation model objects based on it block diagrams and mathematic descriptions. Actualized diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the ship’s power plant (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC with Azipod system in MatLab Simulink software package Ships_CPC for decreasing operational loss and increasing fuel efficiency with simultaneous load limiting on medium revolutions diesel generator (MRDG by criterion reducing of wear and increasing operation time between repairs. The function blocks of proposed complex are the main structural units which allow to investigate it normal and emergency modes. Originality. This model represents a set of functional blocks of the components SPP CPC, built on the principle of «input-output». For example, the function boxes outputs of PID-regulators of MRDG depends from set excitation voltage and rotating frequency that in turn depends from power-station load and respond that is a ship moving or dynamically positioning, and come on input (inputs of thruster rotating frequency PID-regulator models. Practical value. The results of researches planned to use in

  11. Ship and satellite observations over the ocean for verification of the shortwave cloud radiative effect in climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanschmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the accuracy of the radiative transfer scheme of the ECHAM-5 climate model for reproducing the shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE at the sea surface has been investigated. A characterization of both the observed state of the atmosphere and the surface radiation budget from ship and satellite is used for this purpose. The ship observations yield cloud fraction, liquid water path from a microwave radiometer, cloud bottom height as well as temperature and humidity profiles from radiosonde ascents. Level-2 products of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI have been used to characterize clouds. Within a closure study six different experiments have been defined to find the optimal set of measurements to calculate downward shortwave radiation (DSR and the SWCRE from the model, and their results have been evaluated under seven different synoptic situations. Four of these experiments are defined to investigate the advantage of including the satellite-based cloud droplet effective radius as additional cloud property. The modeled SWCRE based on satellite retrieved cloud properties has a comparable accuracy to the modeled SWCRE based on ship data. For several cases, an improvement through introducing the satellite-based estimate of effective radius as additional information to the ship based data was found. Due to their different measuring characteristics, however, each dataset shows best results for different atmospheric conditions.

  12. Ship Routing with Pickup and Delivery for a Maritime Oil Transportation System: MIP Model and Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius P. Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a ship routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windows for maritime oil transportation, motivated by the production and logistics activities of an oil company operating in the Brazilian coast. The transportation costs from offshore platforms to coastal terminals are an important issue in the search for operational excellence in the oil industry, involving operations that demand agile and effective decision support systems. This paper presents an optimization approach to address this problem, based on a mixed integer programming (MIP model and a novel and exploratory application of two tailor-made MIP heuristics, based on relax-and-fix and time decomposition procedures. The model minimizes fuel costs of a heterogeneous fleet of oil tankers and costs related to freighting contracts. The model also considers company-specific constraints for offshore oil transportation. Computational experiments based on the mathematical models and the related MIP heuristics are presented for a set of real data provided by the company, which confirm the potential of optimization-based methods to find good solutions for problems of moderate sizes.

  13. DATA MINING METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL MODEL OF COST PREDICTION IN SHIP INTERIM PRODUCT ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kolich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict costs of the thousands of interim products that are assembled in shipyards, it is necessary to use skilled engineers to develop detailed Gantt charts for each interim product separately which takes many hours. It is helpful to develop a prediction tool to estimate the cost of interim products accurately and quickly without the need for skilled engineers. This will drive down shipyard costs and improve competitiveness. Data mining is used extensively for developing prediction models in other industries. Since ships consist of thousands of interim products, it is logical to develop a data mining methodology for a shipyard or any other manufacturing industry where interim products are produced. The methodology involves analysis of existing interim products and data collection. Pre-processing and principal component analysis is done to make the data “user-friendly” for later prediction processing and the development of both accurate and robust models. The support vector machine is demonstrated as the better model when there are a lower number of tuples. However as the number of tuples is increased to over 10000, then the artificial neural network model is recommended.

  14. Data on photo-nanofiller models for self-cleaning foul release coating of ship hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Selim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Smart photo-induced silicone/TiO2 nanocomposites with dominant [110] exposed surfaces for self-cleaning foul-release coatings of ship hulls” (Selimet al., 2016 [1]. This article reports on successfully designing and controlling TiO2 spherical single crystal photo-nanofillers and indicating evidence of fouling resistance after stimulation through UV radiation exposure. These data also reveal that the influence of well-dispersed spherical TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs into the polymer matrix surface features on the prepared fouling release (FR coating. Single crystal TiO2 nanospheres have played a large role in the scenario of photocatalysis due to its cost effectiveness, inert nature and photo stability. The model output and the surface and mechanical behavior data of the fabricated UV-irradiated silicone-based FR nanocoatings are made publicly available through analyzing nanocomposite topology, superhydrophilicity and self-cleaning efficiency in order to enable critical analysis of the tailored model. It also investigates the photo-bactericidal effect confirmed through biofilm coverage data disability. The modeled nanocomposites were subjected to comparable studies with other published models so as to understand how different UV-irradiated nano-scale parameters propagate and affect bulk film response.

  15. Data on photo-nanofiller models for self-cleaning foul release coating of ship hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mohamed S; El-Safty, Sherif A; El-Sockary, Maher A; Hashem, Ahmed I; Abo Elenien, Ossama M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Fatthallah, Nesreen A

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Smart photo-induced silicone/TiO2 nanocomposites with dominant [110] exposed surfaces for self-cleaning foul-release coatings of ship hulls" (Selimet al., 2016) [1]. This article reports on successfully designing and controlling TiO2 spherical single crystal photo-nanofillers and indicating evidence of fouling resistance after stimulation through UV radiation exposure. These data also reveal that the influence of well-dispersed spherical TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) into the polymer matrix surface features on the prepared fouling release (FR) coating. Single crystal TiO2 nanospheres have played a large role in the scenario of photocatalysis due to its cost effectiveness, inert nature and photo stability. The model output and the surface and mechanical behavior data of the fabricated UV-irradiated silicone-based FR nanocoatings are made publicly available through analyzing nanocomposite topology, superhydrophilicity and self-cleaning efficiency in order to enable critical analysis of the tailored model. It also investigates the photo-bactericidal effect confirmed through biofilm coverage data disability. The modeled nanocomposites were subjected to comparable studies with other published models so as to understand how different UV-irradiated nano-scale parameters propagate and affect bulk film response.

  16. Ship construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eyres, D.J; Bruce, G.J

    2012-01-01

    .... "Acting as both a professional reference on current approaches in shipyard practice and a comprehensive introduction for students in any marine discipline, Ship Construction covers the complete...

  17. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  18. Comparison of methods for quantitating Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Heidelberg strain attachment to reusable plastic shipping container coupons and preliminary assessment of sanitizer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhaohao; Baker, Christopher A; Lee, Sang In; Park, Si Hong; Kim, Sun Ae; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella serovars, one of the leading contributors to foodborne illness and are especially problematic for foods that are not cooked before consumption, such as fresh produce. The shipping containers that are used to transport and store fresh produce may play a role in cross contamination and subsequent illnesses. However, methods for quantitatively attached cells are somewhat variable. The overall goal of this study was to compare conventional plating with molecular methods for quantitating attached representative strains for Salmonella Typhimurium and Heidelberg on reusable plastic containers (RPC) coupons, respectively. We attached Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and serovar Heidelberg SL486 (parent and an antibiotic resistant marker strain) to plastic coupons (2.54 cm(2)) derived from previously used shipping containers by growing for 72 h in tryptic soy broth. The impact of the concentration of sanitizer on log reductions between unsanitized and sanitized coupons was evaluated by exposing attached S. Typhimurium cells to 200 ppm and 200,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Differences in sanitizer effectiveness between serovars were also evaluated with attached S. Typhimurium compared to attached S. Heidelberg populations after being exposed to 200 ppm peracetic acid (PAA). Treatment with NaClO caused an average of 2.73 ± 0.23 log CFU of S. Typhimurium per coupon removed with treatment at 200 ppm while 3.36 ± 0.54 log CFU were removed at 200,000 ppm. Treatment with PAA caused an average of 2.62 ± 0.15 log CFU removed for S. Typhimurium and 1.41 ± 0.17 log CFU for S. Heidelberg (parent) and 1.61 ± 0.08 log CFU (marker). Lastly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize cell attachment and coupon surface topography. SEM images showed that remaining attached cell populations were visible even after sanitizer application. Conventional plating and qPCR yielded similar levels of enumerated bacterial populations

  19. Modeling the evolution of aerosol particles in a ship plume using PartMC-MOSAIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Riemer, N.; West, M.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Schlager, H.; Petzold, A.

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the evolution of ship-emitted aerosol particles using the stochastic particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC (Particle Monte Carlo model-Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry). Comparisons of our results with observations from the QUANTIFY (Quantifying the Climate Impact of Global and European Transport Systems) study in 2007 in the English Channel and the Gulf of Biscay showed that the model was able to reproduce the observed evolution of total number concentration and the vanishing of the nucleation mode consisting of sulfate particles. Further process analysis revealed that during the first hour after emission, dilution reduced the total number concentration by four orders of magnitude, while coagulation reduced it by an additional order of magnitude. Neglecting coagulation resulted in an overprediction of more than one order of magnitude in the number concentration of particles smaller than 40 nm at a plume age of 100 s. Coagulation also significantly altered the mixing state of the particles, leading to a continuum of internal mixtures of sulfate and black carbon. The impact on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations depended on the supersaturation threshold S at which CCN activity was evaluated. For the base case conditions, characterized by a low formation rate of secondary aerosol species, neglecting coagulation, but simulating condensation, led to an underestimation of CCN concentrations of about 37% for S = 0.3% at the end of the 14-h simulation. In contrast, for supersaturations higher than 0.7%, neglecting coagulation resulted in an overestimation of CCN concentration, about 75% for S = 1%. For S lower than 0.2% the differences between simulations including coagulation and neglecting coagulation were negligible. Neglecting condensation, but simulating coagulation did not impact the CCN concentrations below 0.2% and resulted in an underestimation of CCN concentrations for larger supersaturations, e.g., 18

  20. FIRST OF ITS KIND:THE PARA GON TERMINALIN AMSTERDAM A Terminal That Can Handle Cargo on Both Sides of a Container Ship%阿姆斯特丹港的PARAGON码头

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘有钟

    2001-01-01

    @@ The Paragon Terminal constructed by CERES Terminal and Stevedores Inc. of the USA will be completed in July 2001. This dock-type terminal (or to be called indented berth, or slip berth)can enable simultaneous handling of containers on both the portside and the starboard side of a huge container ship. Therefore it can suit the container transport development in this new century.

  1. Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Shipping Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, G; Hagler, L

    2002-06-01

    Steel cylindrical drums have been used for many years to transport radioactive materials. The radioactive material inserted into the drum cavity for shipping is usually restrained within its own container or containment vessel. For additional protection, the container is surrounded or supported by components made of impact-absorbent and/or thermal-insulation materials. The components are expected to protect the container and its radioactive contents under severe transportation conditions like free drops and fires. Due to its simplicity and convenience, bolted-ring drum closures are commonly used to close many drum packages. Because the structural integrity of the drum and drum closure often play a significant role in determining the package's ability to maintain sub-criticality, shielding, and containment of the radioactive contents, regulations require that the complete drum package be tested for safety performance. The structural integrity of the drum body is relatively simple to understand and analyze, whereas analyzing the integrity of the drum closure is not so simple. In summary, the drop test accomplished its mission. Because the lid and closure device separated from the drum body in the 30-ft 17.5{sup o} shallow-angle drop, the drop test confirmed that the common drum closure with a bolted ring is vulnerable to damage by a shallow-angle drop, even though the closure has been shown to survive much steeper-angle drops. The test program also demonstrated one of the mechanisms by which the shallow-angle drop opens the common bolted-ring drum closure. The separation of the drum lid and closure device from the drum body was initiated by a large outward buckling deformation of the lid and completed with minimal assistance by the round plywood boards behind the lid. The energy spent to complete the separation appeared to be only a small fraction of the total impact energy. Limited to only one test, the present test program could not explore all possible

  2. Model Penentuan Jumlah Kapal dan Komposisinya untuk Short Sea Shipping Pulau Jawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Deefi Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the amount and mixture composition of vessels in short sea shipping (SSS operation in Java. SSS in Java is proposed to mitigate the surface transportation problem and move freight off the overcrowded North-Coast highways and rail systems onto the waterways. A mathematical model based on non-linear integer programming was developed to calculate the amount and the composition mix of vessels required for the proposed system. The model was solved by Lingo software and the computational results reveal that the proposed system would require daily shipment using 1 unit of type B vessel and 1 unit of type C vessel. The calculation results also show that the SSS in Java would require 6 vessels to operate. Overall, the model and the obtained solutions in this paper provide an alternative to raise awareness of short sea shipping’s potential with the government, logistic companies, and executive policymakers. Finally, this paper also contribute to research of Maritime Fleet Size and Mix problems.

  3. Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert C.; Prowse, Thomas A. A.; Ross, Joshua V.; Wittmann, Talia A.; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events. PMID:26064643

  4. COSCO Container Lines Forging Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHaiyang

    2001-01-01

    COSCO Container Lines (COSCON) now has 107 container ships with a total capacity of over 210000 TEUs, six 5250TEU Super Panama container ships being the most advanced ships in the world. Operating in over 20 global shipping lines with ships calling over 100 ports in the world,COSCON is now one of the largest international shipping companies. With over 40 subsidiaries operating on shore, COSCON has become a comprehensive enterprise with international shipping as its main business.

  5. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  6. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  7. Linking Combat Systems Capabilities and Ship Design Through Modeling and Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    constant at about 9.8 m/s2 (Nave 2013). • L Lift: This is the force that pushes as ship upward due to buoyancy; based upon Archimedes ’ Principle , the...the weight of the water that a ship replaces; more directly, Archimedes ’ principle tells us that it is the weight of the ship, itself, plus its cargo...is true that the basic principles of naval and engineering science have not changed, capturing the effects of any proposed change through the use

  8. Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Vinken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a computationally efficient approach to account for the non-linear chemistry occurring during the dispersion of ship exhaust plumes in a global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem. We use a plume-in-grid formulation where ship emissions age chemically for 5 h before being released in the global model grid. Besides reducing the original ship NOx emissions in GEOS-Chem, our approach also releases the secondary compounds ozone and HNO3, produced in the 5 h after the original emissions, into the model. We applied our improved method and also the widely used "instant dilution" approach to a 1-yr GEOS-Chem simulation of global tropospheric ozone-NOx-VOC-aerosol chemistry. We also ran simulations with the standard model, and a model without any ship emissions at all. Our improved GEOS-Chem model simulates up to 0.1 ppbv (or 90 % more NOx over the North Atlantic in July than GEOS-Chem versions without any ship NOx emissions at all. "Instant dilution" overestimates NOx concentrations by 50 % (0.1 ppbv and ozone by 10–25 % (3–5 ppbv over this region. These conclusions are supported by comparing simulated and observed NOx and ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere over the Pacific Ocean. The comparisons show that the improved GEOS-Chem model simulates NOx concentrations in between the instant diluting model and the model with no ship emissions, and results in lower O3 concentrations than the instant diluting model. The relative differences in simulated NOx and ozone between our improved approach and instant dilution are smallest over strongly polluted seas (e.g. North Sea, suggesting that accounting for in-plume chemistry is most relevant for pristine marine areas.

  9. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  10. Modelling global container freight transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ivanova, O.; Halim, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to discuss methods and techniques for a quantitative and descriptive analysis of future container transport demand at a global level. Information on future container transport flows is useful for various purposes. It is instrumental for the assessment of returns of i

  11. A Path Based Model for a Green Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;

    Liner shipping networks are the backbone of international trade providing low transportation cost, which is a major driver of globalization. These networks are under constant pressure to deliver capacity, cost eectiveness and environmentally conscious transport solutions. This article proposes a ...

  12. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale test of a railcar and spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask in a high-velocity impact against a rigid barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, M.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes the mathematical analysis, the physical scale modeling, and a full-scale crash test of a railcar spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system. The mathematical analysis utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the structural response of the railcar and the shipping cask. The physical scale modeling analysis consisted of two crash tests that used 1/8-scale models to assess railcar and shipping cask damage. The full-scale crash test, conducted with retired railcar equipment, was carefully monitored with onboard instrumentation and high-speed photography. Results of the mathematical and scale modeling analyses are compared with the full-scale test. 29 figures.

  13. The SH2 domain-containing 5-phosphatase SHIP2 is expressed in the germinal layers of embryo and adult mouse brain: increased expression in N-CAM-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraille, E; Dassesse, D; Vanderwinden, J M; Cremer, H; Rogister, B; Erneux, C; Schiffmann, S N

    2001-01-01

    The germinative ventricular zone of embryonic brain contains neural lineage progenitor cells that give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The ability to generate neurons persists at adulthood in restricted brain areas. During development, many growth factors exert their effects by interacting with tyrosine kinase receptors and activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Ras/MAP kinase pathways. By its ability to modulate these pathways, the recently identified Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase 2, SHIP2, has the potential to regulate neuronal development. Using in situ hybridization technique with multiple synthetic oligonucleotides, we demonstrated that SHIP2 mRNA was highly expressed in the ventricular zone at early embryonic stages and subventricular zones at latter stages of brain and spinal cord and in the sympathetic chain. No significant expression was seen in differentiated fields. This restricted expression was maintained from embryonic day 11.5 to birth. In the periphery, large expression was detected in muscle and kidney and moderate expression in thyroid, pituitary gland, digestive system and bone. In the adult brain, SHIP2 was mainly restricted in structures containing neural stem cells such as the anterior subventricular zone, the rostral migratory stream and the olfactory tubercle. SHIP2 was also detected in the choroid plexuses and the granular layer of the cerebellum. The specificity of SHIP2 expression in neural stem cells was further demonstrated by (i) the dramatic increase in SHIP2 mRNA signal in neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM)-deficient mice, which present an accumulation of progenitor cells in the anterior subventricular zone and the rostral migratory stream, (ii) the abundant expression of 160-kDa SHIP2 by western blotting in proliferating neurospheres in culture and its downregulation in non-proliferating differentiated neurospheres. In conclusion, the close correlation between

  14. Methods for Naval Ship Concept Exploration Interfacing Model Center and ASSET with Machinery System Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Strock, Justin William

    2008-01-01

    In response to the Fiscal Year 2006 National Defense Authorization Act, the US Navy conducted an evaluation of alternative propulsion methods for surface combatants and amphibious warfare ships. The study looked at current and future propulsion technology and propulsion alternatives for these three sizes of warships. In their analysis they developed 23 ship concepts, only 7 of which were variants of medium size surface combatants (MSC,21,000-26,000 MT). The report to Congress was based on a c...

  15. Development of an Early Stage Ship Design Tool for Rapid Modeling in Paramarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Ship Evaluation Tool (ASSET), the Max Surf suite of programs, Program of Ship Salvage Engineering (POSSE), and Graphic Research Corporation’s ( GRP ...input_line As String) ’function to remove pipes from kcl files Dim old_line As String If InStr(input_line, "|") > 0 Then ’remove pipes ... pipes from kcl line 239 If InStr(input_line, "new") > 0 Then ’if kcl line has Paramarine object type then extract object

  16. Sensitivity Analysis for Iceberg Geometry Shape in Ship-Iceberg Collision in View of Different Material Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Gao; Zhiqiang Hu; Jin Wang

    2014-01-01

    The increasing marine activities in Arctic area have brought growing interest in ship-iceberg collision study. The purpose of this paper is to study the iceberg geometry shape effect on the collision process. In order to estimate the sensitivity parameter, five different geometry iceberg models and two iceberg material models are adopted in the analysis. The FEM numerical simulation is used to predict the scenario and the related responses. The simulation results including energy dissipation ...

  17. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... the model into a large maritime simulator for training of naval officers, in particular tug boat helmsmen. Tug boat simulators are used for training of communication and situation awareness during manoeuvre involved with towing of large vessels. A main objective of the work is to improve and enable more...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...

  18. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle trans

  19. 基于空箱调运与租箱混合策略的集装箱海运网络优化%A marine container transport optimization model based on mixed strategy of empty container distribution and leasing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭子坚; 李雪野; 唐国磊; 王文渊

    2011-01-01

    The paper established an optimization model with the target of minimizing the total cost of container shipping transportation,and it was applied to a shipping enterprise for optimizing the container shipping network.The impact of empty container leasing rates on shipping network rent strategy was also discussed.Results show that the proposed model is reasonable and effective,which can provide theoretical basis for better sea route choosing and the scheme of empty container positioning and leasing.%建立以集装箱海运运输总成本最小为目标的集装箱海运网络优化模型,并应用于某航运企业的集装箱运输网络优化.初步探讨了租箱费率对海运网络调租策略的影响.研究结果表明,所建立的模型合理有效,可为集装箱海运运输路径、空箱调运和租箱方案决策提供理论依据.

  20. Following distance model of inland ship%内河船舶跟驰间距模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何良德; 姜晔; 殷兆进; 周博; 唐晖

    2012-01-01

    为研究内河船舶流特性,基于船舶制动机理,分析了船舶制动距离与船长、航速的相关性,给出了制动距离的经验公式,考虑驾驶员经验对实际制动距离的影响,建立了船舶跟驰间距模型。结合江苏地区机动单船、顶推船队、拖驳船队3类船型实例分析,通过与内河船舶领域长轴经验值、100t机动单船的分段线性模型结果的对比,确定了间距模型参数。研究结果表明:3类船型的制动距离分别与单船、船队、最大单驳长度相关,计算长度系数分别为5.98、2.73、17.41,前2类船型的制动距离与航速的平方成正比,拖驳船队与航速的0.85次方成正比;驾驶员的制动操作系数、操作指数应取0.78、2.5。%In order to study the characteristics of inland ship flow, the correlation among breaking distance, ship length and speed was analyzed, the empirical equation of breaking distance was given based on ship breaking mechanism. The impact of operator experience on actual breaking distance was considered, and the following distance model of inland ship was established. Combined with instance analysis including single motorship, pushing fleet and towing fleet in Jiangsu, the parameters of following distance model were determined by analyzing the empirical value of major axis for inland ship domain and the computing value of piecewise linear model of 100 t single motorship. Analysis result shows that the breaking distances of 3 ship categories are related to the lengths of single ship, fleet and the longest barge, and the calculated length coefficients are 5.98, 2.73 and 17.41 respectively. The breaking distances of single motorship and pushing fleet are in direct proportion to the square of ship speed, the breaking distance of towing fleet is in direct proportion to the 0.85th power of ship speed. The breaking operation coefficient and index of ship operator are determined as 0.78 and 2

  1. System identification modeling of ship manoeuvring motion in 4 degrees of freedom based on support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-gang; Zou, Zao-jian; Yu, Long; Cai, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Based on support vector machines, three modeling methods, i.e., white-box modeling, grey-box modeling and black-box modeling of ship manoeuvring motion in 4 degrees of freedom are investigated. With the whole-ship mathematical model for ship manoeuvring motion, in which the hydrodynamic coefficients are obtained from roll planar motion mechanism test, some zigzag tests and turning circle manoeuvres are simulated. In the white-box modeling and grey-box modeling, the training data taken every 5 s from the simulated 20°/20° zigzag test are used, while in the black-box modeling, the training data taken every 5 s from the simulated 15°/15°, 20°/20° zigzag tests and 15°, 25° turning manoeuvres are used; and the trained support vector machines are used to predict the whole 20°/20° zigzag test. Comparisons between the simulated and predicted 20?/20° zigzag tests show good predictive ability of the proposed methods. Besides, all mathematical models obtained by the proposed modeling methods are used to predict the 10°/10° zigzag test and 35° turning circle manoeuvre, and the predicted results are compared with those of simulation tests to demonstrate the good generalization performance of the mathematical models. Finally, the proposed modeling methods are analyzed and compared with each other in aspects of application conditions, prediction accuracy and computation speed. The appropriate modeling method can be chosen according to the intended use of the mathematical models and the available data needed for system identification.

  2. System Identification Modeling of Ship Manoeuvring Motion in 4 Degrees of Freedom Based on Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪刚; 邹早建; 余龙; 蔡韡

    2015-01-01

    Based on support vector machines, three modeling methods, i.e., white-box modeling, grey-box modeling and black-box modeling of ship manoeuvring motion in 4 degrees of freedom are investigated. With the whole-ship mathematical model for ship manoeuvring motion, in which the hydrodynamic coefficients are obtained from roll planar motion mechanism test, some zigzag tests and turning circle manoeuvres are simulated. In the white-box modeling and grey-box modeling, the training data taken every 5 s from the simulated 20°/20° zigzag test are used, while in the black-box modeling, the training data taken every 5 s from the simulated 15°/15°, 20°/20° zigzag tests and 15°, 25° turning manoeuvres are used; and the trained support vector machines are used to predict the whole 20°/20° zigzag test. Comparisons between the simulated and predicted 20°/20° zigzag tests show good predictive ability of the proposed methods. Besides, all mathematical models obtained by the proposed modeling methods are used to predict the 10°/10° zigzag test and 35° turning circle manoeuvre, and the predicted results are compared with those of simulation tests to demonstrate the good generalization performance of the mathematical models. Finally, the proposed modeling methods are analyzed and compared with each other in aspects of application conditions, prediction accuracy and computation speed. The appropriate modeling method can be chosen according to the intended use of the mathematical models and the available data needed for system identification.

  3. Emissions from Ships with respect to Their Effects on Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Strader, Scott R.; Hegg, Dean A.; Frick, Glendon M.; Hoppel, William A.; Gasparovic, Richard F.; Russell, Lynn M.; Johnson, Douglas W.; O'Dowd, Colin; Durkee, Philip A.; Nielsen, Kurt E.; Innis, George

    2000-08-01

    Emissions of particles, gases, heat, and water vapor from ships are discussed with respect to their potential for changing the microstructure of marine stratiform clouds and producing the phenomenon known as `ship tracks.' Airborne measurements are used to derive emission factors of SO2 and NO from diesel-powered and steam turbine-powered ships, burning low-grade marine fuel oil (MFO); they were 15-89 and 2-25 g kg1 of fuel burned, respectively. By contrast a steam turbine-powered ship burning high-grade navy distillate fuel had an SO2 emission factor of 6 g kg1.Various types of ships, burning both MFO and navy distillate fuel, emitted from 4 × 1015 to 2 × 1016 total particles per kilogram of fuel burned (4 × 1015-1.5 × 1016 particles per second). However, diesel-powered ships burning MFO emitted particles with a larger mode radius (0.03-0.05 m) and larger maximum sizes than those powered by steam turbines burning navy distillate fuel (mode radius 0.02 m). Consequently, if the particles have similar chemical compositions, those emitted by diesel ships burning MFO will serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at lower supersaturations (and will therefore be more likely to produce ship tracks) than the particles emitted by steam turbine ships burning distillate fuel. Since steam turbine-powered ships fueled by MFO emit particles with a mode radius similar to that of diesel-powered ships fueled by MFO, it appears that, for given ambient conditions, the type of fuel burned by a ship is more important than the type of ship engine in determining whether or not a ship will produce a ship track. However, more measurements are needed to test this hypothesis.The particles emitted from ships appear to be primarily organics, possibly combined with sulfuric acid produced by gas-to-particle conversion of SO2. Comparison of model results with measurements in ship tracks suggests that the particles from ships contain only about 10% water-soluble materials. Measurements of the

  4. Modeling the climate impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation over the period 1860-2100 with an AOGCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivié, D. J. L.; Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.; Salas, D.; Voldoire, A.; Clark, H.; Saint-Martin, D.; Michou, M.; Karcher, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Gauss, M.; Dessens, O.; Koffi, B.; Sausen, R.

    2012-02-01

    For the period 1860-2100 (SRES scenario A1B for 2000-2100), the impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation on climate is studied using an Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from these transport sectors, most of their non-CO2 emissions are also taken into account, i.e. the forcing from ozone, methane, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, CFC-12 and HFC-134a from air conditioning systems in cars, and contrails. For the year 2000, the CO2 emissions from all sectors together induce a global annual-mean surface air temperature increase of around 0.1 K. In 2100, the CO2 emissions from road transport induce a global mean warming of 0.3 K, while shipping and aviation each contribute 0.1 K. For road transport, the non-CO2 impact is largest between 2000 and 2050 (of the order of 0.1 K) becoming smaller at the end of the 21st century. The non-CO2 impact from shipping is negative, reaching -0.1 K between 2050 and 2100, while for aviation it is positive and its estimate varies between 0 and 0.15 K in 2100. The largest changes in sea-level from thermal expansion in 2000 are 1.6 mm for the CO2 emissions from road transport, and around -3 mm from the non-CO2 effects of shipping. In 2100, sea-level rises by 18 mm due to the CO2 emissions from road transport and by 4.6 mm due to shipping or aviation CO2 emissions. Non-CO2 changes are of the order of 1 mm for road transport, -6.6 mm for shipping, and the estimate for aviation varies between -1.2 and 4.3 mm. When focusing on the geographical distribution, the non-CO2 impact from road transport and shipping on the surface air temperature is only slightly stronger in northern than in southern mid-latitudes, while the impact from aviation can be a factor of 5 stronger in the northern than in the southern hemisphere. Further it is observed that most of the impacts are more pronounced at high latitudes, and that the non-CO2 emissions from aviation strongly

  5. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  6. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close...

  7. Modeling Distribution and Abundance of Antarctic Baleen Whales Using Ships of Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Williams

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on animal abundance and distribution is at the cornerstone of many wildlife and conservation strategies. However, these data can be difficult and costly to obtain for cetacean species. The expense of sufficient ship time to conduct design-unbiased line transect surveys may be simply out of reach for researchers in many countries, which nonetheless grapple with problems of conservation of endangered species, by-catch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries, and progression toward ecosystem-based fisheries management. Recently developed spatial modeling techniques show promise for estimating wildlife abundance using non-randomized surveys, but have yet to receive much field-testing in areas where designed surveys have also been conducted. Effort and sightings data were collected along 9 650 km of transects aboard ships of opportunity in the Southern Ocean during the austral summers of 2000-2001 and 2001-2002. Generalized additive models with generalized cross-validation were used to express heterogeneity of cetacean sightings as functions of spatial covariates. Models were used to map predicted densities and to estimate abundance of humpback, minke, and fin whales in the Drake Passage and along the Antarctic Peninsula. All species' distribution maps showed strong density gradients, which were robust to jackknife resampling when each of 14 trips was removed sequentially with replacement. Looped animations of model predictions of whale density illustrate uncertainty in distribution estimates in a way that is informative to non-scientists. The best abundance estimate for humpback whales was 1 829 (95% CI: 978-3 422. Abundance of fin whales was 4 487 (95% CI: 1 326-15 179 and minke whales was 1,544 (95% CI: 1,221-1,953. These estimates agreed roughly with those reported from a designed survey conducted in the region during the previous austral summer. These estimates assumed that all animals on the trackline were detected, but

  8. Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    glycol + heptane, methylcyclohexane, hexane, propylene glycol + heptane, diethylene glycol + heptane, triethylene glycol + heptane, and tetraethylene glycol + heptane. The data obtained were correlated with the NRTL model and two different versions of the UNIQUAC equation. The NRTL model and one...

  9. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  10. Global model simulations of the impact of ocean-going ships on aerosols, clouds, and the radiation budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lauer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available International shipping contributes significantly to the fuel consumption of all transport related activities. Specific emissions of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2 per kg of fuel emitted are higher than for road transport or aviation. Besides gaseous pollutants, ships also emit various types of particulate matter. The aerosol impacts the Earth's radiation budget directly by scattering and absorbing the solar and thermal radiation and indirectly by changing cloud properties. Here we use ECHAM5/MESSy1-MADE, a global climate model with detailed aerosol and cloud microphysics to study the climate impacts of international shipping. The simulations show that emissions from ships significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration of low marine water clouds by up to 5% to 30% depending on the ship emission inventory and the geographic region. Whereas the cloud liquid water content remains nearly unchanged in these simulations, effective radii of cloud droplets decrease, leading to cloud optical thickness increase of up to 5–10%. The sensitivity of the results is estimated by using three different emission inventories for present-day conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals that shipping contributes to 2.3% to 3.6% of the total sulfate burden and 0.4% to 1.4% to the total black carbon burden in the year 2000 on the global mean. In addition to changes in aerosol chemical composition, shipping increases the aerosol number concentration, e.g. up to 25% in the size range of the accumulation mode (typically >0.1 μm over the Atlantic. The total aerosol optical thickness over the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Northeastern Pacific increases by up to 8–10% depending on the emission inventory. Changes in aerosol optical thickness caused by shipping induced modification of aerosol particle number concentration and chemical composition lead to a change in the shortwave radiation budget at the top of the

  11. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  12. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week....... Since the speed of the ships is a decision variable, the developed model is nonlinear. The model is made linear by means of variable redefinition. Using decomposition the linearized model is split into a master problem and a sub problem per ship, and solved by a column generation algorithm....

  13. Simple models for containment of a pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, Julien; Brauer, Fred; van den Driessche, P; Watmough, James; Wu, Jianhong

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic simulations of network models have become the standard approach to studying epidemics. We show that many of the predictions of these models can also be obtained from simple classical deterministic compartmental models. We suggest that simple models may be a better way to plan for a threatening pandemic with location and parameters as yet unknown, reserving more detailed network models for disease outbreaks already underway in localities where the social networks are well identified. We formulate compartmental models to describe outbreaks of influenza and attempt to manage a disease outbreak by vaccination or antiviral treatment. The models give an important prediction that may not have been noticed in other models, namely that the number of doses of antiviral treatment required is extremely sensitive to the number of initial infectives. This suggests that the actual number of doses needed cannot be estimated with any degree of reliability. The model is applicable to pre-epidemic vaccination, such as annual vaccination programs in anticipation of an ‘ordinary’ influenza outbreak with limited drift, and as a combination of treatment both before and during an epidemic. PMID:16849273

  14. Using ship-borne GNSS data for geoid model validation at the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Maaria; Kuokkanen, Jaakko; Bilker-Koivula, Mirjam; Koivula, Hannu; Häkli, Pasi; Lahtinen, Sonja

    2017-04-01

    We present a study of geoid model validation using ship-borne GNSS data on the Bothnian Bay of the Baltic Sea. In autumn 2015 a dedicated gravity survey took place in the Bothnian Bay on board of the surveying vessel Airisto as a part of the FAMOS (Finalising surveys for the Baltic motorways of the sea) Freja project, which is supported by the European Commission with the Connecting Europe Facility. The gravity data was collected to test older existing gravity data in the area and to contribute to a new improved geoid model for the Baltic Sea. The raw GNSS and IMU data of the vessel were recorded in order to study the possibilities for validating geoid models at sea. In order to derive geoid heights from GNSS-measurements at sea, the GNSS measurements must first be reduced to sea level. The instant sea level, also called sea surface height, must then be modelled and removed in order to get the GNSS positions at the zero height. In theory, the resulting GNSS heights are the geoid heights, giving the distance between the ellipsoid and the geoid surface. There were altogether 46 lines measured during the campaign on the area. The 1 Hz GNSS-IMU observations were post-processed using the Applanix POSPac MMS 7.1 software. Different processing options were tested and the Single Base -solution was found to be the best strategy. There were some issues with the quality of the data and cycle slips and thus, 37 of the lines were of adequate quality for the geoid validation. The final coordinates were transferred to the coordinate systems related to the geoid models used. Translation of the processed heights to sea level was performed taking the pitch and roll effects of the vessel into account. Also the effects of static and dynamic draft (squat) were applied. For the reduction from sea surface to geoid surface, the sea surface heights were derived from tide gauge data and also from a physical model for the Baltic Sea. The residual errors between the GNSS-derived geoid heights

  15. A Constraint Programming Model for Fast Optimal Stowage of Container Vessel Bays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Janstrup, Kira

    representative model of them developed with our industrial partner and a constraint programming (CP) and integer programming approach to solve them optimally. Our experimental evaluation of 236 instances extracted from real stowage plans shows that, even though these sub-problems are theoretically hard...... bays. Due to the large number of sub-problems, they must each be solved fast to generate complete stowage plans within the time requirements and computational resource limits of the shipping industry. In this paper we present the first independent study of these sub-problems. We introduce an accurate......Container vessel stowage is a combinatorial optimization problem with both high economic and environmental impact. The most successful approaches to tackle this problem use hierarchical decompositions in which the sub-problems of these decompositions assign containers to slots in individual vessel...

  16. 3D Max软件在制作船舶效果图中的应用%Application of the 3D Max on Setting up Shipping Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双; 范蠡

    2014-01-01

    本文以亚运会花船为蓝本,主要介绍了使用3D Max软件建立船舶效果图的通用流程,给制作船舶效果图同行们提供一些借鉴。%The paper summarizes the general procedure of the 3dsmax on setting up shipping modeling about Asia Athletic Meeting cruising ships, which will give some guidance for shipping modeling fancier of 3ds max.

  17. Importance of Ship Emissions to Local Summertime Ozone Production in the Mediterranean Marine Boundary Layer: A Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian N. Gencarelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ozone concentrations in the Mediterranean area regularly exceed the maximum levels set by the EU Air Quality Directive, 2008/50/CE, a maximum 8-h mean of 120 μg·m-3, in the summer, with consequences for both human health and agriculture. There are a number of reasons for this: the particular geographical and meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean play a part, as do anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions from around the Mediterranean and continental Europe. Ozone concentrations measured on-board the Italian Research Council’s R. V. Urania during summer oceanographic campaigns between 2000 and 2010 regularly exceeded 60 ppb, even at night. The WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model coupled with Chemistrymodel has been used to simulate tropospheric chemistry during the periods of the measurement campaigns, and then, the same simulations were repeated, excluding the contribution of maritime traffic in the Mediterranean to the anthropogenic emissions inventory. The differences in the model output suggest that, in large parts of the coastal zone of the Mediterranean, ship emissions Atmosphere 2014, 5 938 contribute to 3 and 12 ppb to ground level daily average ozone concentrations. Near busy shipping lanes, up to 40 ppb differences in the hourly average ozone concentrations were found. It seems that ship emissions could be a significant factor in the exceedance of the EU directive on air quality in large areas of the Mediterranean Basin.

  18. Modelling infrared signatures of ships and decoys for countermeasure effectiveness studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Degache, M.A.C.; Veerman, H.E.T.; Sweeden, R. van; Devecchi, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared guided missiles are a threat for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents recent improvements in a simulation toolset which can be used for assessing the

  19. Numerical Simulation on Ship Bubbly Wake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiping Fu; Pengcheng Wan

    2011-01-01

    Based on a volume of fluid two-phase model imbedded in the general computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT6.3.26,the viscous flow with free surface around a model-scaled KRISO container ship(KCS)was first numerically simulated.Then with a rigid-lid-free-surface method,the underwater flow field was computed based on the mixture multiphase model to simulate the bubbly wake around the KCS hull.The realizable k-ε two-equation turbulence model and Reynolds stress model were used to analyze the effects of turbulence model on the ship bubbly wake.The air entrainment model,which is relative to the normal velocity gradient of the free surface,and the solving method were verified by the qualitatively reasonable computed results.

  20. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...... of illustrative examples are presented. The procedure presented in the paper is well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic calculation model for damage of ship structures due to collisions....

  1. Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows an

  2. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis for Iceberg Geometry Shape in Ship-Iceberg Collision in View of Different Material Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing marine activities in Arctic area have brought growing interest in ship-iceberg collision study. The purpose of this paper is to study the iceberg geometry shape effect on the collision process. In order to estimate the sensitivity parameter, five different geometry iceberg models and two iceberg material models are adopted in the analysis. The FEM numerical simulation is used to predict the scenario and the related responses. The simulation results including energy dissipation and impact force are investigated and compared. It is shown that the collision process and energy dissipation are more sensitive to iceberg local shape than other factors when the elastic-plastic iceberg material model is applied. The blunt iceberg models act rigidly while the sharp ones crush easily during the simulation process. With respect to the crushable foam iceberg material model, the iceberg geometry has relatively small influence on the collision process. The spherical iceberg model shows the most rigidity for both iceberg material models and should be paid the most attention for ice-resist design for ships.

  4. Asymptotic models for the generation of internal waves by a moving ship, and the dead-water phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Duchene, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the dead-water phenomenon, which occurs when a ship sails in a stratified fluid, and experiences an important drag due to waves below the surface. More generally, we study the generation of internal waves by a disturbance moving at constant speed on top of two layers of fluids of different densities. Starting from the full Euler equations, we present several nonlinear asymptotic models, in the long wave regime. These models are rigorously justified by consistency or convergence results. A careful theoretical and numerical analysis is then provided, in order to predict the behavior of the flow and in which situations the dead-water effect appears.

  5. Models for Cometary Comae Containing Negative Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-) and CN(-) have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu [I]. Organic molecular anions such as C4H(-) and C6H(-) are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been fully explored. We present details of our new models for the chemistry of cometary comae that include atomic and molecular anions. We calculate the impact of these anions on the charge balance and examine their importance for cometary coma chemistry.

  6. Global model simulations of the impact of ocean-going ships on aerosols, clouds, and the radiation budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lauer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available International shipping contributes significantly to the fuel consumption of all transport related activities. Specific emissions of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2 per kg of fuel emitted are higher than for road transport or aviation. Besides gaseous pollutants, ships also emit various types of particulate matter. The aerosol impacts the Earth's radiation budget directly by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation and indirectly by changing cloud properties. Here we use ECHAM5/MESSy1-MADE, a global climate model with detailed aerosol and cloud microphysics, to show that emissions from ships significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration of low maritime water clouds. Whereas the cloud liquid water content remains nearly unchanged in these simulations, effective radii of cloud droplets decrease, leading to cloud optical thickness increase up to 5–10%. The sensitivity of the results is estimated by using three different emission inventories for present day conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals that shipping contributes with 2.3% to 3.6% to the total sulfate burden and 0.4% to 1.4% to the total black carbon burden in the year 2000. In addition to changes in aerosol chemical composition, shipping increases the aerosol number concentration, e.g. up to 25% in the size range of the accumulation mode (typically >0.1 μm over the Atlantic. The total aerosol optical thickness over the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Northeastern Pacific increases up to 8–10% depending on the emission inventory. Changes in aerosol optical thickness caused by the shipping induced modification of aerosol particle number concentration and chemical composition lead to a change of the net top of the atmosphere (ToA clear sky radiation of about −0.013 W/m2 to −0.036 W/m2 on global annual average. The estimated all-sky direct aerosol effect calculated from these changes ranges between −0

  7. Modelling the Dynamics of Ships with Different Propulsion Systems for Control Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierusz Witold

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different propulsion systems are analyzed from point of view of future control applications. The traditional one consists of a pushing single screw propeller and a blade rudder. The other system is based on pod (pods: pulling or pushing ones. The equations describing forces and moments generated in both systems, are presented. Exemplary results of a simulation in comparison to the real-time experiments for two ships are also shown.

  8. A System Dynamics Model of the Development of New Technologies for Ship Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Monga, Pavinder

    2001-01-01

    System Dynamics has been applied to various fields in the natural and social sciences. There still remain countless problems and issues where understanding is lacking and the dominant theories are event-oriented rather than dynamic in nature. One such research area is the application of the traditional systems engineering process in new technology development. The Navy has been experiencing large cost overruns in projects dealing with the implementation of new technologies on complex ship ...

  9. 珠江三角洲3000t内河集装箱船最佳航线探讨%Optimal Route of 3000 DWT Inland Container Ship in Pearl River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 董国祥

    2011-01-01

    Pearl River Delta(PRD) is an important base of manufacturing industry in the world. With the development of the economy in PRD, the container volume of inland transport through PRD has increased greatly. After investigating inland ports, waterways and ship types in PRD,the optimal route of 3000 DWT container ship from Nan-sha to Sanshui is put forward to prepare for developing new ship types for the development of PRD container transport.%珠江三角洲是我国与世界重要的制造业基地,随着珠江三角洲经济的发展,近年来通过珠江三角洲内河运输的集装箱量有了很大的增长.在实地调研珠江三角洲港口、航道及船型的基础上,提出了从南沙至三水3000t集装箱船适宜的最佳航线,旨在为开发新船型作准备,以适应珠江三角洲集装箱运输的发展需要.

  10. Modeling of Ship Roll Dynamics and Its Coupling with Heave and Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic behavior of ships navigating in severe environmental conditions it is imperative to develop their governing equations of motion taking into account the inherent nonlinearity of large-amplitude ship motion. The purpose of this paper is to present the coupled nonlinear equations of motion in heave, roll, and pitch based on physical grounds. The ingredients of the formulation are comprised of three main components. These are the inertia forces and moments, restoring forces and moments, and damping forces and moments with an emphasis to the roll damping moment. In the formulation of the restoring forces and moments, the influence of large-amplitude ship motions will be considered together with ocean wave loads. The special cases of coupled roll-pitch and purely roll equations of motion are obtained from the general formulation. The paper includes an assessment of roll stochastic stability and probabilistic approaches used to estimate the probability of capsizing and parameter identification.

  11. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  12. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  13. Sea Container Terminals : New Technologies, OR models, and Emerging Research Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Gharehgozli (Amir); D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDue to a rapid growth in world trade and a huge increase in containerized goods, sea container terminals play a vital role in globe-spanning supply chains. Container terminals should be able to handle large ships, with large call sizes within the shortest time possible, and at competitiv

  14. Estimation of real ship propelling performance by the surface velocity lattice method using model ship flow field data; Mokeisen ryujo data wo mochiita hyomen uzu koshiho ni yoru jissen suishin seino no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, H.; Ikehata, M.; Sakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    This is basically a technique wherein the wing element method is replaced by a surface vortex lattice method. A horseshoe vortex of unknown intensity and source surface of known intensity are distributed on the wing surface and, under conditions that the fluid will not cross the boundary, the intensity of horseshoe vortex circulation is calculated for the solution of the fluid field. For the simulation of a real ship in navigation, the required propeller revolution thrust is determined using the real ship resistance value and real ship thrust reduction factor estimated from a model ship resistance test by extrapolation. The calculation of propeller performance is conducted in the quasi-steady condition using the force of fluid working on one wing for each wing angle (with the wing rotated at the increment of 6 degrees), and the thrust and torque are determined using the averages of values obtained in one cycle. It is found that the torque value is overestimated in a considerable degree in the wing element theory. In the surface vortex lattice method, both thrust and torque values agree with experimental values mostly, and this method is found to be accurate enough as a navigation element calculation tool when many panels are considered. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Environmental modeling to support Elizio Leao ship rescue operation; Modelagem atmosferica e hidrodinamica em apoio a operacao de resgate da embarcacao Elizio Leao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo M. da; Assad, Luiz Paulo de F.; Decco, Hatsue T. de; Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Silva Junior, Ronaldo da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    On October 7th, 2007, the Elizio Leao ship broke carrying 19,812.9 gallons of oil near the Marajo Island has mobilized the PIATAM Mar (Potenciais Impactos do Transporte de Petroleo e Derivados na Zona Costeira Amazonica) modeling team for an execution of hydrodynamic and atmospheric prognostics that could support the ship rescue operation. In this work some results are presented as the operational methodology which has been applied to support the rescue team's needs. (author)

  16. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  17. Modeling the climate impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation over the period 1860–2100 with an AOGCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. L. Olivié

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For the period 1860–2100 (SRES scenario A1B for 2000–2100, the impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation on climate is studied using an Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM. In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from these transport sectors, most of their non-CO2 emissions are also taken into account, i.e. the forcing from ozone, methane, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, CFC-12 and HFC-134a from air conditioning systems in cars, and contrails. For the year 2000, the CO2 emissions from all sectors together induce a global annual-mean surface air temperature increase of around 0.1 K. In 2100, the CO2 emissions from road transport induce a global mean warming of 0.3 K, while shipping and aviation each contribute 0.1 K. For road transport, the non-CO2 impact is largest between 2000 and 2050 (of the order of 0.1 K becoming smaller at the end of the 21st century. The non-CO2 impact from shipping is negative, reaching −0.1 K between 2050 and 2100, while for aviation it is positive and its estimate varies between 0 and 0.15 K in 2100. The largest changes in sea-level from thermal expansion in 2000 are 1.6 mm for the CO2 emissions from road transport, and around −3 mm from the non-CO2 effects of shipping. In 2100, sea-level rises by 18 mm due to the CO2 emissions from road transport and by 4.6 mm due to shipping or aviation CO2 emissions. Non-CO2 changes are of the order of 1 mm for road transport, −6.6 mm for shipping, and the estimate for aviation varies between −1.2 and 4.3 mm. When focusing on the geographical distribution, the non-CO2 impact from road transport and shipping on the surface air temperature is only slightly stronger in northern than in southern mid-latitudes, while the impact from aviation can be a factor of 5 stronger in the northern than in the

  18. Modeling the climate impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation over the period 1860–2100 with an AOGCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. L. Olivié

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For the period 1860–2100 (SRES scenario A1B for 2000–2100, the impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation on climate is studied using an Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM. In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from these transport sectors, most of their non-CO2 emissions are also taken into account, i.e., the forcing from ozone, methane, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, CFC-12 and HFC-134a from air conditioning systems in cars, and contrails. For the year 2000, the CO2 emissions from all sectors together induce a global annual-mean surface air temperature increase of around 0.1 K. In 2100, the CO2 emissions from road transport induce a global mean warming of 0.3 K, while shipping and aviation each contribute 0.1 K. For road transport, the non-CO2 impact is largest between 2000 and 2050 (of the order of 0.1 K becoming smaller at the end of the 21st century. The non-CO2 impact from shipping is negative, reaching −0.1 K between 2050 and 2100, while for aviation it is positive and its estimate varies between 0 and 0.15 K in 2100. The largest changes in sea-level from thermal expansion in 2000 are 1.6 mm for the CO2 emissions from road transport, and around −3 mm from the non-CO2 effects of shipping. In 2100, sea-level rises by 18 mm due to the CO2 emissions from road transport and by 4.6 mm due to shipping or aviation CO2 emissions. Non-CO2 changes are of the order of 1 mm for road transport, −6.6 mm for shipping, and the estimate for aviation varies between −1.2 and 4.3 mm. When focusing on the geographical distribution, the non-CO2 impact from road transport and shipping on the surface air temperature is only slightly stronger in northern than in southern mid-latitudes, while the impact from aviation can be a factor of 5 stronger in the northern than in the

  19. 大型集装箱船主机与轴系校中工艺研究%Research on Alignment Process of Main Engine and Shafting of Large-scale Container Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶峰; 梁小军

    2012-01-01

    主机与轴系是船舶动力装置最重要的部分,主机与轴系校中质量的好坏将决定船舶的动力性能,并直接影响机舱动力装置工作的可靠性与使用寿命.以5100TEU集装箱船为例,分析与探讨了大型集装箱船的主机和轴系校中工艺,总结了校中过程中的参数、测量方法及工装设备,其成果已用于实船建造.%The main engine and shafting are the most important parts in marine power plants. The alignment quality of the main engine and shafting determines the power performance of the ship, and affects the operation reliability and service life of power plants in the engine room directly. The article takes a 5,100 TEU container ship as an example to analyze and study main engine and shafting alignment process of large scale container ships. It summarizes parameters, measurement methods and tooling/equipment during the alignment. The result has been applied to shipbuilding.

  20. CSR behavior and aging model for the Viton© Fluorelastomer O-rings in the 9975 shipping package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-01

    The 9975 Type B shipping package is used within the DOE complex for shipping special nuclear materials. This package is re-certified annually in accordance with Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) requirements. The package is also used at the Savannah River Site as part of the long-term storage configuration of special nuclear materials. As such, the packages do not undergo annual recertification during storage, with uncertainty as to how long some of the package components will meet their functional requirements in the storage environment. The packages are currently approved for up to 15 years storage, and work continues to provide a technical basis to extend that period. This report describes efforts by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to extend the service life estimate of Viton® GLT and GLT-S fluoroelastomer O-rings used in the 9975 shipping package. O-rings of both GLT and GLT-S compositions are undergoing accelerated aging at elevated temperature, and are periodically tested for compression stress relaxation (CSR) behavior. The CSR behavior of O-rings was evaluated at temperatures from 175 to 400 °F. These collective data were used to develop predictive models for extrapolation of CSR behavior to relevant service temperatures (< 156 °F). The predictive model developed from the CSR data conservatively indicates a service life of approximately 37 years for Viton GLT O-rings at the maximum effective service temperature of 156 °F. The estimated service life for Viton GLT-S O-rings is significantly longer.

  1. Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  2. A Model-Based Architecture Approach to Ship Design Linking Capability Needs to System Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    commercial shipping traffic. Commercial air traffic is moderate in the airspace over the Yellow Sea. The area has very cold winters with monsoons...DIESELS 8325.00 HP EACH OUTBOARD P/S 31000.00 HP GAS TURBINE CENTERLINE ENDURANCE (OPERATING PROFILE): STORES & PROVISIONS = 20.00 DAYS SPEED...34 2.1 Navigation equipment 2.2 Alter existing course 2.2 Rudder 2.3 Maneuver alongside pier 2.3 Bow thrusters /APU’s 3 Neutralize enemy targets 3

  3. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  4. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Duncan, J.; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activi

  5. Application of Ship Motion Simulation in Reliability Assessment of Ship Entrance into the Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Abramowicz-Gerigk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of large container vessels is the reason of port infrastructure modernization necessity and changes of local bylaws in ports. The accessibility studies based on ship motion simulation allow for the assessment of manoeuvring operations safety for the new port designs and reconstructions of the existed infrastructure. Several factors can be used to determine safety of manoeuvring operations. The paper presents an approach to determine the operational reliability which can be included in an accessibility study to determine the best of the possible solutions with respect to the ship entrance into the harbour. The general reliability model has been proposed and an example of reliability of ship entrance into the Port of Gdynia is presented.

  6. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom....... Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model....

  7. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    , can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...... to complex handling and timing restrictions. The objective of the problem is cost minimization, which translates nearly directly into the minimization of CO2 emissions and pollution. Additionally, it is important that all cost elements, including the ones that are only loosely coupled with activity choices...

  8. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Incorporating Additional Complexities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte

    for tramp ship routing and scheduling problems. This is done in the context of Operations Research, a research field that has achieved great success within optimisation-based planning for vehicle routing problems and in many other areas. The first part of this thesis contains a comprehensive introduction...... of their demand in advance. However, the detailed requirements of these contract cargoes can be subject to ongoing changes, e.g. the destination port can be altered. For tramp operators, a main concern is therefore the efficient and continuous planning of routes and schedules for the individual ships. Due...... to tramp ship routing and scheduling. This includes modelling approaches, solution methods as well as an analysis of the current status and future direction of research within tramp ship routing and scheduling. We argue that rather than developing new solution methods for the basic routing and scheduling...

  9. ADAPTING A CERTIFIED SHIPPING PACKAGE FOR STORAGE APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-06-05

    For years shipping packages have been used to store radioactive materials at many DOE sites. Recently, the K-Area Material Storage facility at the Savannah River Site became interested in and approved the Model 9977 Shipping Package for use as a storage package. In order to allow the 9977 to be stored in the facility, there were a number of evaluations and modifications that were required. There were additional suggested modifications to improve the performance of the package as a storage container that were discussed but not incorporated in the design that is currently in use. This paper will discuss the design being utilized for shipping and storage, suggested modifications that have improved the storage configuration but were not used, as well as modifications that have merit for future adaptations for both the 9977 and for other shipping packages to be used as storage packages.

  10. Model calculations of the effects of present and future emissions of air pollutants from shipping in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Jonson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Land-based emissions of air pollutants in Europe have steadily decreased over the past two decades, and this decrease is expected to continue. Within the same time span emissions from shipping have increased, although recently sulphur emissions, and subsequently particle emissions, have decreased in EU ports and in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, defined as SECAs (Sulphur Emission Control Areas. The maximum allowed sulphur content in marine fuels in EU ports is now 0.1%, as required by the European Union sulphur directive. In the SECAs the maximum fuel content of sulphur is currently 1% (the global average is about 2.4%. This will be reduced to 0.1% from 2015, following the new IMO rules (International Maritime Organisation. In order to assess the effects of ship emissions in and around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, regional model calculations with the EMEP air pollution model have been made on a 1/4° longitude × 1/8° latitude resolution, using ship emissions in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea that are based on accurate ship positioning data. The effects on depositions and air pollution and the resulting number of years of life lost (YOLL have been calculated by comparing model calculations with and without ship emissions in the two sea areas. The calculations have been made with emissions representative of 2009 and 2011, i.e. before and after the implementation of stricter controls on sulphur emissions from mid 2010. The calculations with present emissions show that per person, an additional 0.1–0.2 years of life lost is estimated in areas close to the major ship tracks with present emission levels. Comparisons of model calculations with emissions before and after the implementation of stricter emission control on sulphur show a general decrease in calculated particle concentration. At the same time, however, an increase in ship activity has resulted in higher emissions and subsequently air concentrations, in particular of NOx

  11. Shipping lines and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    FREMONT, A

    2006-01-01

    For some time it has been acknowledged that logistics is a driving force that shapes the integration of the transport chain. This paper argues that while the liner shipping industry exhibits increased horizontal integration, its vertical integration remains limited. A clear distinction is drawn between freight logistics, container logistics and vessel logistics. Freight logistics is defined as part of the supply chain process, the focus of which are the goods being transported. The purpose of...

  12. 航运公司合作下的海运冷藏箱空箱调租优化模型%Optimal model of maritime empty reeferrepositioning and leasing under shipping companies' cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文思; 张荣

    2016-01-01

    In consideration of stochastic demand of empty reef-ers, the non-operating reefer ( NOR ) strategy and the con-straint of container leasing, an optimal model of maritime empty reefer repositioning and leasing was established based on the shipping companies' cooperation of sharing empty con-tainers and shipping space during sea transportation aiming at total profit maximizing. The modelling and solving of a numer-ical example was conducted by using MATLAB to analyze the influence of shipping companies ' cooperation and customers satisfaction degree on the total profit of maritime empty reefer repositioning and leasing. Result shows that the cooperation of shipping companies can increase the total profit of all the par-ticipating companies, and higher the degree of customer satis-faction, higher the total profit.%考虑港口空箱的随机性需求、冷箱干用策略和租箱数量约束,以冷藏空箱调租总利润最大化为目标,构建基于航运公司共享空箱和舱位资源的海运冷藏空箱调租优化模型,并通过MATLAB建模求解具体算例,分析航运公司间的合作和顾客满意度对冷藏空箱调租总利润的影响.结果表明:航运公司间的合作可增加冷藏空箱调租总利润;顾客满意程度越高,冷藏空箱调租的总利润也会随之上升.

  13. Numerical prediction of propulsion factors of propelled ship model and full scale ship%自航船模和实船推进因子的数值预报方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊鹰; 刘志华

    2013-01-01

      根据船体兴波作用对推进因子影响甚小的基本分析结论,提出了不考虑船体兴波的自航船模推进因子计算方法,并对KCS缩尺船模推进性能进行了预报,预报结果与试验吻合较好。在推进因子计算方法得到验证的基础上,进一步开展了实船推进因子的数值预报研究。%The numerical method to calculate the propulsion factors of self-propulsion ship model is pre-sented, in which the wave making is ignored because of the little influence of the wave making on the propulsion factors. The propulsion performance of scaled KCS ship model under experimental condition is numerically calculated by this method and the results are in good agreement with experiment data. After the validation of the propulsion factors prediction method, the numerical prediction of propulsion factors of full scale ship is carried out.

  14. Risk analysis and safety management of small container ships in marine transportation%小型集装箱船舶水上运输风险分析及安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓雪; 张俊; 司馨钿; 乔卫亮; 李文华

    2011-01-01

    The influencing factors of small container ships in internal trading transportation were analyzed,and the specific risk factors were found out by using the method of fishbone diagram combining with the marine transport flow process of internal trading continer cargoes.Combining with accident regulation of the small continer ship accidents in Yingkou MSA's district from 2001 to 2008,the countermeasures for safety management were proposed from the aspects of laws and regulations,MSA,shipping company,port administrative department,crew and packing staff.%分析内贸小型集装箱船舶水上运输安全的影响因素,结合内贸集装箱货物水上运输流程,通过鱼刺图的方法找出实际的危险因素.结合2001—2008年营口海事局辖区小型集装箱船舶事故发生规律,有针对性地从法律法规、海事局、船公司、港口、船员和装箱人员等方面提出安全管理对策.

  15. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  16. An Algorithm for Interpolating Ship Motion Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyou Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation of ship motion vectors is able to be used for estimating the lost ship AIS dynamic information, which is important for replaying marine accidents and for analysing marine traffic data. The previous methods can only interpolate ship's position, while not including ship's course and speed. In this paper, vector function is used to express the relationship between the ship's time and space coordinates, and the tangent of the vector function and its change rate are able to express physical characteristics of ship's course, speed and acceleration. The given AIS dynamic information can be applied to calculate the parameters of ship's vector function and then the interpolation model for ship motion vectors is developed to estimate the lost ship dynamic information at any given moment. Experiment results show that the ship motion vector function is able to depict the characteristics of ship motions accurately and the model can estimate not only the ship's position but also ship's course and speed at any given moment with limited differences.

  17. Automation of measurement of heights waves around a model ship; Mokeisen mawari no hako keisoku no jidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, M.; Kato, M.; Yanagida, F. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Trial fabrication and tests were performed on an instrument to automate measurement of heights of waves around a model ship. The currently used electric wave height measuring instrument takes long time for measurement, hence poor in efficiency. The method for processing optical images also has a problem in accuracy. Therefore, a computer controlled system was structured by using AC servo motors in driving the X and Y axes of a traverse equipment. Equipment was fabricated to automate the wave height measurement, in which four servo type wave height meters are installed on a moving rack in the lateral (Y-axial) direction so that wave heights to be measured by four meters can be measured automatically all at once. Wave heights can be measured continuously by moving the moving rack at a constant speed, verifying that wave shapes in longitudinal cross sections can be acquired by only one towing. Time required in the measurements using the instrument was 40 hours as a net time for fixed point measurement and 12 hours for continuous measurement, or 52 hours in total. On the other hand, the time may reach 240 hours for fixed point measurement when the conventional all-point manual traverse equipment is used. Enormous effects were obtained from automating the instrument. Collection of wave height data will continue also on tankers and other types of ships. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. EMP coupling to ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from 4 trans-Pacific crossings onboard container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2015-03-28 to 2015-12-04 (NCEI Accession 0141304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters were collected during 4 trans-Pacific crossings in 2015 on the container ship...

  20. An Analysis of the Propulsion Experiments Performed on a Model Representing the Stretched PONCE DE LEON (SPDL) Class RO/RO Ship Fitted with Two Sets of Design Contrarotating Propellers (Model 5362; Propellers 4731 & 4732 and 9019 & 9020).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    REPRESENTING THE 5TRETCHED PONQ DE LEON (S.PI.) 9€ ASS _!"Q SHIP FITTED WITH TWO SETS OF DESIGN CONTRAROTATING PROPELLERS (MODEL 5362; PROPELLERS 4731...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROPULSION EXPERIMENTS PER- Final FORMED ON A MODEL REPRESENTING THE STRETCHED PONCE DE LEON (SPDL...number) A ser ies of propulsion exper ments were performed on Model 5362, representing a Stretched PONCE DE LEON Clas RO/RO ship. The model was fitted

  1. Littoral Combat Ship Crew Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    package DON Department of the Navy F&R Fix and Relax GAMS General Algebraic Modeling System LCS Littoral Combat Ship LCSRON Littoral Combat Ship...but that can be acceptable depending on the scheduler needs. F&R produces superior long-term schedules when compared to a similar-length RH schedule...LEFT BLANK 29 IV. MODEL IMPLEMENTATION LCSS is implemented with the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) using the GAMS/CPLEX (GAMS, 2014

  2. Solving multi-product inventory ship routing with a heterogeneous fleet model using a hybrid cross entropy-genetic algorithm: a case study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model and an algorithm for an inventory ship routing problem (ISRP. It consists of two main parts: a model development of the ship routing problem in a multi-product inventory with a heterogeneous fleet and an algorithm development to solve the problem. The problem is referred to as ISRP. ISRP considers several parameters including the deadweight tonnage (DWT, product compatibility, port setup, and compartment washing costs. Considering these parameters, the objective function is to minimize the total cost, which consists of traveling, port setup, ship charter, and compartment washing costs. From the resulting model, there are two major steps used to solve the problem. The first is to select the ships in order to satisfy the constraint that restricts the mooring rule. The second is to find the best route, product allocation, and shipped quantity. ISRP is an Non Polynomial-hard problem. Finding the solution of such problem needs a high computation time. A new hybrid metaheuristics, namely the cross entropy-genetic algorithm (CEGA, was proposed to solve ISRP. The results were then compared with those resulted from a hybrid Tabu Search to measure the hybrid CEGA performance. The results showed that CEGA provided better solutions than those produced by the hybrid Tabu Search.

  3. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  4. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first par

  5. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first par

  6. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first

  7. Ship?Shore and Ship?Ship Data Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Martti

    During recent years there has been significant development in several technologies which can contribute to the efficiency and safety of maritime traffic. The most important of these are accurate positioning systems (DGPS), digital data transmission/transponder technology, electronic chart systems (ECDIS), control of ships using electronic passage plans, and ship path prediction. With a widespread implementation of these new techniques, combined with advanced ship-shore and ship-ship data transfer, significant improvements can be achieved in traffic situation awareness both in a VTS and onboard. This paper describes the research carried out at VTT on VTS development, and especially gives an outline of new VTS functions using shipship data transfer.

  8. Intelligent control algorithm for ship dynamic positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ship motion in the sea is a complex nonlinear kinematics. The hydrodynamic coefficients of ship model are very difficult to accurately determine. Establishing accurate mathematical model of ship motion is difficult because of changing random factors in the marine environment. Aiming at seeking a method of control to realize ship positioning, intelligent control algorithms are adopt utilizing operator's experience. Fuzzy controller and the neural network controller are respectively designed. Through simulations and experiments, intelligent control algorithm can deal with the complex nonlinear motion, and has good robustness. The ship dynamic positioning system with neural network control has high positioning accuracy and performance.

  9. Development of Wolsong Unit 2 Containment Analysis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon, Choi [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Ko Bong; Chan, Park Young [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To be prepared for the full scope safety analysis of Wolsong unit 2 with modified fuel, input decks for the various objectives, which can be read by GOTHIC 7.2b(QA), are developed and tested for the steady state simulation. A detailed nodalization of 39 control volumes and 92 flow paths is constructed to determine the differential pressure across internal walls or hydrogen concentration and distribution inside containment. A lumped model with 15 control volumes and 74 flow paths has also been developed to reduce the computer run time for the assessments in which the analysis results are not sensitive to detailed thermal hydraulic distribution inside containment such as peak pressure, pressure dependent signal and radionuclide release. The input data files provide simplified representations of the geometric layout of the containment building (volumes, dimensions, flow paths, doors, panels, etc.) and the performance characteristics of the various containment subsystems. The parameter values are based on best estimate or design values for that parameter. The analysis values are determined by conservatism depending on the analysis objective and may be different for various analysis objectives. Basic input decks of Wolsong unit 2 were developed for the various analysis purposes with GOTHIC 7.2b(QA). Depend on the analysis objective, two types of models are prepared. Detailed model models each confined room in the containment as a separate node. All of the geometric data are based on the drawings of Wolsong unit 2. Developed containment models are simulating the steady state well to the designated initial condition. These base models will be used for Wolsong unit 2 in case of safety analysis of full scope is needed.

  10. Fire modeling of the Heiss Dampf Reaktor containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolette, V.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, K.T. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes Sandia National Laboratories` participation in the fire modeling activities for the German Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment building, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize Sandia`s participation in the HDR fire modeling efforts and (2) to summarize the results of the international fire modeling community involved in modeling the HDR fire tests. Additional comments, on the state of fire modeling and trends in the international fire modeling community are also included. It is noted that, although the trend internationally in fire modeling is toward the development of the more complex fire field models, each type of fire model has something to contribute to the understanding of fires in nuclear power plants.

  11. Modeling the viscosity of silicate melts containing manganese oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wan-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our recently developed model for the viscosity of silicate melts is applied to describe and predict the viscosities of oxide melts containing manganese oxide. The model requires three pairs of adjustable parameters that describe the viscosities in three systems: pure MnO, MnO-SiO2 and MnO-Al2O3-SiO2. The viscosity of other ternary and multicomponent silicate melts containing MnO is then predicted by the model without any additional adjustable model parameters. Experimental viscosity data are reviewed for melts formed by MnO with SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, PbO, Na2O and K2O. The deviation of the available experimental data from the viscosities predicted by the model is shown to be within experimental error limits.

  12. Calculation of mean outcrossing rates of non-Gaussian processes with stochastic input parameters - Reliability of containers stowed on ships in severe sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    Mean outcrossing rates can be used as a basis for decision support for ships in severe sea. The article describes a procedure for calculating the mean outcrossing rate of non-Gaussian processes with stochastic input parameters. The procedure is based on the first-order reliability method (FORM......) and stochastic parameters are incorporated by carrying out a number of FORM calculations corresponding to combinations of specific values of the stochastic parameters. Subsequently, the individual FORM calculation is weighted according to the joint probability with which the specific combination of parameter....... The results of the procedure are compared with brute force simulations obtained by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and good agreement is observed. Importantly, the procedure requires significantly less CPU time compared to MCS to produce mean outcrossing rates....

  13. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF A SCALING EXPONENT FOR TIP VORTEX CAVITATION VIA ITS INCEPTION TEST IN FULL-AND MODEL-SHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Jeung-Hoon; JUNG Jae-Kwon; LEE Kyung-Jun; HAN Jae-Moon; PARK Hyung-Gil; SEO Jong-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Tip vortex cavitation noise of marine propeller became primary concerns to reduce hazardous environmental impacts from commercial ship or to keep the underwater surveillance of naval ships.The investigations of the tip vortex and its induced noise are normally conducted through the model test in a water cavitation tunnel.However the Reynolds number of model-test is much smaller than that of the full-scale,which subsequently results in the difference of tip vortex cavitation inception.Hence,the scaling law between model- and full-scales needs to be identified prior to the prediction and assessment of propeller noise in full scale.From previous researches,it is generally known that the incipient caivtation number of tip vortex can be represented as a power of the Reynolds number.However,the power exponent for scaling,which is the main focus of this research,has not been clearly studied yet.This paper deals with the estimation of scaling exponent based on tip vortex cavitation inception test in both full- and model-scale ships.Acoustical measurements as well as several kind of signal processing technique for an inception criterion suggest the scaling exponent as 0.30.The scaling value proposed in this study shows slight difference to the one of most recent research.Besides,extrapolation of model-ship noise measurement using the proposed one predicts the full-scale noise measurement with an acceptable discrepancy.

  14. 基于运动学的船舶过闸时间模型%A Kinematic Model Based on Ship Lock Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴中; 周铭琪

    2013-01-01

    The ship lock time is analyzed, and obtained the key is the elastic time calculation. By the measured data of one northern lock of the Grand Canal utilizing and the relationship between the length of the ship and tonnage and the Greenshields model of the traffic flow theory combining a kinematic calculation method of the ship lock time is proposed. It expresses and calculates the lock time of mixed ship better with universality, and it can be used to predict or estimate the possible passing capacity and optimize scheduling of the ships.%通过对船舶过闸时间的解析,得到船舶过闸时间计算的关键在于弹性时间的计算,并利用京杭运河苏北段某梯级船闸的过闸数据,结合船舶长度和吨位的关系及交通流理论中的Greenshields模型,提出了船舶过闸时间的运动学计算方法,该方法较好地表达和计算了混合船型船舶的过闸时间,具有普适性,也可用于预测或估计船闸的可能通过能力及优化船舶调度.

  15. 船舶管系建模与虚拟装配应用研究%Application Research on Ship Piping System Modeling and Virtual Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛; 徐轶群

    2015-01-01

    Based on virtual reality technology, it can make the ship piping system model and virtual assembly by using 3ds Max and Unity 3D software.The method to optimize ship piping design provides the judgment on the vision, and implemented the ship piping assembly process simulation by virtual reality technology.It is not only beneficial to communication between the ship design personnel and the actual operator,but it can also reduce the scrap rate of return in ship piping production.The method can improve shipyard production efficiency and has strong practical significance.%基于虚拟现实技术,通过运用3ds Max和Unity 3D软件,对船舶管系进行建模和虚拟装配。该方法对船舶管系设计进行优化提供了视觉上的判断,并实现了通过虚拟现实技术对船舶管系装配过程的模拟,不仅有利于船舶设计人员与实际操作工人间的沟通,还可以减少船舶生产中管系的废返率,提升船厂的生产效率,具有较强的实际意义。

  16. PREDICTIONS OF WAVE INDUCED SHIP MOTIONS AND LOADS BY LARGE-SCALE MODEL MEASUREMENT AT SEA AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict wave induced motion and load responses of ships, a new experimental methodology is proposed. The new method includes conducting tests with large-scale models under natural environment conditions. The testing technique for large-scale model measurement proposed is quite applicable and general to a wide range of standard hydrodynamics experiments in naval architecture. In this study, a large-scale segmented self-propelling model allowed for investigating seakeeping performance and wave load behaviour as well as the testing systems were designed and experiments performed. A 2-hour voyage trial of the large-scale model aimed to perform a series of simulation exercises was carried out at Huludao harbour in October 2014. During the voyage, onboard systems, operated by crew, were used to measure and record the sea waves and the model responses. The post-voyage analysis of the measurements, both of the sea waves and the model’s responses, were made to predict the ship’s motion and load responses of short-term under the corresponding sea state. Furthermore, numerical analysis of short-term prediction was made by an in-house code and the result was compared with the experiment data. The long-term extreme prediction of motions and loads was also carried out based on the numerical results of short-term prediction.

  17. 船体结构实体造型开发研究%Development of ship structure solid modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林焰; 纪卓尚

    2000-01-01

    将计算机图形学研究领域中的三维造型技术应用到船舶工程设计与建造中,提出开发船体结构三维造型软件的基本思想、方法和步骤. 在MS Windows和Visual C++平台上,基于边界表示法的Parasolid图形内核,研究组合调用内核库函数的最佳方法;以OpenGL作为图形软件接口,创建接近光线跟踪的高质量静止或动画的三维彩色图像,对三维实体进行定位、色彩、质地、照光、旋转、缩放等功能的研究;通过对实船的局部结构三维表达结果分析,证明了该方法的先进性和工程应用性.%3D solid modeling technology is a complex research direction in the region of computer graphics. It is the goal and work of this paper to develop a 3D solid model of ship local structure based on Parasolid which is used as the graphical kernel in the environment of Visual C++ and OpenGL. OpenGL is used as a graphical function library to build static or active 3D colorful graphics. In the environment of OpenGL, this paper realizes the functions of 3D modeling including transformation, color, texture, lighting, rotate, zoom, etc. And then Parasolid is used as the kernel of the graphical system to build and manipulate the 3D solid model. The important point of this paper is calling the Parasolid kernel function library to developing software to describe the 3D solid model of ship structure. Some examples given at the end of the paper have tested the validity of the model.

  18. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...

  19. Development of structure in a model universe containing unstable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Klypin, A.A.; Khlopov, M.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Computer analysis of model universe containing unstable elementary particles discloses parameter domains for which the two-point galaxy autocorrelation function, the time scale for nonlinear evolution of structure, and the fractional mass in galaxy clusters and superclusters all are compatible with the observations. A low density for the cold missing-mass component can reconcile the low random velocities measured for galaxies in superclusters with inflationary-universe models having a critical mean density.

  20. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of numerical model of prestressed concrete containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bílý, Petr, E-mail: petr.bily@fsv.cvut.cz; Kohoutková, Alena, E-mail: akohout@fsv.cvut.cz

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • FEM model of prestressed concrete containment with steel liner was created. • Sensitivity analysis of changes in geometry and loads was conducted. • Steel liner and temperature effects are the most important factors. • Creep and shrinkage parameters are essential for the long time analysis. • Prestressing schedule is a key factor in the early stages. - Abstract: Safety is always the main consideration in the design of containment of nuclear power plant. However, efficiency of the design process should be also taken into consideration. Despite the advances in computational abilities in recent years, simplified analyses may be found useful for preliminary scoping or trade studies. In the paper, a study on sensitivity of finite element model of prestressed concrete containment to changes in geometry, loads and other factors is presented. Importance of steel liner, reinforcement, prestressing process, temperature changes, nonlinearity of materials as well as density of finite elements mesh is assessed in the main stages of life cycle of the containment. Although the modeling adjustments have not produced any significant changes in computation time, it was found that in some cases simplified modeling process can lead to significant reduction of work time without degradation of the results.

  2. Development of a model for the prediction of the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emission trade-off for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Baldi, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    consideration of this trade-off mechanism is required in the design of marine propulsion systems. This study investigates five different configurations of two-stroke diesel-based machinery systems for large ships and their influence on the mentioned trade-off. Numerical models of a low-speed two-stroke diesel...

  3. Container-component model and XML in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zagar, Klemen; Voelter, Markus

    2004-09-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. To meet the challenges of developing distributed software in distributed teams, ACS offers a container/component model that integrates the use of XML transfer objects. ACS containers are built on top of CORBA and are available for C++, Java, and Python, so that ALMA software can be written as components in any of these languages. The containers perform technical aspects of the software system, while components can focus on the implementation of functional requirements. Like Web services, components can use XML to exchange structured data by value. For Java components, the container seamlessly integrates the use of XML binding classes, which are Java classes that encapsulate access to XML data through type-safe methods. Binding classes are generated from XML schemas, allowing the Java compiler to enforce compliance of application code with the XML schemas. This presentation will explain the capabilities of the ACS container/component model, and how it relates to other middleware technologies that are popular in industry.

  4. Model calculations of the effects of present and future emissions of air pollutants from shipping in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Jonson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-based emissions of air pollutants in Europe have steadily decreased over the past two decades, and this decrease is expected to continue. Within the same time span emissions from shipping have increased in EU ports and in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, defined as SECAs (sulfur emission control areas, although recently sulfur emissions, and subsequently particle emissions, have decreased. The maximum allowed sulfur content in marine fuels in EU ports is now 0.1%, as required by the European Union sulfur directive. In the SECAs the maximum fuel content of sulfur is currently 1% (the global average is about 2.4%. This will be reduced to 0.1% from 2015, following the new International Maritime Organization (IMO rules. In order to assess the effects of ship emissions in and around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, regional model calculations with the EMEP air pollution model have been made on a 1/4° longitude × 1/8° latitude resolution, using ship emissions in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea that are based on accurate ship positioning data. The effects on depositions and air pollution and the resulting number of years of life lost (YOLLs have been calculated by comparing model calculations with and without ship emissions in the two sea areas. In 2010 stricter regulations for sulfur emissions were implemented in the two sea areas, reducing the maximum sulfur content allowed in marine fuels from 1.5 to 1%. In addition ships were required to use fuels with 0.1 % sulfur in EU harbours. The calculations have been made with emissions representative of 2009 and 2011, i.e. before and after the implementation of the stricter controls on sulfur emissions from 2010. The calculations with present emissions show that per person, an additional 0.1–0.2 years of life lost is estimated in areas close to the major ship tracks with current emission levels. Comparisons of model calculations with emissions before and after the implementation of stricter

  5. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  6. 船载大型测控系统自适应跟踪技术研究%The Ship Contained Large Control System Adaptive Tracking Technology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金辉; 黄坤; 李志坚; 陈小刚

    2012-01-01

    针对船载大型测控系统主天线增益高、波束窄和自引导天线增益低、波束宽的特点.从系统所接收的主天线、引导天线误差电压及信号电平强度差异进行分析,结合主、引天线电-电不平行度,形成主、副瓣跟踪识别的综合判据.在ACU(天线控制单元)工程应用软件中应用综合判据实现主、副瓣跟踪识别,达到工作方式自动切换、实现自动跟踪等功能.%This article aimed at the high antenna gain and the narrow beam of ship-borne large-scale monitoring and control system, the low bootstrap antenna gain, wide beam, analysing the differences of the antenna error voltage and signal level intensity received in the main antenna system, combining the nonparallelism of the antenna power-electricity, formed a comprehensive criterion, the ACU engineering application software to achieve the main switch automatically, the sidelobe track recognition, and ways of working to achieve their own self-tracking and other functions.

  7. Integrated thermomechanical model for forming of glass containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an integrated model for all the process of glass forming of glass containers is presented. The model addresses press-and-blow and blow-and-blow procedures from the gob forming to the final product. Glass forming involves coupled thermal-mechanical physical phenomena, in which the material viscous flow is highly dependent on heat transfer which, in turn, is dependent changes of shape due to material flow. Numerical aspects associated with the model implementation and its validation with real formed products are discussed.

  8. Parameters Characteristics Analysis of Ship Traffic Flow with Cellular Automata Model on AIS-based%基于 AIS 的元胞自动机模型的船舶交通流特征参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宏祥; 孔凡邨; 肖英杰; 杨小军

    2014-01-01

    针对海上交通工程学中的密度-速度(流量)关系图“线性假设”的不严密性,利用基于 AIS的元胞自动机船舶交通流模型模拟再现船舶交通流,然后统计出船舶交通流密度-速度(流量)基本关系图,并给出其三相交通流理论的解释;模拟研究发现,船舶交通流包含自由流、同步流和拥挤流三种相态,相态之间的转换也包含自由流与同步流、同步流与堵塞流两种形式;船舶密度-速度之间并非简单的线性关系,船舶密度-流量之间也不是二次抛物线关系,而是不明确的多值关系。模拟方法和结论有助于解释一些复杂的水上交通现象。%Against the non-stringency of linear hypothsis in ship traffic density-velocity equations in marine traffic engineering ,and as per the ship cellular automata model on AIS-based ,simlation is car-ried ot to reproduce ship traffic flow of waterway in micro level .The simulation results are refined and new ship traffic density-velocity (flux ) non-linear equations are presented ;T he three-phase traffic the-ory explication is given .the simulation results show that ship traffic contains free flow ,synchronized flow and congestion flow ;and phase changes contain free 1 synchronized and synchronized 1 jam .The sim-ulation method and conclusions could help to explain some complex phenomena of marine traffic .

  9. 高职院校港航集装箱物流实训系统体系构建研究%Research on System Construction of Port and Shipping Container Logistics Training System in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 宋志强; 陈斌

    2015-01-01

    Port and shipping container logistics knowledge and skills of employees is to determine the key to development of the logistics industry and do knowledge,technical skills and practical ability of practitioners to ensure that port and shipping containers theory is to ensure the steady development of the logistics industry.In this paper questionnaire investigation to analyze the skills and quality of the logistics business and social status of employees,analyzed from the basics,business skills and quality of the industry,he pointed out the logistics practitioners skills and knowledge requirements.Finally,to ensure the dual training knowledge and skills of the premise of the port and shipping container logistics staff skills training goal has never been discussed , higher vocational colleges of logistics personnel skills development programs and systems will be discussed.Through research,with a view to better understand the problems in the construction industry professionals,proposed training program targeted.%高职院校教学实训系统建设是加强高职学生实践能力锻炼,培养学生在基础理论认知、专业技术技能协调发展的保证,也是国家对职业教育发展提出的要求。港航集装箱物流实训系统是高职培养港航物流专业人才的重要基础,文中从实训系统功能入手,分析了实训系统建设要求以及体系功能,在此基础上建立了基础、核心、管理、保障和支撑位一体的实训系统体系框架,并对各个体系模块进行了功能设计。通过系统体系框架构建,形成科学规范的实训系统建设、管理方案,以便更好的发挥实训系统效能,培养适应职业发展需要的人才队伍。

  10. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  11. Integral Reactor Containment Condensation Model and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiao [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-05-02

    This NEUP funded project, NEUP 12-3630, is for experimental, numerical and analytical studies on high-pressure steam condensation phenomena in a steel containment vessel connected to a water cooling tank, carried out at Oregon State University (OrSU) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW-Madison). In the three years of investigation duration, following the original proposal, the planned tasks have been completed: (1) Performed a scaling study for the full pressure test facility applicable to the reference design for the condensation heat transfer process during design basis accidents (DBAs), modified the existing test facility to route the steady-state secondary steam flow into the high pressure containment for controllable condensation tests, and extended the operations at negative gage pressure conditions (OrSU). (2) Conducted a series of DBA and quasi-steady experiments using the full pressure test facility to provide a reliable high pressure condensation database (OrSU). (3) Analyzed experimental data and evaluated condensation model for the experimental conditions, and predicted the prototypic containment performance under accidental conditions (UW-Madison). A film flow model was developed for the scaling analysis, and the results suggest that the 1/3 scaled test facility covers large portion of laminar film flow, leading to a lower average heat transfer coefficient comparing to the prototypic value. Although it is conservative in reactor safety analysis, the significant reduction of heat transfer coefficient (50%) could under estimate the prototypic condensation heat transfer rate, resulting in inaccurate prediction of the decay heat removal capability. Further investigation is thus needed to quantify the scaling distortion for safety analysis code validation. Experimental investigations were performed in the existing MASLWR test facility at OrST with minor modifications. A total of 13 containment condensation tests were conducted for pressure

  12. Abstracting and reasoning over ship trajectories and web data with the Simple Event Model (SEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. van Hage; V. Malaisé; G.K.D. de Vries; A.Th. Schreiber; M.W. van Someren

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between low-level features and semantics is a problem commonly acknowledged in the Multimedia community. Event modeling can fill this gap by representing knowledge about the data at different level of abstraction. In this paper we present the Simple Event Model (SEM) and its applica

  13. Combining ship trajectories and semantics with the simple event model (SEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. van Hage; V. Malaisé; G. de Vries; G. Schreiber; M. van Someren

    2009-01-01

    Bridging the gap between low-level features and semantics is a problem commonly acknowledged in the Multimedia community. Event modeling can fill the gap. In this paper we present the Simple Event Model (SEM) and its application in a Maritime Safety and Security use case about Situational Awareness.

  14. Autonomous ship classification using synthetic and real color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlu, Deniz; Jenkins, B. Keith

    2013-03-01

    This work classifies color images of ships attained using cameras mounted on ships and in harbors. Our data-sets contain 9 different types of ship with 18 different perspectives for our training set, development set and testing set. The training data-set contains modeled synthetic images; development and testing data-sets contain real images. The database of real images was gathered from the internet, and 3D models for synthetic images were imported from Google 3D Warehouse. A key goal in this work is to use synthetic images to increase overall classification accuracy. We present a novel approach for autonomous segmentation and feature extraction for this problem. Support vector machine is used for multi-class classification. This work reports three experimental results for multi-class ship classification problem. First experiment trains on a synthetic image data-set and tests on a real image data-set, and obtained accuracy is 87.8%. Second experiment trains on a real image data-set and tests on a separate real image data-set, and obtained accuracy is 87.8%. Last experiment trains on real + synthetic image data-sets (combined data-set) and tests on a separate real image data-set, and obtained accuracy is 93.3%.

  15. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping...

  16. 基于Agent的舰船人员疏散模型研究%Ship passenger evacuation model based on agent theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淼; 韩端锋; 于洋; 薛彦卓; 肖蕾

    2013-01-01

    Agent theory provides a suitable method on the research of ship passenger evacuation model, which uses Geometry-Topology theory to model ship physical space. The Shortest-Path programming method introduces short-term goal to achieve effective obstacle evading and passenger preventing collision. Considering the individual attribute, such as gender and the age, and the effects of special environment-ship swaying motion on the evacuation, agent-based theory mainly studies the decision mechanism in the evacuation process and both the reconstruction and the explanation of the real evacuation situation by establishing the passenger microscopic simulation model of ship evacuation, which can offer a reference for ship passenger evacuation design and the crowd management.%Agent理论为舰船人员疏散模型研究提供了一个合适的方法.采用几何-拓扑相结合的方法对船舶物理空间建模,引入短期目标的最短路径规划法实现障碍物的有效规避,以及人员的避让.基于Agent理论,考虑人员性别、年龄等多种个体属性,以及船舶摇摆运动的特殊疏散环境对疏散产生的影响,通过舰船人员疏散微观仿真模型的建立,重点研究疏散过程中人的决策机理,再现和解释真实的疏散情形,为舰船人员疏散设计和人群管理提供参考.

  17. Hdr reactor containment fire modeling with Br12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockett, J.A.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Heikkilae, L.

    1992-01-01

    Fire tests at the German test reactor, HDR, were simulated using a Japanese zone model code, BRI2. Eight and ten room models of the containment building were developed. Critical phenomena occurring during simulation were explored. BRI2 can be used for this type of work but care must be exercised where a side wind increases entrainment by the fire plume. Horizontal vents were described by effective vertical vents. The effect of location of the vent to the ambient was found critical during severely oxygen limited burning. (Copyright (c) Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus (VTT) 1992.)

  18. Integral Reactor Containment Condensation Model and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiao [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-05-02

    This NEUP funded project, NEUP 12-3630, is for experimental, numerical and analytical studies on high-pressure steam condensation phenomena in a steel containment vessel connected to a water cooling tank, carried out at Oregon State University (OrSU) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW-Madison). In the three years of investigation duration, following the original proposal, the planned tasks have been completed: (1) Performed a scaling study for the full pressure test facility applicable to the reference design for the condensation heat transfer process during design basis accidents (DBAs), modified the existing test facility to route the steady-state secondary steam flow into the high pressure containment for controllable condensation tests, and extended the operations at negative gage pressure conditions (OrSU). (2) Conducted a series of DBA and quasi-steady experiments using the full pressure test facility to provide a reliable high pressure condensation database (OrSU). (3) Analyzed experimental data and evaluated condensation model for the experimental conditions, and predicted the prototypic containment performance under accidental conditions (UW-Madison). A film flow model was developed for the scaling analysis, and the results suggest that the 1/3 scaled test facility covers large portion of laminar film flow, leading to a lower average heat transfer coefficient comparing to the prototypic value. Although it is conservative in reactor safety analysis, the significant reduction of heat transfer coefficient (50%) could under estimate the prototypic condensation heat transfer rate, resulting in inaccurate prediction of the decay heat removal capability. Further investigation is thus needed to quantify the scaling distortion for safety analysis code validation. Experimental investigations were performed in the existing MASLWR test facility at OrST with minor modifications. A total of 13 containment condensation tests were conducted for pressure

  19. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  20. Modeling Stochastic Boundary Conditions in a Coastal Catchment using a Bayesian Network: An Application to the Houston Ship Channel, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couasnon, Anaïs; Sebastian, Antonia; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has highlighted the increased risk of compound flooding in the U.S. In coastal catchments, an elevated downstream water level, resulting from high tide and/or storm surge, impedes drainage creating a backwater effect that may exacerbate flooding in the riverine environment. Catchments exposed to tropical cyclone activity along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts are particularly vulnerable. However, conventional flood hazard models focus mainly on precipitation-induced flooding and few studies accurately represent the hazard associated with the interaction between discharge and elevated downstream water levels. This study presents a method to derive stochastic boundary conditions for a coastal watershed. Mean daily discharge and maximum daily residual water levels are used to build a non-parametric Bayesian network (BN) based on copulas. Stochastic boundary conditions for the watershed are extracted from the BN and input into a 1-D process-based hydraulic model to obtain water surface elevations in the main channel of the catchment. The method is applied to a section of the Houston Ship Channel (Buffalo Bayou) in Southeast Texas. Data at six stream gages and two tidal stations are used to build the BN and 100-year joint return period events are modeled. We find that the dependence relationship between the daily residual water level and the mean daily discharge in the catchment can be represented by a Gumbel copula (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.31) and that they result in higher water levels in the mid- to upstream reaches of the watershed than when modeled independently. This indicates that conventional (deterministic) methods may underestimate the flood hazard associated with compound flooding in the riverine environment and that such interactions should not be neglected in future coastal flood hazard studies.

  1. Ship emission inventory and its impact on the PM2.5 air pollution in Qingdao Port, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiaotong; Nelson, Peter; Li, Yue; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yuehua; Lang, Jianlei; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Xiurui

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a first high temporal-spatial ship emission inventory in Qingdao Port and its adjacent waters has been developed using a ;bottom-up; method based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. The total estimated ship emissions for SO2, NOX, PM10, PM2.5, HC and CO in 2014 are 3.32 × 104, 4.29 × 104, 4.54 × 103, 4.18 × 103, 1.85 × 103 and 3.66 × 103 tonnes, respectively. Emissions of SO2 and NOX from ships account for 9% and 13% of the anthropogenic totals in Qingdao, respectively. The main contributors to the ship emissions are containers, followed by fishing ships, oil tankers and bulk carriers. The inter-monthly ship emissions varied significantly due to two reasons: stopping of the fishing ship activities during the fishing moratorium and the reduction of freight volume around the Chinese New Year Festival. Emissions from transport vessels concentrated basically along the shipping routes, while fishing ships contributed to massive irregular spatial emissions in the sea. The impact of ship emissions on the ambient air quality was further investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model. The results reveal that the contribution of ship emissions to the PM2.5 concentrations in Qingdao is the highest in summer (13.1%) and the lowest in winter (1.5%). The impact was more evident over densely populated urban areas, where the contributions from ship emissions could be over 20% in July due to their close range to the docks. These results indicated that the management and control of the ship emissions are highly demanded considering their remarkable influence on the air quality and potential negative effects on human health.

  2. 全电力船电力系统建模与仿真%Modeling and simulation of all electric ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎学范

    2011-01-01

    The development of a PC-cluster based real-time simulator for All Electric Ship (AES) Integrated Power System (IPS) analysis and optimization is presented. It is aimed to address the muhi-disciplinary issues associated with the all-electric ship, such as optimal power management and dynamic system recon guration. Amodularized IPS model which includes the power generation module, the recon?gurable zonal electrical distribution system module, the ship propulsion module and the ship dynamic module is developed and integrated.%基于计算机的实时仿真技术的发展,应用于全电力船(All Electric Ship)的综合电力系统(Integrated Power System)的分析和优化。其目的是解决与全电力船有关的多学科问题,如最佳电源管理和动态系统重构。这里主要建立模块化的综合电力系统(IPS)模型,其中包括发电模块,可重构区域配电系统模块,船舶推进器模块和船舶动态模块的并行开发和集成。

  3. A service flow model for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Sigurd, Mikkel M.

    2014-01-01

    . The model ensures strictly weekly frequencies of services, ensures that port-vessel draft capabilities are not violated, respects vessel capacities and the number of vessels available. The profit of the generated network is maximized, i.e. the revenue of flowed cargo subtracted operational costs...

  4. Measures of Model Uncertainty in the Assessment of Primary Stresses in Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östergaard, Carsten; Dogliani, Mario; Guedes Soares, Carlos;

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers various models and methods commonly used for linear elastic stress analysis and assesses the uncertainty involved in their application to the analysis of the distribution of primary stresses in the hull of a containership example, through statistical evaluations of the results...

  5. Extraction of the mode shapes of a segmented ship model with a hydroelastic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yooil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mode shapes of a segmented hull model towed in a model basin were predicted using both the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and cross random decrement technique. The proper orthogonal decomposition, which is also known as Karhunen-Loeve decomposition, is an emerging technology as a useful signal processing technique in structural dynamics. The technique is based on the fact that the eigenvectors of a spatial coherence matrix become the mode shapes of the system under free and randomly excited forced vibration conditions. Taking advantage of the simplicity of POD, efforts have been made to reveal the mode shapes of vibrating flexible hull under random wave excitation. First, the segmented hull model of a 400 K ore carrier with 3 flexible connections was towed in a model basin under different sea states and the time histories of the vertical bending moment at three different locations were measured. The measured response time histories were processed using the proper orthogonal decomposition, eventually to obtain both the first and second vertical vibration modes of the flexible hull. A comparison of the obtained mode shapes with those obtained using the cross random decrement technique showed excellent correspondence between the two results.

  6. Using Pontryagin maximum principle for parametrical identification of ship maneuvering mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri UDIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes usage of Pontryagin maximum principle for parametrical identification of mathematical vessel’s model. Proposed method has a special perspective for identification in real time mode, when the parameters identified can be used for forecasting of coming maneuvers.

  7. Ship Response Capability Models for Counter-Piracy Patrols in the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    9 2.1.2 Ripple Propagation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.3 Marsaglia et al. Algorithm...of Marsaglia et al. (1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Annex D: Error Calculations for 1D model...effectively patrolled by a particular asset. One 2D approach uses the an- alytical work of Marsaglia et al. [10] to generate the probability distribution of

  8. Cleaner fuels to reduce emissions of CO2, NOx and PM10 by container ships: A solution or a box of Pandora?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, F.

    2015-01-01

    Transport vehicles contribute to the on going rise in emissions of CO2 worldwide and emit large amounts of NOx and PM10. The growing demand for container transport is only sustainable if transport becomes ‘greener’. There are innovations, which unite economic and environmental interests. One example

  9. A Dynamic Model for Roll Motion of Ships Due to Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented of the roll motion of damaged RoRo vessels which couples the internal cross-flooding flow and the air action in the equalizing compartment. The cross flooding flow and the air motion are modelled by a modified Bernoulli equation, where artificial damping is introduced...... a very large damage hole, implying that the water surface in the flooded compartment is always at the same level as the mean water surface.Ignoring roll motion, asymptotic and numerical solutions for the cross-flooding process and the associated air flow through the air pipe are obtained. A simple...... approximation to the water flow process is derived on the basis of a numerical simulation which takes into account the influence of the air compression in the equalizing compartment and improves the formula given in the existing rules.The coupled air, water and roll motion are solved numerically and presented...

  10. A Capability-Based, Meta-Model Approach to Combatant Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    horizontal, parallel to a Compass Course of 090° to keep the trigonometry used in the motion model simple, however as long the box is kept a true...make a course correction. Some of these include greater government-contractor collaboration, inventive contracting initiatives, and extensive... course . However, the computations required to simulate this are complex and it is likely they will unduly slow the simulation down, so the more

  11. Supply Chain Management Model for Modular or Flexible Optimally Manned Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Navy’s New Class of Warships: Big Bucks, Little Bang .” Battleland. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://nation.time.com/2012/10/05/the-navys-new-class-of...warships- big -bucks- little- bang /. Strauch, F. C. n.d. ARROWS Model Evaluation. Project Number N9324-B11-4135, Mechanicsburg, PA: Navy Fleet Material...service requirements. Migration Complexity “This cost driver rates the extent to which the legacy system affects the migration complexity, if

  12. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore, we present a sensitivity analysis...

  13. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Burson, S.B. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  14. Physical modeling of spent-nuclear-fuel container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new physical simulation model was developed to simulate the casting process of the ductile iron heavy section spent-nuclear-fuel container. In this physical simulation model, a heating unit with DR24 Fe-Cr-Al heating wires was used to compensate the heat loss across the non-natural surfaces of the sample, and a precise and reliable casting temperature controlling/monitoring system was employed to ensure the thermal behavior of the simulated casting to be similar to the actual casting. Also, a mould system was designed, in which changeable mould materials can be used for both the outside and inside moulds for different applications. The casting test was carried out with the designed mould and the cooling curves of central and edge points at different isothermal planes of the casting were obtained. Results show that for most isothermal planes, the temperature control system can keep the temperature differences within 6 ℃ between the edge points and the corresponding center points, indicating that this new physical simulation model has high simulation accuracy, and the mould developed can be used for optimization of casting parameters of spent-nuclear-fuel container, such as composition of ductile iron, the pouring temperature, the selection of mould material and design of cooling system. In addition, to maintain the spheroidalization of the ductile iron, the force-chilling should be used for the current physical simulation to ensure the solidification of casting in less than 2 h.

  15. Fuel Surcharge Practices of Container Shipping Lines and Comparison with Fuel Cost%集装箱运输燃油附加费与燃油成本比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦石

    2012-01-01

    Shipping lines' practices of levying a fuel surcharges on shippers, also known as the Bunker Adjustment Factor or BAF are deals with. Shipping lines have argued BAF is only partially compensated the freight rates. In contrast, shippers have always objected that the way BAFs are determined is opaque, and involves a significant element of revenue-making. The relationship between fuel costs fluctuations and fuel surcharging practices is contributed to in focusing on. A cost model is applied to various routes and compares estimates on fuel costs with the observed BAFs on a set of port-to-port liner services.%研究集装箱最常见的附加费用——燃油附加费(Bunker Adjustment Factor,简称BAF).班轮公司认为燃油费只是部分补偿运输成本的剧增,而货主认为此费用由班轮公司单方面制定,有盈利效应.随着班轮公会力量减弱,各家班轮公司采用的新的BAF计算方法.建立以航线为基础燃油成本估算模型,比较研究燃油附加费和燃油成本的关系,结合实例,验证燃油附加费是否具有盈利效应.

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRU SERGIU SERBAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

  17. Model and Calculation of Container Port Logistics Enterprises Efficiency Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The throughput of China’s container port is growing fast, but the earnings of inland port enterprises are not so good. Firstly ,the initial efficiency evaluation indexes of port logistics are reduced and screened by rough set model, and then logistics performance indexes weight are assigned by the rough totalitarian calculation method. As well, the rank of the indexes and the important indexes are picked up by combining with ABC management method. So the port logistics enterprises can monitor the key indexes to reduce cost and improve the efficiency of the logistics operations.

  18. Aim to International Shipping Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since 1990s,various countries in the world have been focusing on the construction of the key ports,leading to a fiercer competition between ports.For example,in East Asia,South Korea and Japan are rivaling for the international shipping center in Northeast Asia.Taking Busan Port and Gwangyang Port as the central ports,South Korea is boosting the ports expansion plans,to construct a"logistic center in Northeast Asia".Meanwhile.Japan is projecting the optimizmg and integration of port resources,to regain the international shipping center in Asia.The central government of China made plans for constructing Shanghai Shipping Center as early in 1996.and after 13 years'construction,now Shanghai Port has the largest cargo throughput and the second largest container throughput in the world.

  19. A 3-D Time-Domain Coupled Model for Nonlinear Waves Acting on A Box-Shaped Ship Fixed in A Harbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Da-guo; ZOU Zhi-li; THAM Leslie George

    2011-01-01

    A 3-D time-domain numerical coupled model is developed to obtain an efficient method for nonlinear waves acting on a box-shaped ship fixed in a harbor.The domain is divided into the inner domain and the outer domain.The inner domain is the area beneath the ship and the flow is described by the simplified Euler equations.The remaining area is the outer domain and the flow is defined by the higher-order Boussinesq equations in order to consider the nonlinearity of the wave motions.Along the interface boundaries between the inner domain and the outer domain,the volume flux is assumed to be continuous and the wave pressures are equal.Relevant physical experiment is conducted to validate the present model and it is shown that the numerical results agree with the experimental data.Compared the coupled model with the flow in the inner domain governed by the Laplace equation,the present coupled model is more efficient and its solution procedure is simpler,which is particularly useful for the study on the effect of the nonlinear waves acting on a fixed box-shaped ship in a large harbor.

  20. 46 CFR 128.410 - Ship's service refrigeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship's service refrigeration systems. 128.410 Section 128.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... service refrigeration systems. No self-contained unit either for air-conditioning or for...

  1. Boiler for ships; Hakuyo boira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, production and technology trend of boiler for ships in 1998 are described. The actual results of main boiler are as follows. As the main boiler for LNG ships, 4 boilers produced by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding for Qatar Project, 8 produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for South Korea and 10 produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for domestic use and South Korea. 1998 was an active year for the main boiler for ships. The auxiliary boiler of steam pressure of 16k to 25k equipping for tanker ships was 115 (4,441t/h of steam quantity in total), it greatly increased in comparison with 88 (3,172t/h) produced in the proceeding year. Donkey boilers of steam pressure of 6k to 10k equipping for container ships and bulk cargo was 147 (672t/h), and it substantially decreased in comparison with 274 (693t/h) of the proceeding year, but capacity per boiler increased. The gas exhaust economizer for turbo power generation plants was 6 produced for VLCC. (NEDO)

  2. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  3. Characteristics of model polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing laponite clay nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzbieciak, M; Wodka, D; Zapotoczny, S; Nowak, P; Warszynski, P

    2010-01-05

    Polyelectrolyte films structure formed by the "layer-by-layer" (LbL) technique can be enriched by addition of charged nanoparticles like carbon nanotubes and silver or hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, which can improve properties of the polyelectrolyte films or modify their functionality. In our paper we examined the formation and properties of model polyelectrolyte multilayers containing a synthetic layered silicate, Laponite. The Laponite nanoparticles were incorporated into multilayer films, which were formed from weak, branched polycation PEI and strong polyanion PSS. Since charge of PEI is pH-dependent, we build up multilayer films in two deposition conditions: pH = 6 when PEI was strongly charged and pH = 10.5 when charge density of PEI was low. Thicknesses of the films constructed with various numbers of Laponite layers were measured by single wavelength ellipsometry. We also determined the differences in permeability for selected electroactive molecules using cyclic voltamperometry. Properties of the films containing clay nanoparticles were compared with model polyelectrolyte multilayer films PEI/PSS formed at the same conditions. We found that Laponite nanoparticles strongly influenced PEI/PSS multilayer film properties. Replacement of PSS by Laponite eliminated the oscillations of the film thickness in the case when PEI was weakly charged. PSS layer adsorbed on top of PEI/Laponite bilayers increased the thickness of multilayer films and improved their barrier properties so synergistic effects between these properties for polyelectrolytes and Laponite nanoparticles could be observed.

  4. 大型集装箱船迎浪航行的外飘砰击压力研究%Research on Flare Slamming Pressure of a Large Container Ship Running at Head Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜男; 高志龙; 牟立伟; 王宁

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses about flare slamming pressure on a large container ship when it runs at head seas with the direct calculation method.Based on 3-D potential flow theory Rankine Panel Method,the nonlinear motion response of the ship was predicted when it runs at different sea conditions and speed in irregular waves in the time domain with the commercial software,Wasim of DNV.Then,the flare slamming pressure on the bow flare area was calculatedbased with the Wagner impact theory.At last,the slamming probability and the extreme value oflhe slamming pressure in different working conditions were calculated based on the probability and stochastic theory,and the characteristics were analyzed%采用直接计算法研究一艘大型集装箱船迎浪航行时的外飘砰击压力特点.基于三维势流理论Rankine面元法,应用DNV船级社的商业软件Wasim计算出该船在压载时不同海况下以不同航速航行时在非规则波中时域内的非线性运动响应时历,根据Wagner型冲击理论计算得到该集装箱船艏外飘区域的外飘砰击压力.依据概率随机理论,得到不同工况下的外飘砰击概率以及外飘砰击压力极值,并分析概率和极值特点.

  5. Liner Shipping Service Scheduling with Workshift Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    Container shipping companies are currently facing combined challenges of overcapacity and volatile fuel prices. In addition, rising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions has made it crucial for shipping companies to reduce their fuel consumption. The consumption of fuel for shipping vessel...... while ensuring that given transit time limits for the carried cargo is satisfied, and considering the layover time for containers transshipping between services. Workshift times and cost are included ensuring that changing the port visit time will not introduce an addition cost for the port operations...

  6. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  7. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area, have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr−1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr−1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr−1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in

  8. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area, have been introduced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro yr−1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro yr−1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr−1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in

  9. Emission factors of SO2, NOx and particles from ships in Neva Bay from ground-based and helicopter-borne measurements and AIS-based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beecken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors of SO2, NOx and size distributed particle numbers were measured for approximately 300 different ships in the Gulf of Finland and Neva Bay area during two campaigns in August/September 2011 and June/July 2012. The measurements were carried out from a harbor vessel and from an MI-8 helicopter downwind of passing ships. Other measurements were carried out from shore sites near the island of Kronstadt and along the river Neva in the city area of Saint Petersburg. Most ships were running at reduced speed (10 knots, i.e. not at their optimal load. Vessels for domestic and international shipping were monitored. It was seen that the distribution of the SO2 emission factors is bi-modal with averages of 4.6 gSO2 kgfuel−1 and 18.2 gSO2 kgfuel−1 for the lower and the higher mode, respectively. The emission factors show compliance with the 1% fuel sulfur content SECA limit for 90% of the vessels in 2011 and 97% in 2012. The distribution of the NOx emission factor is mono-modal with an average of 58 gNOx kgfuel−1. The corresponding emission related to the generated power yields an average of 12.1 gNOx kWh−1. The distribution of the emission factors for particulate number shows that nearly 90% of all particles in the 5.6 nm to 10 μm size range were below 70 nm in diameter. The distribution of the corresponding emission factors for the mass indicates two separated main modes, one for particles between 30 and 300 nm the other above 2 μm. The average particle emission factors were found to be in the range from 0.7 to 2.7 × 1016 particles kgfuel−1 and 0.2 to 3.4 gPM kgfuel−1, respectively. The NOx and particulate emissions are comparable with other studies. The measured emission factors were compared, for individual ships, to modeled ones using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A reasonably good agreement for gaseous sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be seen for ships in

  10. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  11. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  12. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.;

    1996-01-01

    with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented......This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  13. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  14. Ship Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    analyzer, dual fuel, material tester, universal tester, laser scanner and 3D printer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c...New Additions • New material testing machine with environmental chamber • New dual -fuel test bed for Haeberle Laboratory • Upgrade existing...of purchasing more data acquisition equipment (ie. FARO laser scanner, data telemetry , and velocity profiler). Table 1: Spending vs. budget

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Metallic Materials Containing Embedded Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Iesulauro, Erin; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2004-01-01

    Multiscale modeling at small length scales (10(exp -9) to 10(exp -3) m) is discussed for aluminum matrices with embedded particles. A configuration containing one particle surrounded by about 50 grains and subjected to uniform tension and lateral constraint is considered. The analyses are performed to better understand the effects of material configuration on the initiation and progression of debonding of the particles from the surrounding aluminum matrix. Configurational parameters considered include particle aspect ratio and orientation within the surrounding matrix. Both configurational parameters are shown to have a significant effect on the behavior of the materials as a whole. For elliptical particles with the major axis perpendicular to the direction of loading, a particle with a 1:1 aspect ratio completely debonds from the surrounding matrix at higher loads than particles with higher aspect ratios. As the particle major axis is aligned with the direction of the applied load, increasing amounts of load are required to completely debond the particles.

  16. On the Effect of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Vertical Wave Bending Moment for Ultra Large Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    analysis is done using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) supplemented with Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, strip-theory calculations are compared to model tests in regular waves of different wave lengths using a segmented, flexible model of the case-ship and good agreement is obtained...... for the 9,400 TEU container ship used as case-ship in the EU project TULCS (Tools for Ultra Large Container Ships). A non-linear time-domain strip theory is used for the hydrodynamic analysis of the vertical bending moment amidships in sagging and hogging conditions for a flexible and a rigid modelling...... of the ship. The theory takes into account non-linear radiation forces (memory effects) through the use of a set of higher order differential equations. The non-linear hydrostatic restoring forces and non-linear Froude-Krylov forces are determined accurately at the instantaneous position of the ship...

  17. BALLISTICS TESTING OF THE 9977 SHIPPING PACKAGE FOR STORAGE APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-06

    Radioactive materials are stored in a variety of locations throughout the DOE complex. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), materials are stored within dedicated facilities. Each of those facilities has a documented safety analysis (DSA) that describes accidents that the facility and the materials within it may encounter. Facilities at the SRS are planning on utilizing the certified Model 9977 Shipping Package as a long term storage package and one of these facilities required ballistics testing. Specifically, in order to meet the facility DSA, the radioactive materials (RAM) must be contained within the storage package after impact by a .223 caliber round. In order to qualify the Model 9977 Shipping Package for storage in this location, the package had to be tested under these conditions. Over the past two years, the Model 9977 Shipping Package has been subjected to a series of ballistics tests. The purpose of the testing was to determine if the 9977 would be suitable for use as a storage package at a Savannah River Site facility. The facility requirements are that the package must not release any of its contents following the impact in its most vulnerable location by a .223 caliber round. A package, assembled to meet all of the design requirements for a certified 9977 shipping configuration and using simulated contents, was tested at the Savannah River Site in March of 2011. The testing was completed and the package was examined. The results of the testing and examination are presented in this paper.

  18. Positive matrix factorization and trajectory modelling for source identification: A new look at Indian Ocean Experiment ship observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprasad, S. G.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bhushan, Mani

    The sources of aerosols on a regional scale over India have only recently received attention in studies using back trajectory analysis and chemical transport modelling. Receptor modelling approaches such as positive matrix factorization (PMF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) are effective tools in source identification of urban and regional-scale pollution. In this work, PMF and PSCF analysis is applied to identify categories and locations of sources that influenced surface concentrations of aerosols in the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) domain measured on-board the research vessel Ron Brown [Quinn, P.K., Coffman, D.J., Bates, T.S., Miller, T.L., Johnson, J.E., Welton, E.J., et al., 2002. Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: means, variability, and controlling factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 8020, doi:10.1029/2000JD000037]. Emissions inventory information is used to identify sources co-located with probable source regions from PSCF. PMF analysis identified six factors influencing PM concentrations during the INDOEX cruise of the Ron Brown including a biomass combustion factor (35-40%), three industrial emissions factors (35-40%), primarily secondary sulphate-nitrate, balance trace elements and Zn, and two dust factors (20-30%) of Si- and Ca-dust. The identified factors effectively predict the measured submicron PM concentrations (slope of regression line=0.90±0.20; R2=0.76). Probable source regions shifted based on changes in surface and elevated flows during different times in the ship cruise. They were in India in the early part of the cruise, but in west Asia, south-east Asia and Africa, during later parts of the cruise. Co-located sources include coal-fired electric utilities, cement, metals and petroleum production in India and west Asia, biofuel combustion for energy and crop residue burning in India, woodland/forest burning in north sub-Saharan Africa and forest burning in south-east Asia. Significant findings

  19. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  20. Speed control model of ships entering and leaving ports based on AIS data%基于AIS信息的船舶进出港航速控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖潇; 邵哲平; 纪贤标; 陈玲玲

    2014-01-01

    To improve near-port channel efficiency and ship safety,a speed control model of ships ente-ring and leaving ports is built based on the regular,efficient and potential information on ships entering and leaving ports from a great deal of marine traffic characteristic information collected by Automatic Identification System (AIS). According to the marine traffic engineering theory and data mining technolo-gy,AIS real-time data collected in port waters is stored into a database,and then the database is pro-cessed by ETL (Extract Transform Load). The database is of the function of statistical analysis on every stage speed distribution of ships entering and leaving ports. A container terminal of Songyu Port in Xia-men is taken for example,and a corresponding database is built. The statistics on the speed of 120 000 t container carrier entering and leaving ports is made to obtain the speed distribution. Then,some sugges-tions are given according to the probability distribution characteristics of the speed. It provides a theoreti-cal basis for ships to automatically enter and leave ports,pilots to pilot ships,and port authority depart-ments to better supervise navigation environment.%为提升近港航道效率及船舶安全,从船舶自动识别系统(Automatic Identification System, AIS)集合的大量的海上交通特征信息中获取能够反映船舶进出港规律的、有效的、潜在的信息,建立船舶进出港航速控制模型。根据海上交通工程理论和数据挖掘技术,将实时采集的港口水域的AIS信息存放在数据库中,再通过ETL (Extract Transform Load )进行处理。该数据库具备统计分析船舶进出港各阶段航速分布的功能。以厦门嵩屿港集装箱码头为例,构建相应的数据库,对12万吨级集装箱船舶进出港的航速进行统计,获得此类船舶在进出港过程中的航速分布规律,并根据航速的概率分布特点给出建议航速,为船舶自动

  1. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  2. Modeling and Simulating of Ship Wake Echo Signal%舰船尾流回波信号建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 刘纯武; 黄芝平; 郭熙业

    2011-01-01

    Based on the acoustic model of ship wake signal, the modeling and simulating methods of the mathematic wake echo signal are designed. The ship wake echo signal is volume reverberation as a result of mass bubbles scattering the incident wave. According to the acoustic features and distribution rule of the bubbles within ship wake and the scattering cell modeling method, the acoustic model is analyzed. A mathematic wake echo signal model is constructed by utilizing the acoustic model, FOM reverberation statistical model and wake echo signal statistical modeling method. The power spectrum and probability density of simulation results, the agreement between the simulation results and sea trial ones prove the availability of the wake echo signal mathematic model. It is useful for studying ship wake echo signal processing and detecting.%关于舰船尾流信号准确性估计可以实现对跟踪目标的确认.针对舰船尾流回波信号是分布在尾流中大量气泡散射入射波而产生的体积混响,提出用舰船尾流回波信号声物理模型,实现了对舰船尾流回波信号的数学建模.根据气泡的声学特性和在尾流中的分布规律,分析了尾流回波信号的声学模型,并利用声学模型、FOM混响理论模型和尾流回波信号统计建模方法,建立了尾流回波信号的数学模型.通过Matlab仿真,结果的功率谱与概率密度的分布情况,以及仿真结果与实航尾流回波信号的比较,验证了尾流回波信号模型的有效性和准确性.为研究尾流回波信号处理和检测提供了科学依据.

  3. Models for Sixty Double-Lined Binaries containing Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Eggleton, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    The observed masses, radii and temperatures of 60 medium- to long-period binaries, most of which contain a cool, evolved star and a hotter less-evolved one, are compared with theoretical models which include (a) core convective overshooting, (b)mass loss, possibly driven by dynamo action as in RS CVn binaries, and (c) tidal friction, including its effect on orbital period through magnetic braking. A reasonable fit is found in about 42 cases, but in 11 other cases the primaries appear to have lost either more mass or less mass than the models predict, and in 4 others the orbit is predicted to be either more or less circular than observed. Of the remaining 3 systems, two ($\\gamma$ Per and HR 8242) have a markedly `over-evolved' secondary, our explanation being that the primary component is the merged remnant of a former short-period sub-binary in a former triple system. The last system (V695 Cyg) defies any agreement at present. Mention is also made of three other systems (V643 Ori, OW Gem and V453 Cep), which ...

  4. Advanced uncertainty modelling for container port risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Hani; Yang, Zaili; Riahi, Ramin; Bonsall, Stephen; Wang, Jin

    2016-08-13

    Globalization has led to a rapid increase of container movements in seaports. Risks in seaports need to be appropriately addressed to ensure economic wealth, operational efficiency, and personnel safety. As a result, the safety performance of a Container Terminal Operational System (CTOS) plays a growing role in improving the efficiency of international trade. This paper proposes a novel method to facilitate the application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in assessing the safety performance of CTOS. The new approach is developed through incorporating a Fuzzy Rule-Based Bayesian Network (FRBN) with Evidential Reasoning (ER) in a complementary manner. The former provides a realistic and flexible method to describe input failure information for risk estimates of individual hazardous events (HEs) at the bottom level of a risk analysis hierarchy. The latter is used to aggregate HEs safety estimates collectively, allowing dynamic risk-based decision support in CTOS from a systematic perspective. The novel feature of the proposed method, compared to those in traditional port risk analysis lies in a dynamic model capable of dealing with continually changing operational conditions in ports. More importantly, a new sensitivity analysis method is developed and carried out to rank the HEs by taking into account their specific risk estimations (locally) and their Risk Influence (RI) to a port's safety system (globally). Due to its generality, the new approach can be tailored for a wide range of applications in different safety and reliability engineering and management systems, particularly when real time risk ranking is required to measure, predict, and improve the associated system safety performance.

  5. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  6. Using Fourier-Motzkin-Elimination to Derive Capacity Models of Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajspur, Mai Lise; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2017-01-01

    Due to its high computational complexity, Fourier-Motzkin-Elimination (FME) is mainly known as a theoretical approach to determine feasibility of a linear program (LP). Current applications of FME in static program analysis and logic programming is based on the fact that it is a transformation co...... objective is to simplify the LP by eliminating most of its variables. We show that this is possible for the key challenge in liner shipping of defining the capacity of container vessels as a function of the mixture of cargo they carry....

  7. Thermal Modelling of Permanent Magnent Machines Using double layer winding - Strategies for cooling of PM motors in ship propulsion pods

    OpenAIRE

    Therattil Mohanan, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    The trend to carry out thermal analysis of Electric Motor is increasing day by day so as to improve the performance of the machines. This paper deals with the thermal analysis of Electric Motors and their cooling solutions, focusing on Ship Propulsion Pods. Using Finite element analysis (FEM), temperature distribution in two coils in a slot, with different turn profiles are considered in this study. The effect of temperature with the use of different conductor s shapes in slot of the machine,...

  8. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... analyses, it is shown that the influence of torsion induced warping stresses on the ultimate hull girder bending strength is small for ductile hull materials while torsion induced shear stresses will of course reduce the ship hull ultimate bending moment....

  9. Modelling of sprays in containment applications with A CMFD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.f [Electricite de France R and D Division, 6 Quai Watier, F-78400 Chatou (France); Lamy, J.-S. [Electricite de France R and D Division, 1 av. du General de Gaulle, F-92140 Clamart (France); Lavieville, J. [Electricite de France R and D Division, 6 Quai Watier, F-78400 Chatou (France); Guieu, S.; Martin, M. [Electricite de France SEPTEN Division, 12-14 av. Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-09-15

    During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), spray systems are used in the containment in order to prevent overpressure in case of a steam line break, and to enhance the gas mixing in case of the presence of hydrogen. In the frame of the Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET) of the 6th EC Framework Programme, two tests was produced in the TOSQAN facility in order to study the spray behaviour under severe accident conditions: TOSQAN 101 and TOSQAN 113. The TOSQAN facility is a closed cylindrical vessel. The inner spray system is located on the top of the enclosure on the vertical axis. For the TOSQAN 101 case, an initial pressurization in the vessel is performed with superheated steam up to 2.5 bar. Then, steam injection is stopped and spraying starts simultaneously at a given water temperature (around 25 {sup o}C) and water mass flow-rate (around 30 g/s). The depressurization transient starts and continues until the equilibrium phase, which corresponds to the stabilization of the average temperature and pressure of the gaseous mixture inside the vessel. The purpose of the TOSQAN 113 cold spray test is to study helium mixing due to spray activation without heat and mass transfers between gas and droplets. We present in this paper the spray modelling implemented in NEPTUNE{sub C}FD, a three-dimensional multi-fluid code developed especially for nuclear reactor applications. A new model dedicated to the droplet evaporation at the wall is also detailed. Keeping in mind the Best Practice Guidelines, closure laws have been selected to ensure a grid-dependence as weak as possible. For the TOSQAN 113 case, the time evolution of the helium volume fraction calculated shows that the physical approach described in the paper is able to reproduce the mixing of helium by the spray. The prediction of the transient behaviour should be improved by including in the model corrections based on better understanding of the influence of the

  10. Seismic analysis of a reinforced concrete containment vessel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RANDY,JAMES J.; CHERRY,JEFFERY L.; RASHID,YUSEF R.; CHOKSHI,NILESH

    2000-02-03

    Pre-and post-test analytical predictions of the dynamic behavior of a 1:10 scale model Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel are presented. This model, designed and constructed by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., was subjected to seismic simulation tests using the high-performance shaking table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. A group of tests representing design-level and beyond-design-level ground motions were first conducted to verify design safety margins. These were followed by a series of tests in which progressively larger base motions were applied until structural failure was induced. The analysis was performed by ANATECH Corp. and Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, employing state-of-the-art finite-element software specifically developed for concrete structures. Three-dimensional time-history analyses were performed, first as pre-test blind predictions to evaluate the general capabilities of the analytical methods, and second as post-test validation of the methods and interpretation of the test result. The input data consisted of acceleration time histories for the horizontal, vertical and rotational (rocking) components, as measured by accelerometers mounted on the structure's basemat. The response data consisted of acceleration and displacement records for various points on the structure, as well as time-history records of strain gages mounted on the reinforcement. This paper reports on work in progress and presents pre-test predictions and post-test comparisons to measured data for tests simulating maximum design basis and extreme design basis earthquakes. The pre-test analyses predict the failure earthquake of the test structure to have an energy level in the range of four to five times the energy level of the safe shutdown earthquake. The post-test calculations completed so far show good agreement with measured data.

  11. Mathematical Modelling of Leachate Production from Waste Contained Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojolo S. Joshua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mathematical models of leachate production from Waste Contained Site (WCS was developed and validated using the existing experimental data with aid of MATLAB, 2007a. When the leachate generation potentials (Lo were 100m3, 80m3 and 50m3, the maximum amount of leachate generated were about 2920m3, 2338m3 and 1461m3 for about 130 days respectively. It was noted that as the leachate percolates through a selected distance, the concentration keeps decreasing for one-dimensional flow in all the cases considered. Decreasing in concentration continues until a point was reached when the concentration was almost zero and later constant. The effects of diffusivity, amount of organic content present within the waste and gravity, as cases, were also considered in various occasions during the percolation. Comparison of their effects was also taken into account. In case of gravity at constant diffusivity, decrease in concentration was not rapid but gradually while much organic content in the waste caused the rate of leachate production to be rapid; hence, giving rise to a sharp sloped curve. It can be concluded that gravity influences the rate of change in the concentration of the leachate generation as the leachate percolate downward to the underground water. When the diffusivity and gravity are put into consideration, the concentration of the leachate decreases gradually and slowly.

  12. 船舶轴系静态校中有限元模型研究%Research on the Finite Element Model of Static Ship Shafting Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 华春梅

    2016-01-01

    Taking a certain type of ship shafting as the research object, based on the actual shafting size, the researchers make research on the modeling problems in static ship shafting alignment according to the finite element method. Based on the finite element simplicity principle, the researchers reasonably deal with the shafting load, study the six kinds of combined working conditions about the shafting bearing support, and establish the shafting finite element model. By applying the constraints and loads on the model, the research certifies that the model can be the finite element model for further alignment calculation.%以某型船舶轴系为研究对象,在实际轴系尺寸基础上,基于有限元法对船舶轴系静态校中时的建模问题进行研究。根据有限元简化原则,对轴系载荷进行合理处理,进而研究轴系轴承支撑的六种组合工况,建立轴系有限元模型。通过对模型施加约束和载荷,结果表明所建模型可以作为进一步校中计算的有限元模型。

  13. The Retrograde of Shipping Containers from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional...by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662...primary routes in Pakistan which are presently used to transport all types of cargo into P A K G L O C 15 Afghanistan, the Peshawar -Torkham route

  14. Performance characterisation for risk assessment of striking ship impacts based on struck ship damaged volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obisesan, Abayomi; Sriramula, Srinivas

    2017-06-01

    Ship collision accidents are rare events but pose huge threat to human lives, assets, and the environment. Many researchers have sought for effective models that compute ship stochastic response during collisions by considering the variability of ship collision scenario parameters. However, the existing models were limited by the capability of the collision computational models and did not completely capture collision scenario, and material and geometric uncertainties. In this paper, a novel framework to performance characterisation of ships in collision involving a variety of striking ships is developed, by characterising the structural consequences with efficient response models. A double-hull oil carrier is chosen as the struck ship to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed framework. Response surface techniques are employed to generate the most probable input design sets which are used to sample an automated finite element tool to compute the chosen structural consequences. The resulting predictor-response relationships are fitted with suitable surrogate models to probabilistically characterise the struck ship damage under collisions. As demonstrated in this paper, such models are extremely useful to reduce the computational complexity in obtaining probabilistic design measures for ship structures. The proposed probabilistic approach is also combined with available collision frequency models from literature to demonstrate the risk tolerance computations.

  15. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...... wave- and whipping induced bending moment is derived under the assumption that the maximum peak value in a whipping sequence occurs simultaneously with a peak in sagging wave-induced bending moment, but that the magnitudes of these two peaks are statistically independent. The expression can be written...... as the usual Rayleigh distribution for the wave response multiplied by a factor independent of the significant wave height. Finally, the springing and whipping predictions are compared with model test results....

  16. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of difficulties associated with control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance...... limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...... and the applicability of different mathematical models, and it surveys the control methods that have been implemented and validated with full scale experiments. The paper also presents an outlook on what are believed to be potential areas of research within this topic....

  17. Impacts of ship movement on the sediment transport in shipping channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Sheng-cheng; OUAHSINE Abdellatif; SMAOUI Hassan; SERGENT Philippe; JING Guo-qing

    2014-01-01

    The duration of ship-generated waves (wake waves) and accelerated currents can generate significant influences on the sediment transport. A 3-D numerical model is presented to estimate these effects. The hydrodynamic model is the 3-D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations including the standardk-e model while the 3-D convection-diffusion model is for the resuspended sediment transport. This hydro-sedimentary model is firstly validated with the trench experimental results, and then applied to the open channel with a moving ship. The computed results demonstrate that the resuspension generation mainly depends on ship speeds, barge number, and the relative distance away from ship. The acceleration effects of ship on the sediment transport are analyzed as well.

  18. Experimental framework for autonomous fast ships's control design

    OpenAIRE

    Recas Piorno, Joaquín; Esteban San Román, Segundo; Girón Sierra, José María; Cruz García, Jesús Manuel de la

    2005-01-01

    The research on seakeeping control of fast ships requires difficult experiments for modeling and control design. To alleviate the ship motion certain active appendages are added, such moving flaps, T-foil and fins. The motion of appendages must be optimized to counteract each encountered wave. During our first research steps, a scaled down ship, with scaled appendages, has been used in a towing tank facility. The scaled ship is towed at fixed speeds of experimental interest, for instance at t...

  19. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...... in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator....

  20. Review of a model to assess stranding of juvenile salmon by ship wakes along the Lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.

    2013-01-01

    Long period wake waves from deep draft vessels have been shown to strand small fish, particularly juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytcha, in the lower Columbia River (LCR). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for maintaining the shipping channel in the LCR and recently conducted dredging operations to deepen the shipping channel from an authorized depth of 40 feet(ft) to an authorized depth of 43 ft (in areas where rapid shoaling was expected, dredging operations were used to increase the channel depth to 48 ft). A model was developed to estimate stranding probabilities for juvenile salmon under the 40- and 43-ft channel scenarios, to determine if channel deepening was going to affect wake stranding (Assessment of potential stranding of juvenile salmon by ship wakes along the Lower Columbia River under scenarios of ship traffic and channel depth: Report prepared for the Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oregon). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers funded the U.S. Geological Survey to review this model. A total of 30 review questions were provided to guide the review process, and these questions are addressed in this report. In general, we determined that the analyses by Pearson (2011) were appropriate given the data available. We did identify two areas where additional information could have been provided: (1) a more thorough description of model diagnostics and model selection would have been useful for the reader to better understand the model framework; and (2) model uncertainty should have been explicitly described and reported in the document. Stranding probability estimates between the 40- and 43-ft channel depths were minimally different under most of the scenarios that were examined by Pearson (2011), and a discussion of the effects of uncertainty given these minimal differences would have been useful. Ultimately, however, a stochastic (or simulation) model would provide the best opportunity to illustrate

  1. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    Safety has been in the focus of seafaring during the past decade that observed a gradual reduction of reported work injuries in Danish ships. The injuries are, however, unevenly distributed in the maritime workforce, depending on various factors, the nationality of seafarer among them. The aim of...... the occurrence as well as the reporting of accidents is crucial to construct effective preventive measures for risk management....... to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... Western European seafarers compared to South East Asian (mostly Filipino) employees. The results highlight a favourable level of reported injuries in the Danish maritime sector but also point out detectable differences between groups of employees. The identification of factors that determine...

  2. Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a Cruise Ship Discharge Assessment Report in response to a petition the agency received in March 2000. The petition requested that EPA assess and where necessary control discharges from cruise ships. Comments received during public hearings, in 2000, resulted in the EPA agreeing to conduct a survey to assess the discharge plumes resulting from cruise ships, operating in ocean waters off the Florida coast and to compare the results to the Alaska dispersion models. This survey report describes the daily activities of August 2001 Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey, and provides a synopsis of the observations from the survey. It also provides data that can be used to assess dispersion of cruise ship wastewater discharges, while in transit. A description of the survey methods is provided in Section 2. Survey results are presented in Section 3. Findings and conclusions are discussed in Section 4.

  3. Brush development for underwater ship hull coating maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribou, Melissa Eileen

    Ship hull grooming has been proposed as an environmentally friendly method of maintaining ship hull coatings in a fouling-free condition. It is defined as the frequent and gentle cleaning of a ship hull coating to prevent the establishment of fouling. This research investigated the grooming tool properties and operational requirements needed to implement the method. The grooming tool needs to provide sufficient force to remove incipient fouling without damaging the surface and consume minimal energy. Research showed that a vertical rotating brush design containing brushes filled with angled polypropylene bristles provided an effective method. This brush system was able to successfully prevent incipient fouling from becoming established on a copper ablative and two silicone fouling release coatings when groomed on a weekly basis; however, biofilm was not completely controlled. Brush design and operational parameters in relation to brush normal forces were investigated and models were developed to understand the relationship between bristle stiffness, dimensions, and angular velocity. A preliminary look at wear found that bristle stiffness has an effect on the degree of marring of the surface of a silicone fouling release coating. The knowledge gained by this research may be used to optimize grooming brush design and operational parameters that can be applied to the design and deployment of low power autonomous underwater vehicles that will groom the ship while in port.

  4. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  5. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  6. 基于BEKK方差模型的干散货航运市场间波动溢出效应分析%Analysis of Volatility Spillover Effect Among Dry Bulk Shipping Markets Based on BEKK Variance Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范永辉; 杨华龙; 刘金霞

    2012-01-01

    In view of the interactive relationship among handysize, panamax and capsize dry bulk shipping markets, the dry bulk freight indexes of different vessel types issued by the Baltic Shipping Exchange were employed and the volatility spillover effect among three dry bulk shipping markets of different vessel types was studied by BEKK variance model of multivariate GARCH. It is pointed that capesize dry bulk shipping market has volatility spillover effect on handysize dry bulk shipping market and panamax dry bulk shipping market while handysize dry bulk shipping market and panamax dry bulk shipping market have no volatility spillover effect on capesize dry bulk shipping market, and there is a two-way volatility spillover effect between handysize dry bulk shipping market and panamax dry bulk shipping market. Wald test verified the correctness of above inference. The results can provide references for dry bulk shipping operators to avoid risk of market volatility.%针对灵便型、巴拿马型和海岬型干散货航运市场间的互动关系问题,选取波罗的海干散货运价指数,应用多元广义自回归条件异方差中的BEKK方差分析模型,研究了干散货航运市场间的波动溢出效应.发现海岬型干散货航运市场对灵便型和巴拿马型干散货航运市场存在波动溢出效应,而灵便型和巴拿马型干散货航运市场对海岬型干散货航运市场不存在波动溢出效应,灵便型干散货航运市场和巴拿马型干散货航运市场之间存在双向波动溢出效应,Wald检验验证了上述结论的正确性.从而可为航运经营者规避干散货航运市场波动风险提供决策参考.

  7. 支持向量机网络在船舶电力推进系统状态评估中的研究%State evaluation process and model research of ship electric propulsion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永祥; 孔祥海

    2015-01-01

    船舶电力推进系统状态评估是状态检修的前提和基础,建立合适的舰船电力推进系统状态评估流程与模型,并开发出可行的评估系统是舰船状态评估的必须步骤。本文在对船舶电力推进系统的状态评估方法进行概述和分类的基础上,提出船舶电力推进系统状态评估流程、基于支持向量机网络的船舶电力推进系统状态评估模型和具体的评估步骤。%The state evaluation of the ship electric propulsion system is the premise and foundation of the state overhaul. The establishment of proper state evaluation process and the model of ship electric propulsion system and the final development of feasible evaluation system are the indispensable steps of ship state evaluation. In this work, the status of ship electric propulsion system evaluation methods are summarized and classified and the state evaluation process of ship electric propulsion system was put forward. The evaluation model and the the specific steps of the ship electric propulsion were put forward based on support vector machine network.

  8. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community.

  9. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  10. A Hybrid Decision-Making Model for Selecting Container Seaport in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ports have always played a vital role in international transportation. Port selection decision is a process that requires consideration of many important and relevant criteria. The selection of the influential decision-making criteria is also a significant and vital issue which demands cautious thoughts. The main objective of this paper is to weigh the most dominant decision-making criteria by Technique for Order Preference to Similarity by Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and select an optimised container seaport in the Persian Gulf by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP according to decisive port selection factors. This paper presents an extensive review of port selection decision-making attributes in different past studies. Finally, by using TOPSIS and AHP, the findings of this research suggest that the working time, stevedoring rate, safety, port entrance, sufficient draft, capacity of port facilities, operating cost, number of berths, ship chandelling, and international policies are critical factors for selecting container seaport in the Persian Gulf.

  11. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information s...... impacts on global trade and local economies....

  12. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information s...

  13. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  14. A hybrid AR-EMD-SVR model for the short-term prediction of nonlinear and non-stationary ship motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-yang DUAN; Li-min HUANG; Yang HAN; Ya-hui ZHANG; Shuo HUANG

    2015-01-01

    题目:用于非线性非平稳船舶运动极短期预报的一种复合自回归经验模态分解支持向量机回归模型  目的:基于支持向量机回归(SVR)模型在非线时间序列的预测能力及经验模态分解(EMD)方法在处理非线性非平稳性的优势,提出一种复合自回归经验模态分解支持向量机回归(AR-EMD-SVR)模型,提高非线性非平稳船舶运动极短期预报精度。  创新点:1.研究非线性非平稳船舶运动的极短期预报问题,提出一种复合的预报方法;2.基于不同层次的预报模型和模型试验数据,分析非线性非平稳性对极短期预报精度的影响。  方法:1.在SVR模型中引入基于自回归(AR)预报端点延拓的 EMD 方法,形成复合的 AR-EMD-SVR 预报模型;2.基于集装箱船模水池试验运动数据将 AR-EMD-SVR 模型与 AR、SVR 和EMD-AR 三种模型进行比较,分析非线性非平稳性对极短期预报的影响以及不同模型的预报性能。  结论:1. AR-EMD 方法能够有效的克服非平稳对极短期预报模型(AR和 SVR)在精度上所带来的不良影响;2.基于船模试验数据的预报结果表明:相较于 AR、SVR 和 EMD-AR 三种预报模型,基于 AR-EMD-SVR模型的非线性非平稳船舶运动极短期预报结果具有更高的精度。%Accurate and reliable short-term prediction of ship motions offers improvements in both safety and control quality in ship motion sensitive maritime operations. Inspired by the satisfactory nonlinear learning capability of a support vector re-gression (SVR) model and the strong non-stationary processing ability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), this paper develops a hybrid autoregressive (AR)-EMD-SVR model for the short-term forecast of nonlinear and non-stationary ship motion. The proposed hybrid model is designed by coupling the SVR model with an AR-EMD technique, which employs an AR model in ends

  15. Pretest Round Robin Analysis of 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HESSHEIMER,MICHAEL F.; LUK,VINCENT K.; KLAMERUS,ERIC W.; SHIBATA,S.; MITSUGI,S.; COSTELLO,J.F.

    2000-12-18

    The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative scale models of nuclear containment to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. This objective is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. This research program consists of testing two scale models: a steel containment vessel (SCV) model (tested in 1996) and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, which is the subject of this paper.

  16. Applications of aerosol model in the reactor containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossad Slama

    2014-10-01

    For spatially homogeneous aerosol of uniform chemical composition, the aerosol dynamic equation is solved in closed volume to simulate the radionuclide particle transport in the containment. The effects of initial conditions on the aerosol distribution, boundary layer thickness and the aerosol behaviour under source reinforcement (external source are considered.

  17. Satellite measurements of formaldehyde from shipping emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marbach

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available International shipping is recognized as a pollution source of growing importance, in particular in the remote marine boundary layer. Nitrogen dioxide originating from ship emissions has previously been detected in satellite measurements. This study presents the first satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO linked to shipping emissions as derived from observations made by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME instrument.

    We analyzed enhanced HCHO tropospheric columns from shipping emissions over the Indian Ocean between Sri Lanka and Sumatra. This region offers good conditions in term of plume detection with the GOME instrument as all ship tracks follow a single narrow track in the same east-west direction as used for the GOME pixel scanning. The HCHO signal alone is weak but could be clearly seen in the high-pass filtered data. The line of enhanced HCHO in the Indian Ocean as seen in the 7-year composite of cloud free GOME observations clearly coincides with the distinct ship track corridor from Sri Lanka to Indonesia. The observed mean HCHO column enhancement over this shipping route is about 2.0×1015 molec/cm2.

    The observed HCHO pattern also agrees qualitatively well with results from the coupled earth system model ECHAM5/MESSy applied to atmospheric chemistry (EMAC. However, the modelled HCHO values over the ship corridor are two times lower than in the GOME high-pass filtered data. This might indicate that the used emission inventories are too low and/or that the in-plume chemistry taking place in the narrow path of the shipping lanes are not well represented at the rather coarse model resolution.

  18. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck app

  19. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck app

  20. 77 FR 51801 - Controlled Carriers Under the Shipping Act of 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Controlled Carriers Under the Shipping Act of 1984 August 22, 2012. AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission... SCI tariffs in U.S.-foreign trades were cancelled effective February 21, 2011. China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd. and China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Company, Ltd. are now a...

  1. CFD as a seakeeping tool for ship design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Peter Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Seakeeping analysis has progressed from the linear frequency-domain 2D strip method to the nonlinear time-domain 3D panel method. Nevertheless, the violent free surface flows such as slamming and green water on deck are beyond the scope of traditional panel methods based on potential theory. Recently, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has become an attractive numerical tool that can effectively deal with the violent free surface flows. ABS, as a classification society, is putting forth a significant amount of effort to implement the CFD technology to the advanced strength assessment of modern commercial ships and high-speed naval craft. The main objective of this study is to validate the CFD technology as a seakeeping tool for ship design considering fully nonlinear three-dimensional slamming and green water on deck. The structural loads on a large container carrier were successfully calculated from the CFD analysis and validated with segmented model test measurements.

  2. Model experiment on capsizing of damaged RO-RO passenger ship in beam seas; Sonsho shita RO-RO kyakusen no ohachu tenpuku ni kansuru mokei jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, T.; Ishida, S. [Ministry of Transportation, Tokyo (Japan)] Murashige, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In this study, a model of the RO-RO passenger ship was made, a capsizing experiment was carried out in a case of a damaged crack existed in higher wave height side in the beam seas. The main results were obtained as follows: the restored standard after damage was satisfied in the Treaty of Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS`90) and the capsizing would not happen in the case of no initial heel. In the case with initial heel, ship would be heeled to the side of higher wave height with damage crack, capsizing would happen when the significant wave height was higher and the permeability to the car deck was larger. That is, it was necessary for residence water to easily stay in the damage side with the initial heel in order that the capsizing happened. In the case of the capsizing with an initial heel, the critical height of the residence water on the car deck was nearly in agreement with the British proposal: `calculation equations showing necessary restored performance in consideration of the permeation to the car deck`, when the peak period in wave spectrum was 7 to 9 seconds. There is no agreement when the peak period is longer than that. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Assessment regarding the use of the computer aided analytical models in the calculus of the general strength of a ship hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreniuc, V.; Hreniuc, A.; Pescaru, A.

    2017-08-01

    Solving a general strength problem of a ship hull may be done using analytical approaches which are useful to deduce the buoyancy forces distribution, the weighting forces distribution along the hull and the geometrical characteristics of the sections. These data are used to draw the free body diagrams and to compute the stresses. The general strength problems require a large amount of calculi, therefore it is interesting how a computer may be used to solve such problems. Using computer programming an engineer may conceive software instruments based on analytical approaches. However, before developing the computer code the research topic must be thoroughly analysed, in this way being reached a meta-level of understanding of the problem. The following stage is to conceive an appropriate development strategy of the original software instruments useful for the rapid development of computer aided analytical models. The geometrical characteristics of the sections may be computed using a bool algebra that operates with ‘simple’ geometrical shapes. By ‘simple’ we mean that for the according shapes we have direct calculus relations. In the set of ‘simple’ shapes we also have geometrical entities bounded by curves approximated as spline functions or as polygons. To conclude, computer programming offers the necessary support to solve general strength ship hull problems using analytical methods.

  4. Improved ship maintenance cost case adaptation model%改进的舰船维修费案例调整模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    訾书宇; 魏汝祥; 蒋铁军; 谢力

    2012-01-01

    In order to enhance the adaptation effect of ship maintenance cost case, an improved ship maintenance cost case adaptation model is proposed according to the modeling process of producing adaptation knowledge, reducing adaptation knowledge and reasoning adaptation knowledge. In this model, the ship maintenance cost case adaptation knowledge is produced by the direct similarity sets and indirect similarity sets of target cases based on the Policastro's format; towards the problems that correlation and redundancy exist in the above adaptation knowledge, or the knowledge is too large to deal with, an improved rule reduction method is put forward which can both reduce the above knowledge effectively and measure their importance accurately, in addition, the algorithm for rule reduction is given; in order to improve the performance of knowledge reasoning, least square support vector machine (LSSVM) which has strong generalization power and perfect learning power is used to establish the ship maintenance cost case adaptation knowledge reasoning model, and the parameters of model are optimized according to genetic algorithm (GA) and cross-validation method. Example analysis reveals that, compared with other case adaptation models, the adaptation accuracy of the proposed model is far better, so the proposed model is scientific and valid.%为提高舰船维修费案例的调整效果,遵循着调整知识产生、调整知识约简和调整知识推理的建模过程,提出了一种改进的舰船维修费案例调整模型.在该模型中,采用Policastro的重构方式,利用目标案例的直接和间接相似案例集,产生舰船维修费案例的调整知识;针对调整知识中可能存在冗余、相关性、知识量过于庞大不便于推理等问题,提出了一种既能有效约简调整知识、又能准确衡量调整知识重要度的改进规则约简方法,并给出了具体的实现算法;为提高知识推理的效率,采用具有强泛化能力和

  5. Modeling Oxidation Kinetics of SiC-Containing Refractory Diborides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    K. E. Spear, R. E. Tressler, and C. F. Ram- berg, “Passive-Oxidation Kinetics of High - Purity Silicon Carbide from 800 to 1100 C,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc...investigations47–53 in pure oxygen; there is a large scatter in the data. Figure 2 includes data collected on high purity SiC by Ramberg et al.,47 and...mechanism. Data reported for pure SiC in air/oxygen, for ZrB2 containing varying volume fractions of SiC , and for SiC –HfB2 ultra- high temperature

  6. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  7. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE......As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...

  8. Modeling of 3D Woven Composites Containing Multiple Delaminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    researchers 3D woven composites shows better damage tolerance than laminated textile composites without z-yarns such as plain woven composites even...modeling of quasi-static short beam shear test of plain woven laminated composites. Cohesive elements were used in regions where transverse cracks and...Title ABSTRACT In this paper we present FE modeling of quasi-static short beam shear test of plain woven laminated composites. Cohesive elements were

  9. Superconducting Electric Machines for Ship Propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-14

    ship propulsion applications. These concepts evolved from previous work at MIT on superconducting AC machines. The superconducting machines considered were: (1) multipole, low-speed motors, (2) torque compensated motors, (3) high-speed generator, (4) rotating air-gap armature induction motor, (5) thyristor switched AC motors. The first four machine types were studied theoretically while experimental models were constructed of the last two. Preliminary designs were completed...of the five mahcines for an appropriate ship ... propulsion application. In

  10. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  11. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  12. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  13. Ship bow waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOBLESSE Francis; DELHOMMEAU Gerard; LIU Hua; WAN De-cheng; YANG Chi

    2013-01-01

    The bow wave generated by a ship hull that advances at constant speed in calm water is considered.The bow wave only depends on the shape of the ship bow (not on the hull geometry aft of the bow wave).This basic property makes it possible to determine the bow waves generated by a canonical family of ship bows defined in terms of relatively few parameters.Fast ships with fine bows generate overturning bow waves that consist of detached thin sheets of water,which are mostly steady until they hit the main free surface and undergo turbulent breaking up and diffusion.However,slow ships with blunt bows create highly unsteady and turbulent breaking bow waves.These two alternative flow regimes are due to a nonlinear constraint related to the Bernoulli relation at the free surface.Recent results about the overturning and breaking bow wave regimes,and the boundary that divides these two basic flow regimes,are reviewed.Questions and conjectures about the energy of breaking ship bow waves,and free-surface effects on flow circulation,are also noted.

  14. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...... experimental results from crushing tests of aluminium hull girder components with realistic full-scale scantlings. A comparison with existing simplified calculation procedures for ductile metallic structures show that these procedures cannot be used to predict the crushing behaviour of the fore body of high......The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...

  15. 船闸阻抗影响下的内河航线非线性配船模型%Nonlinear ship assigmnent model under effect of lockage time impedance for inland river route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林珈伊; 陶桂兰

    2012-01-01

    为得到可靠的最优航线配船方案,从内河繁忙航线上船舶过闸的时间开始研究,得出船舶经过船闸处时间变动与航线配船数量的关系;在线性规划的航线配船模型基础上,建立受船闸时间阻抗变动影响的航线非线性配船模型.应用该模型,设计某一内河航运船队的最优配船方案.分析表明,该非线性模型考虑的影响因素更全面,运用该模型得到的配船结果比线性规划模型更合理.%In order to obtain a reliable and optimal ship assignment plan, the study starts from the lockage time on a busy inland river route, and then the relationship between the variation of lockage time and the quantity of route ship assignment is obtained. On the basis of linear programming route ship assignment model, a nonlinear ship assignment model under the effect of lockage time impedance variation is put forward. An optimal ship assignment plan is designed for a certain inland river route by using this model. The analysis shows that this model takes more influencing factors into consideration, and the ship assignment result obtained by using this model is more reasonable than the linear one.

  16. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  17. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the collidi...

  18. Modeling systems containing alkanolamines with the CPA equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2008-01-01

    An association model, the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS), is applied for the first time to a class of multifunctional compounds (alkanolamines). Three alkanolamines of practical and scientific significance are considered; monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA...... studied using the CPA equation of state (alcohols, amines, and glycols)....

  19. Modeling the Controlled Recrystallization of Particle-Containing Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Khaled; Root, Jameson M.; Long, Zhengdong; Field, David P.

    2016-12-01

    The recrystallized fraction for AA7050 during the solution heat treatment is highly dependent upon the history of deformation during thermomechanical processing. In this work, a state variable model was developed to predict the recrystallization volume fraction as a function of processing parameters. Particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) was observed as a dominant mechanism of recrystallization in AA7050. The mesoscale Monte Carlo Potts model was used to simulate the evolved microstructure during static recrystallization with the given recrystallization fraction determined already by the state variable model for AA7050 alloy. The spatial inhomogeneity of nucleation is obtained from the measurement of the actual second-phase particle distribution in the matrix identified using backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. The state variable model showed good fit with the experimental results, and the simulated microstructures were quantitatively comparable to the experimental results for the PSN recrystallized microstructure of 7050 aluminum alloy. It was also found that the volume fraction of recrystallization did not proceed as dictated by the Avrami equation in this alloy because of the presence of the growth inhibitors.

  20. Modeling the Controlled Recrystallization of Particle-Containing Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Khaled; Root, Jameson M.; Long, Zhengdong; Field, David P.

    2017-01-01

    The recrystallized fraction for AA7050 during the solution heat treatment is highly dependent upon the history of deformation during thermomechanical processing. In this work, a state variable model was developed to predict the recrystallization volume fraction as a function of processing parameters. Particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) was observed as a dominant mechanism of recrystallization in AA7050. The mesoscale Monte Carlo Potts model was used to simulate the evolved microstructure during static recrystallization with the given recrystallization fraction determined already by the state variable model for AA7050 alloy. The spatial inhomogeneity of nucleation is obtained from the measurement of the actual second-phase particle distribution in the matrix identified using backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. The state variable model showed good fit with the experimental results, and the simulated microstructures were quantitatively comparable to the experimental results for the PSN recrystallized microstructure of 7050 aluminum alloy. It was also found that the volume fraction of recrystallization did not proceed as dictated by the Avrami equation in this alloy because of the presence of the growth inhibitors.