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Sample records for container productivity profiles

  1. Sensory profiling and consumer acceptability of new dark cocoa bars containing Tuscan autochthonous food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Claudio; Salusti, Patrizia; Romi, Marco; Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2018-03-01

    A new set of cocoa bars named Toscolata ® were developed containing top-quality extra virgin olive oil, dried apples cultivars, and chestnut flour. The present work has been conducted to define the sensory profile of these products through tasting by trained experts and consumers to study the acceptability, preference, and quality perception. The four sensorial profiles of the bars differed in the level of persistence, bitterness, aromaticity, acidity, astringency, and tastiness. In particular, the sour attribute could be traced to the presence of dried apple. Bars containing apple and chestnut flour obtained higher acceptance ratings, compared to those with extra virgin olive oil. The bar with chestnut flour was preferred by consumers who considered it to be sweeter due to the presence of natural sugars, which lowered the bitter sensation of cocoa. These results showed that the selection of the preferred bar by consumers was mainly based on the level of bitterness and, in particular, elderly consumers expressed a strong preference for the sweetest product. As far as we know, this is the first study comparing the results of a panel of expert tasters with that of consumers in the tasting of dark chocolate.

  2. Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lin, I-Hsin; Tseng, Wei-Lum; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Some Chinese herbal products (CHPs) may contain aristolochic acid (AA) or may be adulterated by the herbs suspected of containing AA which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. This study aims to identify the risk and the prescription profile of AA-containing CHPs (AA-CHPs) in Taiwan. Methods A longitudinal analysis was conducted on a randomly sampled cohort of 200,000 patients using the data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003. Results Duri...

  3. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  4. Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chang-Hsing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some Chinese herbal products (CHPs may contain aristolochic acid (AA or may be adulterated by the herbs suspected of containing AA which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. This study aims to identify the risk and the prescription profile of AA-containing CHPs (AA-CHPs in Taiwan. Methods A longitudinal analysis was conducted on a randomly sampled cohort of 200,000 patients using the data from the National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003. Results During the 7-year study period, 78,644 patients were prescribed with AA-CHPs; most patients were females, or middle-aged, or both. A total of 526,867 prescriptions were made to use 1,218 licensed AA-CHPs. Over 85% of the AA-exposed patients took less than 60 g of AA-herbs; however, about 7% were exposed to a cumulated dose of over 100 g of Radix et Rhizoma Asari (Xixin, Caulis Akebiae (Mutong or Fructus Aristolochiae (Madouling. Patients of respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases received most of the AA-CHP prescriptions. The most frequently prescribed AA-CHPs Shujing Huoxie Tang, Chuanqiong Chadiao San and Longdan Xiegan Tang, containing Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Radix et Rhizoma Asari and Caulis Akebiae, respectively. Conclusion About one-third of people in Taiwan have been prescribed with AA-CHPs between 1997 and 2003. Although the cumulated doses were not large, further actions should be carried out to ensure the safe use of AA-CHPs.

  5. Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lin, I-Hsin; Tseng, Wei-Lum; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-10-23

    Some Chinese herbal products (CHPs) may contain aristolochic acid (AA) or may be adulterated by the herbs suspected of containing AA which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. This study aims to identify the risk and the prescription profile of AA-containing CHPs (AA-CHPs) in Taiwan. A longitudinal analysis was conducted on a randomly sampled cohort of 200,000 patients using the data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003. During the 7-year study period, 78,644 patients were prescribed with AA-CHPs; most patients were females, or middle-aged, or both. A total of 526,867 prescriptions were made to use 1,218 licensed AA-CHPs. Over 85% of the AA-exposed patients took less than 60 g of AA-herbs; however, about 7% were exposed to a cumulated dose of over 100 g of Radix et Rhizoma Asari (Xixin), Caulis Akebiae (Mutong) or Fructus Aristolochiae (Madouling). Patients of respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases received most of the AA-CHP prescriptions. The most frequently prescribed AA-CHPs Shujing Huoxie Tang, Chuanqiong Chadiao San and Longdan Xiegan Tang, containing Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Radix et Rhizoma Asari and Caulis Akebiae, respectively. About one-third of people in Taiwan have been prescribed with AA-CHPs between 1997 and 2003. Although the cumulated doses were not large, further actions should be carried out to ensure the safe use of AA-CHPs.

  6. Performance and lipid profiles of native chickens fed diet containing skipjack fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, J. R.; Mandey, J. S.; Laihad, J. T.; Tinangon, R. M.; Tangkau, L.; Junus, C.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the use of fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory in diet on the performance and lipid profiles of native chickens. The experiment used 100 native chicken with an average initial body weight of 48,9 gram (sd + 9.9), was used in this study for 8 weeks experiment. These were arranged by a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 5 replications and 4 hens in replication each. The diets were: R0 = 100% Based Diet (BD) + 0% Fish Oil (FO); R1 = 98.5% BD + 1.5% FO; R2 = 98% BD + 2% FO; R3 = 97.5% BD + 2.5% FO; R4 = 97 % BD + 3% FO. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Variables were performance parameters and lipid profiles. Results showed that fish oil inclusion in diets were significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain, carcass percentage, liver, breast and thigh weight, and decreased blood cholesterol, carbohydrate and meat cholesterol, and also tended to decrease abdominal fat. However, there were no affected on feed conversion, water, protein, fat and ash of breast meat. It can be concluded that the use of fish oil in diet up to 3% could improved performance parameters of native chickens.

  7. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  8. The pitfalls of container production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Bell

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes ten of the biggest “pitfalls” or challenges I have encountered in my experience growing southern pine seedlings in containers over the past 30 years. Learning from challenges is an important part of growing successful nursery operations.

  9. Containers and Packaging: Product-Specific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web page provide numbers on the different containers and packaging products in our municipal solid waste. These include containers of all types, such as glass, steel, plastic, aluminum, wood, and other types of packaging

  10. Electron Density Profile Data Contains Virtual Height/Frequency Pairs from a Profile or Profiles (Composite Months) of Ionograms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Electron Density Profile, N(h), data set contains both individual profiles and composite months. The data consist of virtual height/frequency pairs from a...

  11. Intravenous iron-containing products: EMA procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A European reassessment has led to identical changes in the summaries of product characteristics (SPCs) for all intravenous iron-containing products: the risk of serious adverse effects is now highlighted, underlining the fact that intravenous iron-containing products should only be used when the benefits clearly outweigh the harms. Unfortunately, iron dextran still remains on the market despite a higher risk of hypersensitivity reactions than with iron sucrose.

  12. Radiological testing of products containing radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Knight, A.

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive substances are tested by NRPB to determine how much radioactive material is likely to be released from a product if it is misused or accidentally damaged. Such testing is briefly described with particular reference to ionisation chamber smoke detectors, liquid crystal display watches illuminated with gaseous tritium light sources and anti-static brushes containing polonium-210 in the form of ceramic microspheres. (U.K.)

  13. Prescription profile of Chinese herbal products containing coumestrol, genestein, and/or daidzein among female users: an analysis of national health insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chien-Tung; Tzeng, Jeng-Nan; Lai, Jung-Nien; Tsan, Shun-Hua; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Some Chinese herbs contain several kinds of phytoestrogens, and these herbs are commonly prescribed in Taiwan. Phytoestrogens may influence the effects of estrogen in females, although their activities are weak. This study aims to identify the risk and analyze the prescription profile of commonly used phytoestrogenic herbs in Taiwan. Methods The study analyzed women who had been prescribed phytoestrogenic herbs including coumestrol, genistein and/or daidzein between 1997 a...

  14. Consumer-based product profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    Napping® is an inexpensive and rapid method for sensory characterization, suitable for both trained and untrained subjects. In the study presented, the method was applied on 9 specialty beers. Subjects were 17 consumers without any training as sensory panelists, of whom 8 were beer experts and 9 ...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers’ experience with the product....

  15. Models for estimating photosynthesis parameters from in situ production profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Žarko; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Antunović, Suzana

    2017-12-01

    The rate of carbon assimilation in phytoplankton primary production models is mathematically prescribed with photosynthesis irradiance functions, which convert a light flux (energy) into a material flux (carbon). Information on this rate is contained in photosynthesis parameters: the initial slope and the assimilation number. The exactness of parameter values is crucial for precise calculation of primary production. Here we use a model of the daily production profile based on a suite of photosynthesis irradiance functions and extract photosynthesis parameters from in situ measured daily production profiles at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station Aloha. For each function we recover parameter values, establish parameter distributions and quantify model skill. We observe that the choice of the photosynthesis irradiance function to estimate the photosynthesis parameters affects the magnitudes of parameter values as recovered from in situ profiles. We also tackle the problem of parameter exchange amongst the models and the effect it has on model performance. All models displayed little or no bias prior to parameter exchange, but significant bias following parameter exchange. The best model performance resulted from using optimal parameter values. Model formulation was extended further by accounting for spectral effects and deriving a spectral analytical solution for the daily production profile. The daily production profile was also formulated with time dependent growing biomass governed by a growth equation. The work on parameter recovery was further extended by exploring how to extract photosynthesis parameters from information on watercolumn production. It was demonstrated how to estimate parameter values based on a linearization of the full analytical solution for normalized watercolumn production and from the solution itself, without linearization. The paper complements previous works on photosynthesis irradiance models by analysing the skill and consistency of

  16. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  17. Malaria profiles and challenges in artemisinin resistance containment in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwe, Thet Wai; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Zhou, Shuisen; van Griensven, Johan; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Shah, Safieh; Thi, Aung

    2017-04-25

    This study examined evolving malaria profiles from January, 2010 to December, 2014 to evaluate achievements and challenges of implementing measures to prevent and control spread of artemisinin resistance in Myanmar. Using National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) data, a cross-sectional descriptive study of 52 townships in artemisinin-resistant containment areas in Myanmar was conducted. Annual program data were analysed, and trends over time are graphically presented. In the 52 study townships populated by 8.7 million inhabitants, malaria incidence showed a decreasing trend from 10.54 per 1 000 population in 2010 to 2.53 in 2014, and malaria mortalities also decreased from 1.83 per 100 000 population in 2010 to 0.17 in 2014. The proportion of confirmed to total tested malaria cases also decreased from 6 to 1%, while identification of cases improved. All cases from all parasites species, including Plasmodium falciparum, decreased. Coverage of LLIN (long-lasting insecticidal net)/ITN (insecticide-treated mosquito nets) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) was high in targeted areas with at-risk persons, even though the total population was not covered. In addition to passive case detection (PCD), active case detection (ACD) was conducted in hard-to-reach areas and worksites where mobile migrant populations were present. ACD improved in most areas from 2012 to 2014, but continues to need to be strengthened. The findings provide useful data on the malaria situation in artemisinin-resistant initiative areas, which may be useful for the NMCP to meet its elimination goal. These profiles could contribute to better planning, implementation, and evaluation of intervention activities.

  18. Prescription profile of Chinese herbal products containing coumestrol, genestein, and/or daidzein among female users: an analysis of national health insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chien-Tung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some Chinese herbs contain several kinds of phytoestrogens, and these herbs are commonly prescribed in Taiwan. Phytoestrogens may influence the effects of estrogen in females, although their activities are weak. This study aims to identify the risk and analyze the prescription profile of commonly used phytoestrogenic herbs in Taiwan. Methods The study analyzed women who had been prescribed phytoestrogenic herbs including coumestrol, genistein and/or daidzein between 1997 and 2007 in a fixed cohort taken from all female beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The prescription frequencies, cumulated dosages, and primary indications were listed. Results A total of 462,861 women were included in the study, of whom ~47.0% had used phytoestrogenic herbs at least once during the study period. A total of 6,270,813 prescriptions were recorded, and more than 20% of these contained phytoestrogens. The most commonly prescribed herb and formula were Puerariae Radix and Ge gen tang (Pueraria Decoction, respectively. Most of the prescriptions were issued for diseases of the respiratory system, followed by symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue. Conclusion This study shows that women who sought medical treatment from Chinese medicine doctors for relief of respiratory discomfort had a high possibility of exposure to phytoestrogenic herbs. Safety issues related to the female endocrine system should be a priority for future research.

  19. Prescription profile of Chinese herbal products containing coumestrol, genestein, and/or daidzein among female users: an analysis of national health insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Tung; Tzeng, Jeng-Nan; Lai, Jung-Nien; Tsan, Shun-Hua; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-10-16

    Some Chinese herbs contain several kinds of phytoestrogens, and these herbs are commonly prescribed in Taiwan. Phytoestrogens may influence the effects of estrogen in females, although their activities are weak. This study aims to identify the risk and analyze the prescription profile of commonly used phytoestrogenic herbs in Taiwan. The study analyzed women who had been prescribed phytoestrogenic herbs including coumestrol, genistein and/or daidzein between 1997 and 2007 in a fixed cohort taken from all female beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The prescription frequencies, cumulated dosages, and primary indications were listed. A total of 462,861 women were included in the study, of whom ~47.0% had used phytoestrogenic herbs at least once during the study period. A total of 6,270,813 prescriptions were recorded, and more than 20% of these contained phytoestrogens. The most commonly prescribed herb and formula were Puerariae Radix and Ge gen tang (Pueraria Decoction), respectively. Most of the prescriptions were issued for diseases of the respiratory system, followed by symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue. This study shows that women who sought medical treatment from Chinese medicine doctors for relief of respiratory discomfort had a high possibility of exposure to phytoestrogenic herbs. Safety issues related to the female endocrine system should be a priority for future research.

  20. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  1. Production of nitrogen containing chemicals from cyanophycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könst, P.M.

    2011-01-01


    Currently nitrogen containing bulk chemicals are produced from naphtha. However, as explained in Chapter 1 it would be more energy efficient, less capital intensive and eventually more economical to start from functionalized compounds that already have nitrogen incorporated, such as amino

  2. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  3. A regulatory review for products containing glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayah Abd Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is a potent antioxidant as well as has important role for DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthesis, amino acid transport, and enzyme activation. Besides this, Glutathione products are now mainly selling as whitening agent which are mainly marketing through social media (Facebook and different websites. Information is not available whether glutathione product are following the regulatory guidelines of National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau of Malaysia (NPCB for selling, advertisement and promotion. This review was carried out by extracting information about glutathione from scientific database using PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Analysis of the available information, case example of glutathione products showed that a brand of glutathione (Glutacaps HQ did not show the product's registration number from NPCB, and also did not show the name, address, contact number of the advertiser, and even not found the name of the manufacture. Without providing the above mentioned information, the product is selling and promoting through social media (fb which is not allowed by the NPCB guidelines part 4.14. So far, only two clinical trials were conducted on glutathione supplementation for 4 weeks duration. There was no serious or systematic adverse effects reported in clinical trials. As the two clinic trials resulted contradictory outcomes, further studies needed for conformation of the clinic benefits of glutathione. Otherwise, random use of glutathione may be risk for the health of the people. Besides, the marketer mainly promoting glutathione as the skin whitening beauty product instead of using as health supplement, it may cause additional and serious risk to the users as the manufacturer not providing sufficient information about the product, its registration number, manufacturing company, etc.

  4. 21 CFR 211.94 - Drug product containers and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug product containers and closures. 211.94 Section 211.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and use that can cause deterioration or contamination of the drug product. (c) Drug product containers...

  5. Measurements of fusion product emission profiles in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Murphy, T.J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tait, G.D.; Zweben, S.J.

    1986-11-01

    The techniques and results of fusion product emission profile measurements are reviewed. While neutron source strength profile measurements have been attempted by several methods, neutron scattering is a limitation to the results. Profile measurements using charged fusion products have recently provided an alternative since collimation is much easier for the charged particles

  6. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-04-01

    The need for a shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks is addressed in this report. It is concluded that a shipping and storage container is not required. A recommendation is made to eliminate the requirement for this container because structural support and inerting requirements can be satisfied completely by the cask with a removable basket

  7. Buoyancy package for self-contained acoustic doppler current profiler mooring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Krishnakumar, V.

    A buoyancy package for self-contained Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler(SC-ADCP 1200 RD instruments USA) was designed and fabricated indigenously, for subsurface mooring in coastal waters. The system design is discussed. The design to keep SC...

  8. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    updated 3/10/08 Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products © National Reye's Syndrome Foundation Inc. 2008 Epidemiologic research has shown an association between the development of Reye's ...

  9. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-01-01

    A shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks may be required but requirements for protection of the irradiated rods and radioactive contamination have not been finalized. This report documents the various possibilities for the container depending on the final requirements

  10. On OH production in water containing atmospheric pressure plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, P.J.; Schram, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper radical production in atmospheric pressure water containing plasmas is discussed. As OH is often an important radical in these discharges the paper focuses on OH production. Besides nanosecond pulsed coronas and diffusive glow discharges, several other atmospheric pressure plasmas

  11. A guide for controlling consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Consumer products are considered regardless of the purpose for which the radionuclide is added. For example, the purpose may be to make use of the ionising radiation emitted by the substance in the product itself (e.g. radioluminescent devices antistatic devices and ionisation chamber smoke detectors), or to make use of some other property of the material where the presence of radiation in the final product is merely adventitious (e.g. thorium gas mantles, ceramics with uranium glazes, and products containing radioactive tracers added to facilitate manufacturing and inspection processes). The Guide does not cover some products containing natural radioactive substances which have not been intentionally added, such as building materials. The Guide does not cover medicinal products and pharmaceuticals, nuclear powered cardiac pacemakers, or electronic equipment, such as television receivers, that emit X-rays. Unlike the 1970 Guide, this Guide does not consider those products, such as EXIT signs, containing gaseous tritium light sources, that would not be supplied directly to members of the public. The Guide is concerned mainly with the exposure arising from consumer products of those persons who are not subject to any regulatory controls for purposes of radiation protection in normal circumstances. Members of the public come under this heading, but not workers involved in the manufacture of consumer products. These workers will normally be subject to separate control. Radiological protection concepts and policy for the control of radioactive consumer products and licensing and post-licensing surveillance are developed

  12. Fission product and aerosol behaviour within the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Bowsher, B.R.; Dickinson, S.; Nichols, A.L.

    1990-04-01

    Experimental studies have been undertaken to characterise the behaviour of fission products in the containment of a pressurised water reactor during a severe accident. The following aspects of fission product transport have been studied: (a) aerosol nucleation, (b) vapour transport processes, (c) chemical forms of high-temperature vapours, (d) interaction of fission product vapours with aerosols generated from within the reactor core, (e) resuspension processes, (f) chemistry in the containment. Chemical effects have been shown to be important in defining and quantifying fission product source terms in a wide range of accident sequences. Both the chemical forms of the fission product vapours and their interactions with reactor materials aerosols could have a major effect on the magnitude and physicochemical forms of the radioactive emission from a severe reactor accident. Only the main conclusions are presented in this summary document; detailed technical aspects of the work are described in separate reports listed in the annex

  13. Planning organization and productivity simulation tool for maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Beškovnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a proposed planning organization and productivity simulation tool, with a special emphasis on orientations to the optimization of operations in a maritime container terminal. With the application of an adequate model frame for traffic and technical-technologic forecasting, infrastructure and manpower planning and productivity simulation are possible to measure and increase the productivity in the whole subsystem of the maritime container terminal. The emphasis is mainly put on setting up planning organization in order to collect important information and consequently to raise productivity. This is the main task and goal of terminal management that must develop elements and strategies for optimal operational and financial production. An adequate planning structure must use simplified but efficient simulation tools enabling owners and management to take a vast number of adequate financial and operational decisions. Considering all important and very dynamic facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation tool gives a helpful instrument for checking productivity and its time variation and monitoring a competitive position of a certain maritime terminal with the terminals from the same group. Therefore, the management of every maritime container terminal must establish an appropriate internal planning system as a mechanism for strategic decision support relating basically to the assessment of the best development and optimization solutions for the infrastructure and suprastructure of the entire system.

  14. Spray removal of fission products in PWR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grist, D.R.

    1982-11-01

    Models and parameters for assessing the rate and extent of removal of various fission product species are described. A range of droplet sizes and of spray additive options is considered and removal of vapour phase inorganic iodine species, of organic iodides and of aerosols containing fission products is discussed. Aerosol removal is assessed in terms of contributing removal mechanisms and the removal rate modelled as a function of the radius of the aerosol particulate species. (author)

  15. Sulfur equilibrium desulfurization of sulfur containing products of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Abichandani, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the method for the combustion of a carbon- and sulfur-containing fuel for substantially reducing emission of gaseous sulfur compounds formed during combustion of the fuel in a combustion zone. The zone having one or more fuel inlets and one or more oxidizer inlets, and having a combustion products outlet spaced therefrom, and having one or more inorganic sorbent inlets downstream of the fuel inlet(s) and oxidizer inlet(s) and upstream of the combustion products outlet

  16. Influence of the container on the consumption of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Berrada, M P; Ficheux, A S; Galonnier, M; Rolfo, J E; Rielland, A; Guillou, S; De Javel, D; Roudot, A C; Ferret, P J

    2017-11-01

    The container, also known as primary package or inner package, could be defined as the packaging designed to come into direct contact with the cosmetic product. To author's knowledge, no study was available regarding the effect of the primary package on the consumption of cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the container on the consumption of three cosmetic products widely used, i.e. shampoo, shower gel and emollient cream. The three products were contained in a tube with a flip top cap and in a bottle with a pump. The study was conducted on 221 French adults: 108 women and 113 men. Results showed that the consumption of each cosmetic product was slightly higher when the product was packaged in tube with a flip top cap than in bottle with a pump. The difference of consumption could vary from 5 % to 23 % when calculated with mean values. This information could be interesting for safety evaluators, safety agencies and commercial services of cosmetic manufacturers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Productivity simulation model for optimization of maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen TWRDY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a proposed productivity simulation model enabling container terminal operators to find optimization possibilities. A research of more than forty terminals has been done, in order to provide a helping tool for maritime container terminals. By applying an adequate simulation model, it is possible to measure and increase the productivity in all subsystem of the maritime container terminal. Management of a maritime container terminal includes a vast number of different financial and operational decisions. Financial decisions are often in a direct connection with investments in infrastructure and handling equipment. Such investments are very expensive. Therefore, they must give back the invested money as soon as possible. On the other hand, some terminals are limited by the physical extension and are forced to increase annual throughput only with sophisticated equipment on the berth side and on the yard as well. Considering all these important facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation model gives a helping tool for checking the productivity and its time variation and monitoring competitiveness of a certain maritime terminal with terminals from the same group.

  18. Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Maryline; Roure, Romain; Dayan, Liliane; Nollent, Virginie; Bertin, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal oatmeal is a natural ingredient used in the formulation of a range of personal care products for relief of skin dryness and itchiness. It is also used as an adjunctive product in atopic dermatitis. The safety of personal care products used on vulnerable skin is of particular importance and the risk of developing further skin irritations and/or allergies should be minimized. In a series of studies, we tested the safety of personal care products containing oatmeal (creams, cleansers, lotions) by assessing their irritant/allergenic potential on repeat insult patch testing, in safety-in-use and ocular studies using subjects with nonsensitive and sensitive skin. We also tested the skin moisturizing and repair properties of an oatmeal-containing skin care product for dry skin. We found that oatmeal-containing personal care products had very low irritant potential as well as a very low allergenic sensitization potential. Low-level reactions were documented in 1.0% of subjects during the induction phase of repeat insult patch testing; one of 2291 subjects developed a persistent but doubtful low-level reaction involving edema during the challenge phase in repeat insult patch testing. No allergies were reported by 80 subjects after patch testing after in-use application. Sustained skin moisturizing was documented in subjects with dry skin that lasted up to 2 weeks after product discontinuation. Our results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal is a safe and effective ingredient in personal care products. No allergies were reported by consumers of 445,820 products sold during a 3-year period.

  19. Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criquet M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maryline Criquet,1 Romain Roure,1 Liliane Dayan,2 Virginie Nollent,1 Christiane Bertin11Johnson & Johnson Santé Beauté France, Issy les Moulineaux, 2Independent consultant dermatologist, Paris, FranceBackground: Colloidal oatmeal is a natural ingredient used in the formulation of a range of personal care products for relief of skin dryness and itchiness. It is also used as an adjunctive product in atopic dermatitis. The safety of personal care products used on vulnerable skin is of particular importance and the risk of developing further skin irritations and/or allergies should be minimized.Methods: In a series of studies, we tested the safety of personal care products containing oatmeal (creams, cleansers, lotions by assessing their irritant/allergenic potential on repeat insult patch testing, in safety-in-use and ocular studies using subjects with nonsensitive and sensitive skin. We also tested the skin moisturizing and repair properties of an oatmeal-containing skin care product for dry skin.Results: We found that oatmeal-containing personal care products had very low irritant potential as well as a very low allergenic sensitization potential. Low-level reactions were documented in 1.0% of subjects during the induction phase of repeat insult patch testing; one of 2291 subjects developed a persistent but doubtful low-level reaction involving edema during the challenge phase in repeat insult patch testing. No allergies were reported by 80 subjects after patch testing after in-use application. Sustained skin moisturizing was documented in subjects with dry skin that lasted up to 2 weeks after product discontinuation.Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal is a safe and effective ingredient in personal care products. No allergies were reported by consumers of 445,820 products sold during a 3-year period.Keywords: Avena sativa, colloids, protective agents, atopic dermatitis, irritant dermatitis, allergenic dermatitis, skin

  20. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  1. Lignin-containing Feedstock Hydrogenolysis for Biofuel Component Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Shimanskaya

    2018-01-01

    How to Cite: Shimanskaya, E.I., Stepacheva, A.A., Sulman, E.M., Rebrov, E.V., Matveeva, V.G. (2018. Lignin-containing Feedstock Hydrogenolysis for Biofuel Component Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 74-81 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.969.74-81

  2. Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production of bleomycin by Streptomyces mobaraensis ATCC 15003 using response surface methodology. Hesham H Radwan, Fars K Alanazi, Ehab I Taha, Hamdy A Dardir, Ihab M Moussa, Ibrahim A Alsarra ...

  3. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, E.; Desai, A.; Ilgner, H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m 3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  4. Cumulative exposure to phthalates from phthalate-containing drug products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    European regulatory limit of exposure ranging between 380-1710 mg/year throughout the study period. Lithium-products constituted the majority of dibutyl phthalate exposure. Diethyl phthalate exposure, mainly caused by erythromycin, theophylline and diclofenac products, did not exceed the EMA regulatory...... to quantify annual cumulated phthalate exposure from drug products among users of phthalate-containing oral medications in Denmark throughout the period of 2004-2016. METHODS: We conducted a Danish nationwide cohort study using The Danish National Prescription Registry and an internal database held...

  5. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) product removal can containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Six Product Removal (PR) Cans and Containers are located within the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Each can is expected to contain a maximum of 3 g of residual radioactive material, consisting mainly of plutonium isotopes. The PR Can Containers were previously authorized by HNF-SD-TP-SEP-064, Rev. 0 (Boettger 1997), for the interarea transport of up to 3 g of plutonium. The purpose of this safety evaluation for packaging is to allow the transport of six PR Cans with their Containers from the Plutonium Finishing Plant to the 233 S Evaporator Facility. This safety evaluation for packaging is authorized for use until April 29, 1999, or until the shipment is made, whichever happens first

  6. Method of processing liquid waste containing fission product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kawamura, Fumio; Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prepare solidification products of low surface dose by removing cesium which is main radioactive nuclides from re-processing plants. Method: Liquid wastes containing a great amount of fission products are generated accompanying the reprocessing for spent nuclear fuels. After pH adjustment, the liquid wastes are sent to a concentrator to concentrate the dissolved ingredients. The concentrated liquid wastes are pumped to an adsorption tower in which radioactive cesium contributing much to the surface dose is removed. Then, the liquid wastes are sent by way of a surge tank to a mixing tank, in which they are mixed under stirring with solidifying agents such as cements. Then, the mixture is filled in a drum-can and solidified. According to this invention, since radioactive cesium is removed before solidification, it is possible to prepare solidification products at low surface dose and facilitate the handling of the solidification products. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  8. Corrosion mechanisms of containment glasses for fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    After a review of nuclear energy production and waste vitrification principles, the aqueous corrosion mechanisms of the containment glasses and the various parameters affecting the corrosion are studied: effects of glass composition, temperature, lixiviation agent pH, lixiviation duration and mode. Conventional mass loss measurement and solution analyses are coupled to sophisticated surface analysis techniques. The hydrolyzed layer formation and the solubility limits are discussed. 87 figs., 30 tabs., 144 refs

  9. method and container for production of diagnostic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddock, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The pertechnetate ion containing the technetium-99m isotope has limited applications in diagnostic scanning because it does not readily form complexes with materials which locate in specific parts of the body. Stannous salts have been widely used to reduce the pertechnetate to a form which readily complexes with materials. In the present invention, both a container and a more suitable metal reducing agent are discussed for transforming the technetium in pertechnetate for diagnostic scanning use. The vessel contains tin or a tin-containing alloy as a reducing agent for the pertechnetate and a complexant for the reduced technetium; all contents are sterile and dry. The present invention is advantageous over the stannous salts method since (1) problems of stannous salt instability during production, storage and after labelling are eliminated; (2) production procedures are simplified; (3) it is not essential to nitrogen purge vials before sterilisation; (4) it reduces toxicity; (5) the shelf life of diagnostic scanning kits may be dramatically improved; (6) the metal reducing agent may be sterilised by γ-irradiation without deteriorating; (7) the labelling technique can be performed over a wide pH range; and (8) the technique should be unaffected by technetium-99 in the technetium-99m. (U.K.)

  10. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  11. 75 FR 14467 - In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same, Including Memory Modules; Notice of... semiconductors and products containing same, including memory modules, by reason of infringement of certain... importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors or products containing the same, including...

  12. Sensory evaluation of pralines containing different honey products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G; Georgijev, Aneta S; Popov, Vladimir S; Mladenović, Mića A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pralines manufactured by hand were evaluated sensorially. These pralines were obtained from dark chocolate containing 60% cocoa components, filled with Apis mellifera carnica Poll drone larvae, blossom honey and a blossom honey/pollen mixture from the protected region of Stara Planina-Eastern Serbia (a specific botanical region). The objectives of this study were investigations related to the use of sensory analysis for quality assessment of new functional products with potential benefits for human health, in particular of desserts based on dark chocolate pralines filled with different bee products characterized by a specific botanical and geographic origin, as well as of their storage properties and expected shelf life. Sensory quality (appearance, texture, odor and taste were evaluated by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (day 0), and then after 30, 90 and 180 days of storage under ambient conditions (temperature 18-20 °C). The results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and with the LSD-test. It is possible to conclude that the storage time and composition of dark chocolate pralines containing different honey-bee products have statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) influence on the sensorially evaluated properties of pralines.

  13. Sensory Evaluation of Pralines Containing Different Honey Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mića A. Mladenović

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pralines manufactured by hand were evaluated sensorially. These pralines were obtained from dark chocolate containing 60% cocoa components, filled with Apis mellifera carnica Poll drone larvae, blossom honey and a blossom honey/pollen mixture from the protected region of Stara Planina-Eastern Serbia (a specific botanical region. The objectives of this study were investigations related to the use of sensory analysis for quality assessment of new functional products with potential benefits for human health, in particular of desserts based on dark chocolate pralines filled with different bee products characterized by a specific botanical and geographic origin, as well as of their storage properties and expected shelf life. Sensory quality (appearance, texture, odor and taste were evaluated by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (day 0, and then after 30, 90 and 180 days of storage under ambient conditions (temperature 18–20 ºC. The results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA and with the LSD-test. It is possible to conclude that the storage time and composition of dark chocolate pralines containing different honey-bee products have statistically highly significant (p < 0.01 influence on the sensorially evaluated properties of pralines.

  14. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern.

  15. Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by 60 Co gamma rays and 244 Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste. With gamma radiolysis, hydrogen was the only significant product; hydrogen reached a steady-state pressure that increased with increasing radiation intensity. Hydrogen was produced faster, and a higher steady-state pressure resulted when an organic set retarder was present. Oxygen that was sealed with the wastes was depleted. Gamma radiolysis also produced nitrous oxide gas when nitrate or nitrite was present in the concrete. With alpha radiolysis, hydrogen and oxygen were produced. Hydrogen did not reach a steady-state pressure at 137 Cs and 90 Sr), hydrogen will reach a steady-state pressure of 8 to 28 psi, and oxygen will be partially consumed. These predictions were confirmed by measurement of gas produced over a short time in a container of concrete and actual SRP waste. The tests with simulated waste also indicated that nitrous oxide may form, but because of the low nitrate or nitrite content of the waste, the maximum pressure of nitrous oxide after 300 years will be 238 Pu and 239 Pu will predominate; the hydrogen and oxygen pressures will increase to >200 psi

  16. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Krage, L.; Sedmale, G.; Vaiciukyniene, D.

    2013-01-01

    Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50 % of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminium borosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 degree centigrade). In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites) the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia) with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90 % was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA) and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15 - 35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45 - 65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 degree centigrade in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090 - 1100 degree centigrade with the most optimal properties - porosity 38 - 52 %, water absorption 39 -47 % and bulk density 1.35 - 1.67 g/cm 3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35 - 1.1 %, water absorption 0.7 - 2.6 % and bulk density 2.1 - 2.3 g/cm 3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected. (Author)

  17. Modeling of combustion products composition of hydrogen-containing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the usage of entropy maximum principal the algorithm and the program of chemical equilibrium calculation concerning hydrogen--containing fuels are devised. The program enables to estimate the composition of combustion products generated in the conditions similar to combustion conditions in heat engines. The program also enables to reveal the way hydrogen fraction in the conditional composition of the hydrocarbon-hydrogen-air mixture influences the harmful components content. It is proven that molecular hydrogen in the mixture is conductive to the decrease of CO, CO 2 and CH x concentration. NO outlet increases due to higher combustion temperature and N, O, OH concentrations in burnt gases. (authors)

  18. Inoculation of fumigated nursery beds and containers with arbuscular mycorrhizal products for eastern redcedar production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) products were applied at an operational rate to eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) nursery beds and containers to evaluate seedling growth and colonization responses. A field study at the Augusta Forestry Center in Crimora, VA, and a companion container study were initiated in the fall of 2012. MycoApply® Endo...

  19. What's the Regulatory Value of a Target Product Profile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breder, Christopher D; Du, Wenny; Tyndall, Adria

    2017-07-01

    Target product profiles (TPPs) are used as a regulatory tool for dialog on clinical development or manufacturing plans. Drugs and biologics approved by the FDA that mention TPPs are associated with more efficient regulatory review times, perhaps as a result of increased planning or because the TPP promotes well-organized regulatory dialog. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samie.Amidou

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli isolates from HIV and AIDS patients in the Limpopo Province. Samie, A. and Nkgau, T. F.. Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Limpopo, South Africa.

  1. Characteristics of solidified products containing radioactive molten salt waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong-Zun; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Joon-Hyung

    2007-11-01

    The molten salt waste from a pyroprocess to recover uranium and transuranic elements is one of the problematic radioactive wastes to be solidified into a durable wasteform for its final disposal. By using a novel method, named as the GRSS (gel-route stabilization/solidification) method, a molten salt waste was treated to produce a unique wasteform. A borosilicate glass as a chemical binder dissolves the silicate compounds in the gel products to produce one amorphous phase while most of the phosphates are encapsulated by the vitrified phase. Also, Cs in the gel product is preferentially situated in the silicate phase, and it is vitrified into a glassy phase after a heat treatment. The Sr-containing phase is mainly phosphate compounds and encapsulated by the glassy phase. These phenomena could be identified by the static and dynamic leaching test that revealed a high leach resistance of radionuclides. The leach rates were about 10(-3) - 10(-2) g/m2 x day for Cs and 10(-4) - 10(-3) g/m2 x day for Sr, and the leached fractions of them were predicted to be 0.89% and 0.39% at 900 days, respectively. This paper describes the characteristics of a unique wasteform containing a molten salt waste and provides important information on a newly developed immobilization technology for salt wastes, the GRSS method.

  2. Design of container velocity profile for the suppression of liquid sloshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjoo

    2016-11-01

    In many industrial applications, high-speed position control of a liquid container causes undesirable liquid vibrations called 'sloshing' which poses a control challenge in fast maneuvering and accurate positioning of containers. Recently, it has been shown that a control theory called 'input shaping' is successfully applied to reduce the sloshing, but its success comes at a cost of longer process time. Therefore, we aim to minimize liquid sloshing without increasing the process time when a container moves horizontally by a target distance within a limited time. In this study, sensing and feedback actuation are not permitted but the container velocity is allowed to be modified from a given triangular profile. A new design is proposed by applying input shaping to the container velocity with carefully selected acceleration time. That is, the acceleration time is chosen to be the 1st mode natural period, and the input shaper is determined based on the 3rd mode natural frequency. The proposed approach is validated by performing numerical simulations, which show that the simple modification of container velocity reduces the sloshing significantly without additional process time in a feedforward manner. Supported by the NRF programs (NRF-2015R1D1A1A01059675) of Korean government.

  3. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  4. 75 FR 44015 - Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing Same; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... violations of section 337 based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced...

  5. Electrical conductivity of pyroxene which contains trivalent cations: Laboratory measurements and the lunar temperature profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, J.S.; Duba, A.; Wiggins, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    Three natural orthopyroxene single crystals, measured in the laboratory over the temperature range 850 0 --1200 0 C, are more than 1/2 order of magnitude more electrically conducting than previously measured crystals. Small concentrations (1--2%) of Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 present in these crystals may be responsible for their relatively high conductivity. Such pyroxenes, which contain trivalent elements, are more representative of pyroxenes expected to be present in the lunar mantle than those which have been measured by other investigators. The new conductivity values for pyroxene are responsible for a relatively large bulk conductivity calculated for (polymineralic) lunar mantle assemblages. The results permit a somewhat cooler lunar temperature profile than previously proposed. Such lower profiles, several hundred degrees Celsius below the solidus, are quite consistent with low seismic attenuation and deep moonquakes observed in the lunar mantle

  6. Microbiological Aspects Considering the Production of Nutraceutical Curd Containing Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dumuţa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The curd is a traditional Romanian dairy product highly appreciated by the consumers. The purpose of this study was to produce and analyze from the microbiological point of view a nutraceutical curd containing onion, as a prebiotic source. The synbiotics generate among the organoleptic benefits also health improvement due to the different actions taken by probiotics and prebiotics, working together. The curd was produced by the traditional method using buffalo milk with reduced cholesterol content due to the treatment with crosslinked β-ciclodextrin with adipic acid.The curd prepared by rennet adding and coagulation at 30°C during 30-45 minutes was subjected to the maturation at a temperature of 12-16°C. Considering the microbiological tests, the curd recorded a pozitive evolution, being characterized by a lower microbial load compared with a control curd, prepared without onion.

  7. 77 FR 16561 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2884] Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Audiovisual Components and Products... audiovisual components and products containing the same. The complaint names as respondents Funai Electric...

  8. 77 FR 16560 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2884] Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Audiovisual Components and Products... audiovisual components and products containing the same. The complaint names as respondents Funai Electric...

  9. Systematic Characterisation of Cellular Localisation and Expression Profiles of Proteins Containing MHC Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncker, Agnieszka; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Weinhold, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Background: Presentation of peptides on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules is the cornerstone in immune system activation and increased knowledge of the characteristics of MHC ligands and their source proteins is highly desirable. Methodology/Principal Finding: In the present large......-scale study, we used a large data set of proteins containing experimentally identified MHC class I or II ligands and examined the proteins according to their expression profiles at the mRNA level and their Gene Ontology (GO) classification within the cellular component ontology. Proteins encoded by highly...

  10. Immobilization of radwastes in glass containers and products formed thereby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, P.B.; Litovitz, T.A.; Simmons, C.J.; Simmons, J.H.; Lagakos, N.; Tran, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mixture of glass packing and radioactive or other toxic material is placed in a solid glass container, and the container is heated to drive off volatile components and collapse and seal the container

  11. Destabilization of contained interacting modes by fusion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, G.; Riconda, C.; Coppi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The instability related to the interaction between high-frequency open-quotes contained modesclose quotes and the fusion products population in a toroidal configuration is studied. Emphasis is placed on the dependence of the growth rate on finite Larmor radius effects of the fusion products, the characteristics of the particle distribution function, and factors, such as the magnetic drift velocity and bounce-averaging, related to the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in a toroidal configuration. In particular, a sufficient degree of anisotropy in the energetic particle distribution is required in order to have a positive growth rate for realistic parameters. Only a small region of phase space is involved in the resonant interactions associated with the considered modes. We consider first the limit where the growth rate is larger than the bounce frequency (local approximation), that is the simplest case by which it is possible to identify the regions of phase space that are involved in the instability. Another evaluation of the growth rate is given in the case, that we consider realistic, where γ is comparable to the average bounce frequency of the interacting particles. We solve for γ by integrating the linearized Vlasov equation over the unperturbed particle orbits, and by reducing the integrals through saddle-point approximations

  12. Quality control of fifteen probiotic products containing Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, L M E; Goemé, F; Nelis, H J; Coenye, T

    2010-11-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used as a probiotic for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. In this study, the quality of 15 probiotic products containing S. boulardii was verified. Using microsatellite typing, the identity of all Saccharomyces strains in the products was confirmed as S. boulardii. Additionally, solid-phase cytometry (SPC) and a plate method were used to enumerate S. boulardii cells. SPC was not only able to produce results more rapidly than plating (4h compared to 48h) but the cell counts obtained with SPC were significantly higher than the plate counts. Finally, we found that boulardii cells survived 120min in gastric conditions and storage for 3months at 40°C with 75% relative humidity. We developed a SPC method for the quantification of viable S. boulardii cells in probiotics. Additionally, we demonstrated that gastric conditions and storage have a marked effect on the viability of the yeast cells.   To our knowledge, this is the first time SPC is used for the quality control of probiotics with S. boulardii. Additionally, we demonstrated the need for gastric protection and accurate storage. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Optical bi-sensorial measurement system for production control of extruded profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckenmann, A.; Bernstein, J.

    2008-09-01

    Extruded profiles are semi-finished products (made out of steel, brass, aluminum, synthetics...) which are appointed for wide applications in manufacturing of technical products. As yet used optical sensors in process control working to the shading technology detect the object's shadow orthographically to the axis of illumination. As a consequence they record it unattached by the profiles coat in measurement range at any point of the measured profile with high precision. As a matter of fact, concave zones cannot be captured. Alternatively the measurement of concave zones can be arranged by light-section systems. These do not comply with the required accuracy, are comparatively slow and moreover affected by dislocations of the section of the profile. A measurement system including a light-section and a shading system combines the advantages of both optical systems. It is to serve with a reliable conception for the assembly of a bi-sensorial measurement system consisting of both systems as well as suitable methods of analysis for the in-line inspection of concave profiles. As a result it contains conclusions concerning requirements of the light source, the arrangement of this source and the cameras, obtainable precision and sampling rate as well as the essential synchronization of both systems. After designing an appropriate prototype, the selected light-section system and the shading system will be synchronized and aligned. Therefore, the metered geometrical data will be merged for the evaluation of form deviation. So, developed and adapted software supports and contains proposals to the uncertainty after successful tests. The system and a calibration method will be proved in production where robustness will be a most critical despite of heat, dust and vibrations. The target uncertainty of less than 0.1 mm at every section of the profiles coat has to be met.

  14. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  15. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on or...

  16. Binding of bile acids by pastry products containing bioactive substances during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Szwengiel, Artur; Smoczyńska, Paulina; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Komolka, Patrycja

    2015-03-01

    The modern day consumer tends to choose products with health enhancing properties, enriched in bioactive substances. One such bioactive food component is dietary fibre, which shows a number of physiological properties including the binding of bile acids. Dietary fibre should be contained in everyday, easily accessible food products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine sorption capacities of primary bile acid (cholic acid - CA) and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic - DCA and lithocholic acids - LCA) by muffins (BM) and cookies (BC) with bioactive substances and control muffins (CM) and cookies (CC) in two sections of the in vitro gastrointestinal tract. Variations in gut flora were also analysed in the process of in vitro digestion of pastry products in a bioreactor. Enzymes: pepsin, pancreatin and bile salts: cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were added to the culture. Faecal bacteria, isolated from human large intestine, were added in the section of large intestine. The influence of dietary fibre content in cookies and concentration of bile acids in two stages of digestion were analysed. Generally, pastry goods with bioactive substances were characterized by a higher content of total fibre compared with the control samples. These products also differ in the profile of dietary fibre fractions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the bile acid profile after two stages of digestion depends on the quality and quantity of fibre. The bile acid profile after digestion of BM and BC forms one cluster, and with the CM and CC forms a separate cluster. High concentration of H (hemicellulose) is positively correlated with LCA (low binding effect) and negatively correlated with CA and DCA contents. The relative content of bile acids in the second stage of digestion was in some cases above the content in the control sample, particularly LCA. This means that the bacteria introduced in the 2nd stage of digestion synthesize the LCA.

  17. [Improvement of 2-mercaptoimidazoline analysis in rubber products containing chlorine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Reiko; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    An improved analysis method for 2-mercaptoimidazoline in rubber products containing chlorine was developed. 2-Mercaptoimidazoline (20 µg/mL) is detected by means of TLC with two developing solvents in the official method. But, this method is not quantitative. Instead, we employed HPLC using water-methanol (9 : 1) as the mobile phase. This procedure decreased interfering peaks, and the quantitation limit was 2 µg/mL of standard solution. 2-Mercaptoimidazoline was confirmed by GC-MS (5 µg/mL) and LC/MS (1 µg/mL) in the scan mode. For preparation of test solution, a soaking extraction method, in which 20 mL of methanol was added to the sample and allowed to stand overnight at about 40°C, was used. This gave similar values to the Soxhlet extraction method (official method) and was more convenient. The results indicate that our procedure is suitable for analysis of 2-mercaptoimidazoline. When 2-mercaptoimidazoline is detected, it is confirmed by either GC/MS or LC/MS.

  18. Process for the production of superconductor containing filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuominen, Olli P. (Candler, NC); Hoyt, Matthew B. (Arden, NC); Mitchell, David F. (Asheville, NC); Morgan, Carol W. (Asheville, NC); Roberts, Clyde Gordon (Asheville, NC); Tyler, Robert A. (Canton, NC)

    2002-01-01

    Superconductor containing filaments having embedments of superconducting material surrounded by a rayon matrix are formed by preparing a liquid suspension which contains at least 10 weight percent superconducting material; forming a multicomponent filament having a core of the suspension and a viscose sheath which contains cellulose xanthate; and thereafter, regenerating cellulose from the cellulose xanthate to form a rayon matrix.

  19. Immobilisation of radwastes in glass containers and products formed thereby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, P.B.; Simmons, C.J.; Lagakos, N.; Simmons, J.H.; Tran, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of preventing the dissemination of toxic material to the environment comprises forming an admixture of toxic material and glass packing in a hollow doped glass container of high silica content, or forming the admixture in a first container and then depositing at least a portion of the admixture in a hollow doped glass container of high silica content. The glass container is then heated to collapse its walls and to seal the container so that the toxic material is entrapped and sealed within the collapsed doped glass container. The thermal expansion coefficient of the container may be decreased prior to use by exchanging hydrogen ion in pores thereof with other cations followed by collapsing the pores. (author)

  20. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  1. 76 FR 65210 - Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human Erythropoetin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-568] Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human Erythropoetin; Termination of Investigation on the Basis of... after importation of certain products and pharmaceutical compositions containing recombinant human...

  2. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  3. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenstrauha, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50% of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminiumborosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 ºC. In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90% was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15–35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45–65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 ºC in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090–1100 ºC with the most optimal properties - porosity 38-52%, water absorption 39–47% and bulk density 1.35–1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35–1.1%, water absorption 0.7–2.6 % and bulk density 2.1–2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM. By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected.Durante la obtención de ciertas fibras de vidrio se generan dos subproductos o residuos principalmente: Lodo de arcilla montmorillonítica capaz de adsorber el 50 % de materia orgánica y un vidrio silicato alumínico con temperatura de reblandecimiento relativamente alta (> 600 ºC. Con el fin de elaborar nuevos

  4. 78 FR 49528 - Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...] Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... certain wound care products containing live cells from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health... CDRH and CBER. FDA believes that as more wound care products containing live cells are developed such...

  5. Absorption Profile of (PolyPhenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bresciani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (polyphenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (polyphenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (polyphenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (polyphenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  6. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-02-26

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  7. Profile and scientific production of CNPq researchers in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo de; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Oliveira, Maria Christina Lopes; Martelli, Daniella Reis; Lima, Leonardo Santos; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Lopes, Thais Junqueira; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões; Martelli, Hercílio

    2011-09-01

    Systematic assessments of the scientific production can optimize resource allocation and increase research productivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile and scientific production of researchers in the field of Cardiology who have fellowship in Medicine provided by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. The curriculum Lattes of 33 researchers with active fellowships from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, tutoring of undergraduate, masters and PhD students, and scientific production and its impact. : There was predominance of males (72.7%) and of fellowship level 2 (56.4%). Three states of the Federation were responsible for 94% of the researchers: SP (28; 71.8%), RS (4; 10.3%), e RJ (3; 9.1%). Four institutions are responsible for about 82% of researchers: USP (13; 39.4%), UNESP (5; 15.2%), UFRGS (4; 12.1%) e UNIFESP (3; 9.1%). During all academic careers, the researchers published 2.958 journal articles, with a mean of 89 articles per researcher. Of total, 55% and 75% were indexed at Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The researchers received a total of 19648 citations at the database Web of Science, with a median of 330 citations per researcher (IQ = 198-706). The average number of citations per article was 13.5 citations (SD = 11.6). Our study has shown that researchers in the field of cardiology have a relevant scientific production. The knowledge of the profile of researchers in the field of Cardiology will probably enable effective strategies to qualitatively improve the scientific output of Brazilian researchers.

  8. The effect of superdisintegrants on the properties and dissolution profiles of liquisolid tablets containing rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan; Doležel, Petr

    2017-03-01

    The preparation of liquisolid systems (LSS) represents a promising method for enhancing a dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The release of the drug from LSS tablets is affected by many factors, including the disintegration time. The evaluation of differences among LSS containing varying amounts and types of commercially used superdisintegrants (Kollidon® CL-F, Vivasol® and Explotab®). LSS were prepared by spraying rosuvastatin solution onto Neusilin® US2 and further processing into tablets. Varying amounts of superdisintegrants were used and the differences among LSS were evaluated. The multiple scatter plot method was used to visualize the relationships within the obtained data. All disintegrants do not showed negative effect on the flow properties of powder blends. The type and concentration of superdisintegrant had an impact on the disintegration time and dissolution profiles of tablets. Tablets with Explotab® showed the longest disintegration time and the smallest amount of released drug. Fastest disintegration and dissolution rate were observed in tablets containing Kollidon® CL-F (≥2.5% w/w). Also tablets with Vivasol® (2.5-4.0% w/w) showed fast disintegration and complete drug release. Kollidon® CL-F and Vivasol® in concentration ≥2.5% are suitable superdisintegrants for LSS with enhanced release of drug.

  9. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations. Methods Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed for 57 PCB congeners. Serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns were compared between the teachers, to the 2003-4 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data, and to data from 358 Greater Boston area men. Results Teachers at one school had higher levels of lighter (PCB 6-74) congeners compared to teachers from other schools. PCB congener 47 contributed substantially to these elevated levels. Older teachers (ages 50-64) from all schools had higher total (sum of 33 congeners) serum PCB concentrations than age-comparable NHANES reference values. Comparing the teachers to the referent population of men from the Greater Boston area (all under age 51), no difference in total serum PCB levels was observed between the referents and teachers up to 50 years age. However, the teachers had significantly elevated serum concentrations of lighter congeners (PCB 6-74). This difference was confirmed by comparing the congener-specific ratios between groups, and principal component analysis showed that the relative contribution of lighter congeners differed between the teachers and the referents. Conclusions These findings suggest that the teachers in the PCB-containing buildings had higher serum levels of lighter PCB congeners (PCB 6-74) than the referent populations. Examination of the patterns, as well as concentrations of individual PCB congeners in serum is essential to investigating the contributions from potential environmental sources of PCB exposure. PMID:21668970

  10. Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Criquet, Maryline; Roure, Romain; Dayan, Liliane; Nollent, Virginie; Bertin, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Maryline Criquet,1 Romain Roure,1 Liliane Dayan,2 Virginie Nollent,1 Christiane Bertin11Johnson & Johnson Santé Beauté France, Issy les Moulineaux, 2Independent consultant dermatologist, Paris, FranceBackground: Colloidal oatmeal is a natural ingredient used in the formulation of a range of personal care products for relief of skin dryness and itchiness. It is also used as an adjunctive product in atopic dermatitis. The safety of personal care products used on vu...

  11. Production of fructose-containing syrup with enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwiig-Nielsen, B

    1981-01-01

    A review on enzymic processes used for production of fructose- high syrup from starch including liquefaction by alpha-amylase, saccharification by amyloglucosidase, and isomerization with glucose isomerase.

  12. REGENERATION OF FISSION-PRODUCT-CONTAINING MAGNESIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, P.

    1964-02-01

    A process of regenerating a magnesium-thorium alloy contaminated with fission products, protactinium, and uranium is presented. A molten mixture of KCl--LiCl-MgCl/sub 2/ is added to the molten alloy whereby the alkali, alkaline parth, and rare earth fission products (including yttrium) and some of the thorium and uranium are chlorinated and

  13. Safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila containing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafiq Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila is a traditional medicinal plant which has wide therapeutic application including induction of labor and treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. We aimed for systematic review of the efficacy andsafety of L. pumila extract or its other commercial products availabe in Malaysian market. The marketed 500 mg capsule is composed of 40 mg L. pumila, 10 mg C. caudatum extract and 450 mg excipient. The commercial products did not follow the registration guidelines of Malaysian National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB and advertisement guidelines of Malaysian Advertisement Board. Randomized, placebo controlled clinical trials reported the safe consumpotion of L. pumila water extract on postmanoposal women. Information on the efficacy and safety of commercial products are not sufficiently available. Many unregistered products (mostly capsule form are flooded in Malaysian market without having scientific information. Consumption of those products may seriously impair the health of the people.

  14. Fatty acid profile of eggs of semi-heavy layers fed feeds containing linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs by adding oils to the diets has been extensively studied. This experiment aimed at evaluating possible changes in the fatty acid profile of the eggs of layers fed diets supplemented with linseed and soybean oils. The experiment was performed using 192 29 week-old laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, into six treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no vegetable oil and diets including 2% of vegetable oil. Linseed oil replaced 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% soybean oil in the diets, corresponding to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of linseed oil in the diet. A pool of two egg yolks from each treatment was submitted to lipid extraction and fatty acid methylation, and subsequent gas chromatography (GC analysis to detect seven fatty acids. Saturated (myristic and palmitic fatty acids concentration was affected by lipid dietary source, with the lowest concentration in birds were fed feeds containing linseed oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentration in the eggs was influenced by different levels of linseed oil inclusion. Linoleic acid egg content increased when linseed oil was used on diet as compared to the control diet. Linseed oil was considered an excellent source of linolenic acid incorporation in the eggs.

  15. Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... A confirmatory experiment of the optimal medium composition ... product of date industry; it is rich in carbohydrates (75% w/w) and small ... producers at cheap prices. ... date syrup using a combination of statistical strategies.

  16. Equilibrium Temperature Profiles within Fission Product Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We studied waste form strategies for advanced fuel cycle schemes. Several options were considered for three waste streams with the following fission products: cesium and strontium, transition metals, and lanthanides. These three waste streams may be combined or disposed separately. The decay of several isotopes will generate heat that must be accommodated by the waste form, and this heat will affect the waste loadings. To help make an informed decision on the best option, we present computational data on the equilibrium temperature of glass waste forms containing a combination of these three streams.

  17. Production of Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Human Interlukin-4 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarrad, Majid; Abdolazimi, Yassan; Hajati, Jamshid; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Recombinant adenoviruses are currently used for a variety of purposes, including in vitro gene transfer, in vivo vaccination, and gene therapy. Ability to infect many cell types, high efficiency in gene transfer, entering both dividing and non dividing cells, and growing to high titers make this virus a good choice for using in various experiments. In the present experiment, a recombinant adenovirus containing human IL-4 coding sequence was made. IL-4 has several characteristics ...

  18. Importance of water quality in container plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Ruter

    2013-01-01

    High substrate pH is a major problem for producers of container-grown plants and seedlings. The primary cause of high substrate pH is irrigation water with high alkalinity. Alkalinity is defined as the capacity of water to neutralize acids. Some alkalinity in irrigation water is beneficial as it serves as a buffer to large swings in pH levels, but high alkalinity in...

  19. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.P.; Huang, H.M.; Lin, Y.F.; Huang, W.D.; Huang, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NO x , and SO 2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared

  20. Investigation of crystallization in glasses containing fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malow, G.

    1979-01-01

    Five potential solidification products for high-level waste (four borosilicate glasses and one celsian glass ceramic) have been investigated in terms of crystallization. In all glasses and in the glass ceramic, crystallization, and recrystallization, respectively, were observed by heating above 773 0 K, however, at very different periods of time (0.1d greater than or equal to 100d). The noble metals precipitated into various phases. Crystal growth proceeded at the phase boundary glass-noble metal. In all products rare earth phases crystallized. Silicate phases rarely formed. The leach resistance (by the grain titration and Soxhlet tests) decreased after heat treatment in all cases. The changes were found to be within one order of magnitude for all products. 2 figures, 4 tables

  1. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.; Grandjean, A.; Ledieu, A.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Barre, Y.; Tronche, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LDMC, Batiment 208 BP17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear industry produces a wide range of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes which can include different radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr. In La Hague reprocessing plant and in the nuclear research centers of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation of strontium with barium sulphate is the technique used to treat selectively these contaminated streams with the best efficiency. After the decontamination process, low and intermediate level activity wastes incorporating significant quantities of sulphate are obtained. The challenge is to find a matrix easy to form and with a good chemical durability which is able to confine this kind of nuclear waste. The current process used to contain sulphate-rich nuclear wastes is bituminization. However, in order to improve properties of containment matrices and simplify the process, CEA has chosen to supervise researches on other materials such as cements or glasses. Indeed, cements are widely used for the immobilization of a variety of wastes (low and intermediate level wastes) and they may be an alternative matrix to bitumen. Even if Portland cement, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry, presents some disadvantages for the containment of sulphate-rich nuclear wastes (risk of swelling and cracking due to delayed ettringite formation), other cement systems, such as calcium sulfo-aluminate binders, may be valuable candidates. Another matrix to confine sulphate-rich waste could be the glass. One of the advantages of this material is that it could also immobilize sulphate containing high level nuclear waste which is present in some countries. This waste comes from the use of ferrous sulfamate as a reducing agent for the conversion of Pu{sup 4+} to Pu{sup 3+} in the partitioning stage of the actinides during reprocessing. Sulphate solubility in borosilicate glasses has already been studied in CEA at laboratory and pilot scales. At a pilot scale, low level liquid waste has been

  2. 76 FR 67793 - Notification of Expanded Pricing Grid for Precious Metals Products Containing Platinum and Gold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... in the Federal Register on January 6, 2009, outlining the new pricing methodology for numismatic... the gold numismatic products. Pricing of Numismatic Products Containing Gold Coins American American....00 \\1/4\\ oz 828.00 \\1/10\\ oz 345.50 4 coins 5,990.50 Pricing of Numismatic Products Containing...

  3. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry. 381.206 Section 381.206 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  4. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  5. 3D printing of tablets containing multiple drugs with defined release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Yang, Jing; Roberts, Clive J

    2015-10-30

    We have employed three-dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing as a medicine manufacturing technique for the production of multi-active tablets with well-defined and separate controlled release profiles for three different drugs. This 'polypill' made by a 3D additive manufacture technique demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single tablet and that it is viable to formulate and 'dial up' this single tablet for the particular needs of an individual. The tablets used to illustrate this concept incorporate an osmotic pump with the drug captopril and sustained release compartments with the drugs nifedipine and glipizide. This combination of medicines could potentially be used to treat diabetics suffering from hypertension. The room temperature extrusion process used to print the formulations used excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to assess drug-excipient interaction. The printed formulations were evaluated for drug release using USP dissolution testing. We found that the captopril portion showed the intended zero order drug release of an osmotic pump and noted that the nifedipine and glipizide portions showed either first order release or Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetics dependent upon the active/excipient ratio used. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cyanophycin production from nitrogen-containing chemicals obtained from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbahloul, Y.A.K.B.; Scott, E.L.; Mooibroek, H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Obsts, M.; Steinbüchel, A.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of cyanophycin in a microorganism whereby a plant-derived nitrogen source is converted by the microorganism into cyanophycin. The plant-derived nitrogen source preferably is a process stream being obtained in the processing

  7. Production of chlorphenesin galactoside by whole cells of β-galactosidase-containing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Hyang-Yeol; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2013-06-28

    We investigated the transgalactosylation reaction of chlorphenesin (CPN) using β-galactosidase (β-gal)-containing Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells, in which galactose from lactose was transferred to CPN. The optimal CPN concentration for CPN galactoside (CPN-G) synthesis was observed at 40 mM under the conditions that lactose and β-gal (as E. coli cells) were 400 g/l and 4.8 U/ml, respectively, and the pH and temperature were 7.0 and 40oC, respectively. The time-course profile of CPN-G synthesis under these optimal conditions showed that CPN-G synthesis from 40 mM CPN reached a maximum of about 27 mM at 12 h. This value corresponded to an about 67% conversion of CPN to CPN-G, which was 4.47-5.36-fold higher than values in previous reports. In addition, we demonstrated by thin-layer chromatography to detect the sugar moiety that galactose was mainly transferred from lactose to CPN. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that CPN-G and CPN-GG (CPN galactoside, which accepted two galactose molecules) were definitively identified as the synthesized products using β-gal-containing E. coli cells. In particular, because we did not use purified β-gal, our β-gal-containing E. coli cells might be practical and cost-effective for enzymatically synthesizing CPN-G. It is expected that the use of β-gal-containing E. coli will be extended to galactose derivatization of other drugs to improve their functionality.

  8. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2011-02-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15-100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorption capacity 135.6 ± 1.97 ml %, oil absorption capacity 100.3 ± 1.16 ml % and foam capacity 33 ± 1%. Protein, fat and ash contents were 51.6 ± 0.06, 4.5 ± 0.05 and 4.2 ± 0.11%, respectively. Tannins and aflatoxin B1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5.5 to 21.9%. Shelf-life studies indicated the maximum storability for 90 days for all the products except laddoo, which could be stored for 30 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C). All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults (fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo) and children (biscuits, laddoo, extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder) varied.

  9. Glucose and fructose from starch-containing plant products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H

    1981-03-13

    Enzymic hydrolysis and isomerization of cocoa kernels or potatoes gave fructose (I)-rich glucose (II) syrup. Thus, a mixture of 150 g cocoa powder and 0.3 g a-amylase in 500 ml H/sub 2/O at pH 7.5 was stirred for approx. 0.5 h at 70/sup 0/ treated with 0.3 amidoglucosidase, stirred for 24 h at 55/sup 0/, neutralized, treated with 0.15 g isomerase, and kept for approx. 10 h at 50-60/sup 0/ to give II syrup containing 50% I.

  10. Comparison of the pharmacologic and clinical profiles of new combined oral contraceptives containing estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen JT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey T Jensen,1 Johannes Bitzer,2 Marco Serrani3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 2Department of Social Medicine and Psychosomatics, Women’s Hospital, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Global Medical Affairs, Women’s Healthcare, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany Abstract: Three estradiol (E2-containing oral contraceptives, estradiol valerate/cyproterone acetate (E2V/CPA, Femilar®, estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG, Qlaira®/Natazia™, and estradiol/nomegestrol acetate (E2/NOMAC; Zoely®, have received approval for use in general practice. Only Finnish women currently have access to all three E2-based formulations. E2/NOMAC is currently approved only in Europe, while E2V/DNG is approved globally. To assist clinicians counseling women considering use of one of these formulations, we conducted a review of the published information about the current E2-containing oral contraceptives. A literature search was conducted using the Ovid interface and a combination of free search terms relevant to estradiol and oral contraception to identify suitable articles for inclusion in this review. The available data show that E2V/DNG, E2/NOMAC, and E2V/CPA are all effective oral contraceptives. While direct comparisons are lacking, indirect evidence suggests that E2V/DNG and E2/NOMAC may have better bleeding profiles than E2V/CPA. E2V/DNG is also approved for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Both E2V/DNG and E2/NOMAC have minimal influence on hemostatic, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism parameters, or induce less change in these parameters relative to ethinylestradiol-based oral contraceptives. However, the predictive value of these surrogate parameters is a matter of debate, and whether these differences can be translated into meaningful clinical outcomes needs to be established in large-scale, post-marketing, prospective, Phase IV cohort

  11. Changes in polyphenol profile of dried apricots containing SO2 at various concentrations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Melek; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    Changes in polyphenols have important effects on the quality (especially color) and health benefits of dried apricots. SO 2 concentration, storage and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were factors which had significant effects on polyphenols. Polyphenol profile and activities of PPO and PAL in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs, 0, 451, 832, 2112 and 3241 mg SO 2 kg -1 ) were monitored during storage at 4, 20 and 30 °C for 379 days for the first time. Even the lowest SO 2 concentration (451 mg kg -1 ) was sufficient to inactivate PPO during the entire storage period. However, while SO 2 led to the increase in PAL activity of the samples (r = 0.767) before storage, PAL activities of SDAs decreased during storage. After 90 days of storage, PAL activity was determined in only non-sulfured dried apricots (NSDAs) and dried apricots containing 451 mg SO 2 kg -1 . Although the major polyphenol in NSDAs was epicatechin (611.4 mg kg -1 ), that in SDAs was chlorogenic acid (455-1508 mg kg -1 ), followed by epicatechin (0-426.8 mg kg -1 ), rutin (148.9-477.3 mg kg -1 ), ferulic acid (23.3-55.3 mg kg -1 ) and gallic acid (2.4-43.6 mg kg -1 ). After storage at 30 °C for 379 days, the major polyphenol in SDAs was gallic acid (706-2324 mg kg -1 ). However, the major polyphenol in NSDAs did not change after storage. The highest total polyphenol content was detected in SDAs containing 2112 mg SO 2 kg -1 and stored at 30 °C. To produce dried apricots having high polyphenol content, ∼2000 mg SO 2 kg -1 should be used. Low storage temperature (<30 °C) was not necessary for the protection of polyphenols. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Production of UT Reference Blocks Containing Artificially Introduced Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, A. A.; Ucuncuoglu, S.; Kurkcu, N.; Kandemir, A.; Arslan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic blocks of Inconel 718 and Ti-6A1-4V alloys that contain artificially introduced defects of known type, size, shape and location were prepared to serve as calibration standards in ultrasonic inspection. The synthetic defects employed to serve as reflectors were all pertinent to the specific alloy systems used, i.e. compositional defects termed as 'dirty white' 'white spot' and 'freckle' for Inconel 718; 'hard-alpha' for titanium alloy. Furthermore, as a defect type common to all three materials, spherical voids of various sizes were also incorporated into these calibration blocks. The aim of this study is to introduce defects of known type and size into metallic blocks made of superalloy Inconel 718 and titanium Ti-6A1-4V alloy. The scope of the study entailed determination of the correct parameters for manufacturing processes involved. Based on the results of the preceding phases of this study, it was decided that the method of Vacuum Hot Pressing (VHP) was to be used in this project to manufacture the metallic block containing artificial defects

  13. Novel cellobiose 2-epimerases for the production of epilactose from milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewinkel, Manuel; Kaiser, Jana; Merz, Michael; Rentschler, Eva; Kuschel, Beatrice; Hinrichs, Jörg; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    A selected number of enzymes have recently been assigned to the emerging class of cellobiose 2-epimerases (CE). All CE convert lactose to the rare sugar epilactose, which is regarded as a new prebiotic. Within this study, the gene products of 2 potential CE genes originating from the mesophilic bacteria Cellulosilyticum lentocellum and Dysgonomonas gadei were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. The enzymes have been identified as novel CE by sequence analysis and biochemical characterizations. The biochemical characterizations included the determination of the molecular weight, the substrate spectrum, and the kinetic parameters, as well as the pH and temperature profiles in buffer and food matrices. Both identified CE epimerize cellobiose and lactose into the C2 epimerization products glucosylmannose and epilactose, respectively. The epimerization activity for lactose was maximal at pH 8.0 or 7.5 and 40°C in defined buffer systems for the CE from C. lentocellum and the CE from D. gadei, respectively. In addition, biotransformations of the foodstuff milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose were demonstrated. The CE from D. gadei was produced in a stirred-tank reactor (12 L) and purified using an automatic system. Enzyme production and purification in this scale indicates that a future upscaling of CE production is possible. The bioconversions of lactose in milk ultrafiltrate were carried out either in a batch process or in a continuously operated enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) process. Both processes ran at an industrially relevant low temperature of 8°C to reduce undesirable microbial growth. The enzyme was reasonably active at the low process temperature because the CE originated from a mesophilic organism. An epilactose yield of 29.9% was achieved in the batch process within 28 h of operation time. In the continuous EMR process, the epilactose yield in the product stream was lower, at 18.5%. However, the enzyme productivity

  14. Hadronic production of baryons containing two heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnoj, A.V.; Kiselev, V.V.; Likhoded, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the QCD perturbation theory, total and differential cross sections of the Ξ bc ' , Ξ bc ( * ) and Ξ cc ( * ) baryons production in gluon collisions are calculated in the leading order over α s for the doubly heavy (bc) and (cc) diquarks. At both small and large transverse momenta of baryons, a use of the mechanism of the heavy quark fragmentation into the heavy diquark is shown to underestimate the cross section values in comparison with the exact numerical calculations of a complete set of diagrams. The expected in Tevatron experiments yield of baryons with two heavy quarks is evaluated [ru

  15. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  16. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  17. APPLICATION FULLERENE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MEAT PRODUCTS CONTAINING KLENBUTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In modern conditions the majority of developing livestock complexes, various chemical additives, apply to cattle feeding. One of such preparations is clenbuterol. Clenbuterol is β-2-adrenostimulyator belonging to group β-agonist who stimulate growth of muscular weight and regulate a ratio of fatty and muscular tissue at cultivation of agricultural animals and birds. In Russia results of researches in which it is recommended to apply clenbuterol as a growth factor at cattle cultivation are published. Thus the risk of influences of the residual maintenance of a preparation in animal husbandry production on health of consumers wasn't estimated. We conducted researches in the field of studying of properties fullerene and clenbuterol and their opportunities interaction among themselves. For identification clenbuterol in meat raw materials the synthesis of Prato based on a functionalization fullerene by C60 and C70 consisting in its transformation in fullerene on reactions of a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide on multiple communications of C=C of a fulleren kernel was moved. Reaction took place with allocation of a deposit of the dark color which analysis proved that is a product of interaction of substances investigated by us. This experiment gives the chance to identify clenbuterolfullerene.

  18. LC-NMR: profiling and dereplication of natural product extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Natural products have served as a major source of drugs for centuries, with over half of the pharmaceuticals in use today derived from natural origins. Natural products continue to play a dominant role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. Much remains to be explored, particularly the marine and microbial environments, from which a host of novel bioactive chemical entities await discovery. The search for new drugs from natural origins (either terrestrial or marine) involves screening of extracts for the presence of novel compounds and an investigation of their biological activities. Suspected novel or bioactive compounds are usually isolated to elucidate the structure and for further biological and toxicological testing. The path that leads from the intact terrestrial or marine organism to the pure constituents is long, involving work that might last from weeks to years. Recognition of natural products at the earliest possible stage of separation is known as dereplication and is essential to avoid the time-consuming isolation of common constituents and nuisance compounds. In the search for new natural products, crude extracts are typically subjected to multi-step work-up and isolation procedures, which include various separation methods, in order to obtain pure compounds whose structure is then elucidated using off-line spectroscopic methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). The characterisation of a natural product can be summarised by the information obtained from each of the individual spectroscopic techniques. With the application of one or more of these individual techniques a dereplication by partial characterisation is possible. As natural product extracts often contain a large number of closely related, and thus difficult to separate, compounds, this classical approach may become very tedious and time-consuming. The characterisation of natural products in complex

  19. THE USE OF FLUORIDE CONTAINING MINERAL WATER IN WORT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunka Yonkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the quality of wort produced using fluoride containing mineral water. The results show that the mineral water has a negative impact on the enzymatic destruction of starch, proteins, color intensity and pH of the wort. The changes of pH during mashing process using tap and mineral water was studied. The lower acidity of wort obtained using mineral water didn’t change during the brewing process. The fluoride content of beer is lower than 5 mg.L-1 when wort is produced using mineral and tap water in 1:1 ratio and citric acid for pH correction. At the same time, the final degree of fermentation, α-amine nitrogen content and the intensity of color of produced wort are close to the control sample. The changes in fluoride ion concentration are monitored using ion-selective potentiometry. The fluoride content is decreased from 5.7 to 4.75 mg.L-1, the most intense change is observed during the mashing process.

  20. Fission product tellurium chemistry from fuel to containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed on the speciation of tellurium in-core and inside the primary heat transport system (PHTS) under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. Data from recent Knudsen-cell experiments on the volatilization of Cs 2 Te were incorporated into the calculation. These data were used to recalculate thermodynamic quantities for Cs 2 Te(g), including Δ f G o (298 K)= -118±9 kJ.mol -1 . The description of the condensed high-temperature cesium-tellurium phase was expanded to include Cs 2 Te 3 (c) in addition to Cs 2 Te(c). These modifications were incorporated into the database used in the equilibrium calculations; the net effect was to stabilize the condensed cesium-tellurium phase and reduce the vapour pressure of Cs 2 Te(g) between 1200 and 1600 K. The impact of tellurium speciation in containment, after release from the PHTS, is discussed along with the possible effect of tellurium on iodine chemistry. (author) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  1. Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 x10 -7 g H 2 /hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 x10 -4 g H 2 /hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges

  2. Fission product tellurium chemistry from fuel to containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed on the speciation of tellurium in-core and inside the primary heat transport system (PHTS) under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. Data from recent Knudsen-cell experiments on the volatilization of Cs{sub 2}Te were incorporated into the calculation. These data were used to recalculate thermodynamic quantities for Cs{sub 2}Te(g), including {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o}(298 K)= -118{+-}9 kJ.mol{sup -1}. The description of the condensed high-temperature cesium-tellurium phase was expanded to include Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(c) in addition to Cs{sub 2}Te(c). These modifications were incorporated into the database used in the equilibrium calculations; the net effect was to stabilize the condensed cesium-tellurium phase and reduce the vapour pressure of Cs{sub 2}Te(g) between 1200 and 1600 K. The impact of tellurium speciation in containment, after release from the PHTS, is discussed along with the possible effect of tellurium on iodine chemistry. (author) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  3. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  4. Simulated Leaching (Migration) Study for a Model Container-Closure System Applicable to Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Egert, Thomas; Hendricker, Alan; Castner, James; Feinberg, Tom; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank; Markovic, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    A simulating leaching (migration) study was performed on a model container-closure system relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products. This container-closure system consisted of a linear low-density polyethylene bottle (primary container), a polypropylene cap and an elastomeric cap liner (closure), an adhesive label (labeling), and a foil overpouch (secondary container). The bottles were filled with simulating solvents (aqueous salt/acid mixture at pH 2.5, aqueous buffer at pH 9.5, and 1/1 v/v isopropanol/water), a label was affixed to the filled and capped bottles, the filled bottles were placed into the foil overpouch, and the filled and pouched units were stored either upright or inverted for up to 6 months at 40 °C. After storage, the leaching solutions were tested for leached substances using multiple complementary analytical techniques to address volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile organic and inorganic extractables as potential leachables.The leaching data generated supported several conclusions, including that (1) the extractables (leachables) profile revealed by a simulating leaching study can qualitatively be correlated with compositional information for materials of construction, (2) the chemical nature of both the extracting medium and the individual extractables (leachables) can markedly affect the resulting profile, and (3) while direct contact between a drug product and a system's material of construction may exacerbate the leaching of substances from that material by the drug product, direct contact is not a prerequisite for migration and leaching to occur. LAY ABSTRACT: The migration of container-related extractables from a model pharmaceutical container-closure system and into simulated drug product solutions was studied, focusing on circumstances relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products. The model system was constructed specifically to address the migration of extractables from labels applied to the outside of the

  5. Relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.; Berends, H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to develop simple ways of quantifying and estimating CH4 production in cattle. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CH4 production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in order to use milk FA profiles to predict CH4 production in dairy cattle. Data from 3 experiments with

  6. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products containing pork to destroy trichinae. 318.10 Section 318.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.10 Prescribed treatment of pork and... thorough cooking because of the appearance of the finished product or otherwise. Cured boneless pork loins...

  7. Preliminary treatment of chlorinated waste streams containing fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudry, Damien; Bardez, Isabelle; Bart, Florence [CEA Marcoule DTCD/SECM/LM2C, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Deniard, Philippe; Jobic, Stephane [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Rakhmatullin, Aydar [Conditions Extremes et Materiaux: Hautes Temperatures et Irradiations, CEMHTI-CNRS, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Bessada, Catherine [Conditions Extremes et Materiaux: Hautes Temperatures et Irradiations, CEMHTI-CNRS, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Faculte des Sciences, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Separating actinides from fission products (FP) by electrolytic techniques in a molten chloride medium produces high-level waste which, because of its high chlorine content, cannot be directly and quantitatively loaded in a glass matrix and therefore requires the development of new management methods. In this regard the strategy of submitting chlorinated waste streams to a preliminary treatment consists in separating the various types of FP from the solvent to minimize the ultimate high-level waste volume. Selective precipitation of the rare earth elements by NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} was investigated in a LiCl-KCl medium, and could constitute the first step in the purification process. Unlike the use of alkali orthophosphate, this method provides similar conversion factors with the simple addition of stoichiometric phosphorus (P:rare-earth = 1) and does not require excess phosphate (P:rare-earth = 5). This prevents the formation of a secondary Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} phase. Moreover, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} also allows chlorine bound to rare earth elements to be eliminated as NH{sub 4}Cl. The formation of HCl is highly probable.

  8. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed. A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03. Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  9. Post-Menopausal Vaginal Hemorrhage Related to the Use of a Hop-Containing Phytotherapeutic Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hunsel, Florence; van de Koppel, Sonja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2015-01-01

    Two 54-year-old women developed abdominal cramps and vaginal hemorrhage as a result of endometrial hyperplasia during treatment with a hop-containing phytotherapeutic product (MenoCool®) for post-menopausal complaints. The women used the hop-containing phytotherapeutic product (418 mg of hop per

  10. 77 FR 33488 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-846] Certain CMOS Image Sensors and... image sensors and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No... image sensors and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1 and 2 of the `126...

  11. Quality and safety of products containing Ephedra Herba on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lake OA; Slijkhuis C; Maas WF; Vliet MEA van; Kaste D de; Verdonk-Kleinjan W; Keuringsdienst van Waren, regio; LGO

    2001-01-01

    We performed analytical studies on dietary supplements and smart products containing Ephedra herba on the Dutch market. Such products are labelled 'from natural, herbal sources' and do not fall under Dutch Medicines Act. Most of the samples tested from 1993 to 1999 contained unacceptably

  12. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To Review Initial Determination To Amend... electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos...

  13. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination To Review in... importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits and products containing same by reason of... (collectively ``Seagate''). Qimonda accuses of infringement certain LSI integrated circuits, as well as certain...

  14. 10 CFR 30.19 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or..., krypton-85, or promethium-147. (a) Except for persons who manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer for sale or distribution self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147...

  15. 78 FR 63243 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Commission Determination To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-837] Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Commission Determination To Review a Final Initial Determination Finding a... section 337 as to certain audiovisual components and products containing the same with respect to claims 1...

  16. 78 FR 48190 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-837] Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S... infringing audiovisual components and products containing the same, imported by Funai Corporation, Inc. of...

  17. 77 FR 74513 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Investigations: Terminations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-846] Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings AGENCY: U.S... United States after importation of certain CMOS image sensors and products containing the same based on...

  18. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason of... entry of ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same that infringe one or more of...

  19. 76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various claims...

  20. Effect of fertilization and irrigation on nursery production of hydrangea using alternative containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container production of nursery plants using biodegradable containers has been studied in recent years as a sustainable alternative to traditional plastic containers. Plant growth and photosynthetic performance of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ were investigated in this study when they we...

  1. Quality and safety of products containing Ephedra Herba on the Dutch market

    OpenAIRE

    Lake OA; Slijkhuis C; Maas WF; Vliet MEA van; Kaste D de; Verdonk-Kleinjan W; Keuringsdienst van Waren, regio Zuid; LGO

    2001-01-01

    We performed analytical studies on dietary supplements and smart products containing Ephedra herba on the Dutch market. Such products are labelled 'from natural, herbal sources' and do not fall under Dutch Medicines Act. Most of the samples tested from 1993 to 1999 contained unacceptably large amounts of ephedrine (EP) alkaloids (the active substances of Ephedra herba) in relation to the safety criteria in the literature. Some samples also contained an effect-enhancing substance (e.g. coffein...

  2. Method of processing dismantled products of radiation-contaminated equipments and transportation container therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, Shiro; Heki, Hideaki.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of decontaminating dismantled products of radiation-contaminated equipments removed at nuclear power facilities and classifying the dismantled products depending on their remaining radioactivity levels measured at a processing facility, the dismantled products are contained in a transportation container, to which decontamination liquids are injected and they are transferred to the processing facility. The decontaminated liquid wastes are drained from the transportation container, the dismantled products are washed while being contained in the transportation container as they are. Then, they are transferred to a step for measuring their remaining radioactivity level. This can shorten the time from the containment of the dismantled products to the transportation container to the completion of the decontamination, to improve the efficiency for the decontamination processing. Further, by separately containing the dismantled products on every kind of materials to respective containers, the processing time can be appropriately controlled respectively even if the dissolving efficiency to the decontamination liquids is different depending on the materials. (T.M.)

  3. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  4. PRODUCTION OF WIRE RML OF SQUARE PROFILE IN CONDITIONS OF BELORUSSIAN METALLURGICAL WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Sachava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at using of profile (square wire RML in conditions of RUP «BMZ» for production of pipes of high pressure their production is cheapened, what attracts interest of consumer.

  5. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselino Mariana N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into four groups (n=10: GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control, GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control, GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV

  6. Comparison of solute-binding properties of plastic materials used as pharmaceutical product containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Couch, Tom; Gillum, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Material/water equilibrium binding constants (E(b)) were determined for 11 organic solutes and 2 plastic materials commonly used in pharmaceutical product containers (plasticized polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin). In general, solute binding by the plasticized polyvinyl chloride material was greater, by nearly an order of magnitude, than the binding by the polyolefin (on an equal weight basis). The utilization of the binding constants to facilitate container compatibility assessments (e.g., drug loss by container binding) for drug-containing products is discussed.

  7. Sales of Nicotine-Containing Electronic Cigarette Products: United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy L; Gammon, Doris G; Rogers, Todd; Coats, Ellen M; Singh, Tushar; King, Brian A

    2017-05-01

    To assess the proportion of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products sold in the United States that contain nicotine according to retail scanner data. We obtained unit sales data from January 11, 2015, to December 12, 2015, from The Nielsen Company for convenience stores; supermarkets; mass merchandisers; drug, club, and dollar stores; and Department of Defense commissaries. The data did not include purchases from tobacco specialty shops, "vape shops," or online sources. Nicotine content was assessed by product type (disposables, rechargeables, and refills), region, and flavor status based on nicotine strength listed in the Universal Product Codes. For the 36.7% of entries lacking nicotine content information, we conducted Internet searches by brand, product, and flavor. In 2015, 99.0% of e-cigarette products sold contained nicotine, including 99.0% of disposables, 99.7% of rechargeables, and 98.8% of refills. Overall, 98.7% of flavored e-cigarette products and 99.4% of nonflavored e-cigarette products contained nicotine. In 2015, almost all e-cigarette products sold in US convenience stores and other assessed channels contained nicotine. Public Health Implications. Findings reinforce the importance of warning labels for nicotine-containing products, ingredient reporting, and restrictions on sales to minors.

  8. NODC Standard Product: Global ocean temperature and salinity profiles (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of CD-ROMs contains global ocean temperature and salinity profiles derived from NODC archive data files. It includes oceanographic station (bottle) data,...

  9. 78 FR 52211 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not To Review an... States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting or display replication...

  10. Difference of Sums Containing Products of Binomial Coefficients and Their Logarithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Allen R; Moskowitz, Ira S

    2005-01-01

    Properties of the difference of two sums containing products of binomial coefficients and their logarithms which arise in the application of Shannon's information theory to a certain class of covert channels are deduced...

  11. Difference of Sums Containing Products of Binomial Coefficients and their Logarithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Allen R; Moskowitz, Ira S

    2004-01-01

    Properties of the difference of two sums containing products of binomial coefficients and their logarithms which arise in the application of Shannon's information theory to a certain class of covert channels are deduced...

  12. Characterization of engineered nanoparticles in commercially available spray disinfectant products advertised to contain colloidal silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the potential for human exposure to silver nanoparticles from spray disinfectants and dietary supplements, we characterized the silver-containing nanoparticles in 22 commercial products that advertised the use of silver or colloidal silver as the active ingredient. Characte...

  13. Influence of Different Container Closure Systems and Capping Process Parameters on Product Quality and Container Closure Integrity (CCI) in GMP Drug Product Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Huwyler, Joerg; Eder, Juergen; Fritsch, Kamila; Posset, Tobias; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Capping equipment used in good manufacturing practice manufacturing features different designs and a variety of adjustable process parameters. The overall capping result is a complex interplay of the different capping process parameters and is insufficiently described in literature. It remains poorly studied how the different capping equipment designs and capping equipment process parameters (e.g., pre-compression force, capping plate height, turntable rotating speed) contribute to the final residual seal force of a sealed container closure system and its relation to container closure integrity and other drug product quality parameters. Stopper compression measured by computer tomography correlated to residual seal force measurements.In our studies, we used different container closure system configurations from different good manufacturing practice drug product fill & finish facilities to investigate the influence of differences in primary packaging, that is, vial size and rubber stopper design on the capping process and the capped drug product. In addition, we compared two large-scale good manufacturing practice manufacturing capping equipment and different capping equipment settings and their impact on product quality and integrity, as determined by residual seal force.The capping plate to plunger distance had a major influence on the obtained residual seal force values of a sealed vial, whereas the capping pre-compression force and the turntable rotation speed showed only a minor influence on the residual seal force of a sealed vial. Capping process parameters could not easily be transferred from capping equipment of different manufacturers. However, the residual seal force tester did provide a valuable tool to compare capping performance of different capping equipment. No vial showed any leakage greater than 10(-8)mbar L/s as measured by a helium mass spectrometry system, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted in the residual seal force range

  14. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient... indicates that certain zirconium compounds have caused human skin granulomas and toxic effects in the lungs...

  15. Productive container types for Aedes aegypti immatures in Mérida, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rejón, Julian E; López-Uribe, Mildred P; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Del Najera-Vazquez, Maria Rosario; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2011-05-01

    During 2007-2010, we examined which container types in Mérida, México, are most productive for Aedes aegypti (L.) immatures. Surveys for mosquito immatures followed routine surveillance methodology and container type classifications used by Servicios de Salud de Yucatán. Our main findings were that (1) small and larger discarded containers that serve no particular purpose and therefore can be removed from the environment contribute strongly to larval and pupal production in Mérida, and (2) the importance of different container types can vary among sets of residential premises as well as between dry and wet periods. These results may help to guide future implementation in Mérida of control efforts that target the most productive container types for Ae. aegypti immatures. Furthermore, if the Patio Limpio cleanup campaign that currently is ongoing in Mérida proves successful in removing discarded containers as important immature development sites, then we should see dramatic changes in the most productive container types in the future as the mosquito is forced to switch to other container types, which perhaps also will be easier to include in highly targeted mosquito control interventions.

  16. Evaluation of Container Closure System Integrity for Frozen Storage Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Nikoloff, Jonas; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, drug product for parenteral administration is stored in a frozen state (e.g., -20 °C or -80 °C), particularly during early stages of development of some biotech molecules in order to provide sufficient stability. Shipment of frozen product could potentially be performed in the frozen state, yet possibly at different temperatures, for example, using dry ice (-80 °C). Container closure systems of drug products usually consist of a glass vial, rubber stopper, and an aluminum crimped cap. In the frozen state, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of commonly used rubber stoppers is between -55 and -65 °C. Below their Tg, rubber stoppers are known to lose their elastic properties and become brittle, and thus potentially fail to maintain container closure integrity in the frozen state. Leaks during frozen temperature storage and transportation are likely to be transient, yet, can possibly risk container closure integrity and lead to microbial contamination. After thawing, the rubber stopper is supposed to re-seal the container closure system. Given the transient nature of the possible impact on container closure integrity in the frozen state, typical container closure integrity testing methods (used at room temperature conditions) are unable to evaluate and thus confirm container closure integrity in the frozen state. Here we present the development of a novel method (thermal physical container closure integrity) for direct assessment of container closure integrity by a physical method (physical container closure integrity) at frozen conditions, using a modified He leakage test. In this study, different container closure systems were evaluated with regard to physical container closure integrity in the frozen state to assess the suitability of vial/stopper combinations and were compared to a gas headspace method. In summary, the thermal physical container closure integrity He leakage method was more sensitive in detecting physical container closure

  17. Method for separation of water from bituminous shales, etc. [water-free heavy product and water-containing light product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsing, G H

    1908-10-13

    The method is characterized by conducting all the products of distillation, coming from the retorts, into a controllable system of condensation. This system of condensation is so constructed that the products of distillation are cooled to such a temperature that only the water-free heavy distillates are being condensed, and is furthermore so constructed that the other products of distillation, not yet condensed, are being condensed in an ordinary system of coolers. The purpose is to separate the distillates into a water-free heavy product and a water-containing lighter product. The patent includes an additional claim.

  18. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Sarah J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common pesticide products for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes combine two distinct modes of action: 1 conventional insecticidal activity which kills mosquitoes exposed to the pesticide and 2 deterrence of mosquitoes away from protected humans. While deterrence enhances personal or household protection of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, it may also attenuate or even reverse communal protection if it diverts mosquitoes to non-users rather than killing them outright. Methods A process-explicit model of malaria transmission is described which captures the sequential interaction between deterrent and toxic actions of vector control pesticides and accounts for the distinctive impacts of toxic activities which kill mosquitoes before or after they have fed upon the occupant of a covered house or sleeping space. Results Increasing deterrency increases personal protection but consistently reduces communal protection because deterrent sub-lethal exposure inevitably reduces the proportion subsequently exposed to higher lethal doses. If the high coverage targets of the World Health Organization are achieved, purely toxic products with no deterrence are predicted to generally provide superior protection to non-users and even users, especially where vectors feed exclusively on humans and a substantial amount of transmission occurs outdoors. Remarkably, this is even the case if that product confers no personal protection and only kills mosquitoes after they have fed. Conclusions Products with purely mosquito-toxic profiles may, therefore, be preferable for programmes with universal coverage targets, rather than those with equivalent toxicity but which also have higher deterrence. However, if purely mosquito-toxic products confer little personal protection because they do not deter mosquitoes and only kill them after they have fed, then they will require aggressive "catch up" campaigns, with

  19. Proteome Profiles of Digested Products of Commercial Meat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC–MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P meat products. Our findings give an insight into nutritional values of different meat products. PMID:28396857

  20. "This program contains product placement": Effects of sponsorship disclosure on television viewers’ responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Television viewers are increasingly exposed to texts saying "This program contains product placement" or PP (short for product placement) logos incorporated in television programs. These so-called sponsorship disclosures aim to inform viewers about advertising that is embedded in television

  1. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-786] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including...

  2. On the inverse transform of Laplace transforms that contain (products of) the parabolic cylinder function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veestraeten, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Laplace transforms of the transition probability density and distribution functions for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process contain the product of two parabolic cylinder functions, namely Dv(x)Dv(y) and Dv(x)Dv−1(y), respectively. The inverse transforms of these products have as yet not been

  3. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in oxygen-containing water solutions at high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Samojlov, Yu.F.; Petrova, T.I.; Kharitonova, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for calculation of solubility of iron corrosion products in oxygen-containing aqueous solutions in the 298-573 K temperature range is presented. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in deeply-desalinizated water in the presence of oxygen for the such range of the temperatures is experimentally determined. Rather good convergence between calculated and experimental data is noted

  4. 77 FR 22803 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-837] Certain Audiovisual Components and Products... importation of certain audiovisual components and products containing the same by reason of infringement of... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain audiovisual components and...

  5. Nutritional, chemical and antioxidant/pro-oxidant profiles of silverskin, a coffee roasting by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anabela S G; Alves, Rita C; Vinha, Ana F; Costa, Elísio; Costa, Catarina S G; Nunes, M Antónia; Almeida, Agostinho A; Santos-Silva, Alice; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2018-11-30

    Coffee silverskin (a coffee roasting by-product) contains high amounts of dietary fibre (49% insoluble and 7% soluble) and protein (19%). Potassium (∼5g/100g), magnesium (2g/100g) and calcium (0.6g/100g) are the major macrominerals. The vitamin E profile of silverskin comprises α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, ɣ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol, ɣ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. The fatty acid profile is mainly saturated (C16:0 and C22:0), but the total amount of fat is low (2.4%). Caffeine (1.25g/100g), chlorogenic acid (246mg/100g), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5.68mg/100g) are also present in silverskin. Total phenolics and flavonoids are partially responsible for the in vitro antioxidant activity. Silverskin extracts protected erythrocytes from oxidative AAPH- and H 2 O 2 -induced hemolysis, but at high concentrations a pro-oxidant effect on erythrocyte morphology was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic Strategies toward Natural Products Containing Contiguous Stereogenic Quaternary Carbon Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büschleb, Martin; Dorich, Stéphane; Hanessian, Stephen; Tao, Daniel; Schenthal, Kyle B; Overman, Larry E

    2016-03-18

    Strategies for the total synthesis of complex natural products that contain two or more contiguous stereogenic quaternary carbon atoms in their intricate structures are reviewed with 12 representative examples. Emphasis has been put on methods to create quaternary carbon stereocenters, including syntheses of the same natural product by different groups, thereby showcasing the diversity of thought and individual creativity. A compendium of selected natural products containing two or more contiguous stereogenic quaternary carbon atoms and key reactions in their total or partial syntheses is provided in the Supporting Information. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Variation in Sensory Profile of Individual Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Same Production Batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    The variation in sensory profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), belonging to the same aquaculture production batch and handled the same way, was explored by using objective sensory profiling on heat-treated minced fillets. In addition, quality index, mechanical texture, pH, fat, and water...... content were measured. Different groups of fish were sampled 3 different times during a production day. The results showed significant differences in the sensory profiles of individual fish within all 3 groups as well as significant differences between the groups. Differences in mechanical texture were...... not explain the differences in the sensory profiling or in the mechanical texture measurements. The results showed that significant differences in the sensory profiles of individual fish from the same aquaculture production batch may occur. Furthermore, the results also showed sensory differences between...

  8. Prescription patterns of enzyme-containing products in South Africa over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Truter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are traded in five categories, namely medical (intervention, diagnostic (detection and quantification, molecular biology, biofuel and industrial. Therapeutic enzymes have been investigated for different uses, for example, for the treatment of genetic disorders, blood clotting disorders, cancer and infectious diseases and for burn debridement. No studies on the prescription of enzyme-containing products in South Africa could be found. Enzymes are classified in the Monthly Index of Medical Specialities under digestants, enzymes and fibrinolytics. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prescription patterns and cost of enzyme-containing products in South Africa. A private health-care medicines claims database for 2010 and 2011 of approximately 4.5 million records was analysed retrospectively. Enzyme-containing products constituted a small percentage of medical insurance claims (only 0.02% of approximately 4.5 million claims for products and procedures, yet they were relatively expensive. A total of 906 products was prescribed at a cost of almost ZAR2 million over the 2 years. Hyaluronidase was the most frequently prescribed (60.04%, followed by pancreatin-containing products (34.66%. Pancreatin (lipase/ protease/amylase is primarily used in the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The average cost per hyaluronidase prescription paid by the medical insurance schemes was ZAR280. Other enzyme-containing products prescribed were imiglucerase, alteplase and tenecteplase. Imiglucerase was overall the most expensive. Alteplase, tenecteplase and streptokinase are antithrombotic enzymes that are used in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke. Streptokinase, regarded as the most affordable antithrombotic enzyme, was not prescribed during the period under study. With the growing opportunities for enzymes for therapeutics, the use of enzyme-containing products which are comparatively expensive require

  9. Metabolite profiles of rice cultivars containing bacterial blight-resistant genes are distinctive from susceptible rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Wu; Haichuan Yu; Haofu Dai; Wenli Mei; Xin Huang; Shuifang Zhu; Ming Peng

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic changes of bacterial blight-resistant line C418/Xa23 generated by molecular marker-assisted selection (n =12),transgenic variety C418-Xa21 generated by using the Agrobacterium-mediated system (n =12),and progenitor cultivar C418 (n =12) were monitored using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.The validation,discrimination,and establishment of correlative relationships between metabolite signals were performed by cluster analysis,principal component analysis,and partial least squares-discriminant analysis.Significant and unintended changes were observed in 154 components in C418/Xa23 and 48 components in C418-Xa21 compared with C418 (P < 0.05,Fold change > 2.0).The most significant decreases detected (P< 0.001) in both C418/Xa23 and C418-Xa21 were in three amino acids: glycine,tyrosine,and alanine,and four identified metabolites: malic acid,ferulic acid,succinic acid,and glycerol.Linoleic acid was increased specifically in C418/Xa23 which was derived from traditional breeding.This line,possessing a distinctive metabolite profile as a positive control,shows more differences vs.the parental than the transgenic line.Only succinic acid that falls outside the boundaries of natural variability between the two non-transgenic varieties C418 and C418/Xa23 should be further investigated with respect to safety or nutritional impact.

  10. Metabolite profiling of recombinant CHO cells: Designing tailored feeding regimes that enhance recombinant antibody production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellick, C.A.; Croxford, A.S.; Maqsood, A.R.; Stephens, G.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Goodacre, R.; Dickson, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the primary platform for commercial expression of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Obtaining maximum production from the expression platform requires optimal cell culture medium (and associated nutrient feeds). We have used metabolite profiling to define the

  11. Metabolite profiling of recombinant CHO cells: designing tailored feeding regimes that enhance recombinant antibody production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellick, C.A.; Croxford, A.S.; Maqsood, A.R.; Stephens, G.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Goodacre, R.; Dickson, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the primary platform for commercial expression of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Obtaining maximum production from the expression platform requires optimal cell culture medium (and associated nutrient feeds). We have used metabolite profiling to define the

  12. Profiling structured product labeling with NDF-RT and RxNorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Structured Product Labeling (SPL) is a document markup standard approved by Health Level Seven (HL7) and adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism for exchanging drug product information. The SPL drug labels contain rich information about FDA approved clinical drugs. However, the lack of linkage to standard drug ontologies hinders their meaningful use. NDF-RT (National Drug File Reference Terminology) and NLM RxNorm as standard drug ontology were used to standardize and profile the product labels. Methods In this paper, we present a framework that intends to map SPL drug labels with existing drug ontologies: NDF-RT and RxNorm. We also applied existing categorical annotations from the drug ontologies to classify SPL drug labels into corresponding classes. We established the classification and relevant linkage for SPL drug labels using the following three approaches. First, we retrieved NDF-RT categorical information from the External Pharmacologic Class (EPC) indexing SPLs. Second, we used the RxNorm and NDF-RT mappings to classify and link SPLs with NDF-RT categories. Third, we profiled SPLs using RxNorm term type information. In the implementation process, we employed a Semantic Web technology framework, in which we stored the data sets from NDF-RT and SPLs into a RDF triple store, and executed SPARQL queries to retrieve data from customized SPARQL endpoints. Meanwhile, we imported RxNorm data into MySQL relational database. Results In total, 96.0% SPL drug labels were mapped with NDF-RT categories whereas 97.0% SPL drug labels are linked to RxNorm codes. We found that the majority of SPL drug labels are mapped to chemical ingredient concepts in both drug ontologies whereas a relatively small portion of SPL drug labels are mapped to clinical drug concepts. Conclusions The profiling outcomes produced by this study would provide useful insights on meaningful use of FDA SPL drug labels in clinical applications through

  13. Profiling structured product labeling with NDF-RT and RxNorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structured Product Labeling (SPL is a document markup standard approved by Health Level Seven (HL7 and adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a mechanism for exchanging drug product information. The SPL drug labels contain rich information about FDA approved clinical drugs. However, the lack of linkage to standard drug ontologies hinders their meaningful use. NDF-RT (National Drug File Reference Terminology and NLM RxNorm as standard drug ontology were used to standardize and profile the product labels. Methods In this paper, we present a framework that intends to map SPL drug labels with existing drug ontologies: NDF-RT and RxNorm. We also applied existing categorical annotations from the drug ontologies to classify SPL drug labels into corresponding classes. We established the classification and relevant linkage for SPL drug labels using the following three approaches. First, we retrieved NDF-RT categorical information from the External Pharmacologic Class (EPC indexing SPLs. Second, we used the RxNorm and NDF-RT mappings to classify and link SPLs with NDF-RT categories. Third, we profiled SPLs using RxNorm term type information. In the implementation process, we employed a Semantic Web technology framework, in which we stored the data sets from NDF-RT and SPLs into a RDF triple store, and executed SPARQL queries to retrieve data from customized SPARQL endpoints. Meanwhile, we imported RxNorm data into MySQL relational database. Results In total, 96.0% SPL drug labels were mapped with NDF-RT categories whereas 97.0% SPL drug labels are linked to RxNorm codes. We found that the majority of SPL drug labels are mapped to chemical ingredient concepts in both drug ontologies whereas a relatively small portion of SPL drug labels are mapped to clinical drug concepts. Conclusions The profiling outcomes produced by this study would provide useful insights on meaningful use of FDA SPL drug labels in clinical

  14. Profiling structured product labeling with NDF-RT and RxNorm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian; Jiang, Guoqian; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-12-20

    Structured Product Labeling (SPL) is a document markup standard approved by Health Level Seven (HL7) and adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism for exchanging drug product information. The SPL drug labels contain rich information about FDA approved clinical drugs. However, the lack of linkage to standard drug ontologies hinders their meaningful use. NDF-RT (National Drug File Reference Terminology) and NLM RxNorm as standard drug ontology were used to standardize and profile the product labels. In this paper, we present a framework that intends to map SPL drug labels with existing drug ontologies: NDF-RT and RxNorm. We also applied existing categorical annotations from the drug ontologies to classify SPL drug labels into corresponding classes. We established the classification and relevant linkage for SPL drug labels using the following three approaches. First, we retrieved NDF-RT categorical information from the External Pharmacologic Class (EPC) indexing SPLs. Second, we used the RxNorm and NDF-RT mappings to classify and link SPLs with NDF-RT categories. Third, we profiled SPLs using RxNorm term type information. In the implementation process, we employed a Semantic Web technology framework, in which we stored the data sets from NDF-RT and SPLs into a RDF triple store, and executed SPARQL queries to retrieve data from customized SPARQL endpoints. Meanwhile, we imported RxNorm data into MySQL relational database. In total, 96.0% SPL drug labels were mapped with NDF-RT categories whereas 97.0% SPL drug labels are linked to RxNorm codes. We found that the majority of SPL drug labels are mapped to chemical ingredient concepts in both drug ontologies whereas a relatively small portion of SPL drug labels are mapped to clinical drug concepts. The profiling outcomes produced by this study would provide useful insights on meaningful use of FDA SPL drug labels in clinical applications through standard drug ontologies such as NDF-RT and

  15. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lingmei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g, gummy bears (2.6 g, and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g; Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g. For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 μg.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 μg.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 μg.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0

  16. Activation product analysis in a mixed sample containing both fission and neutron activation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Eggemeyer, Tere A.; Finn, Erin C.; Hines, C. Corey; King, Mathew D.; Metz, Lori A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Snow, Mathew S.; Wall, Donald E.; Seiner, Brienne N.

    2017-11-02

    Activation analysis of gold (Au) is used to estimate neutron fluence resulting from a criticality event; however, such analyses are complicated by simultaneous production of other gamma-emitting fission products. Confidence in neutron fluence estimates can be increased by quantifying additional activation products such as platinum (Pt), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W). This work describes a radiochemical separation procedure for the determination of these activation products. Anion exchange chromatography is used to separate anionic forms of these metals in a nitric acid matrix; thiourea is used to isolate the Au and Pt fraction, followed by removal of the Ta fraction using hydrogen peroxide. W, which is not retained on the first anion exchange column, is transposed to an HCl/HF matrix to enhance retention on a second anion exchange column and finally eluted using HNO3/HF. Chemical separations result in a reduction in the minimum detectable activity by a factor of 287, 207, 141, and 471 for 182Ta, 187W, 197Pt, and 198Au respectively, with greater than 90% recovery for all elements. These results represent the highest recoveries and lowest minimum detectable activities for 182Ta, 187W, 197Pt, and 198Au from mixed fission-activation product samples to date, enabling considerable refinement in the measurement uncertainties for neutron fluences in highly complex sample matrices.

  17. Electrospraying technique for the fabrication of metronidazole contained PLGA particles and their release profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: nnimpp@nus.edu.sg [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zamani, Maedeh [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Felice, Betiana [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases, Departamento de Bioingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, Tucumán (Argentina); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-11-01

    Advanced engineering of materials for the development of drug delivery devices provides scope for novel and versatile strategies for treatment of various diseases. ‘Electrospraying’ was used to prepare PLGA microparticles and further encapsulate the drug, metronidazole (Met) within the particles to function as a drug delivery system. Two different solvents were utilized for the preparation of drug loaded PLGA particles, whereby the polymeric solution in dichloromethane (DCM) produced particles of bigger sizes than using trifluoroethanol (TFE). Scanning electron microscopy showed the spherical morphology of the particles, with sizes of 3946 ± 407 nm and 1774 ± 167 nm, respectively for PLGA-Met(DCM) and PLGA-Met(TFE). The FTIR spectroscopy proved the incorporation of metronidazole in the polymer, but without any specific drug–polymer interaction. The release of the drug from the particles was studied in phosphate buffered saline, where a sustained drug release was obtained for at least 41 days. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the drug extract using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed not hindering the proliferation of MSCs, and the cell phenotype was retained after incubation in the drug containing media. Electrospraying is suggested as a cost-effective and single step process for the preparation of polymeric microparticles for prolonged and controlled release of drug. - Highlights: • Electrospraying as a novel method for the fabrication of drug delivery device • Metronidazole encapsulated PLGA particles were fabricated by electrospraying. • Solvent DCM produced particles of double the size than using TFE. • Sustained release of metronidazole studied for a period of 41 days • Drug release pattern from particles followed Fickian diffusion. • PLGA-metronidazole particles can function as a substrate for periodontal regeneration.

  18. Potassium as an index of fruit content in baby food products. Part I. Banana-containing and apricot-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R A; Theuer, R C

    1991-01-01

    Percentage ingredient labeling has been proposed for baby foods. We determined whether or not the potassium content of baby foods could be used to verify the quantity of fruit when the characterizing ingredients were apricots or bananas, fruits rich in potassium. Official values for potassium in fruit (USDA Handbook No. 8-9) did not agree well with actual analyses. The potassium levels of products of known composition were accurately predicted from analyses of the actual ingredients used to make the foods. For banana-containing monofruit products of variable or unknown composition, potassium analysis led to fruit level estimates consistent with either the known composition or the label declaration. For products of unknown composition made with apricot concentrate, however, potassium analysis led to fruit level estimates lower than the probable fruit content. The quantity of fruit in baby foods made with potassium-rich fruits can be estimated from the potassium content if the potassium value for the fruit is representative of the actual ingredients used to make the product. If potassium analysis is to be used to verify compliance with percentage ingredient labeling, there must be statutory specification of the single-strength fruit level for fruit reconstituted from concentrate.

  19. Sucrose Fermentation by Brazilian Ethanol Production Yeasts in Media Containing Structurally Complex Nitrogen Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Junior, Messias [UNESP; Batistote, Margareth [UNESP; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud [UNESP; Ernandes, Jose Roberto [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Four Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brazilian industrial ethanol production strains were grown, under shaken and static conditions, in media containing 22% (w/v) sucrose supplemented with nitrogen sources varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids) and peptides (peptone). Sucrose fermentations by Brazilian industrial ethanol production yeasts strains were strongly affected by both the structural complexity of the nitrogen source and the availability o...

  20. Retrieving Temperature and Moisture Profiles from AERI Radiance Observations. AERIPROF Value-Added Product Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltz, W. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Howell, H. B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Knuteson, R. O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Comstock, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahon, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, W. L. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Woolf, H. M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Sivaraman, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halter, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to collect a long-term series of radiative and atmospheric state observations to improve the parameterization of these processes in global climate models. The ARM Program intended to move away from the traditional approach of directly measuring profiles of temperature and moisture using radiosondes, which is expensive in terms of expendables and manpower, and develop methods to retrieve these profiles with ground-based remote sensors. The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), whose radiance data contains information on the vertical distribution of water vapor and temperature, is an integral part of the ARM profiling plan.

  1. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Ara Begum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information.

  2. Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M E; Huis in't Veld, J

    1999-01-01

    Properly formulated probiotic-containing foods offer consumers a low risk, low cost dietary component that has the potential to promote health in a variety of ways. Several such products are available commercially, although markets in Japan and Europe are more developed than in the USA. Once healthful attributes of a probiotic product have been identified, there remain microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues to be addressed prior to marketing. Microbiological and product issues include safety, effective scale-up for manufacturing, definition of probiotic activity, probiotic stability in the product over the course of product manufacture, shelf-life and consumption, definition of effective dose and target population(s), and development of quality assurance approaches. Examples of probiotic-containing foods are given. Regulatory and labeling issues are complicated because they differ for each country, but are likewise critical because they provide the means for communication of the product benefits to the consumer. The regulatory climate worldwide appears to be one of caution about overstating the benefits of such products but at the same time not preventing corporate commitment to marketing.

  3. Low-molecular-weight heparins: pharmacologic profile and product differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, J; Jeske, W; Hoppensteadt, D; Clarizio, R; Walenga, J M

    1998-09-10

    The interchangeability of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) has been the subject of discussion since these products were first introduced for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis. Experimental evidence now exists to show that LMWHs differ from each other in a number of characteristics. Products have been differentiated on the basis of molecular weight and biologic properties, but only limited information derived from the clinical setting is available. Potency has been described on the basis of anti-Factor Xa activity, but at equivalent anti-Xa activities, the anti-Factor IIa activity of different products shows marked variations. At the relatively small doses used for the management of postsurgical deep vein thrombosis, the effect of these interproduct differences may be relatively minor, but as LMWHs are developed for therapeutic use at much higher doses, such differences may become clinically important. Variations in safety and efficacy reported in clinical trials of LMWHs may reflect the known differences in their molecular composition and pharmacologic properties.

  4. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-840] Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit... States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same... No. 6,847,904 (``the '904 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United...

  5. 77 FR 60721 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-840] Certain Semiconductor Integrated... certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of...,783; and 6,847,904. The complaint further alleges the existence of a domestic industry. The Commission...

  6. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  7. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2882] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and... the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  8. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... electronics and display devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics and...

  9. Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: Release (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnologies -- Terminology and definitions for nano-objects -- Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate Definitions Abrasion - wearing away...ER D C SR -1 6- 2 Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2...ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies ERDC SR-16-2 April 2016

  10. Improved process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose...

  11. A process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose...

  12. 77 FR 20047 - Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2889] Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and... Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain computer and computer...

  13. 75 FR 16837 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets...

  14. 77 FR 66866 - Certain Computer Forensic Devices and Products Containing the Same Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-799] Certain Computer Forensic Devices and Products Containing the Same Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the presiding...

  15. 76 FR 76434 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, And Products Containing Same including Televisions, DN 2860; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint.

  16. 78 FR 63492 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-837] Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Commission Determination To Review a Final Initial Determination Finding a Violation of Section 337 in Its Entirety; Schedule for Filing Written Submissions on Certain...

  17. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public Comment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed policy statement; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a proposed policy statement in the Federal Register of June...

  18. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... chiefly woolen fibers with the balance of undetermined mixtures of cotton, rayon or other non-woolen...

  19. 77 FR 66080 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit... States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by... issued a general exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe the...

  20. 77 FR 11591 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings AGENCY: U.S... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit...

  1. The effects of high pressure treatments on C. jejuni in ground poultry products containing polyphosphate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinades containing polyphosphates have been previously implicated in the enhanced survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry product exudates. The enhanced Campylobacter survival was attributed primarily to the ability of some polyphosphates to change the pH of the exudate to one more amenable to ...

  2. 78 FR 12354 - Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... by accessing its Internet server ( http://www.usitc.gov ). The public record for this investigation... of Penang, Malaysia; and Intel Products (Chengdu) Ltd. of Chengdu, China (collectively, ``Intel... Commission's forthcoming opinion. The authority for the Commission's determination is contained in section...

  3. Development of assessment technology for hydrogen burn and fission product behavior in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Hong, S. W.; Song, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kang, H. S.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis tools for hydrogen burn was established to resolve the hydrogen issues in containment. To validate CFX commercial CFD(computational fluid dynamics) code, the hydrogen combustion experiments such as FLAME and ENACEFF for reactor containment were analyzed. And OpenFOAM hydrogen combustion code was developed and validated. Experiments for the flame propagation characteristics in IRWST and the run-up-distance for DDT(Deflagration to detonation transition) were performed and analytical model was evaluated to evaluation of the performance of hydrogen mitigation system, that is, PAR(Passive auto-catalistic re-combiner) To improvement of the fission product modelling in containment, separate analysis module for Iodine behavior and its application tool of K-IODIP (Korea IODIne Package) were developed. PHEBUS FPT-3 analysis was performed to validate MELCOR code. And also the characteristics of fission product behaviors in Future Reactors(GEN-IV) were compared

  4. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H 2 S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H 2 S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H 2 S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H 2 S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H 2 S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H 2 S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H 2 S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H 2 S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H 2 S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the

  5. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mei, E-mail: msun8@uncc.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wsun@smu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H{sub 2}S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H{sub 2}S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H{sub 2}S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H{sub 2}S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H{sub 2}S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H{sub 2}S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H{sub 2}S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H{sub 2}S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H{sub 2}S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating

  6. COCOSYS analysis for deposition of aerosols and fission products in PHEBUS FPT-2 containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontautas, A.; Babilas, E.; Urbonavičius, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aerosol and fission product behaviour in containment is analyzed. ► Lumped-parameter code COCOSYS is used for the analysis. ► Detailed description of COCOSYS model nodalisation is presented. - Abstract: The issue of the source term of radioactive fission products release from the nuclear power plants to the environment is not resolved yet. Even though experiments are performed and many analyses are performed using different computer codes some questions remain unresolved. The analyses of aerosol transport and deposition processes in the containments of nuclear power plants are investigated for a long time and computer codes are more advanced than 20 years ago there is not developed generic methodology how to develop nodalisation for the lumped-parameter codes. The validation of the computer codes is also an issue. The PHEBUS FP experiments provide possibility for an extensive validation of the computer codes and assessment of different methods to develop nodalisation of the containment.This paper presents results of analysis of aerosol and fission product behaviour in PHEBUS FPT-2 test. It includes description of the PHEBUS containment, detailed description of nodalisation with the initial and boundary conditions used in the analysis and extensive comparison of calculated and measured results. Lumped-parameter code COCOSYS was used for the analysis. The calculated thermal-hydraulic results are in good agreement with measured, which ensures good basis for analysis of aerosol and fission product transport and deposition. The calculated airborn aerosol and fission product masses are in good agreement with measured as well. The aerosol deposition distribution shows that the calculated diffusive deposition on the external containment walls is lower than measured and that the diffusive deposition model implemented in COCOSYS code could not explain this result and further investigations are needed.

  7. Accident management to prevent containment failure and reduce fission product release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Luckas, W.J.; Pratt, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating accident management strategies which could help preserve containment integrity or minimize releases during a severe accident. The strategies considered make use of existing plant systems and equipment in innovative ways to reduce the likelihood of containment failure or to mitigate the release of fission products to the environment if failure cannot be prevented. Many of these strategies would be implemented during the later stages of a severe accident, i.e. after vessel breach, and sizable uncertainties exist regarding some of the phenomena involved. The identification and assessment process for containment and release strategies is described, and some insights derived from its application to specific containment types are presented. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Essays of leaching in cemented products containing simulated waste from evaporator concentrated of PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.; Candido, Francisco Donizete; Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the results from leaching resistance essays of cemented products, prepared from three distinct formulations, containing simulated waste of concentrated from the PWR reactor evaporator. The leaching rate is a parameter of qualification of solidified products containing radioactive waste and is determined in accordance with regulation ISO 6961. This procedure evaluates the capacity of transfer organic and inorganic substances presents in the waste through dissolution in the extractor medium. For the case of radioactive waste it is reached the more retention of contaminants in the cemented product, i.e.the lesser value of lixiviation rate. Therefore, this work evaluated among the proposed formulation that one which attend the criterion established in the regulation CNEN-NN-6.09

  9. Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Harun N; Mutuku, Francis M; Ndenga, Bryson A; Musunzaji, Peter S; Mbakaya, Joel O; Aswani, Peter; Irungu, Lucy W; Mukoko, Dunstan; Vulule, John; Kitron, Uriel; LaBeaud, Angelle D

    2017-07-12

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue and other emerging arboviruses, breeds preferentially in various man-made and natural container habitats. In the absence of vaccine, epidemiological surveillance and vector control remain the best practices for preventing dengue outbreaks. Effective vector control depends on a good understanding of larval and adult vector ecology of which little is known in Kenya. In the current study, we sought to characterize breeding habitats and establish container productivity profiles of Ae. aegypti in rural and urban sites in western and coastal Kenya. Twenty sentinel houses in each of four study sites (in western and coastal Kenya) were assessed for immature mosquito infestation once a month for a period of 24 months (June 2014 to May 2016). All water-holding containers in and around the households were inspected for Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae. Collections were made from a total of 22,144 container visits: Chulaimbo (7575) and Kisumu (8003) in the west, and from Msambweni (3199) and Ukunda (3367) on the coast. Of these, only 4-5.6% were positive for Ae. aegypti immatures. In all four sites, significantly more positive containers were located outdoors than indoors. A total of 17,537 Ae. aegypti immatures were sampled from 10 container types. The most important habitat types were buckets, drums, tires, and pots, which produced over 75% of all the pupae. Key outdoor containers in the coast were buckets, drums and tires, which accounted for 82% of the pupae, while pots and tires were the only key containers in the western region producing 70% of the pupae. Drums, buckets and pots were the key indoor containers, producing nearly all of the pupae in the coastal sites. No pupae were collected indoors in the western region. The coastal region produced significantly more Ae. aegypti immatures than the western region both inside and outside the sentinel houses. These results indicate that productive Ae. aegypti larval habitats are

  10. Two residues determine the product profile of the class II diterpene synthases TPS14 and TPS21 of Tripterygium wilfordii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Nissen, Jakob N.; Hamberger, Björn Robert

    2017-01-01

    residue gave mixed product profiles. Two mutants, TwTPS14:Y265H and TwTPS21:A325V, also produced ent-copalyl diphosphate, highlighting the evolutionary potential of enzymes of this family to drive rapid diversification of plant diterpene biosynthesis through neo-functionalization. Our study contributes......The medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) contains a pair of class II diterpene synthases (diTPS) of specialized labdane-type metabolism that, despite remarkably close homology, form strikingly different products. TwTPS21 catalyzes bicyclization of the linear C20 precursor......-directed mutagenesis, we generated a panel of six variants, where one, or both positions were exchanged between the enzymes. In coupled heterologous assays with a corresponding class I diTPS, TwTPS2, complete product interchange was observed in variants with both reciprocal mutations, while substitutions of either...

  11. Genome-wide identification of VQ motif-containing proteins and their expression profiles under abiotic stresses in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin eSong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available VQ motif-containing proteins play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. Recent studies have shown that some VQ proteins physically interact with WRKY transcription factors to activate downstream genes. In the present study, we identified and characterized genes encoding VQ motif-containing proteins using the most recent version of the maize genome sequence. In total, 61VQ genes were identified. In a cluster analysis, these genes clustered into nine groups together with their homologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis. Most of the VQ genes (57 out of 61 numbers identified in maize were found to be single-copy genes. Analyses of RNA-seq data obtained using seedlings under long-term drought treatment showed that the expression levels of most ZmVQ genes (41 out of 61 members changed during the drought stress response. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that most of the ZmVQ genes were responsive to NaCl treatment. Also, approximately half of the ZmVQ genes were co-expressed with ZmWRKY genes. The identification of these VQ genes in the maize genome and knowledge of their expression profiles under drought and osmotic stresses will provide a solid foundation for exploring their specific functions in the abiotic stress responses of maize.

  12. Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques for profiling of drugs and related products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques offer high efficiency and peak capacity, and can be very useful for the analysis of samples containing a large variety of (unknown) compounds. Such samples are frequently met in impurity profiling of drugs (detection of potential impurities in a

  13. Serotonin syndrome following overdose of a non-prescription slimming product containing sibutramine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui Kin; Leung, K S; Wong, T W; Lee, H H C; Tang, M H Y; Mak, T W L

    2012-04-01

    Non-prescription slimming products are popular and can be easily purchased from the Internet. However, adulteration of these products with undeclared substances including prescription drugs is not uncommon. We report a case of serotonin syndrome after an overdose of a non-prescription product containing sibutramine. A 21-year-old woman presented with somnolence, sinus tachycardia, generalised increase in tone, hyper-reflexia and clonus more prominent in the lower limbs after an intentional overdose of a non-prescription slimming product obtained from the Internet. The product was later found to contain sibutramine and other substances such as animal thyroid tissues, caffeine and phenolphthalein. Quantitative analysis of patient's serum on presentation revealed a sibutramine concentration of 112 ng/mL, which far exceeded the reported peak serum concentration after a single oral dose of 15 mg (the maximum daily recommended dose). No other culpable agent was identified. The overall clinical presentation was compatible with serotonin syndrome associated with sibutramine overdose. The patient made a full recovery after supportive management. This case highlighted the health threat posed by non-prescription slimming products sold over the Internet. Sibutramine overdose can result in serotonin syndrome, as in overdose of other serotonergic agents. Early recognition and timely supportive treatment are essential to ensure a good clinical outcome.

  14. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or... containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce... self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147, or to initially transfer such...

  15. Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua

    2000-01-01

    An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

  16. Employing photoacoustic spectroscopy in the evaluation of the skin permeation profile of emulsion containing antioxidant phenolic-rich extract of Melochia arenosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunin, Luana Magri; Borghi, Fernanda Belincanta; Nogueira, Ana Claudia; Higachi, Luciana; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Diniz, Andréa; Truiti, Maria da Conceição Torrado

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important factor modulating skin alterations. Melochia arenosa Benth. (Malvaceae) is a Brazilian plant with antimicrobial activity and antioxidant potential. The objective of this study is to develop a topical formulation containing antioxidant phenolic-rich extract of M. arenosa and to evaluate its skin permeation profile. Response surface methodology was used to maximize the total phenolic (TP) content of the extract and its antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and respiratory burst methods. An emulsion containing 1% optimized extract (OE) was developed and employed photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for the determination of its skin permeation profile. The morphology of the skin was studied in histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The optimum conditions predicted for the major extractive efficiency of the phenolics with 100% ethanol led extraction time 101 h and plant:solvent proportion 1:13.5 (w/v). OE presented TP = 724.6 ± 8.2 mg GAE/g extract and scavenging capacity of DPPH (IC50 value = 11.43 ± 0.14 µg/mL) and ABTS radicals (IC50 value = 35.42 ± 0.48 µg/mL). The production of ROS by neutrophils after stimulation with phorbol miristate acetate was lower when the OE was present in the reaction medium, endorsing its high antioxidant capacity. The data obtained by PAS indicated that the OE present in the emulsion has permeated and was distributed in the whole skin. No histopathological alterations were observed in the histological analysis. The formulation developed is a promising tool for skin care and could prevent the damage caused by oxidative stress.

  17. A critical evaluation of Internet marketing of products that contain ephedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Bimal H; Miller, Redonda G; Getz, Kelly J; Pichard, Carmen P

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate information contained within Internet sites that advertise and market dietary supplements containing ephedra. We conducted an Internet search to identify Web sites advertising weight-loss supplements that contained ephedra. Between July 7 and July 18, 2002, 4 search engines were used by entering the term herbal weight loss. Outcome measures included disclosure of potential adverse effects of or contraindications to ephedra-containing supplements, disclosure of ephedra alkaloid dosage, and presence of misleading or incorrect information. Thirty-two products and advertisements were identified and systematically evaluated for deviance from truth-in-advertising standards. Of the 32 Web sites analyzed, 13 (41%) failed to disclose potential adverse effects or contraindications to supplement use. Seventeen (53%) did not reveal the dosage of ephedra alkaloids that was recommended. More importantly, 11 sites (34%) contained incorrect or misleading statements, some of which could directly result in serious harm to consumers. If dietary supplements containing ephedra are to continue to be marketed freely, substantial reform in advertising regulation and enforcement is warranted.

  18. Improvements in or relating to the production of metal-containing material in particulate form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, J.L.; Scott, K.T.B.; Ball, P.W.

    1977-01-01

    The process described refers mainly to production of the material in the form of very small spheres. It comprises forming a metal compound-containing gel precipitate by mixing a solution or sol of the metal compound with a soluble organic polymer and contacting the mixture with a precipitating reagent to precipitate the metal as an insoluble compound bound with the polymer. The precipitate is then subjected in the liquid phase to a breaking down and dispersing process to produce an intermediate product suitable for spray drying, and the intermediate product is spray dried to form the particulate product. The breaking down and dispersing process may be performed by means of a colloid mill or vibratory stirrer. Examples of application of the process are described. (U.K.)

  19. The effect of shade on the container index and pupal productivity of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens breeding in artificial containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, D; Albicócco, A P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether certain attributes of larval breeding sites are correlated with pupal productivity (i.e. numbers of pupae collected per sampling period), so that these could be used as the focus for control measures to enhance control efficiency. Therefore, the objectives were to identify the months of highest pupal productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban temperate cemetery in Argentina where artificial containers of containers and to determine whether the composition of the containers affected pupal productivity. Over a period of 9 months, 200 randomly chosen water-filled containers (100 sunlit and 100 shaded), out of approximately 3738 containers present (approximately 54% in shade), were examined each month within a cemetery (5 ha) in Buenos Aires (October 2006 to June 2007). In total, 3440 immatures of Cx pipiens and 1974 of Ae. aegypti were collected. The larvae : pupae ratio was 10 times greater for the former, indicating that larval mortality was greater for Cx pipiens. Both mosquito species showed a higher container index (CI) in shaded than in sunlit containers (Ae. aegypti: 12.8% vs. 6.9% [chi(2) = 17.6, P container and the number of pupae per pupa-positive container did not differ significantly between sunlit and shaded containers for either species. Therefore, the overall relative productivity of pupae per ha of Ae. aegypti and Cx pipiens was 2.3 and 1.8 times greater, respectively, in shaded than in sunlit areas as a result of the greater CIs of containers in shaded areas. Neither the CI nor the number of immatures per infested container differed significantly among container types of different materials in either lighting condition. The maximum CI and total pupal counts occurred in March for Ae. aegypti and in January and February for Cx pipiens. The estimated peak abundance of pupae in the whole cemetery reached a total of approximately 4388 in the middle of March for Ae

  20. Treatment of male androgenetic alopecia with topical products containing Serenoa repens extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessagowit, Vesarat; Tangjaturonrusamee, Chinmanat; Kootiratrakarn, Tanawatt; Bunnag, Thareena; Pimonrat, Tanatya; Muangdang, Nattaporn; Pichai, Pitchayasak

    2016-08-01

    Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common hair problem. Serenoa repens extract has been shown to inhibit both types of 5-α reductase and, when taken orally, has been shown to increase hair growth in AGA patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical products containing S. repens extract for the treatment of male AGA. This was a pilot, prospective, open, within-subject comparison limited to 24 weeks using no placebo controls. In all, 50 male volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years received topical S. repens products for 24 weeks. The primary end-point was a hair count in an area of 2.54 cm(2) at week 24. Secondary end-points included hair restoration, investigators' photographic assessment, patients' evaluation and discovering adverse events. The average hair count and terminal hair count increased at weeks 12 and 24 compared to baseline. Some of these positive results levelled off at week 24, presumably because the concentrated topical product containing S. repens extract was stopped after 4 weeks. The patients were satisfied with the products and the side-effects were limited. The topical application of S. repens extract could be an alternative treatment in male pattern baldness in male patients who do not want or cannot tolerate the side-effects of standard medications, but the use of a concentrated S. repens product beyond 4 weeks may be necessary for sustained efficacy. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Risk assessment on the use of herbal medicinal products containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Clemens; Franz, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are common plantal toxins directed against insect herbivores. Unsaturated PAs are known to be hepatotoxic. Many of the PAs are in addition mutagenic and some may possibly be carcinogenic for humans. The risk of an exposure to PAs associated with their occurrence in herbal medicinal products and in foodstuff is under current discussion. The present risk assessment for herbal medicinal products containing PAs is based on a margin of safety derivation for foodstuff indicating that a life-long exposure to maximally 0.007 μg/kg bw/day is not expected to be associated with safety concerns. This approach offers a possibility to estimate the potential risk of PA-containing herbal medicinal products irrespective of the route of administration. It assumes PA levels in the final herbal medicinal product below 0.01 ppm and considers for dermal administration a 100% skin penetration of the PAs reflecting a worst-case scenario. As a result, the calculated margins of safety show a potential exposure using herbal medicinal products 70-, 45.5-, and 19.3-fold lower on a one-day base and 608-, 396-, and 168- fold lower on a one-year base for adults, children aged 12 years, and children aged 4 years, respectively, than the thresholds considered acceptable for foodstuff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Method of conversion of caustic liquid radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrates into solid insoluble products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Brownell, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal is made to convert caustic, liquid, radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrate into a solid product by reaction with powdered aluminium silicate at temperatures between 30 0 and 100 0 C, which is practically insoluble (10 -7 to 10 -10 g/cm 2 -day) and is thermally stable. A cancrinite is formed which binds the radioactive salts in the cage-like structure of its crystal lattice. The method is also suitable for liquid wastes from the Purex method as well as for wastes containing fission products of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in concentrations of 0.37 M to 0.01 M. Numerous detailed examples explain the invention. (UW/LH) [de

  3. [Adverse muscle effects of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product with simvastatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili; Savolainen, Elina; Elfving, Pia; Kononoff, Aulikki

    2009-01-01

    With the ageing population, drug interactions pose an increasing challenge to health professionals. We describe four patients, for whom concurrent administration of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product and simvastatin caused severe adverse effects on muscles, including muscle pain, soreness or fatigue or weakness, and in some patients also disintegration of muscle tissue, i.e. rhabdomyolysis. The metabolism of both drugs proceeds via the common CYP3A4 enzyme pathway.

  4. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Albano, Francisca G.; Cavalcante, Ítalo H. L.; Machado, Jailson S.; Lacerda, Claudivan F. de; Silva, Esdras R. da; Sousa, Humberto G. de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five materials used as...

  5. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Albano,Francisca G.; Cavalcante,Ítalo H. L.; Machado,Jailson S.; Lacerda,Claudivan F. de; Silva,Esdras R. da; Sousa,Humberto G. de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five mater...

  6. Evaluation of fission product removal by an ice-condenser containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, K.

    1977-01-01

    Studies have been restricted to removal of iodine, a fission product significant with regard to radiation protection. Results referring to the absorption of molecular iodine in an ice bed have been obtained from model experiments. These data were the basis of evaluating iodine removal in a containment with ice condenser. Removal has been determined by use of computational models. The ice condenser reduces the iodine amount released by one order of magnitude. (author)

  7. Innovative generation of delivery systems containing bioactive compounds to finally be incorporated into food products.

    OpenAIRE

    Giammarino, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids present in food could produce 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal which are reactive hidroxyalkenals that affect the quality and the safety of products. These compounds, absorbed through the diet, have toxic pathways inducing several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cataract, diabetes, cancer and atherosclerosis. In the present study three fresh cheeses with modified fat were obtained by adding emulsions containing soybean oil and diff...

  8. 77 FR 19032 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2888; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8(b) of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (19 CFR 210.8(b)).

  9. 78 FR 10635 - Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same, DN 2938; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8(b) of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (19 CFR 210.8(b)).

  10. 77 FR 42764 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...Notice is hereby given that the presiding administrative law judge has issued a Final Initial Determination and Recommended Determination on Remedy and Bonding in the above-captioned investigation. The Commission is soliciting comments on public interest issues raised by the recommended relief, specifically a limited exclusion order against certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing the same including televisions, imported by respondents MediaTek Inc. of Hsinchu City, Taiwan and Zoran Corporation of Sunnyvale, California.

  11. Technological characteristics of yeast-containing cakes production using waxy wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iorgachova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the feasibility of using waxy wheat flour, the starch of which doesn`t contain amylose, in order to stabilize the quality of yeast-containing cakes. The influence of the waxy wheat flour mass fraction and the stage of its adding on the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the products are studied. According to the technological properties of a new type of wheat flour, two methods of its adding are proposed ‒ adding the maximum amount of waxy wheat flour at dough kneading stage or using the mixture of waxy and bakery wheat flours for kneading sourdough and dough. It is shown that the replacement of 60 % bakery wheat flour with waxy wheat flour in the recipe of yeast-containing cakes at the dough kneading stage contributes to the production of products with higher quality and organoleptic characteristics compared to both the control and cakes based on a mixture of different types of wheat flour. These samples are characterized by increased by 1.7 – 11.3 % specific volume, porosity – 2.6 – 5.5 % and the total deformation of the crumb – 6.5 – 41.4 %.

  12. Modifying effects of 5-azacytidine on metal-containing proteins profile in Guerin carcinoma with different sensitivity to cytostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhun, V F; Lozovska, Y V; Naleskina, L A; Borikun, T V; Burlaka, A P; Todor, I N; Demash, D V; Yalovenko, T M; Zadvornyi, T V; Pavlova, A O; Storchay, D M; Lukianova, N Yu

    2016-12-01

    To assess the influence of the treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-aza) on the profile of metal-containing proteins and factors of their regulation in Guerin carcinoma cells in vivo. The study was conducted on Wistar rats transplanted with wild-type Guerin carcinoma (Guerin/WT) and its strains resistant to cisplatin (Guerin/CP) or doxorubicin (Guerin/Dox). Animals were distributed in 6 groups treated with 5-aza and control animals without treatment. 5-Aza was injected by i.v. route (1 injection in 4 days at a dose of 2 mg/kg starting from the 4 th day after tumor transplantation, 4 injections in total). Ferritin levels in blood serum and tumor tissue were measured by ELISA, transferrin and free iron complexes - by low-temperature EPR, miRNA-200b, -133a and -320a levels and promoter methylation - by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The study has shown that 5-aza treatment caused demethylation of promoter regions of fth1 and tfr1 genes in all studied Guerin carcinoma strains. 5-Aza treatment resulted in a significant decrease of ferritin levels in tumor tissue (by 32.1% in Guerin/WT strain, by 29.8% in Guerin/Dox and by 69.1% in Guerin/CP). These events were accompanied by 3.5-fold and 2-fold increase of free iron complexes levels in tumor tissue of doxorubicin and cisplatin resistant strains, respectively. Also, 5-aza treatment resulted in significantly elevated levels of miR-200b, -133a, 320a expression in tumor tissue. After 5-aza treatment, ferritin levels in blood serum of animals with Guerin/Dox were increased by 23.9%, while in Guerin/Wt and Guerin/CP they were decreased by 17 and 16%, respectively. Alterations of epigenetic regulation upon in vivo treatment with 5-aza change the levels of metal-containing proteins due to DNA demethylation and altered miRNA expression profiles in Guerin carcinoma cells.

  13. The Impact of Novel Fermented Products Containing Extruded Wheat Material on the Quality of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaiciulyte-Funk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei MI806, Pediococcus pentosaceus MI810 and Pediococcus acidilactici MI807, able to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, were originally isolated from Lithuanian spontaneous rye sourdough and adapted in the novel fermentation medium containing extruded wheat material. The novel fermented products (50 and 65 % moisture content were stored at the temperatures used in bakeries (15 days at 30–35 °C in the summer period or 20 days under refrigeration conditions at 0–6 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was determined during the storage of fermented products for 15–20 days. Furthermore, the effect of novel fermented products stored under different conditions on wheat bread quality was examined. Extruded wheat material was found to have a higher positive effect on LAB growth compared to the control medium by lowering the reduction of LAB populations in fermented products with the extension of storage time and increase of temperature. During storage, lower variation and lower decrease in LAB count were measured in the novel fermented products with a moisture content of 65 % compared to those with 50 %. Furthermore, this humidity allows for the production of a product with higher moisture content in continuous production processes. The addition of the new fermented products with 65 % humidity to the wheat bread recipe (10 % of the quantity of flour had a significant effect on bread quality: it increased the acidity of the crumb and specific volume of the bread, and decreased the fractal dimension of the crumb pores and crumb firmness. Based on the microbiological investigations of fermented products during storage and baking tests, the conditions of LAB cultivation in novel fermentation media were optimized (time of cultivation approx. 20 days at 0–6 °C and approx. 10 days at 30–35 °C.

  14. Fatty acid profile in meat of culling ewes in different feedlot periods fed diets containing levels of inclusion of linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Radis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linseed plays an important role in animal nutrition as it contains long-chain fatty acids in its composition, which, once absorbed, are incorporated into meat and milk. For evaluate the concentration of fatty acids in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of culling ewes fed diets containing levels of inclusion of linseed, 88 culling ewes were used with an average initial body weight of 37.65 ± 6.98 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with 12 treatments. Treatments consisted of the interaction between levels of linseed (0, 5, 10, and 15% and days in feedlot (30, 45, and 60. The most present fatty acids in the composition of the muscle L. dorsi were palmitic (27.32 g 100 g-1 and stearic (17.77 g 100 g-1. Saturated acids remained at low levels as the animals were fed greater levels of linseed, demonstrating the importance of introducing quality foods in animal feeding. Oleic acid was the most present monounsaturated fatty acid, with 40 g 100 g-1. Palmitoleic and elaidic fatty acids increased linearly as the linseed inclusion in the diet was increased. Polyunsaturated acids increased with the presence of linseed in the diet. For the linolenic acid (C18: 3n3, the best result was with inclusion of 10% of linseed in the total diet. All groups of animals that received linseed obtained better n6:n3 ratios, which varied from 1.81 to 4.14. The higher CLA values obtained in this study are related to the higher amounts of inclusion of linseed in the sheep diet, varying from 1.15 to 5.72 g 100 g-1. It is recommended culling ewes supplemented with inclusion of 10% linseed, for 60 days in feedlot, because they comprise a larger number of favorable traits regarding to the profile fatty acids of Longissimus dorsi.

  15. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  16. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  17. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the reduction of sodium in packaged meat and poultry products (MPPs) on the content of potassium and phosphorus from food additives. This was a cross-sectional study comparing chemically analyzed MPPs (n=38, n=19 original, n=19 sodium-reduced), selected from the top three grocery chains in Canada, based on market share sales. All MPPs with a package label containing a reduced sodium content claim together with their non-sodium-reduced packaged MPP counterparts were selected for analysis. The protein, sodium, phosphorus, and potassium contents of sodium-reduced MPPs and the non-sodium-reduced (original) MPP counterparts were chemically analyzed according to the Association of Analytical Communities official methods 992.15 and 984.27 and compared by using a paired t test. The frequency of phosphorus and potassium additives appearing on the product labels' ingredient lists were compared between groups by using McNemar's test. Sodium-reduced MPPs (n=19) contained 44% more potassium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium-reduced counterparts (n=19) (mean difference [95% CI): 184 [90-279]; P=0.001). The potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs varied widely and ranged from 210 to 1,500 mg/100 g. Potassium-containing additives were found on the ingredient list in 63% of the sodium-reduced products and 26% of the non-sodium-reduced products (P=0.02). Sodium-reduced MPPs contained 38% less sodium (mg/100 g) than their non

  18. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 51046 - Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2908] Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of... Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same, DN 2908; the..., methods of making same and products [[Page 51047

  20. Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present opinion has the format of a risk profile and presents potential biological and chemical hazards as well as allergenicity and environmental hazards associated with farmed insects used as food and feed taking into account of the entire chain, from farming to the final product. The opinion

  1. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the U.S. forest products industry value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; Van Maltby; Reid Miner; Kenneth E. Skog; James E. Smith; Jay Unwin; Brad Upton

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity...

  2. Fission products distributions in Candu primary heat transport and Candu containment systems during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Rizoiu, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    The paper is intended to analyse the distribution of the fission products (FPs) in CANDU Primary Heat Transport (PHT) and CANDU Containment Systems by using the ASTEC code (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). The complexity of the data required by ASTEC and the complexity both of CANDU PHT and Containment System were strong motivations to begin with a simplified geometry in order to avoid the introducing of unmanageable errors at the level of input deck. Thus only 1/4 of the PHT circuit was simulated and a simplified FPs inventory, some simplifications in the feeders geometry and containment were used. The circuit consists of 95 horizontal fuel channels connected to 95 horizontal out-feeders, then through vertical feeders to the outlet-header (a big pipe that collects the water from feeders); the circuit continues from the outlet-header with a riser and then with the steam generator and a pump. After this pump, the circuit was broken; in this point the FPs are transferred to the containment. The containment model consists of 4 rooms connected between by 6 links. The data related to the nodes' definitions, temperatures and pressure conditions were chosen as possible as real data from CANDU NPP loss of coolant accident sequence. Temperature and pressure conditions in the time of the accident were calculated by the CATHENA code and the source term of FPs introduced into the PHT was estimated by the ORIGEN code. The FPs distribution in the nodes of the circuit and the FPs mass transfer per isotope and chemical species are obtained by using SOPHAEROS module of ASTEC code. The distributions into the containment are obtained by the CPA module of ASTEC code (thermalhydraulics calculations in the containment and FPs aerosol transport). The results consist of mass distributions in the nodes of the circuit and the transferred mass to the containment through the break for different species (FPs and chemical species) and mass distributions in the different parts and

  3. Effects of Heterologous tRNA Modifications on the Production of Proteins Containing Noncanonical Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crnković

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of proteins with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs enables the creation of protein-based biomaterials with diverse new chemical properties that may be attractive for material science. Current methods for large-scale production of ncAA-containing proteins, frequently carried out in Escherichia coli, involve the use of orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (o-aaRSs and tRNAs (o-tRNAs. Although o-tRNAs are designed to be orthogonal to endogenous aaRSs, their orthogonality to the components of the E. coli metabolism remains largely unexplored. We systematically investigated how the E. coli tRNA modification machinery affects the efficiency and orthogonality of o-tRNASep used for production of proteins with the ncAA O-phosphoserine (Sep. The incorporation of Sep into a green fluorescent protein (GFP in 42 E. coli strains carrying deletions of single tRNA modification genes identified several genes that affect the o-tRNA activity. Deletion of cysteine desulfurase (iscS increased the yield of Sep-containing GFP more than eightfold, while overexpression of dimethylallyltransferase MiaA and pseudouridine synthase TruB improved the specificity of Sep incorporation. These results highlight the importance of tRNA modifications for the biosynthesis of proteins containing ncAAs, and provide a novel framework for optimization of o-tRNAs.

  4. The role of product information on consumer sensory evaluation, expectations, experiences and emotions of cricket-flour-containing buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambo, Kennedy O; Okello, Julius J; Mbeche, Robert M; Kinyuru, John N; Alemu, Mohammed H

    2018-04-01

    Studies suggest that consumer' acceptance of edible insects can be enhanced by processing and blending them with familiar food products. This is however, expected to result in changes in some sensory attributes. In this study, we investigated how consumers evaluate the appropriateness of sensory attributes of a common bakery product (buns) that was blended with cricket-flour i.e., cricket-flour-containing (CFC) buns. We also tested whether provision of information can modulate the sensory evaluations, personal involvement and emotions. The study is based on a field experiment involving 432 participants drawn from rural communities in Kenya. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 information treatment groups: i) Control group - received only general information, ii) Treatment 1 - received general information and information about the benefits (i.e., positive attributes), iii) Treatment 2 - received general information and information about the potential drawbacks (i.e., negative attributes). Participants evaluated the CFC buns before and after tasting using Just-About-Right (JAR) scale. Results indicate that providing product information affected sensory evaluation of the product's sensory attributes. They also indicate that actual tasting of the CFC buns improved the convergence of sensory evaluation of the attributes towards the ideal level. Results further show that CFC buns elicited more positive feelings with little differences in the emotional profiles between the information treatments, which suggests general interest in the buns. These results provide useful insights on how to enhance consumer acceptance of insect-based foods. We discuss the implications of the findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Greater mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Schanler, Richard J; Lee, Martin L; Rechtman, David J

    2014-01-01

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (pmilk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants.

  6. Estimates of the individual and collective doses in consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleveld, H.; Pruppers, M.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here, consumer products refer to products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and which can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. This group of products includes, for instance, ionisation smoke detectors and timepieces with radium-painted dials. These products can cause a radiation dose to members of the public in various stages of life. In 1996 the European Council laid down basic safety standards in Directive 96/29/Euratom for protecting the health of the general public from the dangers arising from ionising radiation. The Directive contains activity concentrations and total activity per radionuclide, the so-called exemption levels, below which a practice using this radionuclide is exempted from the duty to report. Implementing the Directive in the framework of Dutch legislation, the proposed policy for consumer products is to show a distinction between products with activity concentrations and total activity above and below the exemption levels. Besides the exemption levels being used as activity criteria for the consumer products, two dose criteria an individual dose of 10 microSv/a and a collective dose of 1 manSv/a are also employed. In the study leading to this report, the most recent information on consumer products was first collected and the activity per product, and in some cases also the activity concentration, was tested against the exemption levels. Next, the expected individual and collective doses for members of the public were calculated in the storage and trade phase, as well as the user and disposal phase of the consumer products. In the storage and trade phase, the dose for shop personnel was also estimated. Finally, the doses ware tested against the dose criteria. Gas mantles, static elimination devices, gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS), ceramic tiles, welding rods and camera lenses and eyepieces (belongs to the consumer products for which at least one of the activity criteria is exceeded

  7. Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Maria Wichmann; Spagner, Camilla; Cuparencu, Cătălina

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different...... responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined. METHODS: The study was conducted as a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, three......-way crossover study. Eighteen subjects were studied in three 2-h meal tests followed by a subsequent ad libitum meal. Test meals contained added sucrose and either sea buckthorn, strawberry or no berries with added fructose (control). Blood samples were collected at t = 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjective...

  8. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  9. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  10. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5 as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in the rumen fluid of dairy cows. Nutrient intake, milk production, and milk composition were affected by the treatments. The total mixed ration containing elephant grass silage combined with rumen undegradable protein (RUP provided balanced amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the rumen. This effect may explain the 18% increase in milk yield compared with the other treatments. The diurnal pattern of ruminal NH3-N was interpreted with a sinusoid model. In general, cows fed elephant grass silage exhibited higher concentrations of blood plasma and milk urea-N than animals fed sugarcane. The cows that consumed elephant grass silage with rumen degradable protein concentrate showed a higher milk urea-N compared with animals that consumed elephant grass silage with the RUP concentrate. The use of diets based on corn silage leads to a better use of nitrogen compounds because these diets resulted in lower levels of urea-N in the plasma, urine, and milk at the same level of milk production compared with diets containing elephant grass silage or chopped sugarcane as roughages. In sugarcane-based diets, even greater nitrogen losses in the urine are observed, despite the presence of readily fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.

  11. Anthropogenic materials and products containing natural radionuclides. Pt. 1. Survey of the major exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.; Reichelt, A.

    1991-06-01

    Knowledge of the possible exposure pathways permits to perform an overall assessment of the radiation doses and qualities affecting the population, as well as their inter-relations: A catalogue was established of products, raw materials and waste materials containing natural radioactivity that are processed, produced or dumped in Bavaria and that contribute above negligible level to the radiation exposure of the population and to occupational radiation doses. A literature study rounds up the information on anthropogenic sources containing natural radioactivity and thus representing a radiation source generally to be considered for assessments. Some of these sources are discussed in more detail, indicating their radiological significance for the population and the environment in Bavaria. (Orig./DG) [de

  12. Cannabis cultivation in Spain: A profile of plantations, growers and production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Arturo; Gamella, Juan F; Parra, Iván

    2016-11-01

    The European market for cannabis derivatives is being transformed. The cultivation of cannabis within the EU and the shift of demand from hashish to domestic marihuana are key aspects of this transformation. Spain, formerly central to the trade of Moroccan hashish, is becoming a marihuana-producing country. The emergence of "import-substitution" has been researched in other EU countries, but thus far the Spanish case remains undocumented. This paper is based on analysis of data of 748 cannabis plantations seized by Spanish police in 2013. The sample comprises reports of seizures identified through a survey of online news and police reports. "Event-analysis" methods were applied to these sources. The analysis offers a typology of plantations, a profile of participants and the different production systems, and a model of regional distribution. Half of the plantations were small (less than 42 plants) and half contained between 100 and 1000 plants, with an average size of 261 plants. About three-quarters of plants were cultivated indoors using stolen electricity. 86% of all plants seized were from large-scale plantations (more than 220 plants). Most plantations were located along the Mediterranean coast, where population and tourism are concentrated. Over three-quarters of those indicted by police were Spanish (85%). Among the foreign owners of big plantations, Dutch nationals predominated. The number of seized plants by province was directly associated with the number of grow shops (β=0.962, pcannabis plantations in the Spanish Mediterranean coast is increasingly replacing import of Moroccan hashish. Indoor cultivation supported by grow shops, that provide the technology and know-how, seem to be the dominant form of organization in this emerging industry. Large-scale plantations may have met most of the demand for marihuana in 2013. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilizing protein-lean coproducts from corn containing recombinant pharmaceutical proteins for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Moeller, Lorena; Scott, M Paul; Wang, Kan; Glatz, Charles E; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2010-10-13

    Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were evaluated as a potential feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. The levels of residual r-proteins in the coproduct, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein (r-GFP) and a recombinant subunit vaccine of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (r-LTB), primarily expressed in endosperm, and another two corn lines containing recombinant human collagen (r-CIα1) and r-GFP, primarily expressed in germ, were used as model systems. The kernels were either ground and used for fermentation or dry fractionated to recover germ-rich fractions prior to grinding for fermentation. The finished beers of whole ground kernels and r-protein-spent endosperm solids contained 127-139 and 138-155 g/L ethanol concentrations, respectively. The ethanol levels did not differ among transgenic and normal corn feedstocks, indicating the residual r-proteins did not negatively affect ethanol production. r-Protein extraction and germ removal also did not negatively affect fermentation of the remaining mass. Most r-proteins were inactivated during the mashing process used to prepare corn for fermentation. No functionally active r-GFP or r-LTB proteins were found after fermentation of the r-protein-spent solids; however, a small quantity of residual r-CIα1 was detected in DDGS, indicating that the safety of DDGS produced from transgenic grain for r-protein production needs to be evaluated for each event. Protease treatment during fermentation completely hydrolyzed the residual r-CIα1, and no residual r-proteins were detectable in DDGS.

  14. Production of vegetation samples containing radionuclides gamma emitters to attend the interlaboratory programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Poliana Santos de

    2016-01-01

    The production of environmental samples such as soil, sediment, water and vegetation with radionuclides for intercomparison tests is a very important contribution to environmental monitoring. Laboratories that carry out such monitoring need to demonstrate that their results are reliable. The IRD National Intercomparison Program (PNI) produces and distributes environmental samples containing radionuclides used to check the laboratories performance. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing vegetation (grass) samples containing 60 Co, 65 Zn, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs by the spike sample method for the PNI. The preparation and the statistical tests followed the ISO guides 34 and 35 recommendations. The grass samples were dried, ground and passed through a sieve of 250 μm. 500 g of vegetation was treated in each procedure. Samples were treated by two different procedures:1) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing vegetation by hand and drying in an oven and 2) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing the vegetation in a rotatory evaporator and drying in an oven. The theoretical activity concentration of the radionuclides in the grass had a range of 593 Bq/kg to 683 Bq/kg. After gamma spectrometry analysis the results of both procedures were compared as accuracy, precision, homogeneity and stability. The accuracy, precision and short time stability from both methods were similar but the homogeneity test of the evaporation method was not approved for the radionuclides 60 Co and 134 Cs. Based on comparisons between procedures was chosen the manual agitation procedure for the grass sample for the PNI. The accuracy of the procedure, represented by the uncertainty and based on theoretical value had a range between -1.1 and 5.1% and the precision between 0.6 a 6.5 %. This result show is the procedure chosen for the production of grass samples for PNI. (author)

  15. Production of recombinant cholesterol oxidase containing covalently bound FAD in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Gianluca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol oxidase is an alcohol dehydrogenase/oxidase flavoprotein that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of C(3-OH of cholesterol. It has two major biotechnological applications, i.e. in the determination of serum (and food cholesterol levels and as biocatalyst providing valuable intermediates for industrial steroid drug production. Cholesterol oxidases of type I are those containing the FAD cofactor tightly but not covalently bound to the protein moiety, whereas type II members contain covalently bound FAD. This is the first report on the over-expression in Escherichia coli of type II cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sterolicum (BCO. Results Design of the plasmid construct encoding the mature BCO, optimization of medium composition and identification of the best cultivation/induction conditions for growing and expressing the active protein in recombinant E. coli cells, concurred to achieve a valuable improvement: BCO volumetric productivity was increased from ~500 up to ~25000 U/L and its crude extract specific activity from 0.5 up to 7.0 U/mg protein. Interestingly, under optimal expression conditions, nearly 55% of the soluble recombinant BCO is produced as covalently FAD bound form, whereas the protein containing non-covalently bound FAD is preferentially accumulated in insoluble inclusion bodies. Conclusions Comparison of our results with those published on non-covalent (type I COs expressed in recombinant form (either in E. coli or Streptomyces spp., shows that the fully active type II BCO can be produced in E. coli at valuable expression levels. The improved over-production of the FAD-bound cholesterol oxidase will support its development as a novel biotool to be exploited in biotechnological applications.

  16. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all...

  17. 75 FR 44283 - In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-707] In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same, Including Memory Modules; Notice of a... importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors and products containing same, including...

  18. 78 FR 16709 - Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (“CCFL”) Inverter Circuits and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-666 (Modification Proceeding)] Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (``CCFL'') Inverter Circuits and Products Containing Same; Commission's... inverter circuits and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various U.S. patents. The...

  19. 75 FR 82071 - In the Matter of Certain Flash Memory Chips and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Memory Chips and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review the ALJ's Final... flash memory chips and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various claims of... practices or exploits the '877 patent does not exist, nor is such an industry in the process of being...

  20. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing colloidal silver... Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have...

  1. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault... fault circuit interrupters and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims...

  2. 76 FR 11275 - In the Matter of Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-692] In the Matter of Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination To Review in Part A Final Initial... importation of certain ceramic capacitors and products containing the same by reason of infringement of...

  3. Influence of pumpkin seed cake and extruded linseed on milk production and milk fatty acid profile in Alpine goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, Z; Castro-Montoya, J M; Novoselec, J; Molkentin, J; Domacinovic, M; Mioc, B; Dickhoefer, U; Antunovic, Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of substituting pumpkin seed cake (PSC) or extruded linseed (ELS) for soya bean meal in goats' diets on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acids profile of milk fat. In total, 28 dairy goats were divided into three groups. They were fed with concentrate mixtures containing soya bean meal (Control; n=9), ELS (n=10) or PSC (n=9) as main protein sources in the trial lasting 75 days. Addition of ELS or PSC did not influence milk yield and milk gross composition in contrast to fatty acid profile compared with Control. Supplementation of ELS resulted in greater branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and total n-3 fatty acids compared with Control and PSC (PLA, C18:2n-6; 2.10 and 2.28 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) proportions compared with Control (2.80 g/100 g fatty acids; PLA/ALA ratio (3.81 v. 7.44 or 6.92, respectively; Psoya bean meal with ELS in hay-based diets may increase beneficial n-3 fatty acids and BCFA accompanied by lowering LA/ALA ratio and increased C18:0. Pumpkin seed cake completely substituted soya bean meal in the diet of dairy goats without any decrease in milk production or sharp changes in fatty acid profile that may have a commercial or a human health relevancy.

  4. Skin rejuvenation using cosmetic products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldag C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Aldag,1,* Diana Nogueira Teixeira,1,* Phillip S Leventhal2 1Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; 24Clinics, Paris, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Skin aging is primarily due to alterations in the dermal extracellular matrix, especially a decrease in collagen I content, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and accumulation of amorphous elastin material, also known as elastosis. Growth factors and cytokines are included in several cosmetic products intended for skin rejuvenation because of their ability to promote collagen synthesis. Matrikines and matrikine-like peptides offer the advantage of growth factor-like activities but better skin penetration due to their much smaller molecular size. In this review, we summarize the commercially available products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines for which there is evidence that they promote skin rejuvenation. Keywords: cosmetics, skin, aging, growth factor, cytokine, matrikine

  5. Searches for diboson production at the Tevatron in final states containing heavy-flavor jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivaz Jean-François

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent searches performed by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron for diboson production in final states containing heavy-flavor jets are reported. The searches for WZ and ZZ can be regarded as the ultimate benchmark for the corresponding searches for a low-mass Higgs boson in the WH and ZH final states. Using the exact same techniques as for those Higgs boson searches, the D0 collaboration measured a cross section for WZ/ZZ production of 1.13 ± 0.36 times its expectation in the standard model, with a diboson signal significance of 3.3 standard deviations (2.9 expected.

  6. Assessment of fission product release from the reactor containment building during severe core damage accidents in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Evrard, J.M.; Generino, G.

    1984-07-01

    Fission product releases from the RCB associated with hypothetical core-melt accidents ABβ, S 2 CDβ and TLBβ in a PWR-900 MWe have been performed using French computer codes (in particular, the JERICHO Code for containment response analysis and AEROSOLS/B1 for aerosol behavior in the containment) related to thermalhydraulics and fission product behavior in the primary system and in the reactor containment building

  7. Discharges of tritium to the environment from unrestricted use of consumer products containing this radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, G.

    1979-01-01

    Not only nuclear installations but also consumer products containing tritium are an important source of man-made tritium discharge to the environment. In the Federal Republic of Germany about the same tritium activity is annually added to consumer products as is released each year from all nuclear installations. The total tritium activity distributed may rise considerably if devices with Gaseous Tritium Light Sources (GTLS) are permitted for large-scale unrestricted use and consequently also for large-scale uncontrolled disposal. The tritium added to consumer products and, at least partly, finally discharged to the environment is converted to HTO and participates in the normal water cycle of the earth. Therefore it would be very desirable to know how much tritium is used worldwide for such purposes, and it is proposed that the competent national authorities should report to an international organization the amount of tritium in consumer products permitted for unrestricted use and disposal. Finally a review of the normal waste management of tritium in the Federal Republic of Germany is given, and doses that could result from incineration and pyrolysis of waste contaminated with tritium are assessed. (author)

  8. Regulatory requirements for the use of consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.; Paynter, R.A.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    In almost 100 years since the discovery of radioactivity, the properties of radioactive materials have been exploited in products such as clocks and watches incorporating luminous paint which are freely available to members of the public. Over time, regulatory authorities have felt it necessary to apply some degree of control to the supply and use of such products in order to protect public health. In many areas of radiation protection, national authorities take note of international recommendations when developing national standards, but the existing detailed guidance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for consumer products is incomplete and out of date. Recently, a thorough revision of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has occurred, which has prompted a review and revision of the related guidance published by the IAEA. A draft Guide on Regulatory Requirements for the Use of Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Substances has now been completed and is currently under review within the IAEA's system for development of documents in its Safety Series of publications. (author)

  9. Protection of Grain Products from Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Contamination by Anti-Insect Pest Repellent Sachet Containing Allyl Mercaptan Microcapsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonjee; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Na, Ja Hyun; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an anti-insect pest repellent sachet to prevent Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) contamination in grain packaging. The anti-insect pest activities of essential oils (EOs) from garlic (Allium Sativum), ginger (Zingiber Officinalis), black pepper (Piper nigrum), onion (Allium cepa), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) as well as major compounds (allyl disulfide, AD; allyl mercaptan, AM) isolated from of garlic and onion (AD and AM) were measured against S. oryzae. The results revealed that garlic EO, onion EO, AD, and AM showed strong fumigant insecticidal activities. Among these, AM showed the highest acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition rate, indicating that the fumigation insecticidal efficacy of AM is related with its AChE inhibition ability. Subsequently, the microcapsules were produced with a high efficiency (80.02%) by using AM as a core material and rice flour as a wall material. Finally, sachet composed of rice flour microcapsule containing 2% AM (RAM) was produced. Repellent assay was performed to measure anti-insect pest ability of the RAM sachet, showed remarkable repelling effect within 48 h both in the presence or absence of attractant. In a release profile of RAM sachet, it was expected to last over 20 mo during the distribution period of brown rice. Moreover, RAM sachet showed no undesirable changes to the sensory properties of the rice both before and after cooking. Taken together, these results suggest that the newly developed RAM sachet could be used as a packaging material to protect grain products from S. oryzae contamination. The rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), causes damages to stored products and its contamination in grain products has become a major problem in cereal market. To preserve brown rice, an anti-insect pest repellent sachet containing 2% allyl mercaptan was newly developed and it showed remarkable repellent abilities against S. oryzae. It

  10. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of containment failure modes and fission product releases during core meltdown accidents in a BWR with a Mark III containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Yu, W.S.; Jaung, R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is described of potential failure modes and fission product releases for a large number of postulated core meltdown accidents in a BWR with a Mark III containment. For this containment design, the most important failure mode was found to be due to hydrogen related phenomena. A one-dimensional lumped parameter computer code has been developed and used to determine the probability of various hydrogen phenomena for a range of postulated core meltdown sequences. Potential containment loads have been estimated and compared against the containment capacity to determine the probability of containment failure. The fission product release assessment began by using the MARCH/CORRAL system of codes with key input parameters varied over a reasonable range. The parameters relate to primary system retention, re-emission, pool scrubbing, and fission product release in-vessel vs ex-vessel. The final step used more mechanistic calculations based on the system of codes recently developed under sponsorship of the Accident Source Term Program Office, NRC, and compares these predictions with the range of releases calculated in the sensitivity study

  12. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution.

  13. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  14. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Gasparin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate of CRF (18-5-9 NPK and three different container volumes (50, 110 and 180 cm3 on seedling height (H and collar diameter (CD measured monthly for seven months and then calculated H/CD ratios. After 210 days of growth, the dry masses of the aerial portions, root systems, and total masses were determined, as well as the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in the aerial portions of the seedlings. In general, the dose 9 g L-1 substrate combined with the 180 cm3 cultivation tubes demonstrated the best results in terms of the morphological variables analyzed, resulting in consistent quality seedlings for field planting.

  15. Safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath canning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L H; Remmenga, M D; Bock, M A

    1998-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath processing method. In the first study, plain tomatillos were processed for 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5 min. In the second study, five tomatillo/onion combinations were prepared while five tomatillo/green chile combinations were prepared in the third study. pH evaluations were conducted to determine safety in all studies using pH 4.2 as the cut-off value. No differences in the pH of plain tomatillos were detected due to processing time. All jars of plain tomatillos had pH values below 4.1. All combinations of tomatillos/onions and tomatillos/green chile containing more than 50% tomatillo had pH values below the 4.2 cut-off value. Results of the three studies indicate (1) acidification of plain tomatillos is probably unnecessary for canning by the water-bath processing method and (2) combinations of acidic tomatillos and low-acid onions or green chile must contain more than 50% tomatillos to have a pH low enough for safe water-bath processing.

  16. Cellulase and Xylanase Production by Penicillium echinulatum in Submerged Media Containing Cellulose Amended with Sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Eliana Todero Ritter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the use of sorbitol as a soluble carbon source, in association with cellulose, to produce cellulases and xylanases in submerged cultures of Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1. Because cellulose is an insoluble carbon source, in cellulase production, there are some problems with rheology and oxygen transfer. The submerged fermentations containing media composed of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% (w/v sorbitol and cellulose that were added at different times during the cultivation; 0.2% (w/v soy bran; 0.1% (w/v wheat bran; and a solution of salts. The highest filter paper activity (FPA ( IU·mL−1 was obtained on the seventh day in the medium containing 0.5% (w/v sorbitol and 0.5% (w/v cellulose added 24 h after the start of cultivation. However, the CMCases showed an activity peak on the sixth day ( IU·mL−1 in the medium containing 0.75% (w/v sorbitol and 0.75% (w/v cellulose added after 12 h of cultivation. The xylanases showed the highest activity in the medium with 0.75% (w/v sorbitol and 0.25% (w/v cellulose added 36 h after the start of cultivation. This strategy enables the reduction of the cellulose concentration, which in high concentrations can cause rheological and oxygen transfer problems.

  17. The biological pump: Profiles of plankton production and consumption in the upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Alan R.; Glen Harrison, W.

    The ‘biological pump’ mediates flux of carbon to the interior of the ocean by interctions between the components of the vertically-structured pelagic ecosystem of the photic zone. Chlorophyll profiles are not a simple indicator of autotrophic biomass or production, because of non-linearities in the physiology of cells and preferential vertical distribution of taxa. Profiles of numbers or biomass of heterotrophs do not correspond with profiles of consumption, because of depth-selection (taxa, seasons) for reasons unconnected with feeding. Depths of highest plant biomass, chlorophyll and growth rate coincide when these depths are shallow, but become progressively separated in profiles where they are deeper - so that highest growth rate lies progressively shallower than the chloropyll maximum. It is still uncertain how plant biomass is distributed in deep profiles. Depths of greatest heterotroph biomass (mesozooplankton) are usually close to depths of fastest plant growth rate, and thus lie shallower than the chlorophyll maximum in profiles where this itself is deep. This correlation is functional, and relates to the role of heterotrophs in excreting metabolic wastes (especially ammonia), which may fuel a significant component of integrated algal production, especially in the oligotrophic ocean. Some, but not all faecal material from mesozooplankton of the photic zone appears in vertical flux below the pycnocine, depending on the size of the source organisms, and the degree of vertical mixing above the pycnocline. Diel, but probably not seasonal, vertical migration is significant in the vertical flux of dissolved nitrogen. Regional generalisations of the vertical relations of the main components of the ‘biological pump’ now appear within reach, and an approach is suggested.

  18. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration or calcination, alkali sintering, and dissolution of sintered products in nitric acid. Insoluble residues are then mixed with vitrifying components and Pu sludges, vitrified, and sent for storage and disposal. Implementation of the intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the United States (US) regarding the utilization of 34 tons of weapons plutonium will also require treatment of Pu containing MOX fabrication wastes at the MCC radiochemical production plant.

  19. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    incineration or calcination, alkali sintering, and dissolution of sintered products in nitric acid. Insoluble residues are then mixed with vitrifying components and Pu sludges, vitrified, and sent for storage and disposal. Implementation of the intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the United States (US) regarding the utilization of 34 tons of weapons plutonium will also require treatment of Pu containing MOX fabrication wastes at the MCC radiochemical production plant

  20. Profiling the Buzz Agent: Product Referral and the Study of Social Community and Brand Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The buzz agent is any consumer perceived by others as a source of product referral. Previous literature in word of mouth (WOM has looked into characteristics of individuals who successfully persuade others to choose a brand. While there have been studies in this field, the literature is still scattered and little has been done to profile the consumer playing the buzz-agent role. We aim to deepen our understanding about the consumer who must be recruited as a buzz agent by a firm in a WOM marketing (WOMM initiative. The proposed profile is comprised of three key characteristics: the consumer’s position in the social community, nature of ties in the community and brand attachment. We tested our hypotheses with a survey of 542 consumers from a controlled population. Rather than relying on self-reported questions about referral behavior, we asked respondents in the population to name the individuals to whom the respondents go to obtain information to help pick a brand. This accurately pinpoints which individuals fit the profile of a buzz agent. Results show that buzz agents are popular in their social community (friends and tech experts, carry dissimilar brands as target consumers and are product experts. Our study identifies a profile of consumers that helps firms select buzz agents for WOMM initiatives.

  1. Holistic Considerations in Optimizing a Sterile Product Package to Ensure Container Closure Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrazio, Fran L

    2018-01-01

    A new major chapter dealing with container closure integrity was released by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention. Chapter provides a significant amount of education and guidance concerning test methodologies to prove that a system is integral and safe for use. The test method used is only one of the major considerations in approaching the challenge of proving an integral system. This paper takes a holistic review of all the major considerations needed in qualifying a new vial system for container closure integrity. There is substantial interplay among many aspects in the process of sealing a vial. This review helps to define major risks that need to be considered and mitigated and reinforces the need to understand the maximum allowable leakage limit that is acceptable for a specific drug application. A typical risk-based approach considers materials, test methods, process, people, environment, and equipment. Each of these aspects is considered in some detail along with a recommended process flow for building a best practice, science-based approach. This approach will inform decision making for evaluating the correct combination of components and assuring they are assembled and tested in an appropriate manner. This work, once completed, can be the basis for a vial system platform or specific drug application qualification. LAY ABSTRACT: Container closure integrity is a fundamental requirement of every sterile drug package. With recent upgrading of compendia standards and guidance around this issue, there is an opportunity to better define a best practice approach to a complicated subject. It is important to recognize that there is substantial interplay among the components of the system, the process of assembly, and the test methods that are used. This paper takes a holistic approach to discussing these issues and identifying the risks that must be considered in assuring an integral container over the shelf life of a drug product. © PDA, Inc. 2018.

  2. Design of containment system of nuclear fuel attacked by corrosion with leaking fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete Maturana, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The following report presents the design of an innovative confinement system for the nuclear fuel attacked by corrosion, with leakage of fission products to be used in the RECH-1 nuclear experimental reactor of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, is currently within the framework of the international nuclear waste management program developed by the member countries of the IAEA, including Chile. The main objective of this project is the development of a system that is capable of containing, in the smallest possible volume, the fission products that are released to the reactor coolant medium from the nuclear fuel that are attacked by corrosion. Among the tasks carried out for the development of the project are: the compilation of the necessary bibliography for the selection of the most suitable technology for the retention of the fission products, the calculation of the most important parameters to ensure that the system will operate within ranges that do not compromise the radiological safety, and the design of the hydraulic circuit of the system. The results obtained from the calculations showed that the fuel element confinement system is stable from a thermal point of view since the refrigerant does not under any circumstances reach the saturation temperature and, in addition, from a hydraulic point of view, since the rate at which the refrigerant flows through the hydraulic circuit is low enough so that the deformation of the fuel plates forming the nuclear fuel does not occur. The most appropriate technology for the extraction of fission products according to the literature consulted is by ion exchange. The calculations developed showed that with a very small volume of resins, it is possible to capture all of the non-volatile fission products of a nuclear fuel

  3. Variation in sensory profile between individual Rainbow trout from the same production batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    The variation in sensory properties between individual Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) belonging to the same aquaculture production batch was explored by using objective sensory profiling on minced and heat treated fillets. Additionally, Quality Index, mechanical texture, pH, fat and water...... content were measured. 30 fish, all from the same production batch, were sampled at three different times making three groups (ten fish each time). The results showed differences in the sensory profile between individual fish within all three groups. Also sensory differences between the three groups...... of fish were found. Similar differences in mechanical texture were found between individuals in two of the three groups and between the groups. No differences were found in Quality Index neither between individuals nor groups. A significant correlation between lipid content and firm texture was observed...

  4. NODC Standard Product: Experimental Compact Disk NODC-01 Pacific Ocean Temperature-Salinity Profiles (1900-1988) (NODC Accession 0086259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) created a compact disk containing over 1.3 million temperature-depth and salinity-depth profiles taken in the Pacific...

  5. Design and application of natural product derived probes for activity based protein profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Battenberg, Oliver Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The identification of new antibacterial protein targets by activity based protein profiling (ABPP) is an important approach to face the increasing emergence of resistant bacteria. The scope of this work focuses on three new strategies for the labeling of antibacterial protein-targets with natural product derived ABPP-probes: A.) Evaluation of the intrinsic photo-reactivity of α-pyrones and pyrimidones for use as photo-crosslinkers. B.) Synthesis of a benzophenone-tag that combines photo-cross...

  6. Constructing target product profiles (TPPs) to help vaccines overcome post-approval obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Burke, Donald S.

    2009-01-01

    As history has demonstrated, post-approval obstacles can impede a vaccine’s use and potentially lead to its withdrawal. Addressing these potential obstacles when changes in a vaccine’s technology can still be easily made may improve a vaccine’s chances of success. Augmented vaccine target product profiles (TPPs) can help vaccine scientists better understand and anticipate these obstacles and galvanize conversations among various vaccine stakeholders (e.g., scientists, marketers, business deve...

  7. Improvement of sheep welfare and milk production fed on diet containing hydroponically germinating seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Zarrilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cortisol and milk production responses of 45 lactating Comisana sheeps (4th- 5th parity, divided into three homogeneous groups of 15 subject each, were used to evaluate the effects of two different levels of partial substitution of a complete feed with hydroponically germinating seeds. Germinated oat was employed after 7 days of hydroponic growth. The three groups received the following diets: Control group (T received only complete feed. The other 2 groups were fed on diet containing different levels of hydroponically germinating oat (1,5 kg – group A; 3 kg – group B. All the subjects have shown to accept the diets because the per capita ration was always completely consumed. In the second month, the A and B groups showed lower average values of cortisol (P<0.01 and a statistically significant increase in milk production as compared to T (P<0.05 and P<0.001. The obtained data induced to conclude that integration with hydroponically germinating oat in partial substitution of the complete feed does not modify biochemical and hematological parameters and seems to produce an improvement in animal welfare and production of milk.

  8. Validation of a liquid chromatographic method for the pharmaceutical quality control of products containing elacridar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Sawicki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many anticancer drugs have an impaired bioavailability and poor brain penetration because they are substrates to drug efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein. Elacridar is a strong inhibitor of these two drug efflux pumps and therefore has great potential to improve oral absorption and brain penetration of many anticancer drugs. Currently, a clinical formulation of elacridar is unavailable and therefore the pharmaceutical development of a drug product is highly warranted. This also necessitates the availability of an analytical method for its quality control. A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection was developed for the pharmaceutical quality control of products containing elacridar as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The analytical method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, carry-over, stability of stock and reference solutions, stability of the final extract, stability-indicating capability and impurity testing. We found that elacridar is unstable in aqueous solutions that are exposed to light because a hydroxylation product of elacridar is formed. Therefore, sample solutions with elacridar must be protected from light.

  9. Common commercial and consumer products contain activators of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    Full Text Available Activation of the Ah receptor (AhR by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin, can produce a wide variety of toxic and biological effects. While recent studies have shown that the AhR can bind and be activated by structurally diverse chemicals, how widespread of these AhR agonists are in environmental, biological and synthetic materials remains to be determined. Using AhR-based assays, we demonstrate the presence of potent AhR agonists in a variety of common commercial and consumer items. Solvent extracts of paper, rubber and plastic products contain chemicals that can bind to and stimulate AhR DNA binding and/or AhR-dependent gene expression in hepatic cytosol, cultured cell lines, human epidermis and zebrafish embryos. In contrast to TCDD and other persistent dioxin-like HAHs, activation of AhR-dependent gene expression by these extracts was transient, suggesting that the agonists are metabolically labile. Solvent extracts of rubber products produce AhR-dependent developmental toxicity in zebrafish in vivo, and inhibition of expression of the metabolic enzyme CYP1A, significantly increased their toxic potency. Although the identity of the responsible AhR-active chemicals and their toxicological impact remain to be determined, our data demonstrate that AhR active chemicals are widely distributed in everyday products.

  10. In silico drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic profiles of natural products from medicinal plants in the Congo basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Lifongo, Lydia L; Mbah, James A; Owono Owono, Luc C; Megnassan, Eugene; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Judson, Philip N; Sippl, Wolfgang; Efange, Simon M N

    2013-01-01

    Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) assessment has come to occupy a place of interest during the early stages of drug discovery today. The use of computer modelling to predict the DMPK and toxicity properties of a natural product library derived from medicinal plants from Central Africa (named ConMedNP). Material from some of the plant sources are currently employed in African Traditional Medicine. Computer-based methods are slowly gaining ground in this area and are often used as preliminary criteria for the elimination of compounds likely to present uninteresting pharmacokinetic profiles and unacceptable levels of toxicity from the list of potential drug candidates, hence cutting down the cost of discovery of a drug. In the present study, we present an in silico assessment of the DMPK and toxicity profile of a natural product library containing ~3,200 compounds, derived from 379 species of medicinal plants from 10 countries in the Congo Basin forests and savannas, which have been published in the literature. In this analysis, we have used 46 computed physico-chemical properties or molecular descriptors to predict the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination and toxicity (ADMET) of the compounds. This survey demonstrated that about 45% of the compounds within the ConMedNP compound library are compliant, having properties which fall within the range of ADME properties of 95% of currently known drugs, while about 69% of the compounds have ≤ 2 violations. Moreover, about 73% of the compounds within the corresponding "drug-like" subset showed compliance. In addition to the verified levels of "drug-likeness", diversity and the wide range of measured biological activities, the compounds from medicinal plants in Central Africa show interesting DMPK profiles and hence could represent an important starting point for hit/lead discovery.

  11. Analysis of Two Commercially Available Bortezomib Products: Differences in Assay of Active Agent and Impurity Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Byrn, Stephen R.; Tishmack, Patrick A.; Milton, Mark J.; van de Velde, Helgi

    2011-01-01

    The analytical properties of two commercially available bortezomib products (VELCADE® and Bortenat) were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. The data showed differences between the two products. Based on these data, Bortenat samples contained more active ingredients than indicated by the label (mean, 116.5% and 117.9% of label, in 2-mg and 3.5-mg vials, respectively). In comparison, VELCADE samples conta...

  12. A comparative study on aromatic profiles of strawberry vinegars obtained using different conditions in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Peña, Francisco; Morales, M Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Impact odorants in strawberry vinegars produced in different containers (glass, oak and cherry barrels) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry using modified frequency (MF) technique, and dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aromatic profile of vinegar from strawberry cooked must was also studied. All strawberry vinegars retained certain impact odorants from strawberries: 3-nonen-2-one, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, nerolidol, pantolactone+furaneol, eugenol, γ-dodecalactone and phenylacetic acid. Isovaleric acid, pantolactone+furaneol, p-vinylguaiacol, phenylacetic acid and vanillin were the most important aroma-active compounds in all vinegars. The strawberry cooked must vinegar accounted for the highest number of impact odorants. Wood barrels provided more aroma complexity than glass containers. Impact odorants with grassy characteristics were predominant in vinegar from glass containers, and those with sweet and fruity characteristics in vinegars from wood barrels. Principal component analysis indicated that the production process led to differences in the impact odorants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  14. Production and Energy Partition of Lactating Dairy Goats Fed Rations Containing Date Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yuniarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dates fruit waste (DFW is a by-product of dates juice industry that contains high energy. So, it is suitable for an energy source in dairy goat ration. This study was conducted to observe the effect of DFW utilization in the ration on energy partition and productivity of lactating dairy goats. The experimental design was randomized block design using 9 primiparous lactating dairy goats. There were three types of ration as treatments used in this study, i.e. R0= 35% forage + 65% concentrate, R1= 35% forage + 55% concentrate + 10% DFW, and R2= 35% forage + 45% concentrate + 20% DFW. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial orthogonal test. The evaluated variables were dry matter intake (DMI, energy partition including energy intake, digestible and metabolizable energy, fecal and urine energy, energy in methane gas, and energy in milk, milk production and quality. The results showed that the linear decreased of DMI, energy intake, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and urine energy with the increased of DFW level in the rations. The use of 10% DFW (R1 showed the lowest energy loss through feces and methane gas of all treatments about 1089.57 kcal/head/d and 2.36 kcal/head/d, respectively. The use of DFW did not affect energy retention in milk. The utilization of DFW in ration did not significantly prevent the decline of milk production and milk quality. It can be concluded that DFW can be used as an alternative feed for the lactating dairy goat up to 10% in the ration.

  15. A phytochemical comparison of saw palmetto products using gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolomic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Suter, Andy; Krnjic, Ana; Strassel, Brigitte; Zloh, Mire; Said, Mazlina; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Preparations containing saw palmetto berries are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There are many products on the market, and relatively little is known about their chemical variability and specifically the composition and quality of different saw palmetto products notwithstanding that in 2000, an international consultation paper from the major urological associations from the five continents on treatments for BPH demanded further research on this topic. Here, we compare two analytical approaches and characterise 57 different saw palmetto products. Methods An established method – gas chromatography – was used for the quantification of nine fatty acids, while a novel approach of metabolomic profiling using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used as a fingerprinting tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. Key findings The phytochemical analysis determining the fatty acids showed a high level of heterogeneity of the different products in the total amount and of nine single fatty acids. A robust and reproducible 1H NMR spectroscopy method was established, and the results showed that it was possible to statistically differentiate between saw palmetto products that had been extracted under different conditions but not between products that used a similar extraction method. Principal component analysis was able to determine those products that had significantly different metabolites. Conclusions The metabolomic approach developed offers novel opportunities for quality control along the value chain of saw palmetto and needs to be followed further, as with this method, the complexity of a herbal extract can be better assessed than with the analysis of a single group of constituents. PMID:24417505

  16. A phytochemical comparison of saw palmetto products using gas chromatography and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Suter, Andy; Krnjic, Ana; Strassel, Brigitte; Zloh, Mire; Said, Mazlina; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Preparations containing saw palmetto berries are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There are many products on the market, and relatively little is known about their chemical variability and specifically the composition and quality of different saw palmetto products notwithstanding that in 2000, an international consultation paper from the major urological associations from the five continents on treatments for BPH demanded further research on this topic. Here, we compare two analytical approaches and characterise 57 different saw palmetto products. An established method - gas chromatography - was used for the quantification of nine fatty acids, while a novel approach of metabolomic profiling using (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used as a fingerprinting tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis determining the fatty acids showed a high level of heterogeneity of the different products in the total amount and of nine single fatty acids. A robust and reproducible (1) H NMR spectroscopy method was established, and the results showed that it was possible to statistically differentiate between saw palmetto products that had been extracted under different conditions but not between products that used a similar extraction method. Principal component analysis was able to determine those products that had significantly different metabolites. The metabolomic approach developed offers novel opportunities for quality control along the value chain of saw palmetto and needs to be followed further, as with this method, the complexity of a herbal extract can be better assessed than with the analysis of a single group of constituents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. The Impact of Cooling Rate on the Safety of Food Products as Affected by Food Containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coorey, Ranil; Ng, Denise Sze Hu; Jayamanne, Vijith S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for ready‐to‐eat (RTE) food items prepared by the food catering sector has increased together with the value of cook‐serve, cook‐chill, and cook‐freeze food products. The technologies by which foods are cooked, chilled, refrigerated for storage, and reheated before...... serving are of prime importance to maintain safety. Packaging materials and food containers play an important role in influencing the cooling rate of RTE foods. Food items that are prepared using improper technologies and inappropriate packaging materials may be contaminated with foodborne pathogens....... Numerous research studies have shown the impact of deficient cooling technologies on the survival and growth of foodborne pathogens, which may subsequently pose a threat to public health. The operating temperatures and cooling rates of the cooling techniques applied must be appropriate to inhibit...

  18. Lignases and aldo-keto reductases for conversion of lignin-containing materials to fermentable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael; Sethi, Amit

    2016-09-13

    Termites have specialized digestive systems that overcome the lignin barrier in wood to release fermentable simple sugars. Using the termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its gut symbionts, high-throughput titanium pyrosequencing and proteomics approaches experimentally compared the effects of lignin-containing diets on host-symbiont digestome composition. Proteomic investigations and functional digestive studies with recombinant lignocellulases conducted in parallel provided strong evidence of congruence at the transcription and translational levels and provide enzymatic strategies for overcoming recalcitrant lignin barriers in biofuel feedstocks. Briefly described, therefore, the disclosure provides a system for generating a fermentable product from a lignified plant material, the system comprising a cooperating series of at least two catalytically active polypeptides, where said catalytically active polypeptides are selected from the group consisting of: cellulase Cell-1, .beta.-glu cellulase, an aldo-keto-reductase, a catalase, a laccase, and an endo-xylanase.

  19. 77 FR 1505 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ...Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on November 30, 2011, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. of Austin, Texas. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,467,455 (``the `455 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The complainant requests that the Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders.

  20. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  1. Biofilm Inhibition by Novel Natural Product- and Biocide-Containing Coatings Using High-Throughput Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products (NPs as possible alternative biocidal compounds for use in antifouling coatings has been the focus of research over the past decades. Despite the importance of this field, the efficacy of a given NP against biofilm (mainly bacteria and diatoms formation is tested with the NP being in solution, while almost no studies test the effect of an NP once incorporated into a coating system. The development of a novel bioassay to assess the activity of NP-containing and biocide-containing coatings against marine biofilm formation has been achieved using a high-throughput microplate reader and highly sensitive confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, as well as nucleic acid staining. Juglone, an isolated NP that has previously shown efficacy against bacterial attachment, was incorporated into a simple coating matrix. Biofilm formation over 48 h was assessed and compared against coatings containing the NP and the commonly used booster biocide, cuprous oxide. Leaching of the NP from the coating was quantified at two time points, 24 h and 48 h, showing evidence of both juglone and cuprous oxide being released. Results from the microplate reader showed that the NP coatings exhibited antifouling efficacy, significantly inhibiting biofilm formation when compared to the control coatings, while NP coatings and the cuprous oxide coatings performed equally well. CLSM results and COMSTAT analysis on biofilm 3D morphology showed comparable results when the NP coatings were tested against the controls, with higher biofilm biovolume and maximum thickness being found on the controls. This new method proved to be repeatable and insightful and we believe it is applicable in antifouling and other numerous applications where interactions between biofilm formation and surfaces is of interest.

  2. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  3. Modeling of the solution interaction properties of plastic materials used in pharmaceutical product container systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Couch, Tom; Gillum, Amy; Sadain, Salma

    2009-01-01

    Material/water equilibrium binding constants (Eb) were determined for 14 organic solutes and 17 plastic raw materials that could be used in pharmaceutical product container systems. Correlations between the measured binding constants and the organic solute's octanol/water and hexane/water partition coefficients were obtained. In general, while the materials examined exhibited a wide range of binding characteristics, the tested materials by and large fell within two broad classes: (1) those that were octanol-like in their binding characteristics, and (2) those that were hexane-like. Materials of the same class (e.g., polypropylenes) generally had binding models that were very similar. Rank ordering of the materials in terms of their magnitude of drug binding (least binding to most binding) was as follows: polypropylene < polyethylene < polyamide < styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene < copolyester ether elastomer approximately equal to amine-terminated poly fatty acid amide polymer. The utilization of the developed models to estimate drug loss via sorption by the container is discussed.

  4. The effect of ceramide-containing skin care products on eczema resolution duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2008-01-01

    Eczema is a common dermatologic condition that affects children as well as adults and is related to a defective skin barrier, which is most commonly caused by damage to the intercellular lipids from improper selection of skin cleansers and moisturizers. A new concept in skin care is the incorporation of ceramides into therapeutic cleansers and moisturizers. Ceramides are important components of the intercellular lipids that are necessary to link the protein-rich corneocytes into a waterproof barrier that is capable of protecting the underlying skin tissues and regulating body homeostasis. This study evaluated the effect of both a multilamellar vesicular emulsion (MVE) ceramide-containing liquid cleanser and moisturizing cream plus fluocinonide cream 0.05% compared with a bar cleanser plus fluocinonide cream 0.05% in the treatment of mild to moderate eczema. The addition of an MVE ceramide-containing liquid cleanser and moisturizing cream to a high-potency corticosteroid enhanced the treatment outcome of mild to moderate eczema compared with the use of a bar cleanser and high-potency corticosteroid in reducing disease duration, time to disease clearance, and symptoms. Thus, skin care product selection can have an important clinical effect on the clearance of mild to moderate eczema.

  5. Considerations in modelling the melting of fuel containing fission products and solute oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, F.; Welland, M.J.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the oxidation of a defected fuel element by steam gives rise to an increase in O/U ratio with a consequent lowering of the incipient melting temperature. Concurrently, the hyperstoichiometry reduces the thermal conductivity thereby raising the centerline fuel pellet temperature for a fixed linear power. The development of fission products soluble in the UO 2 phase or, more important, the deliberate introduction of additive oxides in advanced CANDU fuel bundle designs further affects and generally lowers the incipient melting temperature. For these reasons, the modeling of the molten (hyperstoichiometric) UO 2 phase containing several solute oxides (ZrO 2 , Ln 2 O 3 and AnO 2 ) is advancing in the expectation of developing a moving boundary heat and mass transfer model aimed at better defining the limits of safe operating practice as burnup advances. The paper describes how the molten phase stability model is constructed. The redistribution of components across the solid-liquid interface that attends the onset of melting of a non-stoichiometric UO 2 containing several solutes will be discussed. The issues of how to introduce boundary conditions into heat transfer calculations consistent with the requirements of the Phase Rule will be addressed. The Stefan problem of a moving boundary associated with the solid/liquid interface sets this treatment apart from conventional heat and mass transfer problems. (author)

  6. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed H. Imam; Bor-Sen Chiou; Delilah Woods; Justin Shey; Gregory M. Glenn; William J. Orts; Rajnesh Narayan; Robert J. Avena-Bustillos; Tara H. McHugh; Alberto Pantoja; Peter J. Bechtel

    2008-01-01

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing zero to 25 weight percent of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads, and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along with starch and pulp fiber, and the foam product (panels) exhibited useful mechanical properties. Foams with all three fish by-products, ranging between 10 and 15 wt%, showed the highe...

  7. Changes in antioxidant and metabolite profiles during production of tomato paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Vos, de C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tomato products and especially concentrated tomato paste are important sources of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. Tomato fruit contain well-known antioxidants such as vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids. The industrial processing of this fruit into tomato paste

  8. New Strains Intended for the Production of Inactivated Polio Vaccine at Low-Containment After Eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Knowlson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis has nearly been eradicated through the efforts of the World Health Organization's Global Eradication Initiative raising questions on containment of the virus after it has been eliminated in the wild. Most manufacture of inactivated polio vaccines currently requires the growth of large amounts of highly virulent poliovirus, and release from a production facility after eradication could be disastrous; WHO have therefore recommended the use of the attenuated Sabin strains for production as a safer option although it is recognised that they can revert to a transmissible paralytic form. We have exploited the understanding of the molecular virology of the Sabin vaccine strains to design viruses that are extremely genetically stable and hyperattenuated. The viruses are based on the type 3 Sabin vaccine strain and have been genetically modified in domain V of the 5' non-coding region by changing base pairs to produce a cassette into which capsid regions of other serotypes have been introduced. The viruses give satisfactory yields of antigenically and immunogenically correct viruses in culture, are without measurable neurovirulence and fail to infect non-human primates under conditions where the Sabin strains will do so.

  9. New Strains Intended for the Production of Inactivated Polio Vaccine at Low-Containment After Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlson, Sarah; Burlison, John; Giles, Elaine; Fox, Helen; Macadam, Andrew J; Minor, Philip D

    2015-12-01

    Poliomyelitis has nearly been eradicated through the efforts of the World Health Organization's Global Eradication Initiative raising questions on containment of the virus after it has been eliminated in the wild. Most manufacture of inactivated polio vaccines currently requires the growth of large amounts of highly virulent poliovirus, and release from a production facility after eradication could be disastrous; WHO have therefore recommended the use of the attenuated Sabin strains for production as a safer option although it is recognised that they can revert to a transmissible paralytic form. We have exploited the understanding of the molecular virology of the Sabin vaccine strains to design viruses that are extremely genetically stable and hyperattenuated. The viruses are based on the type 3 Sabin vaccine strain and have been genetically modified in domain V of the 5' non-coding region by changing base pairs to produce a cassette into which capsid regions of other serotypes have been introduced. The viruses give satisfactory yields of antigenically and immunogenically correct viruses in culture, are without measurable neurovirulence and fail to infect non-human primates under conditions where the Sabin strains will do so.

  10. CONDITIONING MICROBIAL PRODUCTS CONTAINING NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA WITH DIFFERENT SOLID EXCIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINTILĂ T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability in real time of two strains of Rhizobium (Rhizobium meliloti andRhizobium japonicum mixed with different excipients was evaluated during a6-months period. The excipients studied were: peat, peat and calciumcarbonate, zeolite, and ceramic. Liquid cultures and excipients mixtures weredried (12-14% humidity, sealed in plastic bags and preserved at +4oC. Thecells were activated periodically by suspending aliquots from dry products in0.9% saline solution. The viability of Rhizobium cells was evaluated bycultivation of diluted suspensions in YMA plates. The number of viable cells isdecreasing during drying in all cases, increase in the first month of storage,and remains constant or decrease very slowly during storage for all obtaineddry products containing rhizobia mixed with solid dry excipients. The highestnumber of viable cells at the end of the experiment was obtained in ceramicwith Rhizobium japonicum (8x105 cells/gram, and the lowest number ofviable cells was obtained in zeolite with Rhizobium meliloti (1,1x103cells/gram.

  11. CONDITIONING MICROBIAL PRODUCTS CONTAINING NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA WITH DIFFERENT SOLID EXCIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VINTILĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability in real time of two strains of Rhizobium (Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium japonicum mixed with different excipients was evaluated during a 6- months period. The excipients studied were: peat, peat and calcium carbonate, zeolite, and ceramic. Liquid cultures and excipients mixtures were dried (12-14% humidity, sealed in plastic bags and preserved at +4oC. The cells were activated periodically by suspending aliquots from dry products in 0.9% saline solution. The viability of Rhizobium cells was evaluated by cultivation of diluted suspensions in YMA plates. The number of viable cells is decreasing during drying in all cases, increase in the first month of storage, and remains constant or decrease very slowly during storage for all obtained dry products containing rhizobia mixed with solid dry excipients. The highest number of viable cells at the end of the experiment was obtained in ceramic with Rhizobium japonicum (8x105 cells/gram, and the lowest number of viable cells was obtained in zeolite with Rhizobium meliloti (1,1x103 cells/gram.

  12. Production of red pigments by Monascus ruber in culture media containing corn steep liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Hamano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of red pigments by Monascus ruber was evaluated utilizing complex culture media composed of glucose or sucrose (10 g/L, corn steep liquor (5 or 10 g/L and monosodium glutamate (0, 5.0, 7.6, 11.4 or 15.2 g/L. Medium containing 10 g/L glucose, 5 g/L corn steep liquor and 7.6 g/L monosodium glutamate resulted the highest values of extracellular red pigment absorbance (20.7 U and productivity (0.35 U/h. This medium also produced better results than using semi-synthetic medium with analytical grade reagents (12.4 U and 0.21 U/h. The cell growth was similar in both media (X @ 6.5 g/L, indicating that the capacity of the cells to produce red pigments was higher in complex culture media. In addition, in the complex culture medium, less of the intracellular red pigments accumulated than in semi-synthetic medium (9.1% and 30%, respectively.

  13. Green Approach—Multicomponent Production of Boron—Containing Hantzsch and Biginelli Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicomponent reactions are excellent methods that meet the requirements of green chemistry, by reducing the number of steps, and consequently reducing purification requirements. Accordingly, in this work, 11 novel hybrid-boron-containing molecules, namely eight 1,4-dihydropyridines and three 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones, derived from formylphenylboronic acids (ortho, meta and para, were obtained using a green approach, involving H-4CR and B-3CR practices, in the presence of ethanol, which is a green solvent, and using three comparatively different modes of activation (mantle heating, yield 3%–7% in 24 h, Infrared Radiation (IR irradiation, yield 12%–17% in 12 h, and microwave irradiation, yield 18%–80%, requiring very low reaction times of 0.25–0.33 h. In addition, as a green-approach is offered, a convenient analysis, of the 12 green chemistry principles for the overall procedure was performed. Finally, since all the products are new, characterizations were carried out using common analytic procedures (1H, 11B, and 13C NMR, FAB+MS, HRMS, and IR. The accurate mass data of unexpected ions related to interactions between thioglycerol and the expected products, in the FAB+-mode, enabled unequivocal characterization of the target molecules.

  14. Radiochemical determination of Beryllium-7 in a fission-product mixture containing many inorganic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, Y.; Van Kote, F.

    1969-01-01

    A radiochemical method is described for analysing beryllium-7 in a mixture of fission products containing many inorganic salts. By studying the influence of various parameters it has been possible to speed up the decontamination on an anionic resin using an HCl isopropanol mixture, as proposed by KORKISCH- and al. Be(OH) 2 is first precipitated in the presence of E.D.T.A.; the main contaminants are then fixed on Dowex 1 x 10 in 12 M HCl and on Dowex 1 x 8 in a 3 M HCl (20 per cent)-isopropanol (80 per cent) (vol/vol) mixture. The Be, which is not fixed, is precipitated by NH 4 H 2 PO 4 in the presence of E.D.T.A., ignited as Be 2 P 2 O 7 , filtered, weighed, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The method makes it possible to dose 4 samples in 16 hours with a chemical yield of 80 per cent, using a 4 day-old fission product solution. The overall decontamination factor, exceeds 10 8 . (authors) [fr

  15. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca G. Albano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five materials used as substrates, in the presence and absence of foliar fertilization. The materials used were: earthworm humus, carnauba residue + fresh rice husk; carnauba residue in powder; carnauba residue semi-decomposed and mixture of carnauba residues: carnauba residue + fresh rice husk + carnauba residue semi-decomposed + carnauba residue in powder, at the proportion 1:1:1. The agroindustrial residue of carnauba wax semi-decomposed can be used as substrates in the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings. The foliar fertilization increases the quality of papaya seedlings, leading to increment in leaf area, root volume and sulfur content in the leaves, thus becoming a necessary practice.

  16. Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Abu-Salah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from samples collected from the Red Sea. Relying on the fluorescence of BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazasindacene and growth performance, four promising candidates were identified and the total lipid content and fatty acid profile was assessed for biofuels production. Selected isolates were classified as chlorophytes, belonging to three different genera: Picochlorum, Nannochloris and Desmochloris. The lipid contents were assessed microscopically by means of BODIPY 505/515-associated fluorescence to detect intracellular lipid bodies, which revealed several lipid drops in all selected strains. This result was confirmed by lipid gravimetric determination, which demonstrated that all strains under study presented inner cell lipid contents ranging from 20% to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters profile of all strains seems ideal for biodiesel production due to a low degree of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters and high amount of palmitic and oleic acids.

  17. The TIR-domain containing adaptor TRAM is required for TLR7 mediated RANTES production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enda Shevlin

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 plays a vital role in the immune response to ssRNA viruses such as human rhinovirus (HRV and Influenza, against which there are currently no treatments or vaccines with long term efficacy available. Clearly, a more comprehensive understanding of the TLR7 signaling axis will contribute to its molecular targeting. TRIF related adaptor molecule (TRAM plays a vital role in TLR4 signaling by recruiting TRIF to TLR4, followed by endosomal trafficking of the complex and initiation of IRF3 dependent type I interferon production as well as NF-κB dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate TLR7 functionality, we found that TRAM(-/- murine macrophages exhibited a transcriptional and translational impairment in TLR7 mediated RANTES, but not TNFα, production. Suppression of TRAM expression in human macrophages also resulted in an impairment in TLR7 mediated CCL5 and IFN-β, but not TNFα, gene induction. Furthermore, suppression of endogenous human TRAM expression in human macrophages significantly impaired RV16 induced CCL5 and IFNβ, but not TNFα gene induction. Additionally, TRAM-G2A dose-dependently inhibited TLR7 mediated activation of CCL5, IFNβ and IFNα reporter genes. TLR7-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 was impaired in TRAM(-/- cells. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated that TRAM physically interacts with MyD88 upon TLR7 stimulation, but not under basal conditions. Our results clearly demonstrate that TRAM plays a, hitherto unappreciated, role in TLR7 signaling through a novel signaling axis containing, but not limited to, MyD88, TRAM and IRF3 towards the activation of anti-viral immunity.

  18. Suitability of sphagnum moss, coir, and douglas fir bark as soilless substrates for container production of highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the suitability of different soilless substrates for container production of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). Young plants of ‘Snowchaser’ blueberry were grown in 4.4-liter pots filled with media containing 10% perlite and varying proportions of...

  19. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to powdery mildew under sun/shade production and different fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown dogwoods are an important product in the nursery and landscape industry and rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture mainly due to fertilizer, water, and shade management. Our experiments indicate that ...

  20. Fermented sausage production using E. faecium as starter culture: Physicochemical and microbiological profile, sensorial acceptance and cellular viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Calochi Pires de Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are defined as a mixture of lean meat and fat, curing salts, sucrose and spices, stuffed in a natural or artificial casing and submitted to fermentation and air-drying process. Starter culture and ripening process may affect the quality and acceptability of the final product. Current research evaluates the use of Enterococcus faecium as starter culture in fermented sausage production and its physicochemical and microbiological profile during maturation process, coupled to sausage sensory acceptance after ripening. Enterococcus faecium showed 10.9 log CFU g-1 and remained viable after the ripening period with 8.32 log CFU g-1. Fermented sausage was monitored during the ripening period by physicochemical (pH control, water activity and weight loss and microbiological (analysis of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms and Salmonella spp. analyses. All tests complied with standards established by Brazilian legislation and did not interfere in final product quality. Results showed that E. faecium was resistant to curing salt and sodium chloride, maintaining its viability during ripening and conferring beneficial effects on fermented sausage technological characteristics. E. faecium also proved to be in vitro resistant to simulate passage through the human digestive tract. Fermented sausage containing E. faecium had better sensory acceptance than commercial sausage evaluated.

  1. REACTION PRODUCTS AND CORROSION OF MOLYBDENUM ELECTRODE IN GLASS MELT CONTAINING ANTIMONY OXIDES AND SODIUM SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIŘÍ MATĚJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The products on the interface of a molybdenum electrode and glass melt were investigated primarily at 1400°C in three model glass melts without ingredients, with 1 % Sb2O3 and with 1 % Sb2O3 and 0.5 % SO3 (wt. %, both under and without load by alternating current. Corrosion of the molybdenum electrode in glass melt without AC load is higher by one order of magnitude if antimony oxides are present. The corrosion continues to increase if sulfate is present in addition to antimony oxides. Isolated antimony droplets largely occur on the electrode-glass melt interface, and numerous droplets are also dissipated in the surrounding glass if only antimony oxides are present in the glass melt. A comparatively continuous layer of antimony occurs on the interface if SO3 is also present, antimony being always in contact with molybdenum sulfide. Almost no antimony droplets are dissipated in the glass melt. The total amount of precipitated antimony also increases. The presence of sulfide on the interface likely facilitates antimony precipitation. The reaction of molybdenum with antimony oxides is inhibited in sites covered by an antimony layer. The composition of sulfide layers formed at 1400°C approximates that of Mo2S3. At 1100°C, the sulfide composition approximates that of MoS4. Corrosion multiplies in the glass melt without additions through the effect of AC current, most molybdenum being separated in the form of metallic particles. Corrosion also increases in the glass melt containing antimony oxides. This is due to increased corrosion in the neighborhood of the separated antimony droplets. This mechanism also results in the loosening of molybdenum particles. The amount of precipitated antimony also increases through the effect of the AC current. AC exerts no appreciable effect on either corrosion, the character of the electrode-glass interface, or antimony precipitation in the glass melt containing SO3.

  2. Concentrations and congener profiles of chlorinated paraffins in domestic polymeric products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu; Gao, Wei; Liang, Yong; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2018-03-21

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are widely used in domestic polymeric products as plasticizers and fire retardants. In this study, concentrations and congener profiles of short-chain and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) were investigated in domestic polymeric products, including plastics, rubber and food packaging in China. The average concentrations of SCCPs in polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and food packaging were 234, 3968, 150 and 188 ng/g, respectively and the corresponding average concentrations of MCCPs in these samples were 37.4, 2537, 208 and 644 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of CPs in rubber and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were significantly higher than in other matrices. The highest concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs were found in a PVC cable sheath with 191 mg/g and 145 mg/g, respectively. Congener group profiles analysis indicated C 11 - and C 13 -congener groups were predominant in carbon homologues of SCCPs, and C 14 -congener groups were predominant in MCCPs. High levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in domestic polymeric products implied that they might be a significant source to the environment and human exposure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Xylitol-containing products for preventing dental caries in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Moore, Deborah; Ahmed, Farooq; Sharif, Mohammad O; Worthington, Helen V

    2015-03-26

    Dental caries is a highly prevalent chronic disease which affects the majority of people. It has been postulated that the consumption of xylitol could help to prevent caries. The evidence on the effects of xylitol products is not clear and therefore it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine its effectiveness and safety. To assess the effects of different xylitol-containing products for the prevention of dental caries in children and adults. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 14 August 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 7), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 14 August 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 14 August 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 14 August 2014), Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 14 August 2014), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 14 August 2014). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We attempted to contact study authors for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, we used means and standard deviations to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the continuous data to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, we reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs. As there were less than four studies included in the meta-analysis, we used a fixed-effect model. We planned

  4. Metabolic profiling of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in a germplasm collection of Brassica rapa turnips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopsch, Rebecca; Witzel, Katja; Börner, Andreas; Schreiner, Monika; Hanschen, Franziska S

    2017-10-01

    About 10% of the world's vegetable production is generated from Brassicaceae, wherein Brassica rapa is a dominating species. There is growing evidence that glucosinolates (GLSs), main plant secondary metabolites in Brassicales, play an important role in promoting human health. Natural genetic diversity of B. rapa can be explored for vegetable improvement. We analyzed leaves and tubers of 16 B. rapa turnips for their GLS composition by UHPLC-DAD and the corresponding hydrolysis products by GC-MS. Thirteen GLSs were identified, 8 aliphatic, 4 indolic and one aromatic. 3-Butenyl GLS was prevailing in both plant organs while in tubers 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GLS and 2-phenylethyl GLS occurred in high amounts. A total of 24 GLS breakdown products were detected in tubers and 16 in leaves. Epithionitriles were the main hydrolysis products in both plant organs with 4,5-epithiopentanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4,5-epithiopentanenitrile being the main compounds. When comparing leaves and tubers, an accumulation of GLSs and their breakdown products was observed in tubers compared to leaves. Our analysis achieved the comprehensive profiling of all GLS metabolites in a collection of B. rapa turnips, underlining the natural variation not only of intact GLS, but also of their breakdown products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of two commercially available bortezomib products: differences in assay of active agent and impurity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrn, Stephen R; Tishmack, Patrick A; Milton, Mark J; van de Velde, Helgi

    2011-06-01

    The analytical properties of two commercially available bortezomib products (VELCADE(®) and Bortenat) were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. The data showed differences between the two products. Based on these data, Bortenat samples contained more active ingredients than indicated by the label (mean, 116.5% and 117.9% of label, in 2-mg and 3.5-mg vials, respectively). In comparison, VELCADE samples contained a mean of 99.3% of active ingredient, which was consistent with the approved specification range (US, 90-110%; EU, 95-105%). Clinical data demonstrate that patients exposed to higher than recommended doses of bortezomib on the standard twice-weekly dosing schedule are likely to have an increased risk of major toxicities. Bortenat 2-mg vials contained an isovaleraldehyde impurity; the origin of this is unknown. Additionally, the ratio of boronic acid to boronic ester differed between Bortenat 2 mg (0.27:1) and 3.5 mg (0.13:1) and VELCADE (0.10:1) samples reconstituted in saline indicating that the Bortenat product is not equivalent to the VELCADE product.

  6. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...), Additional U.S. Note 6, which authorizes entry of raw cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols, except polyhydric alcohols for use as a substitute for sugar in...

  7. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an aphrodisiac. 310.528 Section 310.528 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean...

  8. Material use and production changes in the U.S. wood pallet and container industry: 1992 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Bush; P. A. Araman

    2009-01-01

    A series of five studies conducted by the Virginia Tech Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, in collaboration with the USDA - Forest Service (Blacksburg, Virginia), have tracked activity in the U.S. wood pallet and container industry between 1992 and 2006. The studies documented trends in wood use and pallet production with in the industry, both new...

  9. Disintegration Test of Health Food Products Containing Ginkgo Biloba L. or Vitex Agnus-Castus L. in the Japanese Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Satoshi; Terasaki, Sachiko; Yokota, Yoichi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    For many years now, a number of Western herbs have been widely used in health food products in Japan and as pharmaceuticals in Europe. There are few or no mandated criteria concerning the quality of these herbal health food products, thus clarification is warranted. Here, we performed disintegration tests of 26 pharmaceutical and health food products containing the Western herbs ginkgo leaf and chaste tree fruit, in accord with the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All eight pharmaceutical herbal products found in the European market completely disintegrated within the defined test time, and 11 of the 18 tested herbal products distributed as health foods in Japan disintegrated. Among the incompatible products identified in the Pharmacopoeia test, some products remained intact after incubation in water for 60 min. To ensure the efficacy of Western herbal products sold as health food in Japan, quality control, including disintegration, is therefore recommended, even though these products are not regulated under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. PMID:28930200

  10. Disintegration Test of Health Food Products Containing Ginkgo Biloba L. or Vitex Agnus-Castus L. in the Japanese Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Satoshi; Terasaki, Sachiko; Yokota, Yoichi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-04-23

    For many years now, a number of Western herbs have been widely used in health food products in Japan and as pharmaceuticals in Europe. There are few or no mandated criteria concerning the quality of these herbal health food products, thus clarification is warranted. Here, we performed disintegration tests of 26 pharmaceutical and health food products containing the Western herbs ginkgo leaf and chaste tree fruit, in accord with the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All eight pharmaceutical herbal products found in the European market completely disintegrated within the defined test time, and 11 of the 18 tested herbal products distributed as health foods in Japan disintegrated. Among the incompatible products identified in the Pharmacopoeia test, some products remained intact after incubation in water for 60 min. To ensure the efficacy of Western herbal products sold as health food in Japan, quality control, including disintegration, is therefore recommended, even though these products are not regulated under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.

  11. Stable hydrogen production from ethanol through steam reforming reaction over nickel-containing smectite-derived catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Arai, Masahiko

    2014-12-25

    Hydrogen production through steam reforming of ethanol was investigated with conventional supported nickel catalysts and a Ni-containing smectite-derived catalyst. The former is initially active, but significant catalyst deactivation occurs during the reaction due to carbon deposition. Side reactions of the decomposition of CO and CH4 are the main reason for the catalyst deactivation, and these reactions can relatively be suppressed by the use of the Ni-containing smectite. The Ni-containing smectite-derived catalyst contains, after H2 reduction, stable and active Ni nanocrystallites, and as a result, it shows a stable and high catalytic performance for the steam reforming of ethanol, producing H2.

  12. Profiling the Buzz Agent: Product Referral and the Study of Social Community and Brand Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Claro,Danny Pimentel; Bortoluzzo,Adriana Bruscato

    2015-01-01

    The buzz agent is any consumer perceived by others as a source of product referral. Previous literature in word of mouth (WOM) has looked into characteristics of individuals who successfully persuade others to choose a brand. While there have been studies in this field, the literature is still scattered and little has been done to profile the consumer playing the buzz-agent role. We aim to deepen our understanding about the consumer who must be recruited as a buzz agent by a firm ...

  13. Profiles of Information Consumption and Production of CIEMAT Researches within the Period 2005-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, C.

    2010-01-01

    Given the importance of scientific and technological evaluation in the current international scene, the goal is to show CIEMAT researchers' profiles on information consumption and production through different biblio metric indicators, mainly quantitative. Taking further steps based on this data, margins of coincidence on both patterns will be carefully checked not only from a group perspective but also on an individual scale, in the most widely used scientific journals. This analysis shall reveal the information needs of researchers for the future design of documentary strategies. (Author) 21 refs.

  14. High-resolution phenotypic profiling of natural products-induced effects on the single-cell level

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan Georg; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are highly evolved molecules making them a valuable resource for new therapeutics. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of broad-spectrum phenotypic profiling of NP-induced perturbations on single cells with imaging-based High

  15. Physico-Chemical Properties of Personal Care Products Containing Guava Scrub Granules as Exfoliating Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahariah Ismail; Mohd Fadlly Jumadi; Nurdiyana Mohamed Johari

    2015-01-01

    Treated guava scrub granules (GSG) as an exfoliating agent were obtained from the decanter waste at Sime Darby Food and Beverages, Sungai Wangi, Perak (SDFB). The treated GSG and tocotrienol were the main active ingredients incorporated in a basic formulation containing 87 % palm-based derivatives. Guava body scrub (GBS) and guava facial scrub (GFS) lotions were developed at skin pH 5.5 and pH 5.6 respectively. Both products were found to be stable for three years due to the liquid crystalline structure in the emulsion system , having small particle size (490 nm and 880 nm) and high zeta potential values (-54 mv and -39 mv). The rheological properties showed that the GBS lotion had a viscosity at 900 Pas and a yield value at 98 Pa, whereas the GFS lotion 60 Pas and 6 Pa viscosity and yield values respectively. The formulations were designed to be soft and flowable, with the firmness force indicated at 111 g and 66 g for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. Efficacy testing on 20 healthy subjects showed a significant decrease of 21 % and 22 % in skin sebum removal for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. (author)

  16. Chromium containing silica: effect of ultrasonic and purification methods on color products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, M.A.U.; Jafelicci Junior, M.; Davolos, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Chromium containing silica has numerous applications, such as: fiber-optics, luminescent materials, catalysts and pigments. In paint and ceramic pigments, chromate and dichromate ions, and silica are largely used. In this paper, it has been investigated the effect of pH, heating methods, and ultrasonic stirring on chromium oxidation states coprecipitated with silica. The material has been obtained from the coprecipitation of an aqueous diluted sodium silicate solution and acid chromium nitrate solution, purified by extractions and dialysis, and dried with microwave oven. Products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared vibrational spectroscopy and nitrogem adsorption isotherm (BET). Coprecipitates are non cristalline and the specific surface area value for sample obtained by conventional heating is smaller than the one for sample obtained by ultrasonic method. It is possible to obtain silica with different colors from blue due to the Cr(III), to yellow due to the Cr (VI), depending on the precipitation, purification and drying methods. (author) [pt

  17. 78 FR 16533 - Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ...Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on February 8, 2013, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Tela Innovations, Inc. of Los Gatos, California. A letter supplementing the complaint was filed on February 28, 2013. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and/or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 8,264,049 (``the '049 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 8,264,044 (``the '044 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 8,258,550 (``the '550 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 8,258,547 (``the '547 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 8,217,428 (``the '428 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 8,258,552 (``the '552 patent''); and U.S. Patent No. 8,030,689 (``the '689 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The complainant requests that the Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders.

  18. 77 FR 64826 - Certain Integrated Circuit Chips and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on September 19, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Realtek Semiconductor Corporation of Taiwan. A letter supplementing the Complaint was filed on October 5, 2012. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit chips and products containing the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 6,787,928 (``the `928 patent'') and U.S. Patent No. 6,963,226 (``the `226 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The complainant requests that the Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders.

  19. Numerical evaluation of integrals containing a spherical Bessel function by product integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, D.R.; Parke, W.C.; Maximon, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    A method is developed for numerical evaluation of integrals with k-integration range from 0 to infinity that contain a spherical Bessel function j/sub l/(kr) explicitly. The required quadrature weights are easily calculated and the rate of convergence is rapid: only a relatively small number of quadrature points is needed: for an accurate evaluation even when r is large. The quadrature rule is obtained by the method of product integration. With the abscissas chosen to be those of Clenshaw--Curtis and the Chebyshev polynomials as the interpolating polynomials, quadrature weights are obtained that depend on the spherical Bessel function. An inhomogenous recurrence relation is derived from which the weights can be calculated without accumulation of roundoff error. The procedure is summarized as an easily implementable algorithm. Questions of convergence are discussed and the rate of convergence demonstrated for several test integrals. Alternative procedures are given for generating the integration weights and an error analysis of the method is presented

  20. Production of Viscous Dextran-Containing Whey-Sucrose Broths by Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 14935

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Robert D.; Bodie, Elizabeth A.

    1984-01-01

    Viscous broths were produced by growing Leuconostoc mesenteroides on a medium containing whey supplemented with sucrose. When combined with similarly produced xanthan-containing broths, a synergistic increase in viscosity was observed.

  1. The effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on serum lipid profile in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 and fed as follows: standard diet (control, standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic, standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic, and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic. Rats were fed for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of rats fed with inulin in symbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

  2. Nutrient profiling for product reformulation: public health impact and benefits for the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Undine; Charles, Véronique Rheiner; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Masset, Gabriel; Spieldenner, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    The food industry holds great potential for driving consumers to adopt healthy food choices as (re)formulation of foods can improve the nutritional quality of these foods. Reformulation has been identified as a cost-effective intervention in addressing non-communicable diseases as it does not require significant alterations of consumer behaviour and dietary habits. Nutrient profiling (NP), the science of categorizing foods based on their nutrient composition, has emerged as an essential tool and is implemented through many different profiling systems to guide reformulation and other nutrition policies. NP systems should be adapted to their specific purposes as it is not possible to design one system that can equally address all policies and purposes, e.g. reformulation and labelling. The present paper discusses some of the key principles and specificities that underlie a NP system designed for reformulation with the example of the Nestlé nutritional profiling system. Furthermore, the impact of reformulation at the level of the food product, dietary intakes and public health are reviewed. Several studies showed that food and beverage reformulation, guided by a NP system, may be effective in improving population nutritional intakes and thereby its health status. In order to achieve its maximum potential and modify the food environment in a beneficial manner, reformulation should be implemented by the entire food sector. Multi-stakeholder partnerships including governments, food industry, retailers and consumer associations that will state concrete time-bound objectives accompanied by an independent monitoring system are the potential solution.

  3. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of oil and gas platforms over various production profiles and feed compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms present similar structural designs but process fluids with different thermo-physical and chemical properties. In addition, the field properties, such as the gas-to-oil and water-to-oil ratios, change significantly over time. It is therefore not possible to suggest a standard...... of energy and exergy. Feed compositions and production profiles, which correspond to data from actual fields, are used for calibrating the simulations. In a second step, the minimum energy and exergy losses of the platform are assessed by performing thermodynamic analyses, assuming an ideal scenario...... in which all processes are run at their design points. This approach proves to be useful for evaluating consistently different options for oil and gas production, and for determining, in a further step, the most promising solutions for minimising the energy use over a field lifetime....

  5. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  6. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k 0 -standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  7. Simulative Winding of Roll Formed Profile in Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Ormstrup, Casper Alexander; Hartz, Benjamin Arnold Krekeler

    2015-01-01

    numerous welds between coils of stainless steel, often duplex grades. The welds are a source of failure, since fracture from time to time occurs here in the winding stage. A simulative test in form of three-point-bending is developed, which shows promising results together with simplified air- and v......-bent profiles allowing offline testing of welds for optimisation purposes. Comparative studies are shown possible but discrepancies in boundary conditions cause the maximum strains in the simulative test to differ from those in production. A study of weld failure is done applying the simulative test and tensile...... tests using GOM ARAMIS 4M system for strain measurements. The results show strain localization at the weld from onset of yielding caused by the soft, heat affected zone next to the weld seam resulting in a local thinning of the strip similar to what is observed in production....

  8. Profile and scientific production of CNPq researchers in Nephrology and Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo A; Pécoits-Filho, Roberto; Quirino, Isabel G; Oliveira, Maria Christina; Martelli, Daniela Reis; Lima, Leonardo S; Martelli, Hercílio

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the profile and scientific production of researchers in Nephrology and Urology, receiving grants in the area of Clinical Medicine from the Brazilian National Research Council. The standardized online curriculum vitae (Curriculum Lattes) of 39 researchers in Medicine receiving grants in the 2006-2008 triennium were included in the analysis. The variables analyzed were: gender, affiliation, time from completion of the PhD program, scientific production, and supervision of undergraduate students, and master's and PhD programs. Males (74.4%) and category 2 grants (56.4%) predominated. The following three Brazilian states are responsible for 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (28; 71.8%); Rio Grande do Sul (4; 10.3%); and Minas Gerais (3; 7.7%). Four institutions are responsible for 70% of the researchers: UNIFESP (14; 36%); USP (8; 20.5%); UFMG (3, 7.7%); and UNICAMP (3; 7.7%). Considering the academic career, the assessed researchers published 3,195 articles in medical journals, with a median of 75 articles per researcher (QI = 52-100). The researchers received a total of 25,923 citations at the database Web of Science®, with a median of 452 citations per researcher (QI = 161-927). The average number of citations per article was 13.8 citations (SD = 11.6). The Southeastern region of Brazil concentrates researchers in Nephrology and Urology. Our study has shown an increase in the scientific production of most researchers in the last five years. By knowing the profile of researchers in Nephrology and Urology, more effective strategies to encourage the scientific production and the demand for resources to finance research projects can be defined.

  9. Microscale profiling of photosynthesis-related variables in a highly productive biofilm photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Piltz, Bastian; Podola, Björn; Dron, Anthony; de Beer, Dirk; Melkonian, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In the present study depth profiles of light, oxygen, pH and photosynthetic performance in an artificial biofilm of the green alga Halochlorella rubescens in a porous substrate photobioreactor (PSBR) were recorded with microsensors. Biofilms were exposed to different light intensities (50-1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ) and CO2 levels (0.04-5% v/v in air). The distribution of photosynthetically active radiation showed almost identical trends for different surface irradiances, namely: a relatively fast drop to a depth of about 250 µm, (to 5% of the incident), followed by a slower decrease. Light penetrated into the biofilm deeper than the Lambert-Beer Law predicted, which may be attributed to forward scattering of light, thus improving the overall light availability. Oxygen concentration profiles showed maxima at a depth between 50 and 150 μm, depending on the incident light intensity. A very fast gas exchange was observed at the biofilm surface. The highest oxygen concentration of 3.2 mM was measured with 1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and 5% supplementary CO2. Photosynthetic productivity increased with light intensity and/or CO2 concentration and was always highest at the biofilm surface; the stimulating effect of elevated CO2 concentration in the gas phase on photosynthesis was enhanced by higher light intensities. The dissolved inorganic carbon concentration profiles suggest that the availability of the dissolved free CO2 has the strongest impact on photosynthetic productivity. The results suggest that dark respiration could explain previously observed decrease in growth rate over cultivation time in this type of PSBR. Our results represent a basis for understanding the complex dynamics of environmental variables and metabolic processes in artificial phototrophic biofilms exposed to a gas phase and can be used to improve the design and operational parameters of PSBRs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Profile of Romanian Highly Educated Eco-Consumers Interested in Product Recycling A Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to create a profile of the Romanian eco-consumer with university education. The profile is not limited to the information regarding environmental and economic benefits of recycling, but focuses on ecological behaviour. A detailed statistical analysis was made based on a large representative sample of respondents with secondary and university education. Indeed, the tendency of practical ecobehaviour becomes more pronounced for the people with university education. For people that are more than 30 years old the chance of being aware of the significance of the recycling symbols on the packages decreases, the lowest chance being given to people aged more than 50. The respondents that are interested in environment protection buy products with ecological symbols. However, those people who already know the meaning of these symbols do not buy this type of products for ecological reasons, even if they are interested in the environment protection. This research also offers an extensive description of its results, being an opportunity for the respondents to know more about the meaning of the recycling symbols. The results of this research also provide information being a guideline for consumers. This study achieves two main goals: the ecological component (the eco-consumers were identified and ordinary consumers were attracted through the ecological behaviour and the economic aspect (the resources allocation will be more efficient and the marketers will be able to address ecoconsumers who have specific characteristics.

  11. Target validation: linking target and chemical properties to desired product profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Paul G; Gilbert, Ian H; Read, Kevin D; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of drugs is a lengthy, high-risk and expensive business taking at least 12 years and is estimated to cost upwards of US$800 million for each drug to be successfully approved for clinical use. Much of this cost is driven by the late phase clinical trials and therefore the ability to terminate early those projects destined to fail is paramount to prevent unwanted costs and wasted effort. Although neglected diseases drug discovery is driven more by unmet medical need rather than financial considerations, the need to minimise wasted money and resources is even more vital in this under-funded area. To ensure any drug discovery project is addressing the requirements of the patients and health care providers and delivering a benefit over existing therapies, the ideal attributes of a novel drug needs to be pre-defined by a set of criteria called a target product profile. Using a target product profile the drug discovery process, clinical study design, and compound characteristics can be defined all the way back through to the suitability or druggability of the intended biochemical target. Assessment and prioritisation of the most promising targets for entry into screening programmes is crucial for maximising chances of success.

  12. Validation of vertical profile from atmosphere using ATOVS products and its impact over Indian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahandru, Riddhi; Kumar, Adarsh; Mitra, Ashim kumar

    This research paper summarizes the validation of atmospheric vertical profile using NOAA(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/ MetOp satellite derived data over India with radiosonde observations over a span of 8 months. NOAA's International Advanced Television and Infrared Observations satellite Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) processing package (IAPP) obtains temperature and moisture profiles in different pressure levels ranging from 1000hpa to 10hpa from real time direct broadcast (DB) receiving system installed at India Meteorological department. Different pressure levels were substituted to the same pressure levels for calculations of standard deviation, bias and RMSE (root mean square error) The sounder derived products like Total precipitable water vapor (TPW) and Lifting index(LI) from NOAA Satellite was also validated with radiosonde data which provided significant results for weather forecasting. The validation shows that the sounder provides unique information about the state of atmosphere and monitoring the convective environment for severe weather forecasting In addition to this, case study on severe weather events was analyzed using ATOVS products.

  13. Size effects in winding roll formed profiles: A study of carcass production for flexible pipes in offshore industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    neutral plane. Other parameters such as profile entry angle on the mandrel and spiral pitch are likely to have significant importance. Proper dividing point position is shown to be obtainable by adjusting the profile in the roll forming stage. The profile rolling is successfully modeled by Finite Element......Carcass production of flexible offshore oil and gas pipes implies winding and interlocking of a roll formed stainless steel profile around a mandrel in a spiral shape. The location of the dividing point between the left and right half of the s-shaped profile in the finished carcass is very...... Analysis (FEA), whereas a simplified FE-model of the subsequent winding operation shows that full interlock modeling is required for proper prediction of profile deformation. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications....

  14. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart K. Morgan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP to pets (dogs and cats is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition.

  15. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S

    2004-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs{sup +} and/or Sr{sup 2+} sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  16. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs + and/or Sr 2+ sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  17. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M.; Eyles, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  18. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  19. Concordance of DNA methylation profiles between breast core biopsy and surgical excision specimens containing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youdinghuan; Marotti, Jonathan D; Jenson, Erik G; Onega, Tracy L; Johnson, Kevin C; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-08-01

    The utility and reliability of assessing molecular biomarkers for translational applications on pre-operative core biopsy specimens assume consistency of molecular profiles with larger surgical specimens. Whether DNA methylation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), measured in core biopsy and surgical specimens are similar, remains unclear. Here, we compared genome-scale DNA methylation measured in matched core biopsy and surgical specimens from DCIS, including specific DNA methylation biomarkers of subsequent invasive cancer. DNA was extracted from guided 2mm cores of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens, bisulfite-modified, and measured on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. DNA methylation profiles of core biopsies exhibited high concordance with matched surgical specimens. Within-subject variability in DNA methylation was significantly lower than between-subject variability (all Pcore biopsy and surgical specimens, 15%, and a pathway analysis of these CpGs indicated enrichment for genes related with wound healing. Our results indicate that DNA methylation measured in core biopsies are representative of the matched surgical specimens and suggest that DCIS biomarkers measured in core biopsies can inform clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumer profile and acceptability of cooked beef steaks with edible and active coating containing oregano and rosemary essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Kempinski, Emilia Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Sary, Cesar; Ramos, Tatiane Rogelio; Campo, María Del Mar; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do

    2018-09-01

    Fresh animal products are highly perishable and characterized by a short shelf-life. Edible coatings with natural antioxidants (essential oils: EOs) could improve stability, ensure quality, and increase the shelf-life of fresh products. Due to the strong flavor of EOs, their use should consider consumer preferences and sensory acceptability. This study evaluated the effects of edible coating (with oregano and rosemary essential oil) on beef in relation to consumer preferences, besides the determination of habits of consumption and buying intentions of consumers. Acceptability scores from three clusters of consumers was described. Coating with oregano was the preferred. The higher consumer acceptance and willingness to buy this product indicate a great potential and possibility of using coatings with essential oils in fresh animal products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks included ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), arugula (Eruca vesicaria L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus L.), shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris L.) and upland cress (Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.). Other selection criteria included saturated FA content, iodine value (IV), content of FAs containing twenty or more carbons and content of trienoic FAs. Anise oil satisfied all selection criteria and was therefore selected for further investigation. Arugula, cumin and upland cress oils were selected as antagonists to the selection criteria. Preparation of FA methyl esters (FAMEs, ≥ 92 wt % yield) following conventional alkaline-catalyzed methanolysis preceded fuel property determination. Of particular interest were oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Also measured were kinematic viscosity (40 °C), IV, acid value, free and total glycerol content, sulfur and phosphorous content, cetane number, energy content and lubricity. FAMEs prepared from anise oil yielded properties compliant with biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 whereas the antagonists failed at least one specification contained within the standards. As a result, FA profile was an efficient predictor of compliance with biodiesel standards and is therefore recommended as a screening tool for investigation of alternative feedstocks. -- Highlights: ► Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared from several alternative feedstocks. ► Fatty acid composition was a principal factor influencing fuel properties. ► Oxidative stability and cold flow properties of biodiesel were examined in detail. ► Limits were developed

  2. Profile of Brazilian scientific production on A/H1N1 pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana

    2012-06-01

    In the last few years, bibliometric studies have proliferated, seeking to provide data on world research. This study analyzes the profile of the Brazilian scientific production in the A (H1N1) influenza field between 2009 and 2011. The research was conducted in MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "H1N1" and "Brazil" were defined as the main topics. The data were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian state and institution in which the articles were produced, the impact factor of the journal and the language. The research revealed 40 documents (27 from MEDLINE, 16 from SciELO and 24 from LILACS). The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0977 to 8.1230. A similar amount of articles were written in English and Portuguese and São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, with 95% of the Brazilian production originating from the Southern and Southeastern regions. Linguistic data indicate that previous efforts made in order to improve the scientific production of Brazilian researchers making their observations attain a broader scientific audience produced results. It is necessary to assess the scientific studies, especially those conducted with public funds, in order to ensure that the results will benefit society.

  3. Chemometric approach to texture profile analysis of kombucha fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbaša, Radomir; Jevrić, Lidija; Lončar, Eva; Vitas, Jasmina; Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Sanja; Milanović, Spasenija; Kovačević, Strahinja

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, relationships between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with various teas were investigated by using chemometric analysis. The presented data which describe numerically the textural characteristics (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity) were analysed. The quadratic correlation was determined between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained at fermentation temperatures of 40 and 43 °C, using milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat and kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint, stinging nettle, wild thyme and winter savory. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to identify the similarities among the fermented products. The best mathematical models predicting the textural characteristics of investigated samples were developed. The results of this study indicate that textural characteristics of sample based on winter savory have a significant effect on textural characteristics of samples based on peppermint, stinging nettle and wild thyme, which can be very useful in the determination of products texture profile.

  4. Cellulase Production Potentials of the Microbial Profile of Some Sugarcane Bagasse Dumping Sites in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated cellulase production potentials of the microbial profile of three sugarcane bagasse dumping sites at Zango area, Ilorin, Nigeria. The microbial isolates were screened for cellulase production with a view to select the best organism for eventual cellulase production. Pour Plate method was used for the isolation and a total of thirteen (13 different organisms including both fungal and bacterial species were isolated and screened. Six (6 fungal isolates identified as Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Neurospora sitophilus, Penicillium oxalicum and Penicillium citrinum were isolated, while seven (7 different bacterial species isolated include Clostridium cellobioparum, Clostridium thermocellum,Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumillus, Lactobacillus spp, Pseudomonas flavescens and Serratia spp. Generally, bacterial isolates were more in abundance than fungal species. However; fungal isolates were constant and were isolated through the experimental period of three weeks. All the isolates showed cellulase production potential in varying degrees as reflected in the clearance zone around their colonies. Fungal isolates produced more cellulase than the bacterial isolates. Mucor racemosus had the highest clearance zone (75.0 mm among the fungal isolates while Clostridium cellobioparum (35.0 mm were the best producer among bacterial isolates. The least producer among fungal isolates, Penicillium citrinum (40.0 mm, is a little more than the bacterial cellulase producer (35.0 mm and is far greater than the least bacterium Serratia spp (14.0 mm.

  5. Determination of aromatic fragment content in phenol-containing fractions of solid fuel conversion products using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanitskaya, L.V.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    Optimum conditions are determined for obtaining quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance /sup 13/C spectra of fragments in phenol-containing fraction of coal products. Causes are analyzed of residual signals in spectra of un-protonized carbon atoms. The tests were carried out on: low-temperature carbonization tar and phenol fraction obtained during medium-temperature coking of Cherenkhovskii coal (which contains 84.13% C; 9.68% H; 1.23% S; 4.96% O); products of tar hydrogenation with various phenol content; standard phenol mixture. It was found that quantitative determination of aromatic fraction content in coal conversion products and other phenol- and amine-containing complex mixtures, using NMR spectroscopy requires the addition of dimethylsulfide or acetone in order to suppress specific interactions of phenols (amines) with relaxants and obtain quantitative subspectra of Tertiary and Quaternary aromatic carbon atoms. 16 references.

  6. Utilization of High-Fructose Corn Syrup for Biomass Production Containing High Levels of Docosahexaenoic Acid by a Newly Isolated Aurantiochytrium sp. YLH70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying-Liang; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an agro-source product and has been the most commonly used substitute for sugar as sweetener in food industry due to its low price and high solution property. In this study, the F55 HFCS, rich in fructose and glucose, was first tested for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions as a mixed carbon source by a newly isolated Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70. After the compositions of the HFCS media were optimized, the results showed that the HFCS with additions of metal ion and vitamin at low concentrations was suitable for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions and the metal ion and sea salt had the most significant effects on biomass production. During the 5-l fed-batch fermentation, total HFCS containing 180 g l(-1) reducing sugar was consumed and yields of biomass, lipid, and DHA could reach 78.5, 51, and 20.1 g l(-1), respectively, at 114 h. Meanwhile, the daily productivity and the reducing sugar conversion yield for docosahexaenoic acid were up to 4.23 g l(-1)day(-1) and 0.11 g g(-1). The fatty acid profile of Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 showed that 46.4% of total fatty acid was docosahexaenoic acid, suggesting that Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 was a promising DHA producer.

  7. Anthropogenic materials and products containing natural radionuclides. Pt. 2. Examination of radiation doses resulting from occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.H.

    1993-11-01

    The radiation doses are determined on the basis of dosimetric scanning of the materials and products and measurement of the ambient dose rates and inhaled doses at the place of work. For all places and conditions exmined, the average annual effective dose (ICRP) is of the order of 20mSv/annum. The substances and products examined are phosphate fertilizers. thoriated tungsten electrodes, or glass gas hoods, respectively, dental material containing uranium, and dental ceramics containing zirconium sands. The report also gives information on the occupational exposure in drinking-water conditioning plants. (Orig./DG) [de

  8. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional...... standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest...... of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron...

  9. Identification of domains of the v-crk oncogene product sufficient for association with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, M; Mayer, B J; Hanafusa, H

    1991-01-01

    The oncogene product of the avian sarcoma virus CT10, P47gag-crk, contains the SH2, SH2', and SH3 domains and binds proteins in a phosphotyrosine (ptyr)-dependent manner. In this study, we have determined the region of P47gag-crk essential for binding to ptyr-containing proteins. Mutant P47gag-crk proteins expressed in Escherichia coli that have the intact SH2 and SH2' regions retained the capacity to bind ptyr-containing proteins obtained from cells transformed by crk and src. The deletion o...

  10. Analytical product study of germanium-containing medicine by different ICP-MS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

    2004-01-01

    For several years organo-germanium containing medicine has been used for special treatments of e.g. cancer and AIDS. The active substances contain germanium as beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide ((GeCH2CH 2COO-H)2O3/"Ge-132"), spirogermanium, germanium-lactate-citrate or unspecified forms. For

  11. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infestation and container productivity measured using pupal and Stegomyia indices in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, F M; Espinosa, M O; Weinberg, D; Coto, H D; Gaspe, M S; Gürtler, R E

    2009-09-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with approximately 2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65-84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline.

  12. Pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a tile coating product containing alkylsiloxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, P.; Nørgaard, A. W.; Hansen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Coating products are widely used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. However, on several occasions the use of these products has been associated with lung toxicity. Objective. In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of an aerosolized tile-coating product. Methods...

  13. Particulate sulfur-containing lipids: Production and cycling from the epipelagic to the abyssopelagic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, Blaženka; Penezić, Abra; Frka, Sanja; Kazazić, Saša; Lampitt, Richard S.; Holguin, F. Omar; Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Schaub, Tanner

    2018-04-01

    There are major gaps in our understanding of the distribution and role of lipids in the open ocean especially with regard to sulfur-containing lipids (S-lipids). Here, we employ a powerful analytical approach based on high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) to elucidate depth-related S-lipid production and molecular transformations in suspended particulate matter from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean in this depth range. We show that within the open-ocean environment S-lipids contribute up to 4.2% of the particulate organic carbon, and that up to 95% of these compounds have elemental compositions that do not match those found in the Nature Lipidomics Gateway database (termed "novel"). Among the remaining 5% of lipids that match the database, we find that sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) are efficiently removed while sinking through the mesopelagic zone. The relative abundance of other assigned lipids (sulphoquinovosylmonoacylglycerol (SQMG), sulfite and sulfate lipids, Vitamin D2 and D3 derivatives, and sphingolipids) did not change substantially with depth. The novel S-lipids, represented by hundreds of distinct elemental compositions (160-300 molecules at any one depth), contribute increasingly to the lipid and particulate organic matter pools with increased depth. Depth-related transformations cause (i) incomplete degradation/transformation of unsaturated S-lipids which leads to the depth-related accumulation of the refractory saturated compounds with reduced molecular weight (average 455 Da) and (ii) formation of highly unsaturated S-lipids (average abyssopelagic molecular double bond equivalents, DBE=7.8) with lower molecular weight (average 567 Da) than surface S-lipids (average 592 Da). A depth-related increase in molecular oxygen content is observed for all novel S-lipids and indicates that oxidation has a significant role in their transformation while (bio)hydrogenation possibly impacts the formation of

  14. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of FDA-Approved Products of Oral Solutions Containing Dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-trans-

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-22

    This final rule adopts without changes an interim final rule with request for comments published in the Federal Register on March 23, 2017. On July 1, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new drug application for Syndros, a drug product consisting of dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] oral solution. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) maintains FDA-approved products of oral solutions containing dronabinol in schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.

  15. Formation of nitrogen-containing compounds during microwave pyrolysis of microalgae: Product distribution and reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Tahmasebi, Arash; Maliutina, Kristina; Yu, Jianglong

    2017-12-01

    The formation of nitrogen-containing compounds in bio-oil during microwave pyrolysis of Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae has been investigated in this study. Activated carbon (AC) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) were used as microwave receptors during microwave pyrolysis experiments. It has been found that the use of Fe 3 O 4 increased the total yield of bio-oil. The use of different microwave receptors did not seem to have affected the total yield of nitrogen-containing compounds in the bio-oil. However, Fe 3 O 4 promoted the formation of nitrogen-containing aliphatics, thereby reducing the formation of nitrogen-containing aromatics. The use of AC promoted the dehydration reactions during amino acid decomposition, thereby enhancing the formation of nitrogen-containing aromatics during pyrolysis. From the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis results, the major high-value nitrogen-containing compounds in the pyrolysis bio-oil of Chlorella and Spirulina were identified as indole and dodecamide. The formation mechanisms of nitrogen-containing compounds were proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiplexed Thiol Reactivity Profiling for Target Discovery of Electrophilic Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Caiping; Sun, Rui; Liu, Keke; Fu, Ling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Wanqi; Yang, Yong; Yang, Jing

    2017-11-16

    Electrophilic groups, such as Michael acceptors, expoxides, are common motifs in natural products (NPs). Electrophilic NPs can act through covalent modification of cysteinyl thiols on functional proteins, and exhibit potent cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory/cancer activities. Here we describe a new chemoproteomic strategy, termed multiplexed thiol reactivity profiling (MTRP), and its use in target discovery of electrophilic NPs. We demonstrate the utility of MTRP by identifying cellular targets of gambogic acid, an electrophilic NP that is currently under evaluation in clinical trials as anticancer agent. Moreover, MTRP enables simultaneous comparison of seven structurally diversified α,β-unsaturated γ-lactones, which provides insights into the relative proteomic reactivity and target preference of diverse structural scaffolds coupled to a common electrophilic motif and reveals various potential druggable targets with liganded cysteines. We anticipate that this new method for thiol reactivity profiling in a multiplexed manner will find broad application in redox biology and drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving the environmental profile of wood panels via co-production of ethanol and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Halog, Anthony; Shaler, Stephen

    2011-11-15

    The oriented strand board (OSB) biorefinery is an emerging technology that could improve the building, transportation, and chemical sectors' environmental profiles. By adding a hot water extraction stage to conventional OSB panel manufacturing, hemicellulose polysaccharides can be extracted from wood strands and converted to renewably sourced ethanol and acetic acid. Replacing fossil-based gasoline and acetic acid has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, among other possible impacts. At the same time, hemicellulose extraction could improve the environmental profile of OSB panels by reducing the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during manufacturing. In this study, the life cycle significance of such GHG, VOC, and other emission reductions was investigated. A process model was developed based on a mix of laboratory and industrial-level mass and energy flow data. Using these data a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built. Sensitive process parameters were identified and used to develop a target production scenario for the OSB biorefinery. The findings suggest that the OSB biorefinery's deployment could substantially improve human and ecosystem health via reduction of select VOCs compared to conventionally produced OSB, gasoline, and acetic acid. Technological advancements are needed, however, to achieve desirable GHG reductions.

  18. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrion, Anna S.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Target Product Profiles (TPPs) are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite’s transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis). Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available. PMID:28892472

  19. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Donadeu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Target Product Profiles (TPPs are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite's transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis. Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available.

  20. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina L. Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8% belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77% and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62% prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%, Minas Gerais (21%, and Rio Grande do Sul (15%. During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119. Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73 for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.

  1. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Christina L; Martelli, Daniella Reis B; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmão L; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; e Silva, Ana Cristina S; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.

  2. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadeu, Meritxell; Fahrion, Anna S; Olliaro, Piero L; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2017-09-01

    Target Product Profiles (TPPs) are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite's transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis). Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available.

  3. Environmental risk assessment for veterinary medicinal products. Part 1. Other than GMO-containing and immunological products. First update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts MHMM; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The EC has issued directives (1981, 1992) requesting for registration of veterinary medicinal product information to enable an assessment of the product's safety for the environment. As a whole, the risk assessment is structured around the hazard quotient approach used in USES (1994). Predicted

  4. Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Glinski, Jan A; Miller, Kenneth B; Apgar, Joan; Davey, Matthew H; Stuart, David A

    2008-09-24

    Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated with the amount of nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) in the cocoa-containing products. Among these products, trans-resveratrol levels were highest in cocoa powders (1.85 +/- 0.43 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (1.24 +/- 0.22), semisweet chocolate baking chips (0.52 +/- 0.14), dark chocolates (0.35 +/- 0.08), milk chocolates (0.10 +/- 0.05), and chocolate syrups (0.09 +/- 0.02). These cocoa-containing and chocolate products have about 3-5 times more trans-piceid than trans-resveratrol. Levels of trans-piceid were highest in the cocoa powders (7.14 +/- 0.80 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (4.04 +/- 0.14), semisweet chocolate baking chips (2.01 +/- 0.18), dark chocolates (1.82 +/- 0.36), milk chocolates (0.44 +/- 0.06), and chocolate syrups (0.35 +/- 0.06). On an equal weight basis, cocoa powder had about half as much trans-resveratrol as the average California red wine. On a per serving basis, cocoa-containing and chocolate products had less trans-resveratrol than red wine and grape juice but more than roasted peanuts. Overall, these cocoa-containing and chocolate products rank second after red wines and grape juice in foods with the highest levels of total trans-resveratrol in the diet.

  5. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  6. Nocturnal Polyuria: Excess of Nocturnal Urine Production, Excess of Definitions-Influence on Renal Function Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, Ruud; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective study in which participants completed a bladder diary, collected urine and provided a blood sample. With an age dependent nocturnal polyuria index greater than 20% to 33% as the referent 4 definitions of nocturnal polyuria were compared, including 1) nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33%, 2) nocturnal urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and 3) greater than 10 ml/kg, and 4) nocturia index greater than 1.5. In 112 male and female participants significant differences in baseline characteristics and bladder diary parameters were found according to definition. Diuresis rate, free water clearance and sodium clearance had similar 24-hour courses in the subgroups with and without polyuria by each definition. The range varied more in the subgroup with vs without polyuria, especially at night for diuresis rate and free water clearance. At night the latter decreased in the polyuria subgroup based on each definition (p polyuria subgroups was found only for urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and polyuria index greater than 20% to 33%. For each definition sodium clearance remained high in the polyuria subgroup, which differed significantly from the no polyuria subgroups (p polyuria by definition. The renal function profile indicating the pathophysiological mechanism of nocturnal polyuria did not seem to be influenced by definition but free water clearance and sodium clearance cutoff sensitivity differed substantially. These results must be confirmed in a larger homogeneous sample. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vending Machines of Food and Beverages and Nutritional Profile of their Products at Schools in Madrid, Spain, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Parada, Doris Xiomara; Ángeles Moya, María; José Bosqued, María; López, Lázaro; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel

    2016-06-09

    Policies restricting access to sugary drinks and unhealthy foods in the school environment are associated with healthier consumption patterns. In 2010, Spain approved a Consensus Document regarding Food at Schools with nutritional criteria to improve the nutritional profile of foods and drinks served at schools. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of food and drink vending machines at secondary schools in Madrid, the products offered at them and their nutritional profile. Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 330 secondary schools in Madrid in 2014-2015. The characteristics of the schools and the existence of vending machines were recorded through the internet and by telephone interview. The products offered in a representative sample of 6 vending machines were identified by in situ inspection, and its nutritional composition was taken from its labeling. Finally, the nutritional profile of each product was analyzed with the United Kingdom profile model, which classifies products as healthy and less healthy. The prevalence of vending machines was 17.3%. Among the products offered, 80.5% were less healthy food and drinks (high in energy, fat or sugar and poor in nutrients) and 10.5% were healthy products. Vending machines are common at secondary schools in Madrid. Most products are vending machines are still less healthy.

  8. 76 FR 5206 - In the Matter of Certain Game Devices, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-757] In the Matter of Certain Game Devices... importation of certain game devices, components thereof, and products containing the same by reason of... alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The...

  9. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling or in the ingredient statement is an implied drug claim. The claim implied by the use of this term... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. 310.530 Section 310.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  10. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any processed...

  11. Organic sulphur in macromolecular sedimentary organic matter. II. Analysis of distributions of sulphur-containing pyrolysis products using multivariate techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Pool, W.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Eijkel, G.; Boon, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the analysis of sulphur-containing products from Curie-point pyrolysis (Py) of eighty-five samples (kerogens, bitumen, and petroleum asphaltenes and coals) using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with sulphur-selective detection. Peak areas of approximately forty individual

  12. 21 CFR 101.76 - Health claims: fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... obesity, alcohol consumption, ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, exposure to cancer-causing chemicals, and..., overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption, ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, exposure to cancer causing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: fiber-containing grain products...

  13. 21 CFR 101.77 - Health claims: fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain fiber, particularly soluble...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., many studies have shown that diets high in plant foods are associated with reduced risk of coronary... increased consumption of fiber-rich foods to help lower blood LDL-cholesterol levels. Results of numerous studies have shown that fiber-containing fruits, vegetables, and grain products can help lower blood LDL...

  14. 77 FR 74726 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... tons according to data published by the Ministro de Agricultura de Chile. Based on this data, USTR... data published by the Ministro de Economia de El Salvador. Based on this data, USTR determines that El... and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic...

  15. 76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit...

  16. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit...

  17. 78 FR 66952 - Certain Point-to-Point Network Communication Devices and Products Containing the Same Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Communication Devices and Products Containing the Same Notice of Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of... Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications (USA) Inc. of Atlanta, Georgia (``Sony Ericsson''). On September 20... remove references to SCEA Inc. and Sony Ericsson. These respondents no longer exist as corporate entities...

  18. Continuous usage of a hair dye product containing 2-methoxymethyt-para-phenylenediamine by hair-dye-allergic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, M.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Bloemeke, B.; Goebel, C.

    Background Despite a positive patch test reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and/or toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD), many people attempt to continue dyeing their hair with products containing PPD or its derivatives. Objectives Investigation of elicitation reactions among PPD/PTD-allergic individuals

  19. 77 FR 73294 - Requirements for Child-Resistant Packaging: Products Containing Imidazolines Equivalent to 0.08...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... injury or illness than the PPPA standard; and (2) the state or political subdivision applies to the... for Child-Resistant Packaging: Products Containing Imidazolines Equivalent to 0.08 Milligrams or More... Commission (CPSC, Commission, or we) is issuing a rule to require child-resistant (CR) packaging for any over...

  20. Corrosion of aluminum and zinc in containment following a LOCA and potential for precipitation of corrosion products in the sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyogi, K.K.; Lunt, R.R.; Mackenzie, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a LWR containment, certain materials in the containment come in contact with alkaline emergency cooling and containment spray solutions and may corrode yielding hydrogen gas. The problems associated with the production of hydrogen gas and the control of combustible gas concentration have been extensively explored in recent years. However, the phenomenon of corrosion and its consequences in the long term cooling of the reactor and the containment have drawn very little attention. United Engineers and Constructors Inc. has made an extensive effort to study through literature survey the solubility of the corrosion products from aluminum and zinc in order to assess the potential for precipitation in the containment sump. The analysis presented in this article is based on parameters for a typical large dry reactor containment with caustic/boric acid buffered spray solution. Parameters used in this study may vary from one plant to another. However, they are not expected to affect the overall conclusions

  1. Comparative study of hops-containing products on human cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian C; Arnason, John T; Saleem, Ammar; Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Mao, Jingqin; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2011-05-11

    The potential for 15 different ales (6), ciders (2 apple and 1 pear), and porters (6) and 2 non-alcoholic products to affect cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of rhodamine was examined. As in our previous study, a wide range of recovered nonvolatile suspended solids dry weights were noted. Aliquots were also found to have varying effects on biotransformation and efflux. Distinct differences in product ability to affect the safety and efficacy of therapeutic products confirmed our initial findings that some porters (stouts) have a potential to affect the safety and efficacy of health products metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isozymes. Most products, except 2 of the ciders and the 2 non-alcoholic products, also have the potential to affect the safety of CYP2C9 metabolized medications and supplements. Further studies are required to determine the clinical significance of these findings.

  2. Anaerobic acidification of sugar-containing wastewater for biotechnological production of organic acids and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2018-05-03

    Anaerobic acidification of sugars can produce some useful end-products such as alcohol, volatile fatty acids (e.g. acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and lactic acid. The production of end-products is highly dependent on factors including pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time and the types of sugar being fermented. Results of this current study indicate that the pH and hydraulic retention time played significant roles in determining the end products from the anaerobic acidification of maltose and glucose. Under uncontrolled pH, the anaerobic acidification of maltose ceased when pH in the reactor dropped below 5 while anaerobic acidification of glucose continued and produced ethanol as the main end-product. Under controlled pH, lactic acid was found to be the dominant end-product produced from both maltose and glucose at pH 5. Acetate was the main end-product from both maltose and glucose fermented at neutral pH (6 and 7). Short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days could induce the production of ethanol from the anaerobic acidification of glucose. However, the anaerobic acidification of maltose could stop when short HRT of 2 days was applied in the reactor. This finding is significant for industrial fermentation and waste management systems, and selective production of different types of organic acids could be achieved by managing pH and HRT in the reactor.

  3. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  4. Influence of excipients on characteristics and release profiles of poly(ε-caprolactone) microspheres containing immunoglobulin G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemli, Özge [Department of Engineering Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Keskin, Dilek [Department of Engineering Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center of Excellence, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Tezcaner, Ayşen, E-mail: tezcaner@metu.edu.tr [Department of Engineering Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center of Excellence, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-03-01

    Protein instability during microencapsulation has been one of the major drawbacks of protein delivery systems. In this study, the effects of various excipients (poly vinyl alcohol, glucose, starch, heparin) on the stability of encapsulated human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microspheres and on microsphere characteristics were investigated before and after γ-sterilization. Microspheres formulated without any excipients and with glucose had a mean particle size around 3–4 μm whereas the mean particle sizes of other microspheres were around 5–6 μm. Use of PVA significantly increased the IgG-loading and encapsulation efficiency of microspheres. After γ-irradiation, IgG stability was mostly maintained in the microspheres with excipients compared to microspheres without any excipients. According to the μBCA results, microspheres without any excipient showed a high initial burst release as well as a fast release profile among all groups. Presence of PVA decreased the loss in the activity of IgG released before (completely retained after 6 h and 15.69% loss after 7 days) and after γ-irradiation (26.04% loss and 52.39% loss after 6 h and 7 days, respectively). The stabilization effect of PVA on the retention of the activity of released IgG was found more efficient compared to other groups formulated with carbohydrates. - Highlights: • Good excipient provides retention of protein stability during microencapsulation. • PVA was more effective on retention of the IgG stability compared to carbohydrates. • Starch was not an appropriate excipient for the retention of IgG stability.

  5. Clinical profile, outcomes and improvement in symptoms and productivity in rhinitic patients in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwani Ubaid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhinitis can cause a heavy toll on patients because of its bothersome effects on productivity. This retrospective study was conducted to explore the clinical profile, outcomes and improvement in the symptoms and productivity resulting from treatment of allergic rhinitis in Pakistan. Methods We carried out a retrospective file review of all allergic rhinitis patients who presented to the Ear, Nose, Throat Consulting Clinic from January, 2006 to June, 2008 using a structured proforma especially designed for this purpose. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. Results The charts of 169 patients were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 35.2 ± 9.1 years. Sixty percent patients were male. Ninety eight patients (58% reported allergy symptoms to be present at both home and work. One hundred and two patients (60.4% had symptoms severe enough to cause absence from work or academic activities. Up to seventy one percent patients were spending between 1000 - 3000 Pakistani Rupees (1 US$= 83.3 Pakistani rupees on the treatment of allergic rhinitis per year. One hundred and fifty one patients (89.3% reported an improvement in rhinitic symptoms and productivity while 18 patients (10.7% didn't. This improvement was significantly associated with satisfaction with treatment (p Conclusion Allergic rhinitis, a ubiquitous disease, was seen to cause a strain on patients in the form of recurrent treatment-related expenses as well as absenteeism from work or other daily activities. Symptoms and productivity improved significantly after treatment.

  6. Does the scientific evidence support the advertising claims made for products containing Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Illanes, Lorena; González-Díaz, Cristina; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the scientific evidence that exists for the advertising claims made for two products containing Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis and to conduct a comparison between the published literature and what is presented in the corporate website. Systematic review, using Medline through Pubmed and Embase. We included human clinical trials that exclusively measured the effect of Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium lactis on a healthy population, and where the objective was related to the health claims made for certain products in advertising. We assessed the levels of evidence and the strength of the recommendation according to the classification criteria established by the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM). We also assessed the outcomes of the studies published on the website that did not appear in the search. Of the 440 articles identified, 16 met the inclusion criteria. Only four (25%) of these presented a level of evidence of 1b and a recommendation grade of A, all corresponding to studies on product containing Bifidobacterium lactis, and only 12 of the 16 studies were published on the corporate website (47). There is insufficient scientific evidence to support the health claims made for these products, especially in the case of product containing Lactobacillus casei. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Development of simple and rapid radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Park, Se Young; Yoon, Seok Won; Ha, Wi Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Kook; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is necessary to analyze radioactivity of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products to ensure radiological safety required by Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The pretreatments for the existing analysis methods require high technology and time. Such destructive pretreatments including grinding and dissolution of samples make impossible to reuse products. We developed a rapid and simple procedure of radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing NORM. The developed method requires non-destructive or minimized pretreatment. Radioactivity of the product without pretreatment is initially measured using gamma spectroscopy and then the measured radioactivity is adjusted by considering material composition, mass density, and geometrical shape of the product. The radioactivity adjustment can be made using scaling factors, which is derived by radiation transport Monte Carlo simulation. Necklace, bracelet, male health care product, and tile for health mat were selected as representative products for this study. The products are commonly used by the public and directly contacted with human body and thus resulting in high radiation exposure to the user. The scaling factors were derived using MCNPX code and the values ranged from 0.31 to 0.47. If radioactivity of the products is measured without pretreatment, the thorium series may be overestimated by up to 2.8 times. If scaling factors are applied, the difference in radioactivity estimates are reduced to 3-24%. The developed procedure in this study can be used for other products with various materials and shapes and thus ensuring radiological safety.

  8. 77 FR 26787 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2895] Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain CMOS image sensors and...

  9. [Vitamin A excess by feeding with horse meat products containing high levels of liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N; Kienzle, E

    2013-01-01

    Horse meat is often used in the context of an elimination diet. For reasons of practicability some pet owners feed canned horse meat, which is commercially available. Based on a report of a cat with food allergy that displayed cervical spondylosis, the vitamin A content was analyzed in various horse meat products. The vitamin A (retinol) content was analyzed in 14 commercially available horse meat products. The content of metabolizable energy was calculated on the basis of the declaration by using estimation equations. High amounts of vitamin A were found in some products for which liver, offal or animal by-products were labelled as contents. When feeding exclusively with one of these products, the vitamin A supply was just below the safe upper limit for cats while above the safe upper limit for dogs. Labelling and content of all-meat-products should be thoroughly checked to identify products with high liver percentages. An excessive vitamin A intake can occur when feeding with horse-meat products with a high liver content over a long period.

  10. Determination of biogenic amine profiles in conventional and organic cocoa-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Puoci, Francesco; Picci, Nevio

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa contains many compounds such as biogenic amines (BAs), known to influence consumer health. Spermidine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found in several cocoa-based products using HPLC with UV detection after derivatisation with dansyl-chloride. Once optimised in terms of linearity, percentage recovery, LOD, LOQ and repeatability, this method was applied to real samples. Total concentrations of BAs ranged from 5.7 to 79.0 µg g(-)(1) with wide variations depending on the type of sample. BAs present in all samples were in decreasing order: histamine (1.9-38.1 µg g(-)(1)) and tyramine (1.7-31.7 µg g(-)(1)), while putrescine (0.9-32.7 µg g(-)(1)), spermidine (1.0-9.7 µg g(-)(1)) and spermidine (0.6-9.3 µg g(-)(1)) were present in most of the samples. Cadaverine, serotonine and β-phenylethylamine were present in a few samples at much lower concentrations. Organic samples always contained much lower levels of BAs than their conventional counterparts and, generally speaking, the highest amounts of BAs were found in the most processed products.

  11. Analysis of design and operational effects of filtered containment venting on depressurization and fission product release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon; Seol, Wook-Cheol; Kim, Jisu [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Effects of design and operational parameters of filtered containment venting system during a specified containment depressurization and relative aero sol release amount are analyzed. The analyses is performed by using the MAAP4 code for the APR1400 reactor. Major results uniquely identified from the analyses can be noted as following: Even though containment depressurization is accelerated as the pipe size increases, the venting system solution is also depleted earlier. Elapsed times to reach lower end pressure of 2 bar are nearly identical regardless of the vent initiation pressure and thus early venting is not much beneficial than late venting. Stroke time of the isolation valves has no effect on the depressurization performance and thus slow opening is beneficial for load reduction from the vent effluent.

  12. Risk assessment of plant food supplements and other herbal products containing aristolochic acids using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Rozaini; Diaz, Leolean Nyle; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-02-01

    After the incidences of induction of aristolochic acid nephropathy after consumption of herbal weight loss preparations that accidentally contained aristolochic acids (AAs), several countries defined national restrictions on the presence of AAs in food, including plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal products. This study investigates whether the risks associated with exposure to AAs via PFS and herbal products are at present indeed negligible. Data reported in literature on AA levels in PFS and other herbal products and also obtained from a new series of PFS in the present study were used to calculate the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and corresponding margins of exposure (MOEs). Available literature data revealed that 206 out of 573 samples were found to contain aristolochic acid I (AAI) and/or aristolochic acid II (AAII). The results obtained from recently collected PFS revealed that both AAI and AAII were detected in three out of 18 analysed PFS at levels up to 594.8 and 235.3 µg g -1 , respectively, being in line with the levels reported in literature. The EDIs resulting from intake of these PFS resulted in MOEs that were generally below 10,000, corroborating the priority for risk management. Although these results refer to PFS collected by targeted sampling strategies, the data reveal that AA-containing PFS are still freely available. When considering that the use of these samples may be limited to shorter periods of time, the EDIs might be lower, but MOE values would still be lower than 10,000 for more than 50% of the AA-containing PFS and herbal products. In conclusion, the presence of AAs in PFS and herbal products even several years after instalment of the legal restrictions still raises concern, especially for people who frequently use the respective PFS and herbal products.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of a montelukast sodium orally disintegrating tablet with a similar dissolution profile as the marketed product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Feng, Tingting; Li, Yong; Du, Bin; Weng, Weiyu

    2017-03-01

    A major challenge of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) development is predicting its bioequivalence to its corresponding marketed product. Therefore, comparing ODT dissolution profiles to those of the corresponding marketed product is very important. The objective of this study was to develop a 5.2-mg montelukast sodium (MS) ODT with a similar dissolution profile to that of the marketed chewable tablet. Dissolution profiles were examined in different media to screen each formulation. We found that MS dissolution from ODTs in acidic medium heavily depended on manufacturing methods. All MS ODTs prepared using direct compression rapidly disintegrated in acidic medium. However, dispersed MS powders aggregated into sticky masses, resulting in slow dissolution. In contrast, MS ODTs prepared using wet granulation had much faster dissolution rates in acidic medium with no obvious aggregation. Additionally, the optimized formulation, prepared using wet granulation, displayed similar dissolution profiles to the marketed reference in all four types of media examined (f 2  >   50). The in vitro disintegration time of the optimized ODT was 9.5 ± 2.4 s, which meets FDA requirements. In conclusion, the wet granulation preparation method of MS ODTs resulted in a product with equivalent dissolution profiles as those of the marketed product.

  14. CREST-SAFE: Snow LST validation, wetness profiler creation, and depth/SWE product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Diaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Munoz Barreto, J.; Yu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    CREST-SAFE: Snow LST validation, wetness profiler creation, and depth/SWE product development The Field Snow Research Station (also referred to as Snow Analysis and Field Experiment, SAFE) is operated by the NOAA Center for Earth System Sciences and Remote Sensing Technologies (CREST) in the City University of New York (CUNY). The field station is located within the premises of the Caribou Municipal Airport (46°52'59'' N, 68°01'07'' W) and in close proximity to the National Weather Service (NWS) Regional Forecast Office. The station was established in 2010 to support studies in snow physics and snow remote sensing. The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST product (provided by the Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites) were validated using in situ LST (T-skin) and near-surface air temperature (T-air) observations recorded at CREST-SAFE for the winters of 2013 and 2014. Results indicate that T-air correlates better than T-skin with VIIRS LST data and that the accuracy of nighttime LST retrievals is considerably better than that of daytime. Several trends in the MODIS LST data were observed, including the underestimation of daytime values and night-time values. Results indicate that, although all the data sets showed high correlation with ground measurements, day values yielded slightly higher accuracy ( 1°C). Additionally, we created a liquid water content (LWC)-profiling instrument using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) at CREST-SAFE and tested it during the snow melt period (February-April) immediately after installation in 2014. Results displayed high agreement when compared to LWC estimates obtained using empirical formulas developed in previous studies, and minor improvement over wet snow LWC estimates. Lastly, to improve on global snow cover mapping, a snow product capable of estimating snow depth and snow water

  15. Three dimensional reconstruction of activity profiles in 220 liters radioactive waste packages containing super-compacted 100 liters drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Maes, J.

    2007-01-01

    The 3DRedact project's main objective is the development of a non-destructive assay (NDA) system that can replace emission computer tomography (ECT) and transmission computer tomography (TCT) for the routine characterization of decayed radioactive waste 220 liters drums. The existing fast NDA scan system has been extended with a transmission system that fulfils the requirements of fast scan measurements. The design parameters and engineering are described. As a consequence of this extension the analyze program HOLIS had to be updated, so that HOLIS can make full advantage of the transmission data generated by the analysis of a 220 liters waste drum, containing different super compacted drums. The achievements of the new HOLIS version are presented. As a first assessment, based on the presented tests results, the accuracy of the calculated coordinates of hotspots can be assessed for all coordinates ± 1 cm and for the activity of the hot-spot ± 5 %. These accuracies are within the predefined requirements e.g. coordinates uncertainty ± 2 cm and activity less than 10 %. Further, additional safety systems have been installed to improve a healthy and save working environment. (authors)

  16. Identification and Expression Profiling of the BTB Domain-Containing Protein Gene Family in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The BTB domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif. In this study, we identified 56 BTB domain-containing protein genes in the silkworm, in addition to 46 in the honey bee, 55 in the red flour beetle, and 53 in the monarch butterfly. Silkworm BTB protein genes were classified into nine subfamilies according to their domain architecture, and most of them could be mapped on the different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that silkworm BTB protein genes may have undergone a duplication event in three subfamilies: BTB-BACK-Kelch, BTB-BACK-PHR, and BTB-FLYWCH. Comparative analysis demonstrated that the orthologs of each of 13 BTB protein genes present a rigorous orthologous relationship in the silkworm and other surveyed insects, indicating conserved functions of these genes during insect evolution. Furthermore, several silkworm BTB protein genes exhibited sex-specific expression in larval tissues or at different stages during metamorphosis. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of insect BTB protein gene families but also provide a basis for further investigation of the functions of BTB protein genes in the silkworm.

  17. Different culture media containing methyldopa for melanin production by Cryptococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralciane de Paula Menezes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Melanin production by species of Cryptococcus is widely used to characterize C. neoformans complex in mycology laboratories. This study aims to test the efficacy of methyldopa from pharmaceutical tablet as a substrate for melanin production, to compare the production of melanin using different agar base added with methyldopa, and to compare the melanin produced in those media with that produced in Niger seed agar and sunflower seed agar by C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus. Two isolates of each species, C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus, and one of Candida albicans were used to experimentally detect conditions for melanin production. METHODS: The following media were tested: Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA, brain and heart infusion agar (BHIA, blood agar base (BAB, and minimal medium agar (MMA, all added with methyldopa, and the media Niger seed agar (NSA and sunflower seed agar (SSA. RESULTS: All isolates grew in most of the culture media after 24h. Strains planted on media BAB and BHIA showed growth only after 48h. All isolates produced melanin in MMA, MHA, SSA, and NSA media. CONCLUSIONS: Methyldopa in the form pharmaceutical tablet can be used as a substrate for melanin production by Cryptococcus species; minimal medium plus methyldopa was more efficient than the BAB, MHA, and BHIA in the melanin production; and NSA and SSA, followed by MMA added with methyldopa, were more efficient than other media studied for melanin production by all strains studied.

  18. Risk assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in botanical containing products present on the Chinese market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ning, Jia; Cui, Xin Yue; Kong, Xiang Nan; Tang, Yi Fei; Wulandari, Riana; Chen, Lu; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market

  19. Method for forming nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction and the product thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B.-C.; Rosenbaum, H.S.; Armijo, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of producing a composite nuclear fuel container is described which comprises a casing or fuel sheath of zirconium or its alloy with a lining cladding of deposited copper superimposed over the inside surface of the zirconium or alloy and a layer of oxide of the zirconium or alloy formed on the inside surface of the casing or sheath. (U.K.)

  20. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... formula that is required under FIFRA section 3. (c) What information must I develop? For each pesticide... its confidential statement of formula that is required under FIFRA section 3. (ii) If the refilling..., metal fatigue, damaged threads or closures, or other significant defects. (iii) The container has cracks...

  1. Concept for a cyclonic spray scrubber as a fission product removal system for filtered containment venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, Luke S., E-mail: Luke.Lebel@cnl.ca; Piro, Markus H., E-mail: Markus.Piro@cnl.ca; MacCoy, Reilly, E-mail: Reilly.MacCoy@cnl.ca; Clouthier, Anthony, E-mail: Tony.Clouthier@cnl.ca; Chin, Yu-Shan, E-mail: Sammy.Chin@cnl.ca

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new cyclonic spray scrubber concept for filtered containment venting is presented. • Mechanistic particle removal model paired with discrete particle CFD simulations. • Calculations predict that very high decontamination factors can be achieved. - Abstract: The application of a cyclonic spray scrubber as a technology for filtered containment venting is proposed in this paper. This study has paired a mechanistic model for the kinetic particle coagulation of with Euler–Lagrange discrete particle simulations in order to predict particle decontamination factors. The continuous phase behavior has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics simulations together with phase Doppler anemometry measurements. Calculations show that spray scrubbing of radionuclide-bearing aerosols could be very effective, and predict that decontamination factors can be in excess of 10{sup 6} for micron sized particles and excess of 10{sup 3} for submicron particles. In the wake of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, filtered containment venting is being viewed as an increasingly important severe accident mitigation technology. Cyclonic spray scrubbing could be implemented as a passive technology for decontaminating containment gases in an emergency prior to their discharge to the atmosphere, and is a novel approach for this application.

  2. Non-traditional Process of Hydrogen Containing Fuel Mixtures Production for Internal-combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Kuvshinov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the perspectives of development of the environmentally sound technology of hydrogen containing fuel mixtures for internal-combustion engines based on the catalytic process of low-temperature decomposition of hydrocarbons into hydrogen and nanofibrous carbon.

  3. Concept for a cyclonic spray scrubber as a fission product removal system for filtered containment venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, Luke S.; Piro, Markus H.; MacCoy, Reilly; Clouthier, Anthony; Chin, Yu-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new cyclonic spray scrubber concept for filtered containment venting is presented. • Mechanistic particle removal model paired with discrete particle CFD simulations. • Calculations predict that very high decontamination factors can be achieved. - Abstract: The application of a cyclonic spray scrubber as a technology for filtered containment venting is proposed in this paper. This study has paired a mechanistic model for the kinetic particle coagulation of with Euler–Lagrange discrete particle simulations in order to predict particle decontamination factors. The continuous phase behavior has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics simulations together with phase Doppler anemometry measurements. Calculations show that spray scrubbing of radionuclide-bearing aerosols could be very effective, and predict that decontamination factors can be in excess of 10 6 for micron sized particles and excess of 10 3 for submicron particles. In the wake of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, filtered containment venting is being viewed as an increasingly important severe accident mitigation technology. Cyclonic spray scrubbing could be implemented as a passive technology for decontaminating containment gases in an emergency prior to their discharge to the atmosphere, and is a novel approach for this application.

  4. Production of urethane group containing coatings by curing with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoor, H.; Demmler, K.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the manufacture of coatings by applying ionizing radiation to a composition which contains olefinically unsaturated polymeric materials having urethane groups and which has been applied to a substrate. The polymeric materials may be used in combination with olefinically unsaturated monomeric compounds and conventional additives. (U.S.)

  5. Vitellogenin Production by Fishmeal-Containing Diets in Male Tilapia (Oreochromis Mossambicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a number of fish species, male plasma has been shown to contain substantial levels of l7~estradiol (E z) and in certain cases, vitellogenin (Vg), an Ez-induced precursor of egg yolk protein that is specific to females. The presence ofEz and Vg in males raises questions about ...

  6. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  7. 78 FR 47749 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... cease and desist order prohibiting AED from selling or distributing infringing articles in the United... and welfare; (2) competitive conditions in the U.S. economy; (3) U.S. production of articles that are...

  8. 76 FR 68785 - Certain Communications Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... complaint names as respondents Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, CA; Cisco Consumer Products LLC of Irvine, CA; Cisco Systems International B.V. of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Cisco-Linksys LLC of Irvine, CA...

  9. APPLICATION OF PROBIOTIC PRODUCT CONTAINING LACTOBACILLUS CASEI IMUNITASS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Usenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article includes an overview of clinical research that study the efficiency of including into children's ration sour milk proc biotic product actimel (Danone, France, created on the basis of milk fermented with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, and enriched with culture of Lactobacillus casei DNC 114001 (commercial name L. casei imunitass.Key words: probiotic product, children, Lactobacillus casei DN 114001.

  10. Leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya given Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine leucocyte and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya giving Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials used were female 16 heads of guinea pig with body weight of 425g. The treatments were an extract of A. cordifolia leaf at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Blood was taken at 10 days prepartum and 10 days postpartum. Total birth of the offspring was observed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if there was effect of treatment, then continued with Duncan multiple range test and Chi-Square test for fetal production between the given A. cordifolia leaf extract and control. The result showed that there was no significant difference for 10 days prepartum after addition of A cordifolia leaf extract treatment. The postpartum treated showed a total 50 mg/head level increaed for monocytes than that of level 0, 10 and 90 mg/head. Ten days postpartum treatment showed the total increase for leucocyte and monocytes total were 50 and 90 mg/head, respectively compared to 10 mg/head level. Total lymphocyte of 90 mg/head increased compared to level 10 and 50 mg/head. The highest total neutrophil as found at level of 50 mg/head which increased compared to the level of 0 and 10 mg/head. ProvisioningA. cordifolialeaf extract at doses level of 50 and 90 mg/head could increase litter size (P<0.05; χ2=9.267 and decreased offspring mortality (P<0.05; χ2=6.4. In conclusion, by giving 50 mg/head A. cordifolia leaf extract could increase leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig.

  11. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Red mud a byproduct of aluminum production contains soluble vanadium that causes genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mišík, Miroslav [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Ian T. [Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Reismüller, Matthias; Pichler, Clemens; Rainer, Bernhard [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Mišíková, Katarina [Department of Botany, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mayes, William M. [Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences, University of Hull, Scarborough YO11 3AZ (United Kingdom); Knasmueller, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Red mud (RM) is a byproduct of aluminum production; worldwide between 70 and 120 million tons is produced annually. We analyzed RM which was released in the course of the Kolontar disaster in Hungary into the environment in acute and genotoxicity experiments with plants which are widely used for environmental monitoring. We detected induction of micronuclei which reflect chromosomal damage in tetrads of Tradescantia and in root cells of Allium as well as retardation of root growth with contaminated soils and leachates. Chemical analyses showed that RM contains metals, in particular high concentrations of vanadium. Follow-up experiments indicated that vanadate causes the effects in the plants. This compound causes also in humans DNA damage and positive results were obtained in carcinogenicity studies. Since it was found also in RM from other production sites our findings indicate that its release in the environment is a global problem which should be studied in more detail. Capsule abstract: Our findings indicate that the red mud causes genotoxic effect in plants probably due to the presence of vanadate which is contained at high concentrations in the residue. - Highlights: • Red mud, a by-product of aluminum production, causes DNA-damage in higher plants. • We showed that this effect is caused by vanadate a known carcinogenic genotoxin. • Vanadate is contained in high concentrations in the residue. • Release of red mud may cause adverse effects in ecosystems and affect human health.

  13. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA

    2009-01-27

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  14. Behavior of radioactive products in the containment. Behavior of iodine in accidental situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.; Fermandjian, J.

    1984-12-01

    The aim of studies on iodine is to demonstrate that in the case of failure in the containment occuring after more than one day, the total quantity of iodine released would be lower or equal to 1% of the inventory of the core at the moment of the begining of the accident. The first part describes the behavior of iodine in the containment of a PWR, in the case of an important accident. The second part deals with a synthesis of the knowledge about iodine. The third part presents the inventory of the main problems not resolved concerning the chemistry of iodine and the radiolysis of iodine. Finally, the program of studies on iodine is briefly presented; its aim is to develop the knowledge about iodine in accidental situations [fr

  15. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  16. Survivability of boar sperm stored under room temperature in extenders containing some natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Machebe,; Ugwu,Simeon; Akandi,Alafuro

    2015-01-01

    Alafuro Akandi,1 Simeon Ogochukwu Ugwu,1 Ndubuisi Samuel Machebe,1,2 1Department of Animal Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; 2Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, College of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Background: Semen extenders are used to create multiple insemination doses from a single ejaculate and contain buffers and nutrients suitable for storage of spermatozoa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survivability of boar sperm stored under room temp...

  17. CONDITIONING MICROBIAL PRODUCTS CONTAINING LACTIC BACTERIA WITH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SUPPORTS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T VINTILĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability in real time of three strains of lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium mixed with different excipients was evaluated during a 6-months period. The excipients studied were: zeolite, calcium carbonate, perlite ceramic, wheat bran and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. A part of liquid cultures and excipients mixtures were dried (12- 14% humidity and other part were sealed in plastic bags with over 70% humidity and preserved at +4oC. The cells were activated periodically by suspending aliquots from wet and dry products in 0.9% saline solution. The viability of lactic bacteria was evaluated by cultivation of diluted suspensions in MRS plates. The number of viable lactic cells is decreasing very slowly, or remains constant in calcium carbonate, ceramics and CMC dry products for al strains. In the case of zeolite, the viability of Lb. acidophilus and Lb. plantarum decrease to 0 in the first month, and the viability of Ec. faecium decrease 20 times in 6 months. As for wet products, the number of viable cells is increasing in the first 30 days for calcium carbonate and in the first 60 days for wheat bran. The numbers of viable cells decrease in both wet products, reaching values close to the viability in fresh products after 6 months of storage at +4oC.

  18. Sensory analysis and aroma compounds of buckwheat containing products-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starowicz, Małgorzata; Koutsidis, Georgios; Zieliński, Henryk

    2017-07-07

    Buckwheat is a rich source of starch, proteins, minerals and antioxidants, and as such has become a popular functional ingredient incorporated in diverse recipes/products with particular use in the gluten free market. Due to the absence of gluten, application of buckwheat or buckwheat derived ingredients in this particular food sector has increased significantly over recent years with many buckwheat-based products appearing globally. Sensory analysis is an integral part of the development of products that fulfill consumer expectations. Therefore, investigations on the incorporation of health promoting functional ingredients such as buckwheat into traditional recipes are often complemented by the evaluation of appearance, aroma, taste and texture as well as overall quality through standardized procedures involving trained judges or consumer panels. Aroma is of particular importance in driving consumer preference and its sensory assessment is often complemented with analytical workflows aiming to isolate and determine the concentration of volatile compounds in food and understand the effect of food components on the overall aroma intensity and/or perception of the final product. The present manuscript provides a review of recent advances and knowledge on the sensory characteristics, consumer preference and volatile compound analysis of buckwheat and buckwheat based products.

  19. Fission product aerosol removal test by containment spray under accident management conditions (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Hideo; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the effective FP aerosol removal by containment spray under Japanese AM conditions, two system integral tests and two separate effect tests were carried out using a full-height simulation test facility. In case of PWR LOCA, aerosol concentration in the upper containment vessel decreased even under low spray flow rate. In case of BWR LOCA with water injection into RPV, the aerosol concentration in the entire vessel also decreased rapidly after aerosol supply stopping. In both cases, the removal rate estimated from the NUREG-1465 was coincided with test results. The aerosol washing effect by spray was confirmed to be predominant by conducting suppression chamber isolation test. It turned out that the effect of aerosol solubility and density on aerosol removal by spray was quite small by conducting insoluble aerosol injection test. After the modification of aerosol removal model by the spray and hygroscopic aerosol model in original MELCOR 1.8.4, calculated aerosol concentration transient in the containment vessel agreed well with the test data. (author)

  20. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant. - Highlights: • Irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of ready-to-eat cured turkey. • 4.5 kGy irradiation increased protein oxidation. • Irradiated samples were isolated due to Strecker/radiolytic degradation products. • 1.5 kGy irradiation had limited effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages. • Dimethyl disulfide can be used as a potential marker for irradiated meat products.

  1. Fission product vapour - aerosol interactions in the containment: simulant fuel studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Bowsher, B.R.

    1988-12-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the Falcon facility to study the interaction of fission product vapours released from simulant fuel samples with control rod aerosols. The aerosols generated from both the control rod and fuel sample were chemically distinct and had different deposition characteristics. Extensive interaction was observed between the fission product vapours and the control rod aerosol. The two dominant mechanisms were condensation of the vapours onto the aerosol, and chemical reactions between the two components; sorption phenomena were believed to be only of secondary importance. The interaction of fission product vapours and reactor materials aerosols could have a major impact on the transport characteristics of the radioactive emission from a degrading core. (author)

  2. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  3. Release of corrosion products from construction materials containing cobalt. Pt.2: Inconel X750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, I.

    1978-02-01

    This report describes experimental work aimed at determining the release rate for corrosion products from 18Cr8Ni steel and Inconel X750 in BWR environments. For test purposes these environments were simulated in a high pressure loop, where irradiated samples of the materials were exposed for 720 hours. The amounts of released products were determined using gamma spectrometric analysis. The results show that the release from Inconel X750 is higher than that from 18Cr8Ni steel. The release calculated from Co58 measurements is 7 times higher and from Co60 measurements it is 1.5 times higher. Both the filtered and the deposited fractions of the released corrosion products exhibit the same relative concentrations of Co58 and Co60. (author)

  4. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  5. How Social Care Beneficiaries in Poland Rate Relative Harmfulness of Various Tobacco and Nicotine-Containing Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarz, Marek; Polańska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2017-09-07

    The aim of the study was to examine how social care beneficiaries rate the relative harmfulness of tobacco/nicotine-containing products compared to traditional cigarettes. This information is crucial for the development of effective tobacco control strategies targeting disadvantaged populations. The cross-sectional study covered 1817 respondents who were taking advantage of social aid services offered by the local social care institutions in the Piotrkowski district, via face-to-face interviews. The linear regression analysis indicated that relative to women, men consider slim cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes to be more harmful than traditional cigarettes ( p traditional cigarettes reported menthol cigarettes to be less harmful than traditional cigarettes, relative to the non-smokers ( p = 0.05). The current results demonstrate that social care beneficiaries are not aware of the fact that some products are less harmful than others. Education concerning tobacco/nicotine products should include advice on how to reduce the adverse health effects of smoking (e.g., avoiding inhalation of combusted products), while driving the awareness that no nicotine-containing products are safe.

  6. Nitroso Diels-Alder (NDA) Reaction as an Efficient Tool for the Functionalization of Diene-Containing Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, Serena; Miller, Marvin J.

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the use of nitroso Diels-Alder reactions for the functionalization of complex diene-containing natural products in order to generate libraries of compounds with potential biological activity. The application of this methodology to the structural modification of a series of natural products (thebaine, steroidal dienes, rapamycin, leucomycin, colchicine, isocolchicine and piperine) is discussed using relevant examples from the literature from 1973 onwards. The biological activity of the resulting compounds is also discussed. Additional comments are provided that evaluate the methodology as a useful tool in organic, bioorganic and medicinal chemistry. PMID:25119424

  7. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources; Strahlenschutz bei Konsumguetern mit Tritium-Gaslichtquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  8. Determination of N-containing halogenated natural products using gas chromatography in combination of a nitrogen-phosphorus-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, J.; Vetter, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie

    2004-09-15

    In the last few years several nonpolar halogenated natural products (HNPs) such as Q1, MHC-1, BC-2, BC-3, BC-10 were detected at elevated concentrations in marine biota samples. In addition, there are still some abundant peaks of halogenated compounds frequently found in the gas chromatograms of many marine samples which have not yet been identified. Some of the known halogenated natural products (Q1, HDBPs including BC-10, bromoindoles) contain N-heterocyclic backbones. Since nitrogen is scarcely found in anthropogenic halogenated compounds, the detection of N-containing halogenated substances may be used as a first indicator for the presence of HNPs in a sample extract. In the presented method we studied the suitability of a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD) for quantification of Q1 and the detection of Ncontaining compounds in marine biota. Analyses were accompanied with GC/ECD analyses.

  9. The Production, Dissemination, and Assimilation of Information Contained in Journal Articles in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    This study focuses on the production, dissemination, and assimilation of material published in the major journals on geography. The "core" journals selected for the study were: "Economic Geography,""Geographical Review,""Annals of AAG" and "Professional Geographer." The tangential journal included…

  10. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years

  11. 78 FR 41298 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Procedures and Requirements for Exclusions From Lead Limits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... on materials previously submitted in connection with a petition for exclusion under this section. In... 16 CFR 1500.90 to provide procedures and requirements for evaluating products or materials for... and comment rulemaking, section 553 of the APA provides an exception when the agency, for good cause...

  12. 77 FR 58578 - Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Electronics, LLC, 2220 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, CA 90404 Monster Cable Products, Inc., 455 Valley Dr... Electronics, Inc., 14881 Evergreen Ave., Clearwater, FL 33762 TELEX Communications, Inc., 12000 Portland Ave... Technology, Inc., 5835 Shugart Lane, Traverse City, MI 49684 Nexteer Automotive Corp., 3900 East Holland Rd...

  13. Stabilized and Immobilized Bacillus subtilis Arginase for the Biobased Production of Nitrogen-Containing Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könst, P.M.; Turras, P.M.C.C.D.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    L-Ornithine could serve as an intermediate in the biobased production of 1,4-diaminobutane from L-arginine. Using the concept of biorefinery, L-arginine could become widely available from biomass waste streams via the nitrogen storage polypeptide cyanophycin. Selective hydrolysis of L-arginine to

  14. Limited bacterial diversity within a treatment plant receiving antibiotic containing waste from bulk drug production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marathe, Nachiket P.; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Larsson, D.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted

  15. 75 FR 73126 - Certain Video Displays, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...) Complainant named Funai Electric Company, Ltd. of Osaka, Japan, Funai Corporation, Inc. of Rutherford, New... types of entry either are adversely affecting it or are likely to do so. For background, see In the... public health and welfare, (2) competitive conditions in the U.S. economy, (3) U.S. production of...

  16. 76 FR 44855 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...'s experience in reviewing labels of meat and poultry products with added solution, the Agency has... or prior to consumption. Therefore, to ensure that labels adequately inform consumers that raw... of identity and that are sold for retail sale, institutional use, or further processing. If retail...

  17. 77 FR 53234 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... respondents, including Avaya of Basking Ridge, New Jersey; Cisco Consumer Products LLC of Irvine, California, Cisco Systems International B.V. of the Netherlands, Cisco-Linksys LLC of Irvine, California (collectively, ``Cisco''); Hewlett-Packard Co. (``HP'') of Palo Alto, California; and Extreme Networks, Inc...

  18. 76 FR 76436 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a...: Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, CA 95134. Cisco Consumer Products LLC, 120 Theory... CH, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Cisco-Linksys LLC, 121 Theory Drive, Irvine, CA 92617. Hewlett-Packard Co...

  19. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  20. High-resolution phenotypic profiling of natural products-induced effects on the single-cell level

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2017-03-15

    Natural products (NPs) are highly evolved molecules making them a valuable resource for new therapeutics. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of broad-spectrum phenotypic profiling of NP-induced perturbations on single cells with imaging-based High-Content Screening to inform on physiology, mechanisms-of-actions, and multi-level toxicity. Our technology platform aims at broad applicability using a comprehensive marker panel with standardized settings streamlined towards an easy implementation in laboratories dedicated to natural products research.

  1. Process for the production of starch and alcohol from substances containing starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N B; McFate, H A; Eubanks, E M

    1969-01-01

    Almost complete extraction of starch from wheat, rice, maize, etc., is achieved more economically then by conventional processes. Starch-containing cereal is soaked, the magma is broken and the seed removed. The magma is then drained and separated into a liquid filtrate consisting of starch, gluten and fine fibers, and a solid residue made up of coarse fibers, husks and grit. The liquid filtrate is sieved to remove the fine fibers, and then centrifuged to obtain pure, gluten-free starch. The solid residue is treated with a mineral acid in a converter to give sugar, thus forming a material which is fermented and distilled to give alcohol.

  2. Influence of the leaching mode on the durability of a glass for fission product containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, J.L.; Terki, A.

    1984-06-01

    The chemical durability of a glass containing wastes from light water reactor (LWR) has been studied with three different lixiviation modes: ''static'' leach test, ''soxhlet'' test and ''continuous flow'' test. After a description of these tests, the leaching mode influence on the glass durability is reported as obtained from weight loss measurements, analyses of the leaching solutions and surface analyses of the samples. Finally, the corrosion mechanisms of this type of glass are approached and a phenomenological explanation of attack from an aqueous solution is proposed [fr

  3. [Gender and health: profile and trends of the scientific production in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Estela M L

    2006-08-01

    The differences in health between men and women have been object of great interest, but interpretations tend to be naturalized and essentialists. Gender-oriented studies have criticized this literature and offered new analythical alternatives. The present study was intended to describe the profile and trends of scientific production on gender and health in Brazil. Data sources comprised the Research Groups Directory of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (National Research Council), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) Thesis Bank, and four journals available in SciELO--Scientific Eletronic Library Online. Fifty-one groups with at least one line of research in the subject were identified, with regional and institutional concentrations. The results confirmed the marked growth of scientific production in this field as 98 master and 42 doctoral dissertations and 665 articles on gender and health were retrieved. Women authored 86.0% and 89.0% of doctoral and master dissertations respectively, and 70.5% of the articles. Most were published in the 2000s when diversification of the studied topics was also seen. The studied subjects can be divided into five subgroups: reproduction and contraception; gender and violence; sexuality and health with emphasis on STD/AIDS; work and health, including domestic and night work; other emergent or less explored topics. There are major political, epistemological and methodological challenges for strengthening these advancements. The gender perspective offers possibilities for enlightment of theoretical dilemmas in public health. Furthermore, it can be added to other intellectual and political efforts towards understanding health and its determinants and fighting against inequalities and for social justice.

  4. Between the Profiles Pay Per View and the Protection of Personal Data: the Product is You

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karin CHÁVEZ VALDIVIA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps in the past was difficult to imagine that the moment in which someone could register each purchase that has been made, each book that has been read or each thing that has been said would come. That there would be companies storing data about our physical activity, behaviors, preferences and choices all the time. Most of the personal data comes from acts as daily as installing an application, completing a form, purchasing a product or requesting a service. This information provided sometimes consciously, voluntarily and with relative knowledge of the destination that will have, contrasts with situations in which data are inferred, deduced, extracted and manipulated.  In this sense, within a context in which the only access to the database has been left behind to give way to the creation of these by third parties, we wonder about the possible denaturation of the personal data and sensitive information that when get transformed in raw material through the analysis of existent connections and extraction of new data implicit in the multitude of information compiled in public or private databases, would convert  people into an essential product for the market; while the development of citizen profiles pay per view would allow predicting behaviors, selections and multiple deployments in different aspects of our lives. It is probable that in the defenselessness condition where we are now for having passed from personal space to social one and from there to the market many times without our knowledge and consent makes necessary to reconsider the current forms of protection and mechanisms of  legal protection around our personal data.

  5. Fission product release profiles from spherical HTR fuel elements at accident temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, W.; Pitzer, D.; Nabielek, H.

    1986-10-01

    A total of 22 fuel elements with modern TRISO particles has been tested in the temperature range 1500-2500 0 C. Additionally, release profiles of iodine and other isotopes have been obtained with seven UO 2 samples at 1400-1800 0 C. For heating times up to 100 hours at the maximum temperature, the following results are pertinent to HTR accident conditions: Ag 110 m is the only fission products to be released at 1200-1600 0 C by diffusion through intact SiC, but it is of low significance in accident assessments; cesium, iodine, strontium, and noble gas releases up to 1600 0 C are solely due to various forms of contamination; at 1700-1800 0 C, corrosion induced SiC defects cause the release of Cs, Sr, I/Xe/Kr; above 2000 0 C, thermal decomposition of the silicon carbide layer sets in while pyrocarbons still remain intact. Around 1600 0 C, the accident specific contribution of cesium, strontium, iodine, and noble gases is negligible. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Production, energy, and carbon emissions: A data profile of the iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, S.J.; Burns, E.M.; Adler, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The complexities of the manufacturing sector unquestionably make energy-use analysis more difficult here than in other energy-using sectors. Therefore, this paper examines only one energy-intensive industry within the manufacturing sector--blast furnaces and steel mills (SIC 3312). SIC 3312, referred to as the iron and steel industry in this paper, is profiled with an examination of the products produced, how they are produced, and energy used. Energy trends from 1985 to 1994 are presented for three major areas of analysis. The first major area includes trends in energy consumption and expenditures. The next major area includes a discussion of energy intensity--first as to its definition, and then its measurement. Energy intensities presented include the use of different (1) measures of total energy, (2) energy sources, (3) end-use energy measures, (4) energy expenditures, and (5) demand indicators-economic and physical values are used. The final area of discussion is carbon emissions. Carbon emissions arise both from energy use and from certain industrial processes involved in the making of iron and steel. This paper focuses on energy use, which is the more important of the two. Trends are examined over time

  7. Brazilian university patents: profile of inventors and production per knowledge area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Stefani Cativelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2016v21n47p67 The study characterizes the inventions of patents of Brazilian universities concerning authorship and subject area to identify the institutions’ possible departments and areas that concentrate efforts on or are more easily able to produce and achieve the patent grants in Brazil. For the data collection of the universities, we used the E-mec platform; the database of the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI for the collection of information concerning patents; and the International Patent Classification (IPC to determine the covered knowledge areas. Thus, we analyzed the production of patents by Brazilian region; the universities with patents granted; the number of inventors per patent; the profile of the main inventors; and the patents granted according to the IPC. The results indicate that the characteristics of the patents granted to Brazilian Public Universities belong predominantly to the areas of Chemistry and Metallurgy. They are developed by professors with graduation in Chemistry or Mechanical Engineering and most of them belong to the State University of Campinas.

  8. Arsenate impact on the metabolite profile, production and arsenic loading of xylem sap in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle eUroic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analysed including a metabolite profiling under arsenate stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure has a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up regulated, one compound down regulated by arsenate exposure. The compound down regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, arsenate has a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96 % sap production when plants are exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 arsenate. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high arsenate exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  9. Relationships between Milk Progesterone Profiles and Genetic Merit for Milk Production, Milking Frequency, and Feeding Regimen in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles were determined from samples obtained twice weekly for 100 d postpartum in 100 Holstein primiparous cows at a Dutch experimental farm. Three treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with high-low genetic merit for overall production, high-low caloric

  10. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187

  11. On the organization of commercial production of profiled polyethylene sheets used for water proofing under NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, V.D.; Korenev, K.I.; Chukvaidze, K.I.; Dzhurinskij, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The problem on the organization of commercial production of profiled polyethylene sheets with special longitudinal ribs which are anchorized in concrete is considered. The use of new water proofing material applied under NPP construction allows one to enhance the commercialization of water proofing works which ensured cost reduction of these works

  12. Inter-laboratory variation in in vitro gas production profiles of some selected feeds, using both manual and automated methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymer, C.; Williams, B.A.; Brooks, A.E.; Davies, D.R.; Givens, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate variation among laboratories and between manual and automated techniques of measuring pressure on the resulting gas production profiles (GPP). Eight feeds (molassed sugarbeet feed, grass silage, maize silage, soyabean hulls, maize gluten feed, whole crop wheat

  13. Oral Health of Patients Treated with Acrylic Partial Dentures Using a Toothpaste Containing Bee Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Wiatrak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis and tee tree oil-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Thirty-seven patients who underwent oral rehabilitation with a removable acrylic denture were selected and randomly assigned into two groups: study group (A which received a newly formulated propolis and tee tree oil-containing toothpaste or a control group (C without an active ingredient. API, S-OHI, and mSBI were assessed in three subsequent stages. During each examination swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation: in the study group after 4 weeks use of the active toothpaste showed a decrease in the number of isolated microorganisms. In the control group, after 4 weeks use of the toothpaste without active ingredients resulted in increase in the number of the isolated microorganisms. Improvements in hygiene and the condition of periodontium were observed in patients using active toothpastes. In the study group the oral flora diversity was reduced by the decrease in the number of cultured microorganism species, while in the control group an increase in the number of cultured microorganisms and their species was observed.

  14. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belardi, G.; Piga, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO 3 on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO 3 prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO 3 is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions

  15. Moessbauer spectroscopic study of corrosion products beneath primer coating containing anticorrosive pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.V.R.; Nigam, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    The phase analysis of the rusts generated beneath the primer containing micaceous iron oxide (MIO) and micaceous iron oxide in combination with red lead (RL), zinc phosphate (ZP), basic lead silicochromate (BLSC) and zinc chromate (ZC) has been carried out by Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. The rust beneath the coating obtained after immersion of the painted panel for six months in 3% NaCl, consists mainly of non-stoichiometric magnetite together with small fractions of γ-, α-FeOOH except in the case of panel painted with RL containing MIO showed only a central doublet indicating the formation of γ-FeOOH and SPM α-FeOOH. Non-stoichiometry of magnetite as calculated from the ratio of B/A sites of the peaks of magnetite in the spectrum has been found depending on the nature of anticorrosive pigment present in the primer coating. The order of non-stoichiometry has been found to be in order of ZC > BLSC > ZP > MIO. (author)

  16. Production of an experimental bonding agent containing doxycyicline as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, and its release rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In spite of the advances achieved in the field of dentin adhesives, the longevity of bond to dentin is still a challenge. According to recent studies, Matrix Metaloproteinase (MMP inhibitors can increase clinical longevity of bonding and decrease leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and pattern of doxycycline release from an experimental dentin adhesive containing this MMP inhibitor. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, specimens containing 0.25 and 0.5 loading percent of doxycycline in an experimental monomer were prepared in cylindrical moulds of 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness. The adhesive monomer was composed of 12 wt% Bis-GMA, 10 wt% TMPTMA, 28 wt% HEMA and 50 wt% ethanol. Camphorquinone and amine were used as initiators. Results: Addition of 0.25 and 0.5 w% doxycycline showed linear release in both groups. Increasing the loading percent of doxycycline caused more release. The release continued during the test period. Conclusion: Doxycycline release was observed from the experimental adhesive. Further studies in this field will help in preparing adhesive systems with more clinical longevity.

  17. Valorisation of different types of boron-containing wastes for the production of lightweight aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavas, T.; Christogerou, A.; Pontikes, Y.; Angelopoulos, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    Four boron-containing wastes (BW), named as Sieve (SBW), Dewatering (DBW), Thickener (TBW) and Mixture (MBW) waste, from Kirka Boron plant in west Turkey were investigated for the formation of artificial lightweight aggregates (LWA). The characterisation involved chemical, mineralogical and thermal analyses as well as testing of their bloating behaviour by means of heating microscopy. It was found that SBW and DBW present bloating behaviour whereas TBW and MBW do not. Following the above results two mixtures M1 and M2 were prepared with (in wt.%): 20 clay mixture, 40 SBW, 40 DBW and 20 clay mixture, 35 SBW, 35 DBW, 10 quartz sand, respectively. Two different firing modes were applied: (a) from room temperature till 760 deg. C and (b) abrupt heating at 760 deg. C. The obtained bulk density for M1 and M2 pellets is 1.2 g/cm 3 and 0.9 g/cm 3 , respectively. The analysis of microstructure with electron microscopy revealed a glassy phase matrix and an extended formation of both interconnected and isolated, closed pores. The results indicate that SBW and DBW boron-containing wastes combined with a clay mixture and quartz sand can be valorised for the manufacturing of lightweight aggregates.

  18. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belardi, G. [Environmental Geology and GeoEngineering Institute (CNR), Area della ricerca RM1, via Salaria km 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO{sub 3} on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO{sub 3} prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO{sub 3} is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions.

  19. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  20. French practice for assessing the fission product releases from the containment during a PWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; Dufresne, J.; L'homme, A.

    1988-10-01

    French safety philosophy as concerns severe PWR accidents has already been outlined by the Director of CEA/IPSN in an article published in ''Nuclear Safety''. Therefore the present paper will focus on: a) the French reference source terms, as used for elaborating ultimate emergency procedures on PWRs and for emergency planning; b) the methods currently developed for more realistic assessments of the release of fission products during a severe accident

  1. Comparative study of hop-containing products on human cytochrome p450-mediated metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian C; Kearns, Nikia; Arnason, John T; Saleem, Ammar; Ogrodowczyk, Carolina; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2009-06-10

    Thirty-five national and international brands of beer were examined for their potential to affect human cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism. They represented the two main categories of beer, ales and lagers, and included a number of specialty products including bitter (porter, stout), coffee, ice, wheat, Pilsner, and hemp seed. Aliquots were examined for nonvolatile soluble solids, effect on CYP metabolism and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transport, and major alpha- and beta-hop acids. Wide variance was detected in contents of alcohol, nonvolatile suspended solids, and hop acids and in the potential to affect CYP-mediated metabolism and Pgp-mediated efflux transport. Many of the products affected CYP2C9-mediated metabolism, and only two (NRP 306 and 307) markedly affected CYP3A4; hence, some products have the capacity to affect drug safety. CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP19 (aromatase) inhibition to the log concentration of beta-acid content was significant with r(2) > 0.37, suggesting that these components can account for some of the variation in inhibition of CYP metabolism.

  2. Commercial processed soy-based food product contains glycated and glycoxidated lunasin proteoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Gallart-Palau, Xavier; See-Toh, Rachel Su-En; Hemu, Xinya; Tam, James P; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2016-05-18

    Nutraceuticals have been proposed to exert positive effects on human health and confer protection against many chronic diseases. A major bioactive component of soy-based foods is lunasin peptide, which has potential to exert a major impact on the health of human consumers worldwide, but the biochemical features of dietary lunasin still remain poorly characterized. In this study, lunasin was purified from a soy-based food product via strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and then subjected to top-down mass spectrometry analysis that revealed in detail the molecular diversity of lunasin in processed soybean foods. We detected multiple glycated proteoforms together with potentially toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from lunasin. In both cases, modification sites were Lys24 and Lys29 located at the helical region that shows structural homology with a conserved region of chromatin-binding proteins. The identified post-translational modifications may have an important repercussion on lunasin epigenetic regulatory capacity. Taking together, our results demonstrate the importance of proper chemical characterization of commercial processed food products to assess their impact on consumer's health and risk of chronic diseases.

  3. Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate in cattle fed on diet containing protected protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate using 14 C-choline as marker were studied on 9 adult male crossbred (Tharparker x Brown Swiss) rumen fistulated animals divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). All the animals were fed concentrate mixture and wheatstraw. However, groundnut cake (GNC) in concentrate mixture was untreated in group A, 50 per cent formaldehyde treated in group B and 100 per cent formaldehyde treated in group C. Although, DM intake was similar in these groups but water intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group. Total-N, ammonia-N and blood urea were significantly lower in group B and C as compared to group A. Apparent CP digestibility was not affected by addition of formaldehyde treated GNC at 50 and 100 per cent levels. However, N balances increased significantly (P<0.05) due to addition of protected protein in diet. Protozoal pool as well as production rate were significantly (P<0.01) decreased due to formaldehyde treatment of GNC protein. Thus addition of formaldehyde treated GNC in diets decreased ammonia and protozoa production but increased N retention in groups B and C. (author). 27 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Hybrid combinations containing natural products and antimicrobial drugs that interfere with bacterial and fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchino, Susana A; Butassi, Estefanía; Cordisco, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A

    2017-12-15

    Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many chronic and difficult-to eradicate infections whose treatment is complicated due to the intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. The combination therapy comprising an antimicrobial drug with a low molecular weight (MW) natural product and an antimicrobial drug (antifungal or antibacterial) appeared as a good alternative to eradicate biofilms. The aims of this review were to perform a literature search on the different natural products that have showed the ability of potentiating the antibiofilm capacity of antimicrobial drugs, to analyze which are the antimicrobial drugs most used in combination, and to have a look on the microbial species most used to prepare biofilms. Seventeen papers, nine on combinations against antifungal biofilms and eight against antibacterial biofilms were collected. Within the text, the following topics have been developed: breaf history of the discovery of biofilms; stages in the development of a biofilm; the most used methodologies to assess antibiofilm-activity; the natural products with capacity of eradicating biofilms when acting alone; the combinations of low MW natural products with antibiotics or antifungal drugs as a strategy for eradicating microbial biofilms and a list of the low MW natural products that potentiate the inhibition capacity of antifungal and antibacterial drugs against biofilms. Regarding combinations against antifungal biofilms, eight over the nine collected works were carried out with in vitro studies while only one was performed with in vivo assays by using Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. All studies use biofilms of the Candida genus. A 67% of the potentiators were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and six over the nine works used FCZ as the antifungal drug. The activity of AmpB and Caspo was enhanced in one and two

  5. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the TqJoint Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Fang, Fan; Hearty, Thomas J.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing long-wave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the "Standard" group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the "TqJoint" group and the "Standard" group. The comparison includes mean differences at different levels globally and over land and ocean. We are also working on examining the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and "Standard" group using MERRA data.

  6. Process for the production of radiation curable coating compositions containing microcapsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.; Shackle, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A process for producing a radiation curable coating composition containing microcapsules comprises the steps of preparing a dispersion of substantially discrete microcapsules in a continuous phase, the continuous phase comprising a liquid volatile solvent, preparing a liquid radiation curable suspending medium, the liquid radiation curable suspending medium comprising one or more ethylenically unsaturated organic compounds having at least one terminal ethylenic group per molecule, mixing the dispersion of substantially discrete microcapsules in the continuous phase and the liquid radiation curable suspending medium with turbulent agitation to form an intimate mixture of the dispersion of microcapsules and the liquid radiation curable suspending medium, and applying heat and vacuum to the mixture, while maintaining the agitation, until the liquid volatile solvent is substantially removed from the mixture to form a dispersion of substantially discrete microcapsules in the liquid radiation curable suspending medium. The heat is applied to maintain the mixture at a temperature above the boiling point of the volatile solvent at the vacuum level

  7. GC-MS quantitative analysis of black market pharmaceutical products containing anabolic androgenic steroids seized by the Brazilian Federal Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-06-01

    The use of counterfeit or substandard medicines can have an important health impact, resulting in therapeutic failure, be toxic or even cause death. Anabolic steroids are a frequent target for counterfeiters worldwide, being the second most frequent counterfeited class in Brazil. The aims of this work were to optimize and validate a GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of anabolic steroids in tablet, aqueous suspension and oil solution forms, and to analyze pharmaceutical products sent to Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) for forensic analysis. Sample preparation included extraction with methanol in ultrasonic bath followed by centrifugation. The method was successfully validated and 345 samples of pharmaceutical products were analyzed (328 medicines and 17 dietary supplements). About 42% of the medicines were counterfeits, 28.7% of tablets, 12.0% of suspensions and 65.2% of oil solutions; 11% were considered substandards. Five dietary supplements contained undeclared anabolic steroids, including two containing methandrostenolone at 5.4 and 5.8mg/capsule, equivalent to levels found in medicines. The proposed method is suitable for implementation in routine analysis for identification of counterfeits and substandard products. The analytical results show the need to raise awareness of consumers over the risks from the consumption of anabolic steroids from the clandestine market and for more incisive actions from government agencies aiming at decreasing the availability of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of radiolysis products in gamma-irradiated multilayer barrier food packaging films containing a middle layer of recycled LDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytiri, Stavroula; Goulas, Antonios E.; Badeka, Anastasia; Riganakos, Kyriakos A.; Petridis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Volatile and non-volatile radiolysis products and sensory changes of five-layer food packaging films have been determined after gamma irradiation (5-60 kGy). Barrier films were based on polyamide (PA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Each film contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE or 100% virgin LDPE (control samples). Data showed that a large number of radiolysis products were produced such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acid. These compounds were detected in the food simulant after contact with all films even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The type and concentration of radiolysis products increased progressively with radiation dose, while no new compounds were detected as a result of the presence of recycled LDPE. In addition, irradiation dose appears to influence the sensory properties of table water in contact with films

  9. Stable isotope N-phosphoryl amino acids labeling for quantitative profiling of amine-containing metabolites using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Shi, Jinwen; Shan, Changkai; Huang, Chengting; Wu, Yile; Ding, Rong; Xue, Yuhua; Liu, Wen; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Yufen; Xu, Pengxiang; Gao, Xiang

    2017-07-25

    Stable isotope chemical labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful strategy for comprehensive metabolomics profiling, which can improve metabolites coverage and quantitative information for exploration of metabolic regulation in complex biological systems. In the current work, a novel stable isotope N-phosphoryl amino acids labeling strategy (SIPAL) has been successful developed for quantitative profiling of amine-containing metabolites in urine based on organic phosphorus chemistry. Two isotopic reagents, 16 O 2 - and 18 O 2 -N-diisopropyl phosphoryl l-alanine N-hydroxysuccinimide esters ( 16 O/ 18 O-DIPP-L-Ala-NHS), were firstly synthesized in high yields for labeling the amine-containing metabolites. The performance of SIPAL strategy was tested by analyzing standard samples including 20 l-amino acids, 10 d-amino acids and small peptides by using LC-MS. We observed highly efficient and selective labeling for SIPAL strategy within 15 min in a one-pot derivatization reaction under aqueous reaction conditions. The introduction of a neutral phosphate group at N-terminus can increase the proton affinity and overall hydrophobicity of targeted metabolites, leading to the better ionization efficiency in electrospray ionization processes and chromatographic separations of hydrophilic metabolites on reversed-phase column. Furthermore, the chiral metabolites, such as d-amino acids, could be converted to diastereomers after SIPAL and successfully separated on regular reversed-phase column. The chirality of labeled enantiomers can be determined by using different detection methods such as 31 P NMR, UV, and MS, demonstrating the potential application of SIPAL strategy. In addition, absolute quantification of chiral metabolites in biological samples can be easily achieved by using SIPAL strategy. For this purpose, urine samples collected from a healthy volunteer were analyzed by using LC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Over 300 pairs of different amine-containing

  10. Validation of 10-year SAO OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ product using ozonesonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ product from October 2004 through December 2014 retrieved by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO algorithm against ozonesonde observations. We also evaluate the effects of OMI row anomaly (RA on the retrieval by dividing the dataset into before and after the occurrence of serious OMI RA, i.e., pre-RA (2004–2008 and post-RA (2009–2014. The retrieval shows good agreement with ozonesondes in the tropics and midlatitudes and for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa in the high latitudes. It demonstrates clear improvement over the a priori down to the lower troposphere in the tropics and down to an average of ∼ 550 (300 hPa at middle (high latitudes. In the tropics and midlatitudes, the profile mean biases (MBs are less than 6 %, and the standard deviations (SDs range from 5 to 10 % for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa to less than 18 % (27 % in the tropics (midlatitudes for pressure  > ∼ 50 hPa after applying OMI averaging kernels to ozonesonde data. The MBs of the stratospheric ozone column (SOC, the ozone column from the tropopause pressure to the ozonesonde burst pressure are within 2 % with SDs of  < 5 % and the MBs of the tropospheric ozone column (TOC are within 6 % with SDs of 15 %. In the high latitudes, the profile MBs are within 10 % with SDs of 5–15 % for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa but increase to 30 % with SDs as great as 40 % for pressure  > ∼ 50 hPa. The SOC MBs increase up to 3 % with SDs as great as 6 % and the TOC SDs increase up to 30 %. The comparison generally degrades at larger solar zenith angles (SZA due to weaker signals and additional sources of error, leading to worse performance at high latitudes and during the midlatitude winter. Agreement also degrades with increasing cloudiness for pressure  > ∼ 100 hPa and varies with cross-track position, especially with large MBs

  11. Nanofiltration of a Landfill Leachate Containing Pharmaceutical Intermediates from Vitamin C Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrtko Ahel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main landfill of the city of Zagreb generates several hundreds of cubic meters of heavily contaminated leachate per day. The organic composition of the leachate is particularly peculiar because, besides common macromolecular humus-like dissolved organic carbon,it encompasses a number of specific compounds of pharmaceutical origin, including a suite of by-products deriving from the production of vitamin C. Since both macromolecular humic organic matter and vitamin C intermediates are rather resistant to microbial degradation, leachate treatment procedures using simple retention lagoons or conventional bioreactors are not very effective in reducing their levels before the discharge into the receiving waters. An attractive alternative is the application of membrane technology. The efficiencies of three different types of nanofilters for the purification of leachates from the Jakuševec landfill were examined. It was shown that both complex humic-like dissolved organic matter and anthropogenic compounds of pharmaceutical origin can be eliminated at high efficiencies, mostly above 90 %.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIAL BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION THROUGH AXISYMMETRICAL DROP SHAPE-ANALYSIS BY PROFILE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEGT, W; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    Axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P) is a technique developed in colloid and surface science to simultaneously determine the contact angle and liquid surface tension from the profile of a droplet resting on a solid surface. In this paper is described how ADSA-P can be employed to

  13. Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiangang, Chen [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ahn, Ki Chang [Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gee, Nancy A [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gee, Shirley J [Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D [Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Cancer Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lasley, Bill L [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) and California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    To identify the androgenic potency of commonly used antimicrobials, an in vitro androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity assay was employed to evaluate the androgenic/antiandrogenic activity of parabens and selected other antimicrobials containing a phenolic moiety. This cell-based assay utilizes a stably transfected cell line that lacks critical steroid metabolizing enzymes and is formatted in a 96-well format. At a concentration of 10 {mu}M, methyl-, propyl- and butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (parabens) inhibited testosterone (T)-induced transcriptional activity by 40%, 33% and 19%, respectively (P < 0.05), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the major metabolite of parabens, had no effect on T-induced transcriptional activity. Triclosan inhibited transcriptional activity induced by T by more than 92% at a concentration of 10 {mu}M, and 38.8% at a concentration of 1.0 {mu}M (P < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of T-induced transcriptional activity was inhibited by thymol at 10 {mu}M (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation and/or cytotoxicity were not observed in any of the treatments. None of the compounds appeared to be androgenic when tested individually without T. The data presented in this report demonstrate that some widely used antimicrobial compounds have antiandrogenic properties and warrant further investigation to fully understand their potential impact on human reproductive health.

  14. Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangang; Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Nancy A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lasley, Bill L.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the androgenic potency of commonly used antimicrobials, an in vitro androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity assay was employed to evaluate the androgenic/antiandrogenic activity of parabens and selected other antimicrobials containing a phenolic moiety. This cell-based assay utilizes a stably transfected cell line that lacks critical steroid metabolizing enzymes and is formatted in a 96-well format. At a concentration of 10 μM, methyl-, propyl- and butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (parabens) inhibited testosterone (T)-induced transcriptional activity by 40%, 33% and 19%, respectively (P < 0.05), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the major metabolite of parabens, had no effect on T-induced transcriptional activity. Triclosan inhibited transcriptional activity induced by T by more than 92% at a concentration of 10 μM, and 38.8% at a concentration of 1.0 μM (P < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of T-induced transcriptional activity was inhibited by thymol at 10 μM (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation and/or cytotoxicity were not observed in any of the treatments. None of the compounds appeared to be androgenic when tested individually without T. The data presented in this report demonstrate that some widely used antimicrobial compounds have antiandrogenic properties and warrant further investigation to fully understand their potential impact on human reproductive health

  15. [Production of sugar syrup containing rare sugar using dual-enzyme coupled reaction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjia; Zhu, Yueming; Bai, Wei; Izumori, Ken; Zhang, Tongcun; Sun, Yuanxia

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion is very important to produce functional rare sugars, but the conversion rate of single enzymes is generally low. To increase the conversion rate, a dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was developed. Dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was constructed using D-psicose-3-epimerase (DPE) and L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RhI), and used to convert D-fructose to D-psicose and D-allose. The ratio of DPE and L-RhI was 1:10 (W/W), and the concentration of DPE was 0.05 mg/mL. The optimum temperature was 60 degrees C and pH was 9.0. When the concentration of D-fructose was 2%, the reaction reached its equilibrium after 10 h, and the yield of D-psicose and D-allose was 5.12 and 2.04 g/L, respectively. Using the dual-enzymes coupled system developed in the current study, we could obtain sugar syrup containing functional rare sugar from fructose-rich raw material, such as high fructose corn syrup.

  16. Productive performance of broiler chicks fed rations containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    The changes in the feed efficiency (FE) (feed intake/body weight gain), energy efficiency (EE) (metabolizable energy intake/body weight gain), total protein efficiency (TPE) (body weight gain/protein intake), metabolized energy (ME) and body weight gain and in the biological aspects of the digestive organs by broiler chicks during different periods of age (14-21 days: 3 weeks, 21-28 days: 4 weeks, 28-35 days: 5 weeks, 35-42 days: 6 weeks) were evaluated in 5 groups fed on experimental diets containing irradiated meat (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy). the results showed that no significant (p 0.05) with age (comparing ages 5 and 6 weeks with 3 and 4 weeks) No significant (p<0.05) differences were noticed in FE, EE and TPE between the ages 3 and 4 weeks. There was a significant increase (p.0.05) in ME values for the age 6 weeks compared to 3, 4 and 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the ME values between the ages 4 and 5 weeks. (author)

  17. Production and characterization of nanostructured lipid carriers and solid lipid nanoparticles containing lycopene for food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoond Zardini, Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Farhoosh, Reza; Bolurian, Shadi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, lycopene, was loaded on nanostructured lipid carrier and solid lipid nanoparticles using combination of high shear homogenization and ultrasonication method. Effect of applied lipids types, nanocarrier's type and lycopene loading on physicochemical properties of developed nanocarriers were studied. Particle sizes of developed nanocarriers were between 74.93 and 183.40 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of nanostructured lipid carrier was significantly higher than solid lipid nanoparticles. Morphological study of developed nanocarriers using scanning electron microscopy showed spherical nanoparticles with smooth surface. Lycopene was entrapped in nanocarriers without any chemical interaction with coating material according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry thermogram. Glycerol monostearate containing nanoparticles showed phase separation after 30 days in 6 and 25 °C, whereas this event was not observed in nanosuspensions that produced by glycerol distearate. Lycopene release in gastrointestinal condition was studied by the dialysis bag method. To evaluate nanocarrier's potential for food fortification, developed lycopene-loaded nanocarriers were added to orange drink. Results of sensory analysis indicated that nanoencapsulation could obviate the poor solubility and tomato after taste of lycopene. Fortified sample with lycopene nanocarriers didn't show significant difference with blank orange drink sample except in orange odor.

  18. Radioachemical analysis of fission products contained in the soil collected at Tokyo, May 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Saruhashi, K; Kigoshi, K

    1955-01-01

    Soil (300 g.) was leached with 50 ml. 6N H01 on a steam bath and the filtered solution evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in distilled water and an aliquot of the solution was subjected to chemical analyses, in which the sample was dried on a stainless steel planchet and its ..beta..-rays were counted. Group separation of the extract was made after addition of carriers of Ce, Ba, and Sr. Precipitation with H/sub 2/S showed very weak activity which was only a few % of the total. The hydroxide group contained an appreciable amount of radionuclides, but most of them were insoluble when changed into fluoride forms. The filtrate of fluoride solution also showed a weak activity. The radionuclides obtained in the carbonate fraction were separated into Ca, Sr, and Ba and the Ca fraction was separated by concentrated HNO/sub 3/ and the Ba fraction obtained by precipitation as chromate. Results show radionuclides of rare earths = 9 x 10/sup -13/ curie/g., /sup 89/Sr = 3 x 10/sup -13/ curie/g, and Ba/sup 140/ = 7 x 10/sup -13/ curie/g.

  19. Mechanochemical production of lignin-containing powder fuels from biotechnical industry waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomovsky Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnological processing of plant raw materials, carbohydrates that are soluble and accessible for microorganisms are the only usable components. The lignin-rich part of the plant raw materials usually ends up in the waste. Lignin transferred into water suspensions cannot be used efficiently as a fuel. In this review, a new processing scheme of plant raw materials is presented, which includes mechanochemical treatment of the plant raw materials and separation of the powder product into particles of lignified and non-lignified tissues rich in lignin and cellulose, respectively. The cellulose-rich powders can then be used in biotechnological processes. Lignin-rich powder aerodynamically separated using cyclone-type apparatus can be used as a powder fuel to satisfy the needs of the main biotechnological plant in heat and steam.

  20. Transcriptional Profiling of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Response to Porphyromonas gingivalis Secreted Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Durga; Belibasakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting (periodontal) tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen highly implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. It can exert its effects to a number of cells, including osteogenic bone marrow stromal cells which are important for homeostastic capacity of the tissues. By employing gene microarray technology, this study aimed to describe the overall transcriptional events (>2-fold regulation) elicited by P. gingivalis secreted products in bone marrow stromal cells, and to dissect further the categories of genes involved in bone metabolism, inflammatory and immune responses. After 6 h of challenge with P. gingivalis, 271 genes were up-regulated whereas 209 genes were down-regulated, whereas after 24 h, these numbers were 259 and 109, respectively. The early (6 h) response was characterised by regulation of genes associated with inhibition of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and loss of structural integrity, whereas the late (24 h) response was characterised by induction of chemokines, cytokines and their associated intracellular pathways (such as NF-κB), mediators of connective tissue and bone destruction, and suppression of regulators of osteogenic differentiation. The most strongly up-regulated genes were lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), both encoding for proteins of the acute phase inflammatory response. Collectively, these transcriptional changes elicited by P. gingivalis denote that the fundamental cellular functions are hindered, and that the cells acquire a phenotype commensurate with propagated innate immune response and inflammatory-mediated tissue destruction. In conclusion, the global transcriptional profile of bone marrow stromal cells in response to P. gingivalis is marked by deregulated homeostatic functions, with implications in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. PMID:22937121