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Sample records for contact phase system

  1. Thermodynamics and phase equilibria of ternary systems relevant to contact materials for compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, H.; Richter, K.; Micke, K.

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the stability of ohmic contacts to compound semiconductors, it is necessary to know the phase equilibria in the corresponding multi-component systems. We are currently studying the phase equilibria and thermophysical properties of several ternary systems which are of interest in view of the use of nickel, palladium and platinum as contact materials for GaSb and InSb compound semiconductors: Ga-Ni-Sb, In-Ni-Sb, Ga-Pd-Sb and Ga-Pt-Sb. Phase equilibria are investigated by thermal analyses, X-ray powder diffraction methods as well as electron microprobe analysis. Thermodynamic properties are derived from vapour pressure measurements using an isopiestic method. It is planned to combine all information on phase equilibria and thermochemistry for the ternary and the limiting binary systems to perform an optimization of the ternary systems by computer calculations using standard software. (author)

  2. Contact line motion in confined liquid–gas systems: Slip versus phase transition

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2010-11-30

    In two-phase flows, the interface intervening between the two fluid phases intersects the solid wall at the contact line. A classical problem in continuum fluid mechanics is the incompatibility between the moving contact line and the no-slip boundary condition, as the latter leads to a nonintegrable stress singularity. Recently, various diffuse-interface models have been proposed to explain the contact line motion using mechanisms missing from the sharp-interface treatments in fluid mechanics. In one-component two-phase (liquid–gas) systems, the contact line can move through the mass transport across the interface while in two-component (binary) fluids, the contact line can move through diffusive transport across the interface. While these mechanisms alone suffice to remove the stress singularity, the role of fluid slip at solid surface needs to be taken into account as well. In this paper, we apply the diffuse-interface modeling to the study of contact line motion in one-component liquid–gas systems, with the fluid slip fully taken into account. The dynamic van der Waals theory has been presented for one-component fluids, capable of describing the two-phase hydrodynamics involving the liquid–gas transition [A. Onuki, Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)]. This theory assumes the local equilibrium condition at the solid surface for density and also the no-slip boundary condition for velocity. We use its hydrodynamicequations to describe the continuum hydrodynamics in the bulk region and derive the more general boundary conditions by introducing additional dissipative processes at the fluid–solid interface. The positive definiteness of entropy production rate is the guiding principle of our derivation. Numerical simulations based on a finite-difference algorithm have been carried out to investigate the dynamic effects of the newly derived boundary conditions, showing that the contact line can move through both phase transition and slip, with their relative

  3. Stability of Naturally Relevant Ternary Phases in the Cu–Sn–S system in Contact with an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giaccherini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A relevant research effort is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of phases belonging to the ternary system Cu–Sn–S, mainly for their possible applications in semiconductor technology. Among all ternary phases, kuramite, Cu3SnS4, mohite, Cu2SnS3, and Cu4Sn7S16 have attracted the highest interest. Numerous studies were carried out claiming for the description of new phases in the ternary compositional field. In this study, we revise the existing literature on this ternary system, with a special focus on the phases stable in a temperature range at 25 °C. The only two ternary phases observed in nature are mohite and kuramite. Their occurrence is described as very rare. A numerical modelling of the stable solid phases in contact with a water solution was underwent to define stability relationships of the relevant phases of the system. The numerical modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams was carried out through the phreeqc software with the lnll.dat thermodynamic database. Owing to the complexity of this task, the subsystems Cu–O–H, Sn–O–H, Cu–S–O–H and Sn–S–O–H were firstly considered. The first Pourbaix diagram for the two naturally relevant ternary phases is then proposed.

  4. Contact line motion in confined liquid–gas systems: Slip versus phase transition

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2010-01-01

    -slip boundary condition, as the latter leads to a nonintegrable stress singularity. Recently, various diffuse-interface models have been proposed to explain the contact line motion using mechanisms missing from the sharp-interface treatments in fluid mechanics

  5. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  6. Phase formation in contact of dissimilar metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvin, V S; Kazachkova, Yu A; Povzner, A A [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Mira st., 19, A-203, Yekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: savvin-vs@yandex.ru

    2008-02-15

    Formation and growth of intermediate phases in contact of the crystalline samples forming a two-component eutectic system is considered. It is shown that during the competition to a growing liquid phase the intermediate solid phases cannot grow by diffusion. The alternative is formation of metastable areas of a liquid phase. Measurements of liquid layers extent in Pb-Bi and In-Bi systems have allowed to define the composition of liquid on interface where formation of metastable liquid is possible. The results show that the concentration interval of a liquid layer corresponds to a stable constitution diagram. In order to explain the experimental results the hypothesis according to which the intermediate solid phases are formed as a result of precipitation from metastable melt is considered. The experimental confirmation of formation and crystallization of a metastable liquid is the fact that intergrowth of the samples forming system with an intermetallic phase at temperatures below the temperature of fusion of the most low-melting eutectic is observed. The possibility of the processes concerned with the occurrence of metastable areas of a liquid is showed by means of computer imitation.

  7. ERASMUS: Food Contact Safe Plastics Recycler and 3D Printer System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the goals of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) from 2012 is to 'utilize the ISS for developing the systems and protocols...

  8. ERASMUS: Food Contact Safe Plastics Recycler and 3D Printer System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key goal of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) from 2012 is to utilize the ISS for developing the systems and protocols necessary to...

  9. INTER-PHASE CONTACTS IN BITUMEN-MINERAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR STRENGTHENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. N. Kovalev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently bitumen-mineral materials (including asphalt-concrete comprise nearly 98 % for construction of expensive road pavement. Large resources of local minerals (quartz sand and industrial wastes in the form of used molding sand (foundry by-product are widely applied for reduction of their cost. Such approach is economically and ecologically reasonable but it requires its justification because an adhesion interaction in the bitumen-quartz substrate system (with SiO2 more than 95 % is rather poor in natural state and due to water action it is still more decreasing. In this connection an objective necessity arises to modify significantly technology of bitumen-mineral compositions for ensuring reliability of road pavements while using silicon components.All the ideas pertaining to strengthening of adhesion bonds in the “quartz mineral substrate - bitumen” system are traditionally of physical and chemical nature and they presuppose mainly usage of colloidal chemistry methods. The paper considers the matter on the basis of molecular kinetic theory of matter taking into account the fact that there is absence of generally accepted calculations for intermolecular interactions of components in the SiO2 - organic matrix material system.As a theoretical supposition the following well-known regulatory principle in physics is used: as every atom or molecular have its own electromagnetic field then action of external electromagnetic fields initiates their interaction that leads to excitement of electrons, deformations and rupture of chemical bonds. Literature analysis shows that the existing electric bonds between components of the SiO2 - organic matrix material system provide the possibility to apply various electro-physical methods having an effect on these components with the purpose to strengthen their adhesion interaction.The paper investigates matters for determination of bond energy during physical adsorption and adhesion in the SiO2 - organic

  10. Conservative systems with ports on contact manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Piztek, P.

    In this paper we propose an extension of port Hamiltonian systems, called conservative systems with ports, which encompass systems arising from the Irreversible Thermodynamics. Firstly we lift a port Hamiltonian system from its state space manifold to the thermodynamic phase space to a contact

  11. A three-phase in-vitro system for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion and biofilm formation upon hydrogel contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohlmann Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly associated with contact lens (CL -related eye infections, for which bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation upon hydrogel CLs is a specific risk factor. Whilst P. aeruginosa has been widely used as a model organism for initial biofilm formation on CLs, in-vitro models that closely reproduce in-vivo conditions have rarely been presented. Results In the current investigation, a novel in-vitro biofilm model for studying the adherence of P. aeruginosa to hydrogel CLs was established. Nutritional and interfacial conditions similar to those in the eye of a CL wearer were created through the involvement of a solid:liquid and a solid:air interface, shear forces and a complex artificial tear fluid. Bioburdens varied depending on the CL material and biofilm maturation occurred after 72 h incubation. Whilst a range of biofilm morphologies were visualised including dispersed and adherent bacterial cells, aggregates and colonies embedded in extracellular polymer substances (EPS, EPS fibres, mushroom-like formations, and crystalline structures, a compact and heterogeneous biofilm morphology predominated on all CL materials. Conclusions In order to better understand the process of biofilm formation on CLs and to test the efficacy of CL care solutions, representative in-vitro biofilm models are required. Here, we present a three-phase biofilm model that simulates the environment in the eye of a CL wearer and thus generates biofilms which resemble those commonly observed in-situ.

  12. Robust Load Cell Cell for Discrete Contact Force Measurements of Sampling Systems and/or Instruments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop a simple, robust, extreme environment compatible, mechanical load cell to enable the control of contact forces for placement of...

  13. Contact Stress Design Parameters for Titanium Bearings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock's Phase I effort tested the effects of ball induced contact stresses on Titanium bearing races. The contact stress design limit that would achieve a...

  14. Bias dependent specic contact resistance of phase change material to metal contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; in 't Zandt, Micha; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of contact resistance of phase change materials (PCM) to metal electrodes is important for scaling, device modeling and optimization of phase change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this article, we report the systematic determination of the speci_c contact resistance (_c) with

  15. Port contact systems for irreversible thermodynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a definition of control contact systems, generalizing input-output Hamiltonian systems, to cope with models arising from irreversible Thermodynamics. We exhibit a particular subclass of these systems, called conservative, that leaves invariant some Legendre submanifold (the

  16. Port-contact systems in bilateral telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secchi, C; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we develop one of the first control applications of the recently proposed port-contact framework. We show how it is possible to model and control a bilateral telemanipulation system using port-contact systems and we develop a port-contact impedance controller that allows to impose a

  17. Experimental investigation of direct contact three phase boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    The system which was studied in the present work consisted of one liquid undergoing vaporization by contact with a hotter immiscible liquid. The liquids and vapor were contacted in a counterflow spray column with only differential increases in vapor quality. Experiments yielded vertical temperature profiles, flow rates of the phases, liquid holdups, pressure drops, and a characterization of flow patterns. A micro-computer was utilized for measuring temperatures in the column at the rate of 1500 to 1600 times per second at several depths. Analysis of the experimental data indicate that the maximum temperature difference between the phases is 0.5F 0 , and that a temperature crossover occurs at the lower end of the column. The heat transfer fluid undergoes flash vaporization at its inlet at the top of the column, and much of its sensible heat is tranferred to the dispersed phase near the top of the column. Temperature profiles along the length of the boiler are nearly flat, and very little heat transfer occurs in the lower part of the boiler. A chemical method was developed for measuring effective interfacial area in a direct contact boiler. The theoretical basis of the method is discussed, and physico-chemical data necessary for application of the technique are reported. Water solubility of methyl salicylate was measured as a function of temperature, and the second order reaction rate coefficient for saponification of methyl salicylate by sodium hydroxide was determined from sodium hydroxide concentration versus time data and a computer model of a well-mixed semibatch reactor. The activation energy for the reaction was found to be 9.58 kilocalories per gram mole

  18. Heat transfer modelling of two-phase bubbles swarm condensing in three - phase direct - contact condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahood Hameed B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for the convective heat transfer coefficient and the two-phase bubble size of a three-phase direct contact heat exchanger was developed. Until the present, there has only been a theoretical model available that deals with a single two-phase bubble and a bubble train condensation in an immiscible liquid. However, to understand the actual heat transfer process within the three-phase direct contact condenser, characteristic models are required. A quasi - steady energy equation in a spherical coordinate system with a potential flow assumption and a cell model configuration has been simplified and solved analytically. The convective heat transfer in terms of Nu number has been derived, and it was found to be a function to Pe number and a system void fraction. In addition, the two-phase bubble size relates to the system void fraction and has been developed by solving a simple energy balance equation and using the derived convective heat transfer coefficient expression. Furthermore, the model correlates well with previous experimental data and theoretical results.

  19. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes....... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current spectrum of contact allergy to allergens present in the European baseline series (EBS) across Europe. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA, www.essca-dc.org) in consecutively patch-tested patients......, 2013/14, in 46 departments in 12 European countries. RESULTS: Altogether, 31 689 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to a similar analysis in 2004, the prevalence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone went up to around 20% in several departments. In comparison, contact allergy...

  20. Numerical methods for two-phase flow with contact lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Clauido

    2012-07-01

    This thesis focuses on numerical methods for two-phase flows, and especially flows with a moving contact line. Moving contact lines occur where the interface between two fluids is in contact with a solid wall. At the location where both fluids and the wall meet, the common continuum descriptions for fluids are not longer valid, since the dynamics around such a contact line are governed by interactions at the molecular level. Therefore the standard numerical continuum models have to be adjusted to handle moving contact lines. In the main part of the thesis a method to manipulate the position and the velocity of a contact line in a two-phase solver, is described. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using an explicit finite difference method on a staggered grid. The position of the interface is tracked with the level set method and the discontinuities at the interface are treated in a sharp manner with the ghost fluid method. The contact line is tracked explicitly and its dynamics can be described by an arbitrary function. The key part of the procedure is to enforce a coupling between the contact line and the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the level set method. Results for different contact line models are presented and it is demonstrated that they are in agreement with analytical solutions or results reported in the literature.The presented Navier-Stokes solver is applied as a part in a multiscale method to simulate capillary driven flows. A relation between the contact angle and the contact line velocity is computed by a phase field model resolving the micro scale dynamics in the region around the contact line. The relation of the microscale model is then used to prescribe the dynamics of the contact line in the macro scale solver. This approach allows to exploit the scale separation between the contact line dynamics and the bulk flow. Therefore coarser meshes can be applied for the macro scale flow solver compared to global phase field simulations

  1. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  2. Contact angle of sessile drops in Lennard-Jones systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefan; Urbassek, Herbert M; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2014-11-18

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used for studying the contact angle of nanoscale sessile drops on a planar solid wall in a system interacting via the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones potential. The entire range between total wetting and dewetting is investigated by varying the solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy. The temperature is varied between the triple point and the critical temperature. A correlation is obtained for the contact angle in dependence of the temperature and the dispersive interaction energy. Size effects are studied by varying the number of fluid particles at otherwise constant conditions, using up to 150,000 particles. For particle numbers below 10,000, a decrease of the contact angle is found. This is attributed to a dependence of the solid-liquid surface tension on the droplet size. A convergence to a constant contact angle is observed for larger system sizes. The influence of the wall model is studied by varying the density of the wall. The effective solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy at a contact angle of θ = 90° is found to be independent of temperature and to decrease linearly with the solid density. A correlation is developed that describes the contact angle as a function of the dispersive interaction, the temperature, and the solid density. The density profile of the sessile drop and the surrounding vapor phase is described by a correlation combining a sigmoidal function and an oscillation term.

  3. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac

  4. Properties predictive modeling through the concept of a hybrid interphase existing between phases in contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portan, D. V.; Papanicolaou, G. C.

    2018-02-01

    From practical point of view, predictive modeling based on the physics of composite material behavior is wealth generating; by guiding material system selection and process choices, by cutting down on experimentation and associated costs; and by speeding up the time frame from the research stage to the market place. The presence of areas with different properties and the existence of an interphase between them have a pronounced influence on the behavior of a composite system. The Viscoelastic Hybrid Interphase Model (VHIM), considers the existence of a non-homogeneous viscoelastic and anisotropic interphase having properties depended on the degree of adhesion between the two phases in contact. The model applies for any physical/mechanical property (e.g. mechanical, thermal, electrical and/or biomechanical). Knowing the interphasial variation of a specific property one can predict the corresponding macroscopic behavior of the composite. Moreover, the model acts as an algorithm and a two-way approach can be used: (i) phases in contact may be chosen to get the desired properties of the final composite system or (ii) the initial phases in contact determine the final behavior of the composite system, that can be approximately predicted. The VHIM has been proven, amongst others, to be extremely useful in biomaterial designing for improved contact with human tissues.

  5. Formation of a contact binary star system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.F.F.

    1974-01-01

    The process of forming a contact binary star system is investigated in the light of current knowledge of the W Ursae Majoris type eclipsing binaries and the current rotational braking theories for contracting stars. A preliminary stage of mass transfer is proposed and studied through the use of a computer program which calculates evolutionary model sequences. The detailed development of both stars is followed in these calculations, and findings regarding the internal structure of the star which is receiving the mass are presented. Relaxation of the mass-gaining star is also studied; for these stars of low mass and essentially zero age, the star eventually settles to a state very similar to a zero-age main sequence star of the new mass. A contact system was formed through these calculations; it exhibits the general properties of a W Ursae Majoris system. The initial masses selected for the calculation were 1.29 M/sub solar mass/ and 0.56 M/sub solar mass/. An initial mass transfer rate of about 10 -10 solar masses per year gradually increased to about 10 -8 solar masses per year. After about 2.5 x 10 7 years, the less massive star filled its Roche lobe and an initial contact system was obtained. The final masses were 1.01359 M/sub solar mass/ and 0.83641 M/sub solar mass/. The internal structure of the secondary component is considerably different from that of a main sequence star of the same mass

  6. Speci﬿c contact resistance of phase change materials to metal electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; in 't Zandt, Micha A.A.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2010-01-01

    For phase change random access memory (PCRAM) cells, it is important to know the contact resistance of phase change materials (PCMs) to metal electrodes at the contacts. In this letter, we report the systematic determination of the speci﬿c contact resistance (Ͽc ) of doped Sb2Te and Ge2Sb2Te5 to TiW

  7. Energy transfer in contact binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A simple model for the transfer of energy by steady circulation within the envelope of a contact binary system is presented. The model describes the fully compressible, two-dimensional flow of a perfect gas within a rectangular region in a uniform gravitational field. The region is heated non-uniformly from below. Coriolis forces are neglected but the interaction of the circulation with convection is discussed briefly. Numerical solutions of the linearized equations of the problem are discussed in detail, and the results of some non-linear calculations are also presented. The influence of alternative boundary conditions is examined. (author)

  8. Hybrid Smith predictor and phase lead based divergence compensation for hardware-in-the-loop contact simulation with measurement delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chenkun; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Xianchao; Wang, Qian; Ren, Anye

    2018-06-01

    On the ground the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is a good approach to test the contact dynamics of spacecraft docking process in space. Unfortunately, due to the time delay in the system the HIL contact simulation becomes divergent. However, the traditional first-order phase lead compensation approach still result in a small divergence for the pure time delay. The serial Smith predictor and phase lead compensation approach proposed by the authors recently will lead to an over-compensation and an obvious convergence. In this study, a hybrid Smith predictor and phase lead compensation approach is proposed. The hybrid Smith predictor and phase lead compensation can achieve a higher simulation fidelity with a little convergence. The phase angle of the compensator is analyzed and the stability condition of the HIL simulation system is given. The effectiveness of the proposed compensation approach is tested by simulations on an undamped elastic contact process.

  9. Metallization systems for stable ohmic contacts to GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, J.L.; Douglas, K.D.; Vendura, G.; Kolawa, E.; So, F.C.T.; Nicolet, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A metallization scheme to form reproducible and stable ohmic contacts to GaAs is described. The approach is based on the configuration: GaAs/X/Y/Z; where X is a thin metal film (e.g. Pt, Ti, Pd, Ru), Y is an electrically conducting diffusion barrier layer (TiN, W or W/sub 0.7/N/sub 0.3/), and Z is a thick metal layer (e.g. Ag) typically required for bonding or soldering purposes. The value and reproducibility of the contact resistance in these metallization systems results from the uniform steady-state solid-phase reaction of the metal X with GaAs. The stability of the contacts is achieved by the diffusion barrier layer Y, which not only confines the reaction of X with GaAs, but also prevents the top metal layer Z from interfering with this reaction. Applications of such contacts in fabricating stable solar cells are also discussed

  10. Mixed-order phase transition of the contact process near multiple junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Róbert; Iglói, Ferenc

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the phase transition of the contact process near a multiple junction of M semi-infinite chains by Monte Carlo simulations. As opposed to the continuous transitions of the translationally invariant (M=2) and semi-infinite (M=1) system, the local order parameter is found to be discontinuous for M>2. Furthermore, the temporal correlation length diverges algebraically as the critical point is approached, but with different exponents on the two sides of the transition. In the active phase, the estimate is compatible with the bulk value, while in the inactive phase it exceeds the bulk value and increases with M. The unusual local critical behavior is explained by a scaling theory with an irrelevant variable, which becomes dangerous in the inactive phase. Quenched spatial disorder is found to make the transition continuous in agreement with earlier renormalization group results.

  11. Convective heat transfer measurements in a vapour-liquid-liquid three-phase direct contact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Hameed B.; Campbell, A. N.; Baqir, Ali Sh.; Sharif, A. O.; Thorpe, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Energy usage is increasing around the world due to the continued development of technology, and population growth. Solar energy is a promising low-grade energy resource that can be harvested and utilised in different applications, such solar heater systems, which are used in both domestic and industrial settings. However, the implementation of an efficient energy conversion system or heat exchanger would enhance such low-grade energy processes. The direct contact heat exchanger could be the right choice due to its ability to efficiently transfer significant amounts of heat, simple design, and low cost. In this work, the heat transfer associated with the direct contact condensation of pentane vapour bubbles in a three-phase direct contact condenser is investigated experimentally. Such a condenser could be used in a cycle with a solar water heater and heat recovery systems. The experiments on the steady state operation of the three-phase direct contact condenser were carried out using a short Perspex tube of 70 cm in total height and an internal diameter of 4 cm. Only a height of 48 cm was active as the direct contact condenser. Pentane vapour, (the dispersed phase) with three different initial temperatures (40° C, 43.5° C and 47.5° C) was directly contacted with water (the continuous phase) at 19° C. The experimental results showed that the total heat transfer rate per unit volume along the direct contact condenser gradually decreased upon moving higher up the condenser. Additionally, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing mass flow rate ratio, but no significant effect on the heat transfer rate of varying the initial temperature of the dispersed phase was seen. Furthermore, both the outlet temperature of the continuous phase and the void fraction were positively correlated with the total heat transfer rate per unit volume, with no considerable effect of the initial temperature difference between the dispersed and continuous phases.

  12. Convective heat transfer measurements in a vapour-liquid-liquid three-phase direct contact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Hameed B.; Campbell, A. N.; Baqir, Ali Sh.; Sharif, A. O.; Thorpe, R. B.

    2018-06-01

    Energy usage is increasing around the world due to the continued development of technology, and population growth. Solar energy is a promising low-grade energy resource that can be harvested and utilised in different applications, such solar heater systems, which are used in both domestic and industrial settings. However, the implementation of an efficient energy conversion system or heat exchanger would enhance such low-grade energy processes. The direct contact heat exchanger could be the right choice due to its ability to efficiently transfer significant amounts of heat, simple design, and low cost. In this work, the heat transfer associated with the direct contact condensation of pentane vapour bubbles in a three-phase direct contact condenser is investigated experimentally. Such a condenser could be used in a cycle with a solar water heater and heat recovery systems. The experiments on the steady state operation of the three-phase direct contact condenser were carried out using a short Perspex tube of 70 cm in total height and an internal diameter of 4 cm. Only a height of 48 cm was active as the direct contact condenser. Pentane vapour, (the dispersed phase) with three different initial temperatures (40° C, 43.5° C and 47.5° C) was directly contacted with water (the continuous phase) at 19° C. The experimental results showed that the total heat transfer rate per unit volume along the direct contact condenser gradually decreased upon moving higher up the condenser. Additionally, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing mass flow rate ratio, but no significant effect on the heat transfer rate of varying the initial temperature of the dispersed phase was seen. Furthermore, both the outlet temperature of the continuous phase and the void fraction were positively correlated with the total heat transfer rate per unit volume, with no considerable effect of the initial temperature difference between the dispersed and continuous phases.

  13. Non-Contact Conductivity Measurement for Automated Sample Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kirby, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A new method has been developed for monitoring and control of automated sample processing and preparation especially focusing on desalting of samples before analytical analysis (described in more detail in Automated Desalting Apparatus, (NPO-45428), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 8 (August 2010), page 44). The use of non-contact conductivity probes, one at the inlet and one at the outlet of the solid phase sample preparation media, allows monitoring of the process, and acts as a trigger for the start of the next step in the sequence (see figure). At each step of the muti-step process, the system is flushed with low-conductivity water, which sets the system back to an overall low-conductivity state. This measurement then triggers the next stage of sample processing protocols, and greatly minimizes use of consumables. In the case of amino acid sample preparation for desalting, the conductivity measurement will define three key conditions for the sample preparation process. First, when the system is neutralized (low conductivity, by washing with excess de-ionized water); second, when the system is acidified, by washing with a strong acid (high conductivity); and third, when the system is at a basic condition of high pH (high conductivity). Taken together, this non-contact conductivity measurement for monitoring sample preparation will not only facilitate automation of the sample preparation and processing, but will also act as a way to optimize the operational time and use of consumables

  14. Contact with turf algae alters the coral microbiome: contact versus systemic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Zoe A.; Longo, Guilherme O.; Burns, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2018-03-01

    Coral reefs are degrading to algae-dominated reefs worldwide, with alterations of coral microbiomes commonly co-occurring with reef demise. The severe thermal anomaly during the 2016 El Niño event in the South Pacific killed many corals and stressed others. We examined the microbiome of turf algae and of the coral Porites sp. in contact with turf during this thermal event to investigate algal turf effects on the coral microbiome during a period of environmental stress. The microbial composition of turf did not differ between coral-contacted and non-contacted turfs. However, microbiomes of corals in direct contact with turf were similar to those of the turf microbiome, but differed significantly from coral portions 5 cm from the point of turf/coral contact and from portions of the coral that looked most healthy, regardless of location. Although the majority of significant differences occurred in coral samples at the point of contact, a small subset of microbial taxa was enriched in coral tissues taken 5 cm from turf contact compared to all other sample types, including samples from areas of the coral that appeared most healthy. These results suggest that the coral microbiome is susceptible to colonization by microbes from turf, but not vice versa. Results also suggest that algal contact elicits a subtle shift in the coral microbiome just beyond the contact site. The combination of turf microbiome stability and coral microbiome vulnerability at areas of contact may contribute to the continued decline in coral cover and increase in algal cover associated with coral-algae phase shifts.

  15. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-12-30

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid.

  16. Water hammers in direct contact heater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the causes and mitigation or prevention of water hammers occurring in direct contact heaters and their attached lines. These water hammers are generally caused by rapid pressure reductions in the heaters or by water lines not flowing full. Proper design and operating measures can prevent or mitigate water hammer occurrence. Water hammers often do not originate at the areas where damage is noted

  17. Biomechanical analysis of the contact phase in drop jumps performed in water and on dry land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ruschel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n1p41   Plyometric training in the aquatic environment has been used as way of reducing loads through the action of buoyancy. However, little is known about the biomechanical characteristics of plyometric exercises in water, which can assist in the prescription of training in this environment. This study aimed to analyze the vertical component of the ground reaction force and contact duration of drop jumps (DJ performed on land and at hip level water immersion. Participants were 22 male athletes (19.1 ± 3.7 years, who performed three maximum DJs in water and on dry land. Peak force and duration of braking and propulsion sub-phases of the DJ contact were analyzed with the use of two underwater force platforms, a 2-D waterproofed electrogoniometer, acquisition systems ADS2000-IP and TeleMyo 2400TG2, and a signal synchronizer. The effect of immersion was investigated through comparison tests for dependent samples (p <0.05. In water, the following results were observed: (a reduction of 41.8% (p <0.001, d = 2.24 and 23.8% (p <0.001, d = 1.50 of peak forces during braking and propulsion sub-phases respectively; and (b increase of 41.8% in the braking (p <0.001, d = 1.41 and 12.3% in the propulsion contact times (p = 0.006, d = 0.75. The aquatic environment can be an alternative when one aims to reduce the load during the DJ contact; however, the longer duration increasing of contact sub-phases in water at hip immersion may compromise the proper functioning of the stretch-shortening cycle in water.

  18. Effects of Phase Difference Between Axial and Contact loads on Fretting Fatigue Behavior of Titanium Alloy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almajali, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    .... Most of the previous works were accomplished under a constant applied normal load and a little effort was done under a variable contact load, while none of these studies have considered the phase...

  19. Freeform optics: a non-contact "test plate" for manufacturing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this NASA SBIR Phase I study is to determine the feasibility of measuring precision (fractional wave) freeform optics using non-contact areal (imaging)...

  20. Generic two-phase coexistence in the quadratic contact process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaofang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the demonstration of the existence of and analysis of phenomena related to the discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition between an active (or reactive) state and a poisoned (or extinguished) state occurring in a stochastic lattice-gas realization of Schloegl’s second model for autocatalysis.

  1. Photosensitized Oxygenations of Hexamethylbenzene in Phase Contact Enhanced Microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Yi; Park, Jeong Hyeon; Lim Hyo Jin; Hwang, Geumsook; Park, Chan Pil

    2014-01-01

    Activated singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) has successfully been utilized in production of various compounds including fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and fine chemicals. However, the traditional reaction required a prolonged reaction time due to the difficulty of introducing adequate light and oxygen into the solution. Low contact probability between four species of oxygen, photosensitizer, light, and reagent is an inherent drawback of the traditional photoreaction. Molecular diffusion distance is the most important factor in the heterogeneous reactions including gas-liquid, gassolid, liquid-solid, and immiscible liquid-liquid. Therefore, rates of reaction are closely depended on the distance. Microreactor has provided a distinct advantage in the short molecular diffusion distance due to the high surface-to-volume ratio driven by narrow fluidic channels

  2. Phase Control in Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Seoane, Jesús M.; Mariño, Inés P.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Meucci, Riccardo

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Phase Control of Chaos * Description of the model * Numerical exploration of phase control of chaos * Experimental evidence of phase control of chaos * Phase Control of Intermittency in Dynamical Systems * Crisis-induced intermittency and its control * Experimental setup and implementation of the phase control scheme * Phase control of the laser in the pre-crisis regime * Phase control of the intermittency after the crisis * Phase control of the intermittency in the quadratic map * Phase Control of Escapes in Open Dynamical Systems * Control of open dynamical systems * Model description * Numerical simulations and heuristic arguments * Experimental implementation in an electronic circuit * Conclusions and Discussions * Acknowledgments * References

  3. Aerospace Systems Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Title: Aerospace Systems Monitor PHASE 1 Technical Abstract: This Phase II STTR project will continue development and commercialization of the Aerospace...

  4. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel......-exposure investigations was to provide the best possible estimation of threshold values of nickel doses that may cause systemic contact dermatitis in nickel-sensitive patients. 17 relevant investigations were identified, and statistical analyses were performed in a stepwise procedure. 9 studies were included in the final...... of the doses that, theoretically, would cause systemic contact dermatitis in exposed nickel-sensitive patients. The results from the 2 most sensitive groups show that 1% of these individuals may react with systemic contact dermatitis at normal daily nickel exposure from drinking water and diet, i.e. 0...

  5. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2017-08-22

    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  6. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  7. Non-contact finger vein acquisition system using NIR laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiman; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Park, Sangyun; Noh, SeungWoo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Taejeong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Authentication using finger vein pattern has substantial advantage than other biometrics. Because human vein patterns are hidden inside the skin and tissue, it is hard to forge vein structure. But conventional system using NIR LED array has two drawbacks. First, direct contact with LED array raise sanitary problem. Second, because of discreteness of LEDs, non-uniform illumination exists. We propose non-contact finger vein acquisition system using NIR laser and Laser line generator lens. Laser line generator lens makes evenly distributed line laser from focused laser light. Line laser is aimed on the finger longitudinally. NIR camera was used for image acquisition. 200 index finger vein images from 20 candidates are collected. Same finger vein pattern extraction algorithm was used to evaluate two sets of images. Acquired images from proposed non-contact system do not show any non-uniform illumination in contrary with conventional system. Also results of matching are comparable to conventional system. We developed Non-contact finger vein acquisition system. It can prevent potential cross contamination of skin diseases. Also the system can produce uniformly illuminated images unlike conventional system. With the benefit of non-contact, proposed system shows almost equivalent performance compared with conventional system.

  8. High Dk piggyback contact lens system for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengor, Tomris; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat; Ozkurt, Yelda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the clinical success of high Dk (oxygen permeability) piggyback contact lens (PBCL) systems for the correction of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. Sixteen patients (29 eyes) who were not able to wear gas-permeable rigid lenses were included in this study. Hyper Dk silicone hydrogel (oxygen transmissibility or Dk/t = 150 units) and fluorosilicone methacrylate copolymer (Dk/t = 100 units) lenses were chosen as the PBCL systems. The clinical examinations included visual acuity and corneal observation by biomicroscopy, keratometer reading, and fluorescein staining before and after fitting the PBCL system. INDICATIONS FOR USING PBCL SYSTEM WERE: lens stabilization and comfort, improving comfort, and adding protection to the cone. Visual acuities increased significantly in all of the patients compared with spectacles (P = 0). Improvement in visual acuity compared with rigid lenses alone was recorded in 89.7% of eyes and no alteration of the visual acuity was observed in 10.3% of the eyes. Wearing time of PBCL systems for most of the patients was limited time (mean 6 months, range 3-12 months); thereafter they tolerated rigid lenses alone except for 2 patients. The PBCL system is a safe and effective method to provide centering and corneal protection against mechanical trauma by the rigid lenses for keratoconus patients and may increase contact lens tolerance.

  9. A gradient stable scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Min

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, an efficient numerical scheme is designed for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,4]. The nonlinear version of the scheme is semi-implicit in time and is based on a convex splitting of the Cahn-Hilliard free energy (including the boundary energy) together with a projection method for the Navier-Stokes equations. We show, under certain conditions, the scheme has the total energy decaying property and is unconditionally stable. The linearized scheme is easy to implement and introduces only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy and stability of the scheme. The behavior of the solution near the contact line is examined. It is verified that, when the interface intersects with the boundary, the consistent splitting scheme [21,22] for the Navier Stokes equations has the better accuracy for pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Non-contact and contact measurement system for detecting projectile position in electromagnetic launch bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Yuan, Weiqun; Xu, Rong; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Wenping; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhao, Ying; Yan, Ping

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces a new measurement system for measuring the position of a projectile within a rapid fire electromagnetic launching system. The measurement system contains both non-contact laser shading and metal fiber contact measurement devices. Two projectiles are placed in the rapid fire electromagnetic launch bore, one in the main accelerating segment and the other in the pre-loading segment. The projectile placed in the main accelerating segment should be shot first, and then the other is loaded into the main segment from the pre-loading segment. The main driving current (I-main) can only be discharged again when the second projectile has arrived at the key position (the projectile position corresponds to the discharging time) in the main accelerating segment. So, it is important to be able to detect when the second projectile arrives at the key position in the main accelerating segment. The B-dot probe is the most widely used system for detecting the position of the projectile in the electromagnetic launch bore. However, the B-dot signal is affected by the driving current amplitude and the projectile velocity. There is no current in the main accelerating segment when the second projectile moves into this segment in rapid fire mode, so the B-dot signal for detecting the key position is invalid. Due to the presence of a high-intensity magnetic field, a high current, a high-temperature aluminum attachment, smoke and strong vibrations, it is very difficult to detect the projectile position in the bore accurately. So, other measurements need to be researched and developed in order to achieve high reliability. A measurement system based on a laser (non-contact) and metal fibers (contact) has been designed, and the integrated output signal based on this detector is described in the following paper.

  11. Lead-germanium ohmic contact on to gallium arsenide formed by the solid phase epitaxy of germanium: A microstructure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Fabian

    2000-12-01

    Driven by the remarkable growth in the telecommunication market, the demand for more complex GaAs circuitry continued to increase in the last decade. As a result, the GaAs industry is faced with new challenges in its efforts to fabricate devices with smaller dimensions that would permit higher integration levels. One of the limiting factors is the ohmic contact metallurgy of the metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET), which, during annealing, induces a high degree of lateral diffusion into the substrate. Because of its limited reaction with the substrate, the Pd-Ge contact seems to be the most promising candidate to be used in the next generation of MESFET's. The Pd-Ge system belongs to a new class of ohmic contacts to compound semiconductors, part of an alloying strategy developed only recently, which relies on solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and solid phase regrowth to "un-pin" the Fermi level at the surface of the compound semiconductor. However, implementing this alloy into an integrated process flow proved to be difficult due to our incomplete understanding of the microstructure evolution during annealing and its implications on the electrical properties of the contact. The microstructure evolution and the corresponding solid state reactions that take place during annealing of the Pd-Ge thin films on to GaAs were studied in connection with their effects on the electrical properties of the ohmic contact. The phase transformations sequence, transition temperatures and activation energies were determined by combining differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for thermal analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for microstructure identification. In-situ TEM annealing experiments on the Pd/Ge/Pd/GaAs ohmic contact system have permitted real time determination of the evolution of contact microstructure. The kinetics of the solid state reactions, which occur during ohmic contact formation, were determined by measuring the grain growth rates

  12. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Han, Se Eun; Kim, Young Il; Nam-Goong, Il Sung; Kim, Eun Sook; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombotic risk. As contact system activation through formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) has emerged as an important trigger of thrombosis, we hypothesized that the contact system is activated along with active NET formation in hyperthyroidism and that their markers correlate with disease severity. In 61 patients with hyperthyroidism and 40 normal controls, the levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, and factor VII, VIII, IX, XI and XII), D-dimer, thrombin generation assay (TGA) markers, NET formation markers (histone-DNA complex, double-stranded DNA and neutrophil elastase) and contact system markers (activated factor XII (XIIa), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein and bradykinin) were measured. Patients with hyperthyroidism showed higher levels of fibrinogen (median (interquartile range), 315 (280-344) vs 262 (223-300), P  = 0.001), D-dimer (103.8 (64.8-151.5) vs 50.7 (37.4-76.0), P  hyperthyroidism's contribution to coagulation and contact system activation. Free T4 was significantly correlated with factors VIII and IX, D-dimer, double-stranded DNA and bradykinin. This study demonstrated that contact system activation and abundant NET formation occurred in the high thrombin generation state in hyperthyroidism and were correlated with free T4 level. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Contact size scaling of a W-contact phase-change memory cell based on numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yiqun; Lin Xinnan; Jia Yuchao; Cui Xiaole; Zhang Xing; Song Zhitang

    2012-01-01

    In the design of phase-change memory (PCM), it is important to perform numerical simulations to predict the performances of different device structures. This work presents a numerical simulation using a coupled system including Poisson's equation, the current continuity equation, the thermal conductivity equation, and phase-change dynamics to simulate the thermal and electric characteristics of phase-change memory. This method discriminates the common numerical simulation of PCM cells, from which it applies Possion's equation and current continuity equations instead of the Laplace equation to depict the electric characteristics of PCM cells, which is more adoptable for the semiconductor characteristics of phase-change materials. The results show that the simulation agrees with the measurement, and the scalability of PCM is predicted.

  14. Contact and friction in systems with fibre reinforced elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Pareja, Natalia Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The tribological behaviour (contact and friction) of systems that include fibre reinforced elastomers is studied in this thesis. The elastomer composite is considered to behave as a viscoelastic anisotropic continuum material. In the defined tribo-system, the most influential friction mechanism is

  15. Experimental and Analytical Study of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitrian; Dostal, Vaclav; Takahashi, Minoru

    The characteristics of lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi)-water boiling two-phase flow were investigated experimentally and analytically using a Pb-Bi-water direct contact boiling two-phase flow loop. Pb-Bi flow rates and void fraction were measured in a vertical circular tube at conditions of system pressure 7MPa, liquid metal temperature 460°C and injected water temperature 220°C. The drift-flux model with the assumption that bubble sizes were dependent on the fluid surface tension and the density ratio of Pb-Bi to steam-water mixture was chosen and modified by the best fit to the measured void fraction. Pb-Bi flow rates were analytically estimated using balance condition between buoyancy force and pressure losses, where the buoyancy force was calculated from void fraction estimated using the modified drift-flux model. The deviation of the analytical results of the flow rates from the experimental ones was less than 10%.

  16. Video Conference System that Keeps Mutual Eye Contact Among Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Yahagi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel video conference system is developed. Suppose that three people A, B, and C attend the video conference, the proposed system enables eye contact among every pair. Furthermore, when B and C chat, A feels as if B and C were facing each other (eye contact seems to be kept among B and C. In the case of a triangle video conference, the respective video system is composed of a half mirror, two video cameras, and two monitors. Each participant watches other participants' images that are reflected by the half mirror. Cameras are set behind the half mirror. Since participants' image (face and the camera position are adjusted to be the same direction, eye contact is kept and conversation becomes very natural compared with conventional video conference systems where participants' eyes do not point to the other participant. When 3 participants sit at the vertex of an equilateral triangle, eyes can be kept even for the situation mentioned above (eye contact between B and C from the aspect of A. Eye contact can be kept not only for 2 or 3 participants but also any number of participants as far as they sit at the vertex of a regular polygon.

  17. Process Intensification. Continuous Two-Phase Catalytic Reactions in a Table-Top Centrifugal Contact Separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, Gerard N.; Schuur, Boelo; van Zwol, Floris; Haak, Robert M.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Heeres, Hero J.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Prunier, ML

    2009-01-01

    Production of fine chemicals is mostly performed in batch reactors. Use of continuous processes has many advantages which may reduce the cost of production. We have developed the use of centrifugal contact separators (CCSs) for continuous two-phase catalytic reactions. This equipment has previously

  18. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Guilarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems. Mast cell heparin released upon activation provides negatively charged surfaces for factor XII (FXII binding and auto-activation. Activated FXII, the initiating serine protease in both the contact and the intrinsic coagulation system, activates factor XI and prekallikrein, respectively. FXII-mediated bradykinin (BK formation has been proven in the human plasma of anaphylactic patients as well as in experimental models of anaphylaxis. Moreover, the severity of anaphylaxis is correlated with the increase in plasma heparin, BK formation and the intensity of contact system activation. FXII also activates plasminogen in the fibrinolysis system. Mast cell tryptase has been shown to participate in fibrinolysis through plasmin activation and by facilitating the degradation of fibrinogen. Some usual clinical manifestations in anaphylaxis, such as angioedema or hypotension, or other less common, such as metrorrhagia, may be explained by the direct effect of the activation of the coagulation and contact system driven by mast cell mediators.

  20. Novel Sn-Based Contact Structure for GeTe Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchi, Hamed; Cooley, Kayla A; Ding, Zelong; Molina, Alex; Mohney, Suzanne E

    2018-05-16

    Germanium telluride (GeTe) is a phase change material (PCM) that has gained recent attention because of its incorporation as an active material for radio frequency (RF) switches, as well as memory and novel optoelectronic devices. Considering PCM-based RF switches, parasitic resistances from Ohmic contacts can be a limiting factor in device performance. Reduction of the contact resistance ( R c ) is therefore critical for reducing the on-state resistance to meet the requirements of high-frequency RF applications. To engineer the Schottky barrier between the metal contact and GeTe, Sn was tested as an interesting candidate to alter the composition of the semiconductor near its surface, potentially forming a narrow band gap (0.2 eV) SnTe or a graded alloy with SnTe in GeTe. For this purpose, a novel contact stack of Sn/Fe/Au was employed and compared to a conventional Ti/Pt/Au stack. Two different premetallization surface treatments of HCl and deionized (DI) H 2 O were employed to make a Te-rich and Ge-rich interface, respectively. Contact resistance values were extracted using the refined transfer length method. The best results were obtained with DI H 2 O for the Sn-based contacts but HCl treatment for the Ti/Pt/Au contacts. The as-deposited contacts had the R c (ρ c ) of 0.006 Ω·mm (8 × 10 -9 Ω·cm 2 ) for Sn/Fe/Au and 0.010 Ω·mm (3 × 10 -8 Ω·cm 2 ) for Ti/Pt/Au. However, the Sn/Fe/Au contacts were thermally stable, and their resistance decreased further to 0.004 Ω·mm (4 × 10 -9 Ω·cm 2 ) after annealing at 200 °C. In contrast, the contact resistance of the Ti/Pt/Au stack increased to 0.012 Ω·mm (4 × 10 -8 Ω·cm 2 ). Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the interfacial reactions between the metals and GeTe. It was found that formation of SnTe at the interface, in addition to Fe diffusion (doping) into GeTe, is likely responsible for the superior performance of Sn/Fe/Au contacts, resulting in one of the lowest reported

  1. Continuous control systems for non-contact ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodkin, Vladimir L.; Yakovleva, Galina V.; Smirnov, Alexey S.

    2017-03-01

    South Ural State University is still conducting the research work dedicated to innovations in biomedicine. Development of system for continuous control and diagnosis of the functional state in large groups of people is based on studies of non-contact ECG recording reported by the authors at the SPIE conference in 2016. The next stage of studies has been performed this year.

  2. Metal Allergy and Systemic Contact Dermatitis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST, have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST.

  3. Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System: Contact Management Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System Contact Management Function Tab Lamoureux CAE Integrated Enterprise Solutions...Contract Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-C190 July 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the...i Abstract …….. The VICTORIA Class Submarines (VCS) are subject to a continuing program of technical upgrades. One such program is

  4. Phase-coherent electron transport through metallic atomic-sized contacts and organic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, F.

    2007-02-02

    This work is concerned with the theoretical description of systems at the nanoscale, in particular the electric current through atomic-sized metallic contacts and organic molecules. In the first part, the characteristic peak structure in conductance histograms of different metals is analyzed within a tight-binding model. In the second part, an ab-initio method for quantum transport is developed and applied to single-atom and single-molecule contacts. (orig.)

  5. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, D.J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO{sub 2} brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  6. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO 2 brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  7. Non-contact Measurement of Remaining Thickness of Corroding Superheater Tubes. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borggreen, Kjeld; Storesund, Jan

    2006-10-15

    Corrosion of superheaters has become a severe problem in many biomass boilers and incineration plants. This new situation calls for frequent tube wall thickness testing of the superheaters during very short shut-downs. To meet this demand Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) candidates as substitute for conventional manually operated contact UT-transducers. The EMAT can contactlessly generate an ultrasonic wave in the interphase between the external oxide and the metal. This means that measurements can be undertaken much quicker and with a much higher coverage simultaneously, without preceding blast operations. It is the aim of the project to demonstrate the usefulness of two simple EMAT systems, Panametrics and Sonatest, for fast and reliable tube thickness inspections in difficult-to-access superheater sections. The present Phase 1 of the project involves testing of the performance of the two systems in laboratory with the following results: 1. Both instruments work well on plate, tube, and pipe samples assuming the presence of an external oxide layer formed at a temperature above approximately 400 deg C. 2. Both instruments work well on all types of ferritic and martensitic steels but not on austenitic steels. 3. Both instruments work well independent of the thickness of the active oxide layer. 4. Both instruments work well independent of tube diameter, wall thickness, and sample width. 5. Both instruments work well over a very large range of wall thicknesses. Minimum tube wall thickness is less than 1.8 mm. 6. The tolerable lift-off (free distance between transducer and tube surface) is 2.4 - 3.0 mm for Panametrics system and 3.6 - 4.8 mm for Sonatest's system. The tolerable lift-off is a measure of the thickness of ash deposits, which can be tolerated on the tube surface as well as the misplacement, which can be tolerated in case of remote tube testing. 7. The tolerable off-set between tube axis and probe axis is very large for both instruments (10

  8. The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyugai Zemfira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wettability of soil affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. Wettability of surface is usually expressed in terms of contact angle (CA measurement. If the CA between liquid and solid surface is less than 90°, the surface is called hydrophilic, otherwise the surface is called hydrophobic. If the CA of water droplet on hydrophilic surface is in a range of 0-30° this surface is called superhydrophilic. In case of superhydrophobic surfaces the CA exceeds 150° that means that these surfaces are extremely difficult to wet. CA of wetting of mineral soil particles depends on the overlying organic and iron compounds. The object of study is a sample of the humus-accumulative horizon of typical chernozem (Kursk, Russia and two samples (horizons A1, B2 of red ferrallitic soils (Fr. Norfolk, NE Oceania. The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, forms of non-silicate iron and hydrophobic-hydrophilic composition of humic substances. CA of wetting was determined in the intact samples and after removal of organic matter (H2O2 treatment, amorphous and crystallized forms of iron. Static contact angles were determined with the sessile drop method using a digital goniometer (Drop Shape Analysis System, DSA100, Krüss GmbH, Hamburg, Germany. The contact angle was calculated by the Young–Laplace method (fitting of Young–Laplace equation to the drop shape. The measurements were repeated 10-15 times for every sample. Oxidation of organic matter (H2O2 treatment causes an increase in the values of CA of wetting (in chernozem from 9.3 to 28,0-29.5º, in ferrallitic soil from 18.0 − 27.3 to 22.4 − 33.4º. CA remained constant for chernozem and slightly decreased in the case of ferrallitic soil, when the removal of amorphous and crystallized forms of iron was performed on samples pretreated with H2O2. CA increase occurs after successive removal of nonsilicate forms of iron from soil samples of

  9. Non-contact Measurement of Remaining Thickness of Corroding Superheater Tubes. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borggreen, Kjeld; Storesund, Jan

    2007-12-15

    The Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) is a contactless thickness gauge for detection of corrosion on superheater tubes; it candidates as substitute for conventional manually operated contact UT transducers. It is the aim of the project to demonstrate the usefulness of two simple EMAT systems, Panametrics and Sonatest, for fast and reliable tube thickness inspections in difficult-to-access superheater sections. The present Phase 2 of the project involves testing of the systems on real compact superheaters in remote operation with the help of a mechanical manipulator designed and built for the purpose. The results are the following: - Both EMAT systems work well when tested in the field during handheld operation on tubes with a moderate thick layer of corrosion products and ash. The practical obtainable speed of cross-panel inspection of easily accessible panels is approximately 6 tubes per minute (6 thickness readings per minute). - The Sonatest system works well when tested in the field during remote operation on heavily corroded superheater tubes with thick ash layer. The Panametrics system was not found suitable for this type of field work. - The mechanical manipulator works well for cross-panel inspection of difficult-to-access superheater sections independent of the tube dimensions and the free space between the panels. In its present design it needs few improvements. - The practical obtainable speed of cross-panel inspection is 3 tubes per minute (3 thickness readings per minute). This speed is limited by the detection rate of the EMAT system and not by the travelling speed of the probe. - Scanning of tubes along their axis was never attempted, because the EMAT instruments were not capable of collecting data coming as a continuous stream. - It cannot be judged from visual alone and hardly from the service data, if a tube or a panel can be inspected by the magnetostrictive EMAT method or not. - The main contribution to failure of the EMAT inspection

  10. Dynamic Analysis of Rotor Systems Considering Ball Bearing Contact Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jongmahn; Oh, Dongho

    2013-01-01

    We propose a finite element modeling method considering the ball bearing contact mechanism, and the developed method was verified through experimental and analytical results of inner and outer race-type rotor systems. A comparison of the proposed method with conventional method reveals that there is little difference in the results of the inner race-type rotor system, but there are considerable differences in the results of the outer race-type rotor system such that predictions of greater accuracy can be made. Therefore, the proposed method can be used for accurately predicting the dynamic characteristics of an outer race-type rotary machine

  11. Composite Repair System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL has developed an innovative composite repair methodology known as the Composite Repair System (CRS). In this phase I effort, CRS is being developed for the...

  12. Contact allergy to ingredients of topical medications : results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkinson, Mark; Sanchez Perez, Javier; Schnuch, Axel; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of contact allergy to active ingredients and excipients of topical medications across Europe. MethodsRetrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies () with substances applied to

  13. Berry phase in entangled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Durstberger, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The influence of the geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, on an entangled spin-1/2 system is studied. We discuss in detail the case, where the geometric phase is generated only by one part of the Hilbert space. We are able to cancel the effects of the dynamical phase by using the 'spin-echo' method. We analyze how the Berry phase affects the Bell angles and the maximal violation of a CHSH-Bell inequality. Furthermore, we suggest an experimental realization of our setup within neutron interferometry. It is possible to create entanglement between different degrees of freedom (spin and spatial degree of freedom) for a single neutron. The influence of the geometrical phase on the entangled neutron state is tested experimentally which is work in progress. (author)

  14. National audit of a system for rectal contact brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Humbert-Vidan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Contact brachytherapy is used for the treatment of early rectal cancer. An overview of the current status of quality assurance of the rectal contact brachytherapy systems in the UK, based on a national audit, was undertaken in order to assist users in optimising their own practices. Material and methods: Four UK centres using the Papillon 50 contact brachytherapy system were audited. Measurements included beam quality, output and radiation field size and uniformity. Test frequencies and tolerances were reviewed and compared to both existing recommendations and published reviews on other kV and electronic brachytherapy systems. External validation of dosimetric measurements was provided by the National Physical Laboratory. Results: The maximum host/audit discrepancy in beam quality determination was 6.5%; this resulted in absorbed dose variations of 0.2%. The host/audit agreement in absorbed dose determination was within 2.2%. The median of the radiation field uniformity measurements was 2.7% and the host/audit agreement in field size was within 1 mm. Test tolerances and frequencies were within the national recommendations for kV units. Conclusions: The dosimetric characterisation of the Papillon 50 was validated by the audit measurements for all participating centres, thus providing reassurance that the implementation had been performed within the standards stated in previously published audit work and recommendations for kV and electronic brachytherapy units. However, optimised and standardised quality assurance testing could be achieved by reducing some methodological differences observed. Keywords: Contact brachytherapy, Electronic brachytherapy, Audit

  15. The contact area and sliding friction in nanotribological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although friction, wear, and lubrication have been investigated for hundreds of years, many important questions in the field, now dubbed tribology, remain open. Two of these are the determination of the real area of contact and the direction dependence of friction forces on the nanoscale, which are investigated in this thesis. The invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 by Binnig , Quate, and Gerber was invaluable for the investigation of frictional forces on the atomic scale, giving a boost to the emerging field of nanotribology. While experimental AFM set-ups where quickly modeled with classical molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, the use of 'ab-initio' methods on tribological problems remained scarce until recently. In this thesis density functional theory (DFT) is used to develop parameter free methods in the field of nanotribology. Since the discovery that the apparent area of contact can be orders of magnitude larger than the true area of contact, the definition and determination of the latter has been an important topic of research. While classical contact mechanics provides satisfactory theories and results for various macroscopic systems, the application of these methods to atomistic systems is dubious, as the contacting bodies are not continuous at this length scale. We developed a parameter free approach to define and calculate the real area of contact between two bodies depending on distance. Strong relaxations at distinct distances, like the j ump to contact , which is often observed in AFM experiments, are used to define the onset of contact and Bader-s Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules is used to calculate the real area of contact at a given distance. Bader's method partitions the charge density ρ unambiguously into atoms, which theoretically fill all space and thus give non zero contact areas for all distances. It is therefore necessary to use a density cutoff ρ cut which assigns all regions in space where ρ <

  16. Droplets and the three-phase contact line at the nano-scale. Statics and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Sibley, David; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the behaviour of the solid-liquid-vapour contact line at the scale of several tens of molecular diameters is important in wetting hydrodynamics with applications in micro- and nano-fluidics, including the design of lab-on-a-chip devices and surfaces with specific wetting properties. Due to the fluid inhomogeneity at the nano-scale, the application of continuum-mechanical approaches is limited, and a natural way to remedy this is to seek descriptions accounting for the non-local molecular-level interactions. Density Functional Theory (DFT) for fluids offers a statistical-mechanical framework based on expressing the free energy of the fluid-solid pair as a functional of the spatially varying fluid density. DFT allows us to investigate small drops deposited on planar substrates whilst keeping track of the microscopic structural details of the fluid. Starting from a model of intermolecular forces, we systematically obtain interfaces, surface tensions, and the microscopic contact angle. Using a dynamic extension of equilibrium DFT, we investigate the diffusion-driven evolution of the three-phase contact line to gain insight into the dynamic behaviour of the microscopic contact angle, which is still under debate.

  17. A finite-element model for moving contact line problems in immiscible two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucala, Alec

    2017-11-01

    Accurate modeling of moving contact line (MCL) problems is imperative in predicting capillary pressure vs. saturation curves, permeability, and preferential flow paths for a variety of applications, including geological carbon storage (GCS) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The macroscale movement of the contact line is dependent on the molecular interactions occurring at the three-phase interface, however most MCL problems require resolution at the meso- and macro-scale. A phenomenological model must be developed to account for the microscale interactions, as resolving both the macro- and micro-scale would render most problems computationally intractable. Here, a model for the moving contact line is presented as a weak forcing term in the Navier-Stokes equation and applied directly at the location of the three-phase interface point. The moving interface is tracked with the level set method and discretized using the conformal decomposition finite element method (CDFEM), allowing for the surface tension and the wetting model to be computed at the exact interface location. A variety of verification test cases for simple two- and three-dimensional geometries are presented to validate the current MCL model, which can exhibit grid independence when a proper scaling for the slip length is chosen. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  18. Phase transition in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of selected aspects of Phase transitions in finite systems applied in particular to the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. We show that the problem of the non existence of boundary conditions can be solved by introducing a statistical ensemble with an averaged constrained volume. In such an ensemble the microcanonical heat capacity becomes negative in the transition region. We show that the caloric curve explicitly depends on the considered transformation of the volume with the excitation energy and so does not bear direct informations on the characteristics of the phase transition. Conversely, partial energy fluctuations are demonstrated to be a direct measure of the equation of state. Since the heat capacity has a negative branch in the phase transition region, the presence of abnormally large kinetic energy fluctuations is a signal of the liquid gas phase transition. (author)

  19. Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II program we propose to develop a manufacturable production process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices? large-area, multi-junction...

  20. Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I program we propose to develop an innovative fabrication process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices' large-area, multi-junction...

  1. Phase transitions in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2002-07-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  2. Phase transitions in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Gulminelli, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  3. Gaz Phase IR and UV Spectroscopy of Neutral Contact Ion Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habka, Sana; Brenner, Valerie; Mons, Michel; Gloaguen, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Cations and anions, in solution, tend to pair up forming ion pairs. They play a crucial role in many fundamental processes in ion-concentrated solutions and living organisms. Despite their importance and vast applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry, they remain difficult to characterize namely because of the coexistence of several types of pairing in solution. However, an interesting alternative consists in applying highly selective gas phase spectroscopy which can offer new insights on these neutral ion pairs. Our study consists in characterizing contact ion pairs (CIPs) in isolated model systems (M+, Ph-(CH2)n-COO- with M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and n=1-3), to determine their spectral signatures and compare them to ion pairs in solution. We have used laser desorption to vaporize a solid tablet containing the desired salt. Structural information for each system was obtained by mass-selective, UV and IR laser spectroscopy combined with high level quantum chemistry calculations1. Evidence of the presence of neutral CIPs was found by scanning the π-π* transition of the phenyl ring using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI). Then, conformational selective IR/UV double resonance spectra were recorded in the CO2- stretch region for each conformation detected. The good agreement between theoretical data obtained at the BSSE-corrected-fullCCSD(T)/dhf-TZVPP//B97-D3/dhf-TZVPP level and experimental IR spectra led us to assign the 3D structure for each ion pair formed. Spectral signatures of (M+, Ph-CH2-COO-) pairs, were assigned to a bidentate CIPs between the alkali cation and the carboxylate group. In the case of (Li+, Ph-(CH2)3-COO-) pairs, the presence of a flexible side chain promotes a cation-π interaction leading to a tridentate O-O-π structure with its unique IR and UV signatures. IR spectra obtained on isolated CIPs were found very much alike the ones published on lithium and sodium acetate in solution2. However, in the case of sodium acetate, solution

  4. Phase equilibrium study on system uranium-plutonium-tungsten-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, Mitsuhiro

    1976-11-01

    Metallurgical properties of the U-Pu-W-C system have been studied with emphasis on phases and reactions. Free energy of compound formation, carbon activity and U/Pu segregation in the W-doped carbide fuel are estimated using phase diagram data. The results indicate that tungsten metal is useful as a thermochemical stabilizer of the carbide fuel. Tungsten has high temperature stability in contact with uranium carbide and mixed uranium-plutonium carbide. (auth.)

  5. Transportation system (TRUPACT) for contact-handled transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romesberg, L.E.; Pope, R.B.; Burgoyne, R.M.

    1982-04-01

    Contact-handled transuranic defense waste is being, and will continue to be, moved between a number of locations in the United States. The DOE is sponsoring development of safe, efficient, licensable, and cost-effective transportation systems to handle this waste. The systems being developed have been named TRUPACT which stands for TRansUranic PACkage Transporter. The system will be compatible with Type A packagings used by waste generators, interim storage facilities, and repositories. TRUPACT is required to be a Type B packaging since larger than Type A quantities of some radionuclides (particularly plutonium) may be involved in the collection of Type A packagings. TRUPACT must provide structural and thermal protection to the waste in hypothetical accident environments specified in DOT regulations 49CFR173 and NRC regulations 10CFR71. Preliminary design of the systems has been completed and final design for a truck system is underway. The status of the development program is reviewed in this paper and the reference design is described. Tests that have been conducted are discussed and long-term program objectives are reviewed

  6. POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYER STAMPING IN AQUEOUS PHASE AND NON-CONTACT MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sumit; Lee, Ilsoon; Liu, Chun; Chan, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) transfer printing has been previously achieved by stamping under dry conditions. Here, we show for the first time, that PEM can be transferred from a stamp to the base substrate under aqueous conditions whereby the two surfaces are in a non-contact mode. Degradable multilayers of (PAA/PEG)10.5 followed by non-degradable multilayers of (PDAC/SPS)80.5 were fabricated under acidic pH conditions on either PDMS or glass (stamp), and subsequently transferred over top of another multilayer prepared on a different substrate (base substrate), with a spacing of ~ 200 μm between the stamping surface and the base substrate. This multilayer transfer was performed under physiological pH conditions. This process is referred to herein as non-contact, aqueous-phase multilayer (NAM) transfer. NAM transfer can be useful for applications such as fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) cellular scaffolds. We attempted to create a 3-D cellular scaffold using NAM transfer, and characterized the scaffolds with conventional and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21860540

  7. Sliding three-phase contact line of printed droplets for single-crystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Minxuan; Wu, Lei; Li, Yifan; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Xingye; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the behaviours of printed droplets is an essential requirement for inkjet printing of delicate three-dimensional (3D) structures or high-resolution patterns. In this work, molecular deposition and crystallization are regulated by manipulating the three-phase contact line (TCL) behaviour of the printed droplets. The results show that oriented single-crystal arrays are fabricated based on the continuously sliding TCL. Owing to the sliding of the TCL on the substrate, the outward capillary flow within the evaporating droplet is suppressed and the molecules are brought to the centre of the droplet, resulting in the formation of a single crystal. This work provides a facile strategy for controlling the structures of printed units by manipulating the TCL of printed droplets, which is significant for realizing high-resolution patterns and delicate 3D structures. (paper)

  8. Three-phase Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    , detailing the different photovoltaic inverter structures and topologies as well as discussing the different control layers within a grid-connected photovoltaic plant. Modulation schemes for various photovoltaic inverter topologies, grid synchronization, current control, active and reactive power control......Photovoltaic technology has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades, transforming from mainly off-grid niche generation to a major renewable energy technology, reaching approximately 180 GW of capacity worldwide at the end of 2014. Large photovoltaic power plants interfacing...... the grid through a three-phase power electronic converter are now well on the way to becoming a major player in the power system in many countries. Therefore, this article gives an overview of photovoltaic systems with a focus on three-phase applications, presenting these both from a hardware point of view...

  9. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  10. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr)

  11. Contact lenses as drug controlled release systems: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Prior Filipe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Topically applied therapy is the most common way to treat ocular diseases, however given the anatomical and physiological constraints of the eye, frequent dosing is required with possible repercussions in terms of patient compliance. Beyond refractive error correction, contact lenses (CLs have, in the last few decades emerged as a potential ophthalmic drug controlled release system (DCRS. Extensive research is underway to understand how to best modify CLs to increase residence time and bioavailability of drugs within therapeutic levels on the ocular surface.These devices may simultaneously correct ametropia and have a role in managing ophthalmic disorders that can hinder CL wear such as dry eye, glaucoma, ocular allergy and cornea infection and injury. In this narrative review the authors explain how the ocular surface structures determine drug diffusion in the eye and summarize the strategies to enhance drug residence time and bioavailability. They synthesize findings and clinical applications of drug soaked CLs as DCRS combined with delivery diffusion barriers, incorporation of functional monomers, ion related controlled release, molecular imprinting, nanoparticles and layering. The authors draw conclusions about the impact of these novel ophthalmic agents delivery systems in improving drug transport in the target tissue and patient compliance, in reducing systemic absorption and undesired side effects, and discuss future perspectives.

  12. A Simple Approach to Characterize Gas-Aqueous Liquid Two-phase Flow Configuration Based on Discrete Solid-Liquid Contact Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.

  13. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  14. Study on direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling dense-array solar cells under high concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xue; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Shi, Xusheng; Sun, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling for solar cells was proposed. • A self-regulating system investigated the feasibility in temperature control. • Temperature was well controlled between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C. • Surface heat transfer coefficient was up to 23.49 kW/(m"2·K) under 398.4×. • A model illustrated the interface function was the main reason to affect light. - Abstract: A new cooling method by directly immersing the solar cells into phase-change liquid was put forward to cool dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. A self-running system was built to study the feasibility of temperature control and the effect of bubbles generated by ethanol phase change under concentration ratio ranged between 219.8× and 398.4×. The results show that the cooling system is self-regulating without consuming extra energy and ethanol flow rate reaches up to 180.6 kg/(s·m"2) under 398.4×. The temperature of solar cells distributes in the range between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C, the surface heat transfer coefficient of electric heating plate is up to 23.49 kW/(m"2·K) under 398.4×. The bubble effect on electrical performance of triple-junction solar cells is reported and the results show that I_s_c and P_m_a_x decline 10.2% and 7.3%, respectively. A model based on bubble images illustrates that light loss at the interface between ethanol and bubble is the main reason to cut down the electrical performance.

  15. Dynamic Multi-Rigid-Body Systems with Concurrent Distributed Contacts: Theory and Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRINKLE, JEFFREY C.; TZITZOURIS, J.A.; PANG, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Consider a system of rigid bodies with multiple concurrent contacts. The multi-rigid-body contact problem is to predict the accelerations of the bodies and the normal friction loads acting at the contacts. This paper presents theoretical results for the multi-rigid-body contact problem under the assumptions that one or more contacts occur over locally planar, finite regions and that friction forces are consistent with the maximum work inequality. Existence and uniqueness results are presented for this problem under mild assumptions on the system inputs. In addition, the performance of two different time-stepping methods for integrating the dynamics are compared on two simple multi-body systems

  16. New contact system in crude oil desalting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, J; Duque; Diaz, J; Nunez, A; Guarin, F; Carvajal, F

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the ICP contactor and the mixture valve on the desalting process was evaluated as a contact system in the crude oil washing process. The evaluation was carried out in the two desalters at the Cartagena refinery (GRC) and a desalter at the Barrancabermeja refinery (GCB) of ECOPETROL. The pressure drop was measured and the efficiency of the desalting processes, dehydration and hydrocarbon crude intake in the water was calculated based on the BS and W measurement, salt content and hydrocarbon concentration in the water. Results showed that the contactor improved desalting, water in the crude oil was reduced and crude carry-over in the wastewater was reduced between 50 and 92% at the Barrancabermeja refinery, and between 40 and 95% at the Cartagena refinery, which mean savings of approximately us$ 373.000 dollars per year at both refineries, due to the fact that less water is loaded into the process. Furthermore, hydrocarbon 1055 in wastewater was reduced by about 3650 barrels per year. The pressure drop was reduced between 88 and 94 % in relation to the mixing valve

  17. In Situ Local Contact Angle Measurement in a CO2-Brine-Sand System Using Microfocused X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pengfei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Shuyang; Jiang, Lanlan; Chen, Junlin; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-11

    The wettability of porous media is of major interest in a broad range of natural and engineering applications. The wettability of a fluid on a solid surface is usually evaluated by the contact angle between them. While in situ local contact angle measurements are complicated by the topology of porous media, which can make it difficult to use traditional methods, recent advances in microfocused X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) and image processing techniques have made it possible to measure contact angles on the scale of the pore sizes in such media. However, the effects of ionic strength, CO 2 phase, and flow pattern (drainage or imbibition) on pore-scale contact angle distribution are still not clear and have not been reported in detail in previous studies. In this study, we employed a micro-CT scanner for in situ investigation of local contact angles in a CO 2 -brine-sand system under various conditions. The effects of ionic strength, CO 2 phase, and flow pattern on the local contact-angle distribution were examined in detail. The results showed that the local contact angles vary over a wide range as a result of the interaction of surface contaminants, roughness, pore topology, and capillarity. The wettability of a porous surface could thus slowly weaken with increasing ionic strength, and the average contact angle could significantly increase when gaseous CO 2 (gCO 2 ) turns into supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ). Contact angle hysteresis also occurred between drainage and imbibition procedures, and the hysteresis was more significant under gCO 2 condition.

  18. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2013-12-10

    Lighting system having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  19. A method to measure internal contact angle in opaque systems by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiqin; Tian, Ye; Gao, Xuefeng; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-23

    Internal contact angle is an important parameter for internal wettability characterization. However, due to the limitation of optical imaging, methods available for contact angle measurement are only suitable for transparent or open systems. For most of the practical situations that require contact angle measurement in opaque or enclosed systems, the traditional methods are not effective. Based upon the requirement, a method suitable for contact angle measurement in nontransparent systems is developed by employing MRI technology. In the Article, the method is demonstrated by measuring internal contact angles in opaque cylindrical tubes. It proves that the method also shows great feasibility in transparent situations and opaque capillary systems. By using the method, contact angle in opaque systems could be measured successfully, which is significant in understanding the wetting behaviors in nontransparent systems and calculating interfacial parameters in enclosed systems.

  20. An efficient scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem with variable density and viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Min

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient numerical method for the two phase moving contact line problem with variable density, viscosity, and slip length. The physical model is based on a phase field approach, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,5]. To overcome the difficulties due to large density and viscosity ratio, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a splitting method based on a pressure Poisson equation [11], while the Cahn-Hilliard equation is solved by a convex splitting method. We show that the method is stable under certain conditions. The linearized schemes are easy to implement and introduce only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy, stability and efficiency of the schemes. The method allows us to simulate the interface problems with extremely small interface thickness. Three dimensional simulations are included to validate the efficiency of the method. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  1. An efficient scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem with variable density and viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient numerical method for the two phase moving contact line problem with variable density, viscosity, and slip length. The physical model is based on a phase field approach, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,5]. To overcome the difficulties due to large density and viscosity ratio, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a splitting method based on a pressure Poisson equation [11], while the Cahn-Hilliard equation is solved by a convex splitting method. We show that the method is stable under certain conditions. The linearized schemes are easy to implement and introduce only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy, stability and efficiency of the schemes. The method allows us to simulate the interface problems with extremely small interface thickness. Three dimensional simulations are included to validate the efficiency of the method. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Position indicating systems and reed contact unit assemblies for such systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxworthy, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Specifications are given for a position indicating system for determining the position of a movable member inside a sealed container such as the position of a control rod in a nuclear reactor. The system comprises a magnetic flux producing member mounted to the movable member so as to move with it, a series of magnetic reed contact units mounted along the outside of the sealed container to be individually actuated by the flux producer as the movable member moves within the sealed container to indicate the position of this member. Each of the reed contact units is connected to a source of alternating electric current to produce a magnetic flux field to minimize the flux differential between the actuated and unactuated reed contact positions. A second aspect of the invention provides for a low operating flux differential reed contact unit assembly for a position indicating system such that it is actuated by the magnetic member at one magnetic flux level and deactivated at a second level. There is a source of alternating current connected to a coil surrounding the reed contact unit so as to produce an alternating magnetic flux with amplitude less than the difference between the two levels. Variations are given, also diagrams and benefits. (U.K.)

  3. Numerical modelling of single-phase flow in rough fractures with contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkiewicz, Piotr; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Fracture flow may dominate in rocks with low porosity and it can accompany both industrial and natural processes. Typical examples of such processes are natural flows in crystalline rocks and industrial flows in oil and gas production systems or hydraulic fracturing. Fracture flow provides an important mechanism for transporting mass and energy. The distribution of the apertures of fracture and contact area are the key parameters with regard to the fracture transmissivity. We use the method of correlated random fields [Mourzenko, 1996] to generate synthetic fracture geometry in 3D. The flow of an incompressible Newtonian viscous fluid in geological formation can be approximated by the Stokes, the Stokes-Brinkman or the Reynolds models. We use our own implementation of the finite element method based on MILAMIN [Dabrowski, 2008] to solve governing partial differential equation over domain. We compare the Stokes, the Stokes-Brinkamn and the Reynolds models for fracture flow based on systematic numerical simulations for a wide range of geometric parameters. Mismatch between the Reynolds and the Stokes models becomes significant with increasing fracture roughness or contact area. The Stokes-Brinkman model is more accurate than Reynolds models due to additional Laplacian term, which allows to fulfil no-slip boundary condition. We present condition when the Reynolds and the Stokes-Brinkman models are valid. In the last three decades many authors used the Reynolds equation for studying fracture flow because of its simplicity. We recommend using the Stokes-Brinkman model for fracture flow, which allows to fulfil no-slip boundary condition on asperities boundary and is more accurate for rough fractures than the Reynolds model.

  4. Analysis and hazard evaluation of heat-transfer fluids for the direct contact cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Hi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Shin, You Hwan; Karng, Sarng Woo; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Young Gil

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses several low-temperature heat-transfer fluids, including water-based inorganic salt, organic salt, alcohol/glycol mixtures, silicones, and halogenated hydrocarbons in order to choose the best heat-transfer fluid for the newly designed direct contact refrigeration system. So, it contains a survey on commercial products such as propylene glycol and potassium formate as newly used in super market and food processing refrigeration. The stability of commercial fluids at the working temperature of -20 .deg. C was monitored as a function of time up to two months. And organic and inorganic compositions of candidate fluids were obtained by analytical instruments such as ES, XRF, AAS, ICP-AES, GC, and GC-MS. Analysis results indicate that commercial propylene glycol is very efficient and safe heat transfer fluids for the direct cooling system with liquid phase

  5. Privacy Act System of Records: EPA Personnel Emergency Contact Files, EPA-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the EPA Personnel Emergency Contact Files System, including including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedure.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of contact angle and its hysteresis in two-phase flow with large viscosity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the

  7. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Travis; Lie, Donald Y C; Nguyen, Tam Q; Mayeda, Jill C; Lie, Paul E; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E

    2017-11-15

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients' long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient's vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is sleeping

  8. Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, T.; Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified approach to thermodynamic description of one, two, and three dimensional phases and phase transformations among them. The approach is based on a rigorous definition of a phase applicable to thermodynamic systems of any dimensionality. Within this approach, the same thermodynamic formalism can be applied for the description of phase transformations in bulk systems, interfaces, and line defects separating interface phases. For both lines and interfaces, we rigorously derive an adsorption equation, the phase coexistence equations, and other thermodynamic relations expressed in terms of generalized line and interface excess quantities. As a generalization of the Gibbs phase rule for bulk phases, we derive phase rules for lines and interfaces and predict the maximum number of phases than may coexist in systems of the respective dimensionality

  9. The Communication System using One Communication Line during a Physical Contact

    OpenAIRE

    平田, 隆幸; 大場, 公隆

    2009-01-01

    The communication system during a physical contact for swarm robots was modified. An algorithm for the contact communication system using one communication line was proposed. Although we don't aim to make the perfect communication system free from a miss in data transmission, the success rate of communication is an important factor for the design of communication system. We tested the performance of of our modified communication system. The success rate of communication was considerably impro...

  10. Development of a contact heat exchanger for a constructable radiator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    A development program for a contact heat exchanger to be used to transfer heat from a spacecraft coolant loop to a heat pipe radiator is described. The contact heat exchanger provides for a connectable/disconnectable joint which allows for on-orbit assembly of the radiator system and replacement or exchange of radiator panels for repair and maintenance. The contact heat exchanger does not require the transfer of fluid across the joint; the spacecraft coolant loop remains contained in an all welded system with no static or dynamic fluid seals. The contact interface is also "dry' with no conductive grease or interstitial material required.

  11. INNOVATIVE NON-CONTACT METROLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPES, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has unique non-contact precision metrology requirements for dimensionally inspecting the global position and orientation of large and highly-polished...

  12. ChemCam-like Spectrometer for Non-Contact Measurements of Key Isotopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the need for a non-contact instrument capable of measuring the isotopic ratios O-18/O-16 and D/H from water ice and other solid materials...

  13. Separation of contact in a sliding system with frictionally excited thermoelastic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voldřich J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The first phase of the thermoelastic instability, which is characterized by a full contact regime, can be modelled using Fourier decomposition and application of an analytical description. However, in case of further increase of instability, a separation of the contact occurs which is more difficult to cover by mathematical means. The contribution deals with numerical simulations of the separation. The problems are topical in connection with the disk brakes design, should we give an example.

  14. Nonlinear transport of dynamic system phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xi; Xia Jiawen

    1993-01-01

    The inverse transform of any order solution of the differential equation of general nonlinear dynamic systems is derived, realizing theoretically the nonlinear transport for the phase space of nonlinear dynamic systems. The result is applicable to general nonlinear dynamic systems, with the transport of accelerator beam phase space as a typical example

  15. Contact-handled transuranic transportation system structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT) is a Type B overpack being developed for contact-handled transuranic waste. End-on, side-on, and corner impacts of the loaded TRUPACT due to a 9 m drop onto an unyielding surface have been analyzed. In each case the analyses progressed from simplified hand approaches to successively more complex finite element calculations. The first analysis of each series represents the hand calculations which were carried out to obtain initial thicknesses of foam. The remaining analyses were performed using the dynamic and nonlinear analysis capabilities of ADINA, a structural analysis finite element computer program

  16. Phase transition in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    The general problem of the definition of a phase transition without employing the thermodynamical limit is addressed. Different necessary conditions are considered and illustrated with examples from different nuclear and general physics phenomenologies. (authors)

  17. Phase transition in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, LPC-ISMRa, CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France)

    2000-07-01

    The general problem of the definition of a phase transition without employing the thermodynamical limit is addressed. Different necessary conditions are considered and illustrated with examples from different nuclear and general physics phenomenologies. (authors)

  18. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  19. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs

  20. Describing phase coexistence in systems with small phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, R

    2007-01-01

    Clusters of atoms can be studied in molecular beams and by computer simulation; 'liquid drops' provide elementary models for atomic nuclei and for the critical nuclei of nucleation theory. These clusters are often described in thermodynamic terms, but the behaviour of small clusters near a phase boundary is qualitatively different from the behaviour at a first order phase transition in idealized thermodynamics. In the idealized case the density and entropy show mathematically sharp discontinuities when the phase boundary is crossed. In large, but finite, systems, the phase boundaries become regions of state space wherein these properties vary rapidly but continuously. In small clusters with a large surface/volume ratio, however, the positive interfacial free energy makes it unlikely, even in states on phase boundaries, that a cluster will have a heterogeneous structure. What is actually seen in these states is a structure that fluctuates in time between homogeneous structures characteristic of the two sides of the phase boundary. That is, structural fluctuations are observed. Thermodynamics only predicts average properties; statistical mechanics is required to understand these fluctuations. Failure to distinguish thermodynamic properties and characterizations of fluctuations, particularly in the context of first order phase transitions, has led to suggestions that the classical rules for thermodynamic stability are violated in small systems and that classical thermodynamics provides an inconsistent description of these systems. Much of the confusion stems from taking statistical mechanical identifications of thermodynamic properties, explicitly developed for large systems, and applying them uncritically to small systems. There are no inconsistencies if thermodynamic properties are correctly identified and the distinction between thermodynamic properties and fluctuations is made clear

  1. Determination of the mass-transfer coefficient in liquid phase in a stream-bubble contact device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. V.; Dmitrieva, O. S.; Madyshev, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    One of the most effective energy saving technologies is the improvement of existing heat and mass exchange units. A stream-bubble contact device is designed to enhance the operation efficiency of heat and mass exchange units. The stages of the stream-bubble units that are proposed by the authors for the decarbonization process comprise contact devices with equivalent sizes, whose number is determined by the required performance of a unit. This approach to the structural design eliminates the problems that arise upon the transition from laboratory samples to industrial facilities and makes it possible to design the units of any required performance without a decrease in the effectiveness of mass exchange. To choose the optimal design that provides the maximum effectiveness of the mass-exchange processes in units and their intensification, the change of the mass-transfer coefficient is analyzed with the assumption of a number of parameters. The results of the study of the effect of various structural parameters of a stream-bubble contact device on the mass-transfer coefficient in the liquid phase are given. It is proven that the mass-transfer coefficient increases in the liquid phase, in the first place, with the growth of the level of liquid in the contact element, because the rate of the liquid run-off grows in this case and, consequently, the time of surface renewal is reduced; in the second place, with an increase in the slot diameter in the downpipe, because the jet diameter and, accordingly, their section perimeter and the area of the surface that is immersed in liquid increase; and, in the third place, with an increase in the number of slots in the downpipe, because the area of the surface that is immersed in the liquid of the contact element increases. Thus, in order to increase the mass-transfer coefficient in the liquid phase, it is necessary to design the contact elements with a minimum width and a large number of slots and their increased diameter; in

  2. The CEBAF fiber optic phase reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.; Simrock, S.; Hovater, C.; Krycuk, A.

    1995-01-01

    The specified phase stability of the CEBAF RF distribution system is 2.9 degree rms per linac. Stability is achieved through the use of a temperature and pressure regulated coaxial drive line. Purpose of the fiber optic phase reference system is to monitor the relative phase at the beginning and ending of this drive line, between linacs, injector and separator to determine drift due to ambient temperature fluctuations. The system utilizes an Ortel 1310 nm single mode laser driving Sumitumo optical fiber to distribute a reference signal at 1497 MHz. Phase of this reference signal is compared to the 1427 MHz (LO) and the 70 MHz (IF) via a 360 degree phase detector. The detected information is then routed to the CEBAF control system for display with a specified resolution of ±0.2 degree over a 20 degree phase delta

  3. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  4. RF phase distribution systems at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, R.K.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1989-04-01

    Modern large linear accelerators require RF distribution systems with minimal phase drifts and errors. Through the use of existing RF coaxial waveguides, and additional installation of phase reference cables and monitoring equipment, stable RF distribution for the SLC has been achieved. This paper discusses the design and performance of SLAC systems, and some design considerations for future colliders. 6 refs., 4 figs

  5. Two-phase flow in refrigeration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie; Gan, Zhongxue

    2013-01-01

    Two-Phase Flow in Refrigeration Systems presents recent developments from the authors' extensive research programs on two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. This book covers advanced mass and heat transfer and vapor compression refrigeration systems and shows how the performance of an automotive air-conditioning system is affected through results obtained experimentally and theoretically, specifically with consideration of two-phase flow and oil concentration. The book is ideal for university postgraduate students as a textbook, researchers and professors as an academic reference book, and b

  6. Non-contacting actuation by radiation powered telemetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Zhao Chunnong; Kapitola, Peter; Jacob, John; Ju Li; Blair, David G

    2004-01-01

    In laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, local control relative to vibration isolated parts of a suspension chain may introduce noise through wires. In this paper we present a feasibility study of a wireless signal transmission method for control systems. A prototype system provides a wireless two-way signal transmission over short distances at more than 800 kbits s -1 . Wireless electric power for the system may be provided using a diode laser and solar cells with up to 33% conversion efficiency

  7. Phase behavior and phase inversion for dispersant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solheim, A.; Brandvik, P.J.

    1991-06-01

    This report describes some preliminary phase behavior studies and phase inversion temperature measurements in seawater, bunker oil and dispersant. The objectives have been to find new ways of characterizing dispersants for dispersing oil spill at sea and, perhaps, to throw new lights on the mechanism of dispersion formation (oil-in-water emulsification). The work has been focussed on the relation to phase behavior and the existence of microemulsion in equilibrium with excess oil and water phases. The dispersing process is also compared to the recommended conditions for emulsion formation. When forming an oil-in-water emulsion in an industrial process, it is recommended to choose an emulsifier which gives a phase inversion temperature (PIT) which is 20 - 60 o C higher than the actual temperature for use. The emulsification process must take place close to the PIT which is the temperature at which the emulsion change from oil-in-water emulsion to water-in-oil emulsion when the system is stirred. This condition corresponds to the temperature where the phase behavior change character. The purpose has been to find out if the composition of the dispersants corresponds to the recommendations for oil-in-water emulsification. The amount of experimental work has been limited. Two kinds of experiments have been carried out. Phase behavior studies have been done for seawater, bunker oil and four different dispersants where one had an optimal composition. The phase behavior was hard to interpret and is not recommended for standard dispersants test. The other experimental technique was PIT-measurements by conductivity measurements versus temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs

  8. Non-contact magnetic coupled power and data transferring system for an electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Sakamoto, H.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system which transmits electric power and communication data simultaneously in a non-contact method using a magnetic coupling coil. Already, we are developing the fundamental technology of a non-contact charging system, and this is applied in electric shavers, electric toothbrushes, etc. Moreover, basic experiments are being conducted for applying this non-contact charging system to electric equipments such as an electric vehicle (EV), which is a zero emission vehicle and environmentally excellent and will be the transportation means of the next generation. The technology can also be applied in other electronic equipment, etc. However, since the power supply route for these individual devices is independent, the supply system is complicated. EV also has to perform the transmission of electric power and the transmission of information (data), such as the amount of the charge, in a separate system, and thus is quite complicated. In this study, by performing simultaneously the transmission of electric power and information (data) using magnetic coupling technology in which it does not contact, the basic experiment aimed at attaining and making unification of a system simple was conducted, and the following good results were obtained: (1) Electric power required for load can be transmitted easily by non-contact. (2) A signal can easily be transmitted bidirectionally by non-contact. (3) This system is reliable, and is widely applicable

  9. Phase Noise Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Amir; Yemini, Michal

    2017-11-01

    We describe a low complexity method for time domain compensation of phase noise in OFDM systems. We extend existing methods in several respects. First we suggest using the Karhunen-Lo\\'{e}ve representation of the phase noise process to estimate the phase noise. We then derive an improved datadirected choice of basis elements for LS phase noise estimation and present its total least square counterpart problem. The proposed method helps overcome one of the major weaknesses of OFDM systems. We also generalize the time domain phase noise compensation to the multiuser MIMO context. Finally we present simulation results using both simulated and measured phased noise. We quantify the tracking performance in the presence of residual carrier offset.

  10. Evaluation of a contact device type ejector system for liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamback, Niomedes

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate an ejector system, operated simultaneously with two immiscible liquid phases and a gas phase, as a contact device for liquid-liquid extraction processes. The ejector, made of perspex, has a variable geometry, although this feature was not explored in the thesis. Motivated by recent uses of liquid-liquid extraction processes for the removal of traces of heavy metal from waste waters, it was decided to carry out tests with synthetic effluents. This strategy, typical of experimental work under evaluation of technical feasibility, greatly simplifies experiments, since the nature of the chemical species involved and their feed concentrations are known exactly and do not fluctuate. The extractant used was DEHPA (diethyl hexyl phosphoric acid). The metal chosen for tests was iron with oxidation number +3, because of its high extraction coefficient towards DEHPA and also for its chemical behavior similar to americium and other heavy metals. In addition to that, iron forms soluble coloured complexes adequate to spectrophotometric determination analysis, a simple, quick and very reliable analytical technique. The effects of electrolytes of interest, namely NaCl, FeSO 4 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 , upon the extraction process were investigated. The effects resulting from the introduction of a gas phase, actually air (bubbles), in the ejector upon the extraction efficiency were studied. By coupling advanced digital photographic technique and image analysis with microcomputer, the bubble mean size was measured. It was then correlated with equipment's geometrical (characteristic diameters) and operational variables (phases' flow rates and gas hold-ups). To enable scale-up procedures, data were preferably correlated by means of dimensionless groups. For the systems and conditions investigated in this thesis and under the same operational conditions, the introduction of air bubbles by means of an ejector has greatly improved the process

  11. Numerical Modeling of Disc Brake System in Frictional Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belhocine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyse the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor by holding account certain parameters such as; the material used, the geometric design of the disc and the mode of braking. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  12. Polyphosphate nanoparticles on the platelet surface trigger contact system activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Johan J F; Barendrecht, Arjan D; Nickel, Katrin F; Dijkxhoorn, Kim; Kenne, Ellinor; Labberton, Linda; McCarty, Owen J T; Schiffelers, Raymond; Heijnen, Harry F G; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Schellekens, Huub; Fens, Marcel H; de Maat, Steven; Renné, Thomas; Maas, Coen

    2017-01-01

    Polyphosphate is an inorganic polymer that can potentiate several interactions in the blood coagulation system. Blood platelets contain polyphosphate, and the secretion of platelet-derived polyphosphate has been associated with increased thrombus formation and activation of coagulation factor XII.

  13. Visualizing multiple inter-organelle contact sites using the organelle-targeted split-GFP system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Yuriko; Tashiro, Shinya; Kojima, Rieko; Morozumi, Yuki; Endo, Toshiya; Tamura, Yasushi

    2018-04-18

    Functional integrity of eukaryotic organelles relies on direct physical contacts between distinct organelles. However, the entity of organelle-tethering factors is not well understood due to lack of means to analyze inter-organelle interactions in living cells. Here we evaluate the split-GFP system for visualizing organelle contact sites in vivo and show its advantages and disadvantages. We observed punctate GFP signals from the split-GFP fragments targeted to any pairs of organelles among the ER, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuole and lipid droplets in yeast cells, which suggests that these organelles form contact sites with multiple organelles simultaneously although it is difficult to rule out the possibilities that these organelle contacts sites are artificially formed by the irreversible associations of the split-GFP probes. Importantly, split-GFP signals in the overlapped regions of the ER and mitochondria were mainly co-localized with ERMES, an authentic ER-mitochondria tethering structure, suggesting that split-GFP assembly depends on the preexisting inter-organelle contact sites. We also confirmed that the split-GFP system can be applied to detection of the ER-mitochondria contact sites in HeLa cells. We thus propose that the split-GFP system is a potential tool to observe and analyze inter-organelle contact sites in living yeast and mammalian cells.

  14. Blue laser phase change recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger; Dambach, S.Soeren; Richter, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The migration paths from DVD phase change recording with red laser to the next generation optical disk formats with blue laser and high NA optics are discussed with respect to optical aberration margins and disc capacities. A test system for the evaluation of phase change disks with more than 20 GB capacity is presented and first results of the recording performance are shown

  15. Automatic method for estimation of in situ effective contact angle from X-ray micro tomography images of two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanziani, Alessio; Singh, Kamaljit; Blunt, Martin J; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-06-15

    Multiphase flow in porous media is strongly influenced by the wettability of the system, which affects the arrangement of the interfaces of different phases residing in the pores. We present a method for estimating the effective contact angle, which quantifies the wettability and controls the local capillary pressure within the complex pore space of natural rock samples, based on the physical constraint of constant curvature of the interface between two fluids. This algorithm is able to extract a large number of measurements from a single rock core, resulting in a characteristic distribution of effective in situ contact angle for the system, that is modelled as a truncated Gaussian probability density distribution. The method is first validated on synthetic images, where the exact angle is known analytically; then the results obtained from measurements within the pore space of rock samples imaged at a resolution of a few microns are compared to direct manual assessment. Finally the method is applied to X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scans of two Ketton cores after waterflooding, that display water-wet and mixed-wet behaviour. The resulting distribution of in situ contact angles is characterized in terms of a mixture of truncated Gaussian densities. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  17. Contact detection acceleration in pebble flow simulation for pebble bed reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Ji, W. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering Rensselaer, Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Pebble flow simulation plays an important role in the steady state and transient analysis of thermal-hydraulics and neutronics for Pebble Bed Reactors (PBR). The Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the modified Molecular Dynamics (MD) method are widely used to simulate the pebble motion to obtain the distribution of pebble concentration, velocity, and maximum contact stress. Although DEM and MD present high accuracy in the pebble flow simulation, they are quite computationally expensive due to the large quantity of pebbles to be simulated in a typical PBR and the ubiquitous contacts and collisions between neighboring pebbles that need to be detected frequently in the simulation, which greatly restricted their applicability for large scale PBR designs such as PBMR400. Since the contact detection accounts for more than 60% of the overall CPU time in the pebble flow simulation, the acceleration of the contact detection can greatly enhance the overall efficiency. In the present work, based on the design features of PBRs, two contact detection algorithms, the basic cell search algorithm and the bounding box search algorithm are investigated and applied to pebble contact detection. The influence from the PBR system size, core geometry and the searching cell size on the contact detection efficiency is presented. Our results suggest that for present PBR applications, the bounding box algorithm is less sensitive to the aforementioned effects and has superior performance in pebble contact detection compared with basic cell search algorithm. (authors)

  18. Contact detection acceleration in pebble flow simulation for pebble bed reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Ji, W.

    2013-01-01

    Pebble flow simulation plays an important role in the steady state and transient analysis of thermal-hydraulics and neutronics for Pebble Bed Reactors (PBR). The Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the modified Molecular Dynamics (MD) method are widely used to simulate the pebble motion to obtain the distribution of pebble concentration, velocity, and maximum contact stress. Although DEM and MD present high accuracy in the pebble flow simulation, they are quite computationally expensive due to the large quantity of pebbles to be simulated in a typical PBR and the ubiquitous contacts and collisions between neighboring pebbles that need to be detected frequently in the simulation, which greatly restricted their applicability for large scale PBR designs such as PBMR400. Since the contact detection accounts for more than 60% of the overall CPU time in the pebble flow simulation, the acceleration of the contact detection can greatly enhance the overall efficiency. In the present work, based on the design features of PBRs, two contact detection algorithms, the basic cell search algorithm and the bounding box search algorithm are investigated and applied to pebble contact detection. The influence from the PBR system size, core geometry and the searching cell size on the contact detection efficiency is presented. Our results suggest that for present PBR applications, the bounding box algorithm is less sensitive to the aforementioned effects and has superior performance in pebble contact detection compared with basic cell search algorithm. (authors)

  19. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  20. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable...

  1. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  2. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  3. Structural Nervous System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL's SNS technology aids in the operation of new or existing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems by integrating data and power pathways into the structure....

  4. Development of 3D online contact measurement system for intelligent manufacturing based on stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chong, Wenyan; Ma, Yongjun

    2017-10-01

    In order to avoid shortcomings of low efficiency and restricted measuring range exsited in traditional 3D on-line contact measurement method for workpiece size, the development of a novel 3D contact measurement system is introduced, which is designed for intelligent manufacturing based on stereo vision. The developed contact measurement system is characterized with an intergarted use of a handy probe, a binocular stereo vision system, and advanced measurement software.The handy probe consists of six track markers, a touch probe and the associated elcetronics. In the process of contact measurement, the hand probe can be located by the use of the stereo vision system and track markers, and 3D coordinates of a space point on the workpiece can be mearsured by calculating the tip position of a touch probe. With the flexibility of the hand probe, the orientation, range, density of the 3D contact measurenent can be adptable to different needs. Applications of the developed contact measurement system to high-precision measurement and rapid surface digitization are experimentally demonstrated.

  5. Electronic construction collaboration system : phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This phase of the electronic collaboration project involved two major efforts: 1) implementation of AEC Sync (formerly known as Attolist), a web-based project management system (WPMS), on the Broadway Viaduct Bridge Project and the Iowa Falls Arch Br...

  6. Tactile Data Entry System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  7. Self-Tuning Threshold Method for Real-Time Gait Phase Detection Based on Ground Contact Forces Using FSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology for detecting the gait phase of human walking on level ground. The previous threshold method (TM sets a threshold to divide the ground contact forces (GCFs into on-ground and off-ground states. However, the previous methods for gait phase detection demonstrate no adaptability to different people and different walking speeds. Therefore, this paper presents a self-tuning triple threshold algorithm (STTTA that calculates adjustable thresholds to adapt to human walking. Two force sensitive resistors (FSRs were placed on the ball and heel to measure GCFs. Three thresholds (i.e., high-threshold, middle-threshold andlow-threshold were used to search out the maximum and minimum GCFs for the self-adjustments of thresholds. The high-threshold was the main threshold used to divide the GCFs into on-ground and off-ground statuses. Then, the gait phases were obtained through the gait phase detection algorithm (GPDA, which provides the rules that determine calculations for STTTA. Finally, the STTTA reliability is determined by comparing the results between STTTA and Mariani method referenced as the timing analysis module (TAM and Lopez–Meyer methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used to detect gait phases in real time and obtain high reliability when compared with the previous methods in the literature. In addition, the proposed method exhibits strong adaptability to different wearers walking at different walking speeds.

  8. Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E., E-mail: julyan.cartwright@csic.es [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC–Universidad de Granada, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Piro, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.piro@epfl.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Piro, Oreste, E-mail: piro@imedea.uib-csic.es [Departamento de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Tuval, Idan, E-mail: ituval@imedea.uib-csic.es [Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, CSIC–Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07190 Mallorca (Spain)

    2016-10-14

    In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent. - Highlights: • We extend the concept of geometric phase to maps. • For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number. • For the rotated standard map, we explore the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. • We show that the geometric phase is related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.

  9. Entransy in phase-change systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Entransy in Phase-Change Systems summarizes recent developments in the area of entransy, especially on phase-change processes. This book covers new developments in the area including the great potential for energy saving for process industries, decreasing carbon dioxide emissions, reducing energy bills and improving overall efficiency of systems. This concise volume is an ideal book for engineers and scientists in energy-related industries.

  10. Children in Greenland: disease patterns and contacts to the health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kløvgaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies of Greenlandic children’s disease pattern and contacts to the health care system are sparse and have focused on the primary health care sector. Objective: We aimed to identify the disease pattern and use of health care facilities of children aged 0–10 in two Greenlandic cohorts. Methods and design: In a retrospective, descriptive follow-up of the Ivaaq (The Greenland Child Cohort and the CLEAR (climate changes, environmental contaminants and reproductive health birth cohorts (total n=1,000, we reviewed medical records of children aged 6–10 in 2012 with residence in Nuuk or Ilulissat (n=332. Data on diseases and health care system contacts were extracted. Diagnoses were validated retrospectively. Primary health care contacts were reviewed for a random sample of 1:6. Results: In 311 children with valid social security number, the total number of health care system contacts was 12,471 equalling 4.6 contacts per child per year. The annual incidence rate of hospital admissions was 1:10 children (total n=266, 1,220 days, 4.6 days/admission, outpatient contacts 2:10 children and primary care 3.6 per child. Contacts were overall more frequent in boys compared with girls, 39.5 versus 34.6 during the study period, p=0.02. The highest annual contact rates for diseases were: hospitalisations/acute respiratory diseases 13.9:1,000; outpatient contacts/otitis media 5.1:1,000; primary care/conjunctivitis or nasopharyngitis 410:1,000 children. Outpatient screening for respiratory tuberculosis accounted 6.2:1,000, primary care non-disease (Z-diagnosis 2,081:1,000 annually. Complete adherence to the child vaccination programme was seen in 40%, while 5% did not receive any vaccinations. Conclusions: In this first study of its kind, the health care contact pattern in Greenlandic children showed a relatively high hospitalisation rate and duration per admission, and a low primary health care contact rate. The overall contact rate and

  11. Flow regimes in vertical gas-solid contact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Cankurt, N. T.; Geldart, D.; Liss, B.

    1976-01-01

    The flow characteristics in fluidized beds, i.e., gas-solid systems, was studied to determine the flow regimes, the interaction of gas and solid in the various flow regimes and the dependence of this interaction and of transition between flow regimes on the properties of the gas and solid, on the gas and solid flow rates, and on the containing vessel. Fluidized beds with both coarse and fine particles are considered. Test results using high speed photography to view the operation of a 2-dimensional bed are discussed. (LCL)

  12. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Travis; Nguyen, Tam Q.; Mayeda, Jill C.; Lie, Paul E.; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E.

    2017-01-01

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is

  13. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Hall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF non-contact vital signs (NCVS monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the

  14. Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru

  15. An energy-based equilibrium contact angle boundary condition on jagged surfaces for phase-field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Florian; Liu, Chen; Scanziani, Alessio; Alpak, Faruk O; Riviere, Beatrice

    2018-08-01

    We consider an energy-based boundary condition to impose an equilibrium wetting angle for the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes phase-field model on voxel-set-type computational domains. These domains typically stem from μCT (micro computed tomography) imaging of porous rock and approximate a (on μm scale) smooth domain with a certain resolution. Planar surfaces that are perpendicular to the main axes are naturally approximated by a layer of voxels. However, planar surfaces in any other directions and curved surfaces yield a jagged/topologically rough surface approximation by voxels. For the standard Cahn-Hilliard formulation, where the contact angle between the diffuse interface and the domain boundary (fluid-solid interface/wall) is 90°, jagged surfaces have no impact on the contact angle. However, a prescribed contact angle smaller or larger than 90° on jagged voxel surfaces is amplified. As a remedy, we propose the introduction of surface energy correction factors for each fluid-solid voxel face that counterbalance the difference of the voxel-set surface area with the underlying smooth one. The discretization of the model equations is performed with the discontinuous Galerkin method. However, the presented semi-analytical approach of correcting the surface energy is equally applicable to other direct numerical methods such as finite elements, finite volumes, or finite differences, since the correction factors appear in the strong formulation of the model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application and development of non contact angle-wide viewing system in vitreous retinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hua He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wide-angle viewing system as an important auxiliary device can clearly observe the whole fundus field of vision in vitreous surgery, which enable vitreoretinal surgery more efficient, safer and more effective. So it has very high application value in ophthalmologic operation. In this paper, we studied the development and application of wide-angle viewing system in vitreoretinal surgery in recent years, from which we summed up the advantage of non-contact wide-angle viewing system in clinical field, and pointed out the shortcomings. The ultimate goal is to make the non-contact wide-angle viewing system better applied in vitreous surgery.

  17. A Study on Adaptable Non-contact Shape Inspection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young June; Park, Nak Gyu; Lee, Dong Hwan

    2005-01-01

    A new dimension measuring method for the measurement of diameter of an object has been developed using laser triangulation. The 3D data of an object was calculated from the 2 dimensional image information obtained by the laser stripe using the laser triangulation. The system that use existing theory can measure the diameter of hole not only in a normal plane but also ill an incline plane. However, in the existing theory, since the lens with fixed feral length was used, the area of measurement was fixed. The simplest way to solve this problem is to change distance between a CCD camera and object. Other way is to use a zoom lens having variable focal length. In this paper, the zoom lens with variable focal length was used. Therefore, we ran experiment with magnification that is optimized according to size of object using zoom lens with variable focal length

  18. Cellular dynamics in the draining lymph nodes during sensitization and elicitation phases of contact hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Geisler, Carsten; Nielsen, Martin Weiss

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The different role of various immunological effector cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is receiving increased attention. During the past decade, the involvement of different cell types in CHS has been investigated by the use of antibody-induced depletion of specific subtypes...... of immunological cells and by studying knockout mice lacking one or more of these immunological cell populations. OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for studying the collective cellular dynamics of immune cells in the draining lymph nodes during CHS in intact animals. PATIENTS/METHODS: Mice were sensitized and....../or challenged with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene or oxazolone. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry we determined the proliferation, activation state, and absolute number of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells in the draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: The presented method can be applied...

  19. Oscillating systems with cointegrated phase processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Rahbek, Anders; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    We present cointegration analysis as a method to infer the network structure of a linearly phase coupled oscillating system. By defining a class of oscillating systems with interacting phases, we derive a data generating process where we can specify the coupling structure of a network...... that resembles biological processes. In particular we study a network of Winfree oscillators, for which we present a statistical analysis of various simulated networks, where we conclude on the coupling structure: the direction of feedback in the phase processes and proportional coupling strength between...... individual components of the system. We show that we can correctly classify the network structure for such a system by cointegration analysis, for various types of coupling, including uni-/bi-directional and all-to-all coupling. Finally, we analyze a set of EEG recordings and discuss the current...

  20. Computer Simulations of Contact Forces for Airbags with Different Folding Patterns During Deployment Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King H. Yang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available An explicit finite element method was used to study the neck load and the contact force between an occupant and an airbag during an out-of-position frontal automobile crash. Two different folding patterns and two different mounting angles of the airbag were simulated. For the four cases simulated, the occupant’s neck axial force ranged from 156 to 376% of the data obtained from in-position sled tests using the Hybrid III dummy. The neck shear force ranged from 87 to 229% and the neck flexion moment ranged from 68 to 127% of in-position experimental results. In both 300 mounting angle simulations, the neck axial forces were higher than that of the two simulations with 00 mounting angles, but the trend for the neck shear force was the opposite. Although the kinematics of the model appear reasonable, the numbers generated by the model must be reviewed with great caution because the model has not been fully validated.

  1. Scatterometry measurement of nested lines, dual space, and rectangular contact CD on phase-shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung M.; Yedur, Sanjay; Henrichs, Sven; Tavassoli, Malahat; Baik, Kiho

    2007-03-01

    Evaluation of lithography process or stepper involves very large quantity of CD measurements and measurement time. In this paper, we report on a application of Scatterometry based metrology for evaluation of binary photomask lithography. Measurements were made on mask level with ODP scatterometer then on wafer with CD-SEM. 4 to 1 scaling from mask to wafer means 60nm line on wafer translates to 240nm on mask, easily measurable on ODP. Calculation of scatterometer profile information was performed by a in-situ library-based analysis (5sec/site). We characterized the CD uniformity, linearity, and metal film thickness uniformity. Results show that linearity measured from fixed-pitch, varying line/space ratio targets show good correlation to top-down CD-SEM with R2 of more than 0.99. ODP-SEM correlation results for variable pitch shows that careful examination of scatterometer profile results in order to obtain better correlation to CD SEM, since both tools react differently to the target profile variation. ODP results show that global CD distribution is clearly measurable with less outliers compared to CD SEM data. This is thought to be due to 'averaging' effect of scatterometer. The data show that Scatterometry provides a nondestructive and faster mean of characterizing lithography stepper performanceprofiles. APSM 1st level (before Cr removal) 'dual-space' CDs and EPSM rectangular contacts were also measured with and results demonstrates that Scatterometer is capable of measuring these targets with reasonable correlation to SEM.

  2. Easter egg hunt dermatitis: systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with chocolate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Non-Contact Magnetic Transmission For Hybrid/Electric Rotorcraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electric propulsion has the potential to revolutionize aircraft design and architecture. A distributed electric propulsion system for a VTOL aircraft can exploit...

  4. Granular dynamics, contact mechanics and particle system simulations a DEM study

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Colin

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the Discrete Element Method (DEM) technique, a discontinuum modelling approach that takes into account the fact that granular materials are composed of discrete particles which interact with each other at the microscale level. This numerical simulation technique can be used both for dispersed systems in which the particle-particle interactions are collisional and compact systems of particles with multiple enduring contacts. The book provides an extensive and detailed explanation of the theoretical background of DEM. Contact mechanics theories for elastic, elastic-plastic, adhesive elastic and adhesive elastic-plastic particle-particle interactions are presented. Other contact force models are also discussed, including corrections to some of these models as described in the literature, and important areas of further research are identified. A key issue in DEM simulations is whether or not a code can reliably simulate the simplest of systems, namely the single particle oblique impact wit...

  5. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitsugu, Nekomoto; Satoshi, Kiriyama; Moritatsu, Nishimura; Kenji, Matsumoto; Eiji, O'shima

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have a large number of pipes. Of these small-diameter pipe branches in particular are often damaged due to high-cycle fatigue. In order to ensure the reliability of a plant it is important to detect the fatigues in pipe branches at an early stage and to develop the technology to predict and diagnose the advancement of fatigue. Further, in order to carry out the diagnosis of the piping system effectively during operation, non-contact evaluation is useful. Hence, we have developed a 'high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing', where the vibration of the pipe branch is measured using a non-contact sensor. Since the contents of the developed sensor technology has already been reported, this paper mainly describes the newly developed high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system. (authors)

  6. Contribution to the development and the modelling of an ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer for the contact inspection of 3D complex geometry components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, O.

    2005-04-01

    With the difficulties encountered for the exploration of complex shape surfaces, particularly in nuclear industry, the ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer allows a non destructive evaluation of parts with 3D complex parts. For this, one can use the Smart Contact Transducer principle to generate an ultrasonic field by adaptive dynamic focalisation, with a matrix array composed of independent elements moulded in a soft resin. This work deals with the electro-acoustic conception, with the realization of such a prototype and with the study of it's mechanical and acoustic behaviour. The array design is defined using a radiation model adapted to the simulation of contact sources on a free surface. Once one have defined the shape of the radiating elements, a vibratory analysis using finite elements method allows the determination of the emitting structure with 1-3 piezocomposite, witch leads to the realization of emitting-receiving elements. With the measurement of the field transmitted by such elements, we deduced new hypothesis to change the model of radiation. Thus one can take into account normal and tangential stresses calculated with finite element modelling at the interface between the element and the propagation medium, to use it with the semi-analytical model. Some vibratory phenomena dealing with fluid coupling of contact transducers have been studied, and the prediction of the transverse wave radiation profile have been improved. The last part of this work deals with the realization of the first prototype of the conformable phased array transducer. For this a deformation measuring system have been developed, to determine the position of each element on real time with the displacement of the transducer on complex shape surfaces. With those positions, one can perform the calculation of the a delay law intended for the adaptive dynamic focusing of the desired ultrasonic field. The conformable phased array transducer have been characterized in

  7. Development of contact scanner for Wolsung NPP alarm and annunciation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eung Se [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Contact scanner system in Wolsung NPP(model ESE-1565) is early `70 equipment so most of components are obsolete. To make 100% compatible PCBs for this system is main object of the study. Most of components used in the system are now not available in the electric market, furthermore original system maker no longer supplies spare parts. System supplier(AECL) quoted lots of money than general PCBs prices in case of spare PCBs are re-marked by canada maker. Contents and scope of the study are specifications research and system analysis, improvements of repairability and reliability, circuit design and simulations using computer aided tools(CAE), make arbitrary mechanical contacts signal generator for test system. Now the long-run test of home made PCBs are conducting at Wolsung NPP. (author). 20 refs., 42 figs.

  8. The use of contact lens telescopic systems in low vision rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Refracting telescopes are afocal compound optical systems consisting of two lenses that produce an apparent magnification of the retinal image. They are routinely used in visual rehabilitation in the form of monocular or binocular hand held low vision aids, and head or spectacle-mounted devices to improve distance visual acuity, and with slight modifications, to enhance acuity for near and intermediate tasks. Since the advent of ground glass haptic lenses in the 1930's, contact lenses have been employed as a useful refracting element of telescopic systems; primarily as a mobile ocular lens (the eyepiece), that moves with the eye. Telescopes which incorporate a contact lens eyepiece significantly improve the weight, comesis, and field of view compared to traditional spectacle-mounted telescopes, in addition to potential related psycho-social benefits. This review summarises the underlying optics and use of contact lenses to provide telescopic magnification from the era of Descartes, to Dallos, and the present day. The limitations and clinical challenges associated with such devices are discussed, along with the potential future use of reflecting telescopes incorporated within scleral lenses and tactile contact lens systems in low vision rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 3D adaptive finite element method for a phase field model for the moving contact line problems

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yi

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive finite element method for simulating the moving contact line problems in three dimensions. The model that we used is the coupled Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition(GNBC) proposed in [18]. In our algorithm, to improve the efficiency of the simulation, we use the residual type adaptive finite element algorithm. It is well known that the phase variable decays much faster away from the interface than the velocity variables. There- fore we use an adaptive strategy that will take into account of such difference. Numerical experiments show that our algorithm is both efficient and reliable. © 2013 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  10. GPS synchronized power system phase angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.

  11. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Masanori; Nishimura, Moritatsu; Matsumoto, Kenji; O'shima, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have a large number of pipes. These small-diameter pipe branches in particles are often damaged due to high-cycle fatigue. In order to ensure the reliability of a plant it is important to detect fatigue damages in pipe branches at an early stage and to develop the technology to predict and diagnose the advancement of fatigue. Further, in order to carry out the diagnosis of the piping system effectively during operation, non-contact evaluation is useful. Hence, we have developed a ''high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing'', which measures the vibration of the pipe branch using a non-contact sensor. (author)

  12. Oil Contact Angles in a Water-Decane-Silicon Dioxide System: Effects of Surface Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shijing; Wang, Jingyao; Wu, Jiazhong; Liu, Qingjie; Sun, Chengzhen; Bai, Bofeng

    2018-04-19

    Oil wettability in the water-oil-rock systems is very sensitive to the evolution of surface charges on the rock surfaces induced by the adsorption of ions and other chemical agents in water flooding. Through a set of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal the effects of surface charge on the oil contact angles in an ideal water-decane-silicon dioxide system. The results show that the contact angles of oil nano-droplets have a great dependence on the surface charges. As the surface charge density exceeds a critical value of 0.992 e/nm 2 , the contact angle reaches up to 78.8° and the water-wet state is very apparent. The variation of contact angles can be confirmed from the number density distributions of oil molecules. With increasing the surface charge density, the adsorption of oil molecules weakens and the contact areas between nano-droplets and silicon dioxide surface are reduced. In addition, the number density distributions, RDF distributions, and molecular orientations indicate that the oil molecules are adsorbed on the silicon dioxide surface layer-by-layer with an orientation parallel to the surface. However, the layered structure of oil molecules near the silicon dioxide surface becomes more and more obscure at higher surface charge densities.

  13. Drug-elicited systemic allergic (contact) dermatitis - update and possible pathomechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibach, H.I.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2008-01-01

    . A heterogeneous clinical picture, in combination with limited insight to its pathomechanisms, makes such systemic reactions an area in need of further study. This article summarizes knowledge about systemic dermatitis elicited by drugs, with a special emphasis on possible pathomechanisms. A list of putative...... be misleading because skin contact is not a prerequisite, we suggest that the term 'systemic allergic dermatitis' should be used in the future Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  14. Teaching Standard Italian to Dialect Speakers: A Pedagogical Perspective of Linguistic Systems in Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Marcel

    1974-01-01

    The teaching of standard Italian to speakers of Italian dialects both in Italy and in North America is discussed, specifically through a specialized pedagogical program within the framework of a sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic perspective, and based on a structural analysis of linguistic systems in contact. Italian programs in Toronto are…

  15. Incipient offending among schizophrenia patients after first contact to the psychiatric hospital system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    The study examines how age, sex and substance use disorder are associated with the risk of committing a criminal offence. The study explicitly examines the risk after the first contact to the psychiatric hospital system and after the diagnosis of schizophrenia for those with no previous criminal ...

  16. Development and Significance of the E-surveillance System for Contact Allergies in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugonik, Aleksandra; Kalač Pandurovič, Maja; Vok, Marko; Dugonik, Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the development and significance of online systems for the collection and analysis of medical data (patch test results) with a web application. Modern digital tools greatly aid in collecting, combining, and preserving the data in a way that is friendly, undemanding and time-efficient for the dermatologist. Creating a central database for the results of patch testing provides a better picture of contact sensitivity and characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis in Slovenia. An electronic database and connected network was started in Slovenia in 2010. Data from skin allergy units since 2000 has also been included retrospectively. At present (Oct 2016), the database contains the data of 19,772 patch tests performed by seven skin allergy units. Creating a central database of the results of patch testing provides a larger and therefore more credible collection of data. Immediate integration and data processing enable a current overview of contact sensitivity for each participating center as well as at the national level. Data can be easily transferred to other databases or edited with other software tools. This on-line register has worked flawlessly for more than five years. We have contributed data to the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network database since 2012, which, along with the Deutsche Kontaktallergie-Gruppe system of collecting patch test data for German-speaking countries, represents the only multicenter surveillance system of patch test results in Europe.

  17. Data for chromosome contacts and matched transcription profiles at three cell cycle phases in the fission yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph S. Grand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertains to Grand et al. (2014, “Chromosome conformation maps in fission yeast reveal cell cycle dependent sub nuclear structure” [1]. Temperature sensitive Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell division cycle (cdc mutants, which are induced by a shift in temperature to 36 °C, were chosen for the analysis of genome structure in the G1 phase, G2 phase and mitotic anaphase of the cell cycle. Chromatin and total RNA were isolated from the same cell culture following synchronization. Two biological replicates were analyzed for each condition. The global, three-dimensional organization of the chromosomes was captured at high resolution using Genome Conformation Capture (GCC. GCC libraries and RNA samples were sequenced using an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform (Beijing Genomics Institute (China. DNA sequences were processed using the Topography suite v1.19 [2] to obtain chromosome contact frequency matrices. RNA sequences were processed using the Cufflinks pipeline [3] to measure gene transcript levels and how these varied between the conditions. All sequence data, processed GCC and transcriptome files are available under the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO accession number GSE52287 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE52287.

  18. Citizen Relationship Management System Users’ Contact Channel Choices: Digital Approach or Call Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ning Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many municipal governments adopted 311 decades ago and have advocated access equality in citizens’ use of 311. However, the role of citizens in the development and usage of 311 remains limited. Channel choices have been discussed in various types of governmental information and communication technologies (ICTs, especially when the innovative technology has just been adopted. Much has supported the idea that 311 is viewed as a method of digital civic engagement that many municipal governments adopt to maintain citizen relationship management and the capacity for government service delivery. However, we are still unclear about how citizens use it. This study applies the theory of channel expansion to examine how San Francisco residents use the 311 system, and how citizens’ technology experiences impact their 311 digital contact channel choices rather than the 311 hotline contact channel choice. In addition, we discuss major issues in citizens’ 311 contact choices, so that 311 municipal governments may draw lessons from the San Francisco experience.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of rotor system supported by angular contact ball bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Han, Qinkai; Zhou, Daning

    2017-02-01

    In current bearing dynamic models, the displacement coordinate relations are usually utilized to approximately obtain the contact deformations between the rolling element and raceways, and then the nonlinear restoring forces of the rolling bearing could be calculated accordingly. Although the calculation efficiency is relatively higher, the accuracy is lower as the contact deformations should be solved through iterative analysis. Thus, an improved nonlinear dynamic model is presented in this paper. Considering the preload condition, surface waviness, Hertz contact and elastohydrodynamic lubrication, load distribution analysis is solved iteratively to more accurately obtain the contact deformations and angles between the rolling balls and raceways. The bearing restoring forces are then obtained through iteratively solving the load distribution equations at every time step. Dynamic tests upon a typical rotor system supported by two angular contact ball bearings are conducted to verify the model. Through comparisons, the differences between the nonlinear dynamic model and current models are also pointed out. The effects of axial preload, rotor eccentricity and inner/outer waviness amplitudes on the dynamic response are discussed in detail.

  20. Active Control of Contact Force for a Pantograph-Catenary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the high speed trains depends critically on the quality of the contact in the pantograph-catenary interaction. Maintaining a constant contact force needs taking special measures and one of the methods is to utilize active control to optimize the contact force. A number of active control methods have been proposed in the past decade. However, the primary objective of these methods has been to reduce the variation of the contact force in the pantograph-catenary system, ignoring the effects of locomotive vibrations on pantograph-catenary dynamics. Motivated by the problems in active control of vibration in large scale structures, the author has developed a geometric framework specifically targeting the remote vibration suppression problem based only on local control action. It is the intention of the paper to demonstrate its potential in the active control of the pantograph-catenary interaction, aiming to minimize the variation of the contact force while simultaneously suppressing the vibration disturbance from the train. A numerical study is provided through the application to a simplified pantograph-catenary model.

  1. Approach to equilibrium in models of a system in contact with a heat bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.; Lebowitz, J.L.; Ravishankar, K.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate simple model systems in contact with an infinite heat bath. The former consists of a finite number of particles in a bounded region Λ of R/sup d/, d = 1, 2. The heat baths are infinite particle systems which can penetrate Λ and interact with the system via elastic collisions. Outside Λ the particles move freely and have a Gibbs probability measure prior to entering Λ. We show that starting from almost any initial configuration, the system approaches, as t → ∞, the appropriate Gibbs distribution. The combined system plus bath is Bernoulli

  2. Analytical model development of an eddy-current-based non-contacting steel plate conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lin, S.-Y.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Hwang, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    A concise model for analyzing and predicting the quasi-static electromagnetic characteristics of an eddy-current-based non-contacting steel plate conveyance system has been developed. Confirmed by three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA), adequacy of the analytical model can be demonstrated. Such an effective approach, which can be conveniently used by the potential industries for preliminary system operational performance evaluations, will be essential for designers and on-site engineers

  3. Phase transition signals of finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot-Flandrois, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    Phase transitions are universal properties of interacting matter. They are well described if the considered system is infinite, by using standard thermodynamics. But in the case of small systems like atomic nuclei, this formalism cannot be applied anymore. Our aim is to propose a statistical mechanics approach in order to define the thermodynamical features of small open systems subject to non-saturating forces. We concentrate in particular on the definition and characterization for such systems of phase transitions belonging to the liquid gas universality class. Theoretical and experimental observables are defined to signal the occurrence and the order of this transition without any ambiguity. One of the most relevant and experimentally accessible observables consists in the study of kinetic energy fluctuations for a fixed value of the total deposited energy. In a first order phase transition such fluctuations become anomaly high and at the same time the size distribution appears to behave critically. All our results are obtained within numerical simulations of the lattice gas model with a nearest neighbors attractive interaction. Finally we check the influence of non-saturating forces, developing the specific example of the Coulomb interaction in the nucleus. Future improvements and perspectives at this work consist in the analysis of specific effects occurring in nuclei: isospin and quantum mechanics. (author) [fr

  4. Stability analysis of direct contact heat exchangers subject to system perturbations. Final report, Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This report includes a project summary, copies of two papers resulting from the work and the Ph.D. Dissertation of Dr. Mehdi Golafshani entitled, ''Stability of a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger''. Specifically, the work deals with the operational stability of a spray column type heat exchanger subject to disturbances typical of those which can occur for geothermal applications. A computer program was developed to solve the one-dimensional transient two-phase flow problem and it was applied to the design of a spray column. The operation and design of the East Mesa 500kW/sub e/ direct contactor was assessed. It is shown that the heat transfer is governed by the internal resistance of the dispersed phase. In fact, the performance is well-represented by diffusion of heat within the drops. 5 refs.

  5. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  6. Modelling of a Double-Track Railway Contact System Electric Field Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Stanislav; Khanzhina, Olga; Sidorov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Working conditions of personnel that serves contact system (CS) are affected by factors including health and safety, security and working hours (danger of rolling stock accidents, danger of electric shock strokes, work at height, severity and tension of work, increased noise level, etc.) Low frequency electromagnetic fields as part of both electric and magnetic fields are among of the most dangerous and harmful factors. These factors can affect not only the working personnel, but also a lot of people, who do not work with the contact system itself, but could be influenced by electromagnetic field as the result of their professional activity. People, who use public transport or live not far from the electrified lines, are endangered by these factors as well. There are results of the theoretical researches in which low frequency electric fields of railway contact system were designed with the use of mathematical and computer modelling. Significant features of electric field distribution near double-track railway in presence or absence of human body were established. The studies showed the dependence of low frequency electric field parameters on the distance to the track axis, height, and presence or absence of human body. The obtained data were compared with permissible standards established in the Russian Federation and other countries with advanced electrified railway system. Evaluation of low frequency electric fields harmful effect on personnel is the main result of this work. It is also established, that location of personnel, voltage and current level, amount of tracks and other factors influence electric fields of contact systems.

  7. Phase diagram of Pr-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    An area of the Pr-P system, adjoining to the Pr ordinate, is plotted up by the DTA method. Presence of P solid solution in Pr is established. Data on thermal stability of PrP, PrP 2 , PrP 5 and PrP 7 are generalized. The diagram of phase transformations in Pr-P system is plotted up proceeding from the whole complex of the data, presented. A supposition is made on a possible formation of solid solutions between the highest polyphosphide and phosphorus [ru

  8. Simulations of phase transitions in ionic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotopoulos, A Z

    2005-01-01

    A review of recent simulation work in the area of phase transitions in ionic systems is presented. The vapour-liquid transition for the restricted primitive model has been studied extensively in the past decade. The critical temperature is now known to excellent accuracy and the critical density to moderate accuracy. There is also strong simulation-based evidence that the model is in the Ising universality class. Discretized lattice versions of the model are reviewed. Other systems covered are size- and charge-asymmetric electrolytes, colloid-salt mixtures, realistic salt models and charged chains. Areas of future research needs are briefly discussed

  9. Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Ryoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments.

  10. Systems-on-chip approach for real-time simulation of wheel-rail contact laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, T. X.; Zhou, Y. J.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a systems-on-chip approach to speed up the simulation of wheel-rail contact laws, which can be used to reduce the requirement for high-performance computers and enable simulation in real time for the use of hardware-in-loop for experimental studies of the latest vehicle dynamic and control technologies. The wheel-rail contact laws are implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device with a design that substantially outperforms modern general-purpose PC platforms or fixed architecture digital signal processor devices in terms of processing time, configuration flexibility and cost. In order to utilise the FPGA's parallel-processing capability, the operations in the contact laws algorithms are arranged in a parallel manner and multi-contact patches are tackled simultaneously in the design. The interface between the FPGA device and the host PC is achieved by using a high-throughput and low-latency Ethernet link. The development is based on FASTSIM algorithms, although the design can be adapted and expanded for even more computationally demanding tasks.

  11. Development of Non-contact Respiratory Monitoring System for Newborn Using a FG Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurami, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yushi; Natori, Michiya; Ohzeki, Kazuo; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    In recent years, development of neonatal care is strongly hoped, with increase of the low-birth-weight baby birth rate. Especially respiration of low-birth-weight baby is incertitude because central nerve and respiratory function is immature. Therefore, a low-birth-weight baby often causes a disease of respiration. In a NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), neonatal respiration is monitored using cardio-respiratory monitor and pulse oximeter at all times. These contact-type sensors can measure respiratory rate and SpO2 (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen). However, because a contact-type sensor might damage the newborn's skin, it is a real burden to monitor neonatal respiration. Therefore, we developed the respiratory monitoring system for newborn using a FG (Fiber Grating) vision sensor. FG vision sensor is an active stereo vision sensor, it is possible for non-contact 3D measurement. A respiratory waveform is calculated by detecting the vertical motion of the thoracic and abdominal region with respiration. We attempted clinical experiment in the NICU, and confirmed the accuracy of the obtained respiratory waveform was high. Non-contact respiratory monitoring of newborn using a FG vision sensor enabled the minimally invasive procedure.

  12. Role of contact bonding on electronic transport in metal-carbon nanotube-metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deretzis, I; La Magna, A

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of the interfacial bond arrangement on the electronic transport features of metal-nanotube-metal systems. The transport properties of finite, defect-free armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes attached to Au(111) metallic contacts have been calculated by means of the non-equilibrium Green functional formalism with the tight-binding and the extended Hueckel Hamiltonians. Our calculations show that the electrode material is not the only factor which rules contact transparency. Indeed, for the same electrode, but changing nanotube helicities, we have observed an overall complex behaviour of the transmission spectra due to band mixing and interference. A comparison of the two models shows that the tight-binding approach fails to give a satisfactory representation of the transmission function when a more accurate description of the C-C and Au-C chemical bonds has to be considered. We have furthermore examined the effect of interface geometry variance on conduction and found that the contact-nanotube distance has a significant impact, while the contact-nanotube symmetry plays a marginal, yet evident role

  13. Contact force structure and force chains in 3D sheared granular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Karen; Jettestuen, Espen; Abe, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Faults often exhibit accumulations of granular debris, ground up to create a layer of rock flour or fault gouge separating the rigid fault walls. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments of sheared granular materials, suggest that applied loads are preferentially transmitted across such systems by transient force networks that carry enhanced forces. The characterisation of such features is important since their nature and persistence almost certainly influence the macroscopic mechanical stability of these systems and potentially that of natural faults. 3D numerical simulations of granular shear are a valuable investigation tool since they allow us to track individual particle motions, contact forces and their evolution during applied shear, that are difficult to view directly in laboratory experiments or natural fault zones. In characterising contact force distributions, it is important to use global structure measures that allow meaningful comparisons of granular systems having e.g. different grain size distributions, as may be expected at different stages of a fault's evolution. We therefore use a series of simple measures to characterise the structure, such as distributions and correlations of contact forces that can be mapped onto a force network percolation problem as recently proposed by Ostojic and coworkers for 2D granular systems. This allows the use of measures from percolation theory to both define and characterise the force networks. We demonstrate the application of this method to 3D simulations of a sheared granular material. Importantly, we then compare our measure of the contact force structure with macroscopic frictional behaviour measured at the boundaries of our model to determine the influence of the force networks on macroscopic mechanical stability.

  14. Classical and quantum phases of low-dimensional dipolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartarius, Florian

    2016-09-22

    In this thesis we present a detailed study of the phase diagram of ultracold bosonic atoms confined along a tight atomic wave guide, along which they experience an optical lattice potential. In this quasi-one dimensional model we analyse the interplay between interactions and quantum fluctuations in (i) determining the non-equilibrium steady state after a quench and (ii) giving rise to novel equilibrium phases, when the interactions combine the s-wave contact interaction and the anisotropic long range dipole-dipole interactions. In detail, in the first part of the thesis we study the depinning of a gas of impenetrable bosons following the sudden switch of of the optical lattice. By means of a Bose-Fermi mapping we infer the exact quantum dynamical evolution and show that in the thermodynamic limit the system is in a non-equilibrium steady state without quasi-long range order. In the second part of the thesis, we study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the linear-zigzag instability in the ground state of ultracold dipolar bosons, as a function of the strength of the transverse confinement. We first analyse the linear-zigzag instability in the classical regime, and then use our results to develop a multi-mode Bose-Hubbard model for the system. We then develop several numerical methods, to determine the ground state.

  15. Service water system aging assessment - Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, D.B.; Zimmerman, P.W.; Gore, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Service Water System (SWS) represents the final heat transfer loop between decay heat generated in the nuclear core and the safe dispersal of that heat energy in the environment. It is the objective of this investigation to demonstrate that aging phenomena can be identified and quantified such that aging degradation of system components can be detected and mitigated prior to the reduction of system availability to below an acceptable threshold. The approach used during the Phase I task was to (1) perform a literature search of government and private sector reports which relate to service water, aging related degradation, and potential methodologies for analysis; (2) assemble a data base which contains all the commercial power plants in the US, their Service Water System configuration, characteristics, and water source; (3) obtain and examine the available service water data from large generic data bases, i.e. NPRDS, LER, NPE, inspection reports, and other relevant plant reference data; (4) perform a fault tree analysis of a typical plant service water systems to examine failure propagation and understand specific input requirements of probabilistic risk analyses; (5) develop an in-depth questionnaire protocol for examining the information resource at a power plant which is not available through data base query and visit a central station power plant and solicit the required information; (6) analyze the information obtained from the in-depth plant interrogation and draw contrasts and conclusions with the data base information; (7) utilize the plant information to perform an interim assessment of service water system degradation mechanisms and focus future investigations. This paper addresses the elements of this task plan numbered 1, 3, 6, and 7. The remaining items are detailed in the phase-I report

  16. Phasing of Debuncher Stochastic Cooling Transverse Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    With the higher frequency of the cooling systems in the Debuncher, a modified method of making transfer functions has been developed for transverse systems. (Measuring of the momentum systems is unchanged.) Speed in making the measurements is critical, as the beam tends to decelerate due to vacuum lifetime. In the 4-8 GHz band, the harmonics in the Debuncher are 6,700 to 13,400 times the revolution frequency. Every Hertz change in revolution frequency is multiplied by this harmonic number and becomes a frequency measurement error, which is an appreciable percent of the momentum width of the beam. It was originally thought that a momentum cooling system would be phased first so that the beam could be kept from drifting in revolution frequency. As it turned out, the momentum cooling was so effective (even with the gain turned down) that the momentum width normalized to fo became less than one Hertz on the Schottky pickup. A beam this narrow requires very precise measurement of tune and revolution frequency. It was difficult to get repeatable results. For initial measuring of the transverse arrays, relative phase and delay is all that is required, so the measurement settings outlined below will suffice. Once all input and output arrays are phased, a more precise measurement of all pickups to all kickers can be done with more points and both upper and lower side bands, as in figure 1. Settings on the network analyzer were adjusted for maximum measurement speed. Data is not analyzed until a complete set of measurements is taken. Start and stop frequencies should be chosen to be just slightly wider than the band being measured. For transverse systems, select betatron USB for the measurement type. This will make the measurement two times faster. Select 101 for the number of points, sweep time of 5 seconds, IF bandwidth 30 Hz, averages = 1. It is important during the phasing to continually measure the revolution frequency and beam width of the beam for transverse systems

  17. New photosensitive systems for volume phase holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Andrea; Colella, Letizia; Galli, Paola; Zanutta, Alessio; Bertarelli, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    Volume phase holographic elements are becoming attractive thanks to the large efficiency and good optical quality. They are based on photosensitive materials where a modulation of the refractive index is induced. In this paper, we highlight the strategies to obtain a change in the refractive index in a dielectric material, namely a change in the material density and/or in the molecular polarizability. Moreover, we show the results achieved for materials that undergo the photo-Fries reaction as function of the molecular structure and the illumination conditions. We also report the results on a system based on the diazo Meldrum's acid where volatile molecules are produced upon light exposure.

  18. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid

  19. Dynamic Response of a Planetary Gear System Using a Finite Element/Contact Mechanics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert G.; Agashe, Vinayak; Vijayakar, Sandeep M.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic response of a helicopter planetary gear system is examined over a wide range of operating speeds and torques. The analysis tool is a unique, semianalytical finite element formulation that admits precise representation of the tooth geometry and contact forces that are crucial in gear dynamics. Importantly, no a priori specification of static transmission error excitation or mesh frequency variation is required; the dynamic contact forces are evaluated internally at each time step. The calculated response shows classical resonances when a harmonic of mesh frequency coincides with a natural frequency. However, peculiar behavior occurs where resonances expected to be excited at a given speed are absent. This absence of particular modes is explained by analytical relationships that depend on the planetary configuration and mesh frequency harmonic. The torque sensitivity of the dynamic response is examined and compared to static analyses. Rotation mode response is shown to be more sensitive to input torque than translational mode response.

  20. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascazio, S

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke 'after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is

  1. Contact dose rates and relevant radioactive inventory in ITER TBM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Guerrini, L.; Poitevin, Y.; Ricapito, I.; Zmitko, M.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the radioactive inventory and of the contact dose rates in the different ITER Test Blanket Modules systems is carried out, both for Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) concept and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) concept. The evaluations have been carried out by means of the MICROSHIELD code, starting from the data on the neutron-induced radioactivity in the blanket materials, already available for both the blanket modules. The possible sources of radioactive material in all the systems have been individuated and their contributes estimated.

  2. Contact dose rates and relevant radioactive inventory in ITER TBM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M., E-mail: massimo.zucchetti@polito.it [EURATOM/ENEA Fusion Association Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Guerrini, L., E-mail: Laurent.Guerrini@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, ITER Department, Test Blanket Modules Group, Barcelona (Spain); Poitevin, Y.; Ricapito, I.; Zmitko, M. [Fusion for Energy, ITER Department, Test Blanket Modules Group, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The determination of the radioactive inventory and of the contact dose rates in the different ITER Test Blanket Modules systems is carried out, both for Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) concept and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) concept. The evaluations have been carried out by means of the MICROSHIELD code, starting from the data on the neutron-induced radioactivity in the blanket materials, already available for both the blanket modules. The possible sources of radioactive material in all the systems have been individuated and their contributes estimated.

  3. Feedback control for distributed heat transfer mechanisms in direct-contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi; N'Doye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  4. Feedback control for distributed heat transfer mechanisms in direct-contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. Nonlinear observer based phase synchronization of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Juan; Wang Xingyuan

    2007-01-01

    This Letter analyzes the phase synchronization problem of autonomous chaotic systems. Based on the nonlinear state observer algorithm and the pole placement technique, a phase synchronization scheme is designed. The phase synchronization of a new chaotic system is achieved by using this observer controller. Numerical simulations further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed phase synchronization scheme

  6. Evaluation techniques of accuracy characteristics for non-contact photonic track inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitry V.; Ryabichenko, Roman B.; Krivosheina, Elena A.

    2005-06-01

    The most important task in Moscow metro is increasing safety of railway traffic. For safety purposes six track parameters are measured in Moscow Metro with help of track measurement car. Equipment mounted on this car works only in contact mode and doesn't provide modem requirements for accuracy. Also important task is measurement at high speeds, but contact technology limits speed of movement up to 25mph on rail switches. Current system can't measure in real-time mode. For decision of these field of tasks non-contact photonic measurement system (KSIR) is constructed. The KSIR works at speeds up to 70 mph and measure seven track parameters. The KSIR contains four subsystems: rail wear, height and track gauge measurement (BFSM); rail slump measurement (FTP); contact rail measurement (FKR); speed, level and car locating (USI). KSIR contains five CCD matrix cameras, four line CCD cameras, five infrared stripe lasers and four spot infrared lasers. Laser forms shape on the rail. CCD-camera acquires rail image and transfers it into the digital signal processor which produces preliminary calculation ofrail shape. Then image is transferred into the central computer to calculate values of rail characteristics. Angles between photonic unit and rail bring distortions in images from cameras. Additional distortions are caused by short-focus optics and small distance between camera and track. This distance is limited by structure clearance. The transformation algorithms for distortions elimination are applied. It's based on surfaces spline-approximation. As a result the KSIR calculates coefficients of approximating polynomials. The calibration is performed for checking accuracy of measurement in BFSM, FTP and FKR units. Evaluation techniques of accuracy characteristics are considered.

  7. Spontaneous imbibition in fractal tortuous micro-nano pores considering dynamic contact angle and slip effect: phase portrait analysis and analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caoxiong; Shen, Yinghao; Ge, Hongkui; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Tao

    2018-03-02

    Shales have abundant micro-nano pores. Meanwhile, a considerable amount of fracturing liquid is imbibed spontaneously in the hydraulic fracturing process. The spontaneous imbibition in tortuous micro-nano pores is special to shale, and dynamic contact angle and slippage are two important characteristics. In this work, we mainly investigate spontaneous imbibition considering dynamic contact angle and slip effect in fractal tortuous capillaries. We introduce phase portrait analysis to analyse the dynamic state and stability of imbibition. Moreover, analytical solutions to the imbibition equation are derived under special situations, and the solutions are verified by published data. Finally, we discuss the influences of slip length, dynamic contact angle and gravity on spontaneous imbibition. The analysis shows that phase portrait is an ideal tool for analysing spontaneous imbibition because it can evaluate the process without solving the complex governing ordinary differential equations. Moreover, dynamic contact angle and slip effect play an important role in fluid imbibition in fractal tortuous capillaries. Neglecting slip effect in micro-nano pores apparently underestimates imbibition capability, and ignoring variations in contact angle causes inaccuracy in predicting imbibition speed at the initial stage of the process. Finally, gravity is one of the factors that control the stabilisation of the imbibition process.

  8. Wireless and Non-contact ECG Measurement System – the “Aachen SmartChair”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aleksandrowicz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication describes a measurement system that obtains an electrocardiogram (ECG by capacitively coupled electrodes. Fordemonstration purposes, this measurement system was integrated into an off-the-shelf office chair (so-called “Aachen SmartChair”.Whereas in usual clinical applications adhesive, conductively-coupled electrodes have to be attached to the skin, the described system is able to measure an ECG without direct skin contact through the cloth. A wireless communication module was integrated for transmitting theECG data to a PC or to an ICU patient monitor. For system validation, a classical ECG with conductive electrodes and an oxygensaturation signal (SpO2 were obtained simultaneously. Finally, system-specific problems of the presented device are discussed.

  9. Phase and amplitude detection system for the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    A computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system to measure and stabilize the rf power sources in the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. This system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 microsecond 2856 MHz rf pulse and will be used for phase feedback control and for amplitude and phase jitter detection. This paper discusses the measurement system performance requirements for the operation of the Stanford Linear Collider, and the design and implementation of the phase and amplitude detection system. The fundamental software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  10. Phase diagrams of Pr-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, V.N.; Velikanova, T.Ya.; Gordijchuk, O.V.

    1988-01-01

    Results of the X-ray phase, metallographic and high-temperature differential thermal analysis are used for the first time to plot a diagram of the Pr-C system state. Carbides are formed in the system: Pr 2 C 3 with the bcc-structure of the Pu 2 C 3 type and with the period a 0 = 0.85722+-0.00026 within the phase region + 2 C 3 >, a 0 0.86078+-0.00016 nm - within the region 2 C 3 >+α-PrC 2 ; dimorphous PrC 2 : α-PrC 2 with the bct-structure of the CaC 2 type and periods a 0.38517+-0.00011, c 0 = 0.64337+-0.00019 nm; β-PrC 2 with the fcc-structure, probably, of KCN type. Dicarbide melts congruently at 2320 grad. C, forming eutectics with graphite at 2254+-6 grad. C and composition of 71.5% (at.)C. It is polymorphously transformed in the phase region 2 C 3 > + 2 > at 1145+-4 grad. C, and in the region 2 >+C at 1134+-4 grad. C. Sesquicarbide melts incongruently at 1545+-4 grad. C. The eutectic reaction L ↔ + 2 C 3 > occurs at 800+-4 grad. C, the eutectic composition ∼ 15% (at.)C. The temperature of the eutectoid reaction ↔ + 2 C 3 > is 675+-6 grad C. The limiting carbon solubility in β-Pr is about 8 and in α-Pr it is about 5% (at.)

  11. Modeling and simulations for molecular scale hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in immiscible two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Tiezheng

    2009-10-29

    This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Contact tracing with a real-time location system: A case study of increasing relative effectiveness in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmich, Thomas R; Clements, Casey M; El-Sherif, Nibras; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Nestler, David M; Boggust, Andy; Ernste, Vickie K; Marisamy, Gomathi; Koenig, Kyle R; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2017-12-01

    Contact tracing is the systematic method of identifying individuals potentially exposed to infectious diseases. Electronic medical record (EMR) use for contact tracing is time-consuming and may miss exposed individuals. Real-time location systems (RTLSs) may improve contact identification. Therefore, the relative effectiveness of these 2 contact tracing methodologies were evaluated. During a pertussis outbreak in the United States, a retrospective case study was conducted between June 14 and August 31, 2016, to identify the contacts of confirmed pertussis cases, using EMR and RTLS data in the emergency department of a tertiary care medical center. Descriptive statistics and a paired t test (α = 0.05) were performed to compare contacts identified by EMR versus RTLS, as was correlation between pertussis patient length of stay and the number of potential contacts. Nine cases of pertussis presented to the emergency department during the identified time period. RTLS doubled the potential exposure list (P < .01). Length of stay had significant positive correlation with contacts identified by RTLS (ρ = 0.79; P = .01) but not with EMR (ρ = 0.43; P = .25). RTLS doubled the potential pertussis exposures beyond EMR-based contact identification. Thus, RTLS may be a valuable addition to the practice of contact tracing and infectious disease monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Survey of Phase Change Memory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 蒋德钧; 熊劲; 孙凝晖

    2015-01-01

    As the scaling of applications increases, the demand of main memory capacity increases in order to serve large working set. It is difficult for DRAM (dynamic random access memory) based memory system to satisfy the memory capacity requirement due to its limited scalability and high energy consumption. Compared to DRAM, PCM (phase change memory) has better scalability, lower energy leakage, and non-volatility. PCM memory systems have become a hot topic of academic and industrial research. However, PCM technology has the following three drawbacks: long write latency, limited write endurance, and high write energy, which raises challenges to its adoption in practice. This paper surveys architectural research work to optimize PCM memory systems. First, this paper introduces the background of PCM. Then, it surveys research efforts on PCM memory systems in performance optimization, lifetime improving, and energy saving in detail, respectively. This paper also compares and summarizes these techniques from multiple dimensions. Finally, it concludes these optimization techniques and discusses possible research directions of PCM memory systems in future.

  14. Low frequency noise in the unstable contact region of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haodong; Wang, Hong; Ke, Feixiang

    2014-06-01

    The noise behavior of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches has been experimentally studied in the unstable contact region. The results suggest that the electrical conduction remains nonmetallic at the initial stage during contact formation due to the existence of alien films, and traps in the alien layer located at the contact interface could play an important role in determining the conduction noise. The conduction fluctuation induced by electron trapping-detrapping associated with the hydrocarbon layer is found to be an intrinsic noise source contributing to the low frequency noise in the unstable contact region.

  15. Low frequency noise in the unstable contact region of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Haodong; Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg [NOVITAS, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ke, Feixiang [Temasek Laboratories at Nanyang Technological University, Research Techno Plaza, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-06-23

    The noise behavior of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches has been experimentally studied in the unstable contact region. The results suggest that the electrical conduction remains nonmetallic at the initial stage during contact formation due to the existence of alien films, and traps in the alien layer located at the contact interface could play an important role in determining the conduction noise. The conduction fluctuation induced by electron trapping-detrapping associated with the hydrocarbon layer is found to be an intrinsic noise source contributing to the low frequency noise in the unstable contact region.

  16. Low frequency noise in the unstable contact region of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Haodong; Wang, Hong; Ke, Feixiang

    2014-01-01

    The noise behavior of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches has been experimentally studied in the unstable contact region. The results suggest that the electrical conduction remains nonmetallic at the initial stage during contact formation due to the existence of alien films, and traps in the alien layer located at the contact interface could play an important role in determining the conduction noise. The conduction fluctuation induced by electron trapping-detrapping associated with the hydrocarbon layer is found to be an intrinsic noise source contributing to the low frequency noise in the unstable contact region.

  17. Contact area affects frequency-dependent responses to vibration in the peripheral vascular and sensorineural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.

  18. A Systematic Modelling Framework for Phase Transfer Catalyst Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Hyung Kim, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Phase-transfer catalyst systems contain two liquid phases, with a catalyst (PTC) that transfers between the phases, driving product formation in one phase and being regenerated in the other phase. Typically the reaction involves neutral species in an organic phase and regeneration involves ions i....... The application of the framework is made to two cases in order to highlight the performance and issues of activity coefficient models for predicting design and operation and the effects when different organic solvents are employed....

  19. Phase tracking system for ultra narrow bandwidth applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.; Cantoni, A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances make it possible to mitigate a number of drawbacks of conventional phase locked loops. These advances permit the design of phase tracking systems with much improved characteristics that are sought after in modern communication system applications. A new phase tracking system is

  20. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system Vhutshilo Madzivhandilaa, Thokozani... temperature and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� 1. Introduction The IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) is one...

  1. A non-contact time-domain scanning brain imaging system: first in-vivo results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenka, M.; Di Sieno, L.; Boso, G.; Contini, D.; Pifferi, A.; Dalla Mora, A.; Tosi, A.; Wabnitz, H.; Macdonald, R.

    2013-06-01

    We present results of first in-vivo tests of an optical non-contact scanning imaging system, intended to study oxidative metabolism related processes in biological tissue by means of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Our method is a novel realization of the short source-detector separation approach and based on a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode to detect late photons only. The scanning system is built in quasi-confocal configuration and utilizes polarizationsensitive detection. It scans an area of 4×4 cm2, recording images with 32×32 pixels, thus creating a high density of source-detector pairs. To test the system we performed a range of in vivo measurements of hemodynamic changes in several types of biological tissues, i.e. skin (Valsalva maneuver), muscle (venous and arterial occlusions) and brain (motor and cognitive tasks). Task-related changes in hemoglobin concentrations were clearly detected in skin and muscle. The brain activation shows weaker, but yet detectable changes. These changes were localized in pixels near the motor cortex area (C3). However, it was found that even very short hair substantially impairs the measurement. Thus the applicability of the scanner is limited to hairless parts of body. The results of our first in-vivo tests prove the feasibility of non-contact scanning imaging as a first step towards development of a prototype for biological tissue imaging for various medical applications.

  2. Modeling and simulations for molecular scale hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in immiscible two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Tiezheng; Wu, Congmin; Lei, Siu Long; Wang, Xiao Ping; Sheng, Ping

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line

  3. A fully discrete energy stable scheme for a phase filed moving contact line model with variable densities and viscosities

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Guangpu; Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu; Yao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation

  4. A non-contact shape measuring system using an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Woo Tae; Lee, Myung Chan; Koh, Duck Joon; Cho, Hyung Suck

    1996-01-01

    We developed a non-contact shape measuring device using computer image processing technology. We present a method of calibrating a CCD video camera and a laser range finder which is the most important step toward making an accurate shape measuring system. An artificial neural network is used for the calibration. Our measurement system is composed of a semiconductor laser, a CCD video camera, a personal computer, and a linear motion table. We think that the developed system could be used for measuring the change in shape of the spent nuclear fuel rod before and after irradiation which is one of the most important tasks for developing a better nuclear fuel. A radiation shield is suggested for the possible utilization of the range finder in radioactive environment

  5. Solid-Phase Contact Assay That Uses a lux-Marked Nitrosomonas europaea Reporter Strain To Estimate Toxicity of Bioavailable Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Kristian K.; Pedersen, Anders; Sørensen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Information about in situ toxicity of the bioavailable pools of adsorptive soil pollutants is a prerequisite for proper ecological risk assessment in contaminated soils. Such toxicity data may be obtained by assays allowing for direct exposure of introduced test microorganisms to the toxicants, as they appear in solid solution equilibria in the natural soil. We describe a novel sensitive solid-phase contact assay for in situ toxicity testing of soil pollutants based on a recombinant biolumine...

  6. Stick–slip boundary friction mode as a second-order phase transition with an inhomogeneous distribution of elastic stress in the contact area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakov A. Lyashenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the dynamical contact between two atomically flat surfaces separated by an ultrathin lubricant film. Using a thermodynamic approach we describe the second-order phase transition between two structural states of the lubricant which leads to the stick–slip mode of boundary friction. An analytical description and numerical simulation with radial distributions of the order parameter, stress and strain were performed to investigate the spatial inhomogeneity. It is shown that in the case when the driving device is connected to the upper part of the friction block through an elastic spring, the frequency of the melting/solidification phase transitions increases with time.

  7. Phase coexistence and line tension in ternary lipid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, T.; Leeuwen, van J.M.J.; Storm, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ternary system consisting of cholesterol, a saturated lipid, and an unsaturated one exhibits a rich phase behavior with multiple phase coexistence regimes. Remarkably, phase separation even occurs when each of the three binary systems consisting of two of these components is a uniform mixture.

  8. On the Size Dependence of Molar and Specific Properties of Independent Nano-phases and Those in Contact with Other Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptay, George

    2018-05-01

    Nano-materials are materials with at least one nano-phase. A nano-phase is a phase with at least one of its dimensions below 100 nm. It is shown here that nano-phases have at least 1% of their atoms along their surface layer. The ratio of surface atoms is proportional to the specific surface area of the phase, defined as the ratio of its surface area to its volume. Each specific/molar property has its bulk value and its surface value for the given phase, being always different, as the energetic states of the atoms in the bulk and in the surface layer of a phase are different. The average specific/molar property of a nano-phase is modeled here as a linear combination of the bulk and surface values of the same property, scaled with the ratio of the surface atoms. That makes the performance of all nano-phases proportional to their specific surface area. As the characteristic size of the nano-phase is inversely proportional to its specific surface area, all specific/molar properties of nano-phases are inversely proportional to the characteristic size of the phase. This is applied to the size dependence of the molar Gibbs energy of the nano-phase, which appears to be in agreement with the thermodynamics of Gibbs. This agreement proves the general validity of the present model on the size dependence of the specific/molar properties of independent nano-phases. It is shown that the properties of nano-phases are different for independent nano-phases (surrounded only by their equilibrium vapor phase) and for nano-phases in multi-phase situations, such as a liquid nano-droplet in the sessile drop configuration.

  9. Non-contact transportation system of small objects using Ultrasonic Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K; Koyama, D

    2012-01-01

    A transportation system for small object or fluid without contact is investigated being based on ultrasonic levitation. Small objects are suspended against gravity at the nodal points in ultrasonic pressure field due to the sound radiation force generated as the gradient of the energy density of the field. In this study, the trapped object is transported in the horizontal plane by introducing the spatial shift of the standing waves by the switching the lateral modes or travelling waves. The goal of the study is to establish a technology which can provide a total system with the flexibility in composing various transportation paths. Methods for linear/rotary stepping motions and continuous linear transportation are explained in this report. All the transportation tracks are composed of a bending vibrator and a reflector. The design for these acoustic cavity/waveguide is discussed.

  10. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-02-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma.

  11. The rectenna design on contact lens for wireless powering of the active intraocular pressure monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H W; Jeng, B M; Chen, C Y; Huang, H Y; Chiou, J C; Luo, C H

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposed a wireless power harvesting system with micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) fabrication for noninvasive intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement on soft contact lens substructure. The power harvesting IC consists of a loop antenna, an impedance matching network and a rectifier. The proposed IC has been designed and fabricated by CMOS 0.18 um process that operates at the ISM band of 5.8 GHz. The antenna and the power harvesting IC would be bonded together by using flip chip bonding technologies without extra wire interference. The circuit utilized an impedance transformation circuit to boost the input RF signal that improves the circuit performance. The proposed design achieves an RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of 35% at 5.8 GHz.

  12. Incipient offending among schizophrenia patients after first contact to the psychiatric hospital system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    The study examines how age, sex and substance use disorder are associated with the risk of committing a criminal offence. The study explicitly examines the risk after the first contact to the psychiatric hospital system and after the diagnosis of schizophrenia for those with no previous criminal...... record; the association between previous non-violent criminality and later violent criminality is also analysed. The study sample comprised 4619 individuals ever diagnosed with schizophrenia. All solved offences were accessible. Data were analysed using Cox's regression. Schizophrenic men had twice....... Previous non-violent criminality increased the risk for later violent criminality 2.5- to 2.7-fold, depending on the starting point for the analyses. The results suggest that the psychiatric treatment system can play an active role in preventing criminality among individuals with schizophrenia...

  13. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    2016-12-07

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body's voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not.

  14. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems

  15. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  16. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Fang, Wen, E-mail: fangwen@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Economics and Management, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  17. Identification of Clearance and Contact Stiffness in a Simplified Barrel-Cradle Structure of Artillery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In gun barrel-cradle structure, the presence of clearance usually changes the dynamic response of muzzle and results in shooting dispersion (under continuous firing condition. The parameter estimation of such clearance nonlinear system is the prerequisite for establishing quantitative relation between the clearance and muzzle disturbance. In this paper, the restoring force surface (RFS method and the nonlinear identification through feedback of outputs (NIFO method are first combined for parameter identification in a simplified barrel-cradle structure. With the RFS method, clearance value can be obtained by analyzing the restoring force plot. Then the contact stiffness can be identified by using NIFO method. This identification process is verified in a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF system with clearance. To adapt to the rigid-flexible coupled beam system with clearances which is simplified from the barrel-cradle structure, a modification for the combined method mentioned above is proposed. The core idea of the modification is reducing the continuous system to multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF system to reserve the nonlinear characteristics through modal transformation matrix. The advantage of this transformation is that the linear parts of the MDOF systems are decoupled, which greatly reduces the difficulty of identification. The simulation results have shown the effectiveness of current method.

  18. Are Cancer Patients' Socioeconomic and Cultural Factors Associated with Contact to General Practitioners in the Last Phase of Life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, M A; Olesen, Frede; Sondergaard, J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in end of life care, which should be offered regardless of socioeconomic position and cultural factors. The aim was to analyse associations between GP contacts at the end of life and socioeconomic and cultural characteristics......' socioeconomic and cultural characteristics were calculated. Results. Having low income (RR: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.35)) and being immigrants or descendants of immigrants (RR: 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.35)) were associated with GP face-to-face contacts. However, patients living in large municipalities had lower...

  19. Jacobian projection reduced-order models for dynamic systems with contact nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Chiara; Zucca, Stefano; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2018-02-01

    In structural dynamics, the prediction of the response of systems with localized nonlinearities, such as friction dampers, is of particular interest. This task becomes especially cumbersome when high-resolution finite element models are used. While state-of-the-art techniques such as Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis are employed to generate reduced order models, the interface (nonlinear) degrees of freedom must still be solved in-full. For this reason, a new generation of specialized techniques capable of reducing linear and nonlinear degrees of freedom alike is emerging. This paper proposes a new technique that exploits spatial correlations in the dynamics to compute a reduction basis. The basis is composed of a set of vectors obtained using the Jacobian of partial derivatives of the contact forces with respect to nodal displacements. These basis vectors correspond to specifically chosen boundary conditions at the contacts over one cycle of vibration. The technique is shown to be effective in the reduction of several models studied using multiple harmonics with a coupled static solution. In addition, this paper addresses another challenge common to all reduction techniques: it presents and validates a novel a posteriori error estimate capable of evaluating the quality of the reduced-order solution without involving a comparison with the full-order solution.

  20. [Role of the EFSA in risk management system regarding food contact materials and articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Półtorak, Hanna; Pawlicka, Marzena

    2009-01-01

    The role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the risk management system regarding food contact materials and articles is related with the risk assessment of the substances for the European Commission. General rules for the authorisation of substances used in materials and articles intended to contact with food is established in the Regulation (EC) no 1935/2004. For the evaluation of substances their toxicological properties and magnitude of migration into food simulants is taken into account. Toxicological studies include the mutagenicity tests, oral toxicity studies, carcinogenicity, reproduction and also studies on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the substance and other studies when needed. The set of the relevant toxicological data for substance depends on the magnitude of migration. In the case of positive opinion by EFSA the substance appears on the Community list of authorised substances. Sometimes, the earlier evaluated and authorized substances must undergo re-evaluation due to their new toxicological properties or as a result of a presence in the food of their earlier unknown decomposition products. Examples of the selected substances which underwent re-evaluation by EFSA in the light of the current toxicological knowledge and the relevant activities undertaken by the European Commission have been presented.

  1. The effect of effective microorganisms (EM on EBPR in modified contact stabilization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Rashed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive phosphorus can cause eutrophication in water bodies and needs to be reduced in most wastewaters before discharge to receiving waters. The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process has been shown to be an economical and environmentally compatible method for reducing phosphorus from wastewaters. The experiment has been performed in order to investigate the effect of using effective microorganisms (EM as an application of Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (EBPR in modified contact stabilization activated sludge system by using contact tank as a phosphorus uptake zone and using thickener tank as a phosphorus release zone. The study involved the construction of a pilot plant which was setup in the Quhafa Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP, Al Fayoum, Egypt. Then the uptake and release of total phosphorus were determined through two batch tests using sludge samples from thickener and stabilization tanks. Results showed the removal efficiencies of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and total phosphorus (TP of this pilot plant were 93%, 93% and 90%, respectively. On the other hand the results of batch tests showed that the reason for high ability of phosphorus removal by this pilot plant is related to the high performance of microorganisms for phosphorus accumulation. Finally providing activated EM to the anaerobic zone was to improve fermentation by achieving the enhancement of the performance of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs and then increase phosphorous release resulting in the decrease of the average effluent phosphorus concentration.

  2. Effect of Biological Contact Filters (BCFs on Membrane Fouling in Drinking Water Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Hasegawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is a serious problem in drinking water treatment systems. Biological contact filters (BCFs are often used as a pretreatment to remove ammonia, dissolved organic matter (DOM, and metal ions such as iron and manganese. In this study, the effect of BCF as a pretreatment for membrane fouling was evaluated using a laboratory-scale mini module consisting of a mini BCF column and a mini MF column. Initially, it was confirmed that the main foulant was a biopolymer (at low concentration in the raw water. Subsequently, the biopolymer concentrations in the BCF influent and effluent were measured with the excitation emission matrix (EEM fluorescence spectroscopy and the liquid chromatograph organic carbon detector (LC-OCD. The fouling potential of the BCF influent and effluent was also measured to evaluate MF membrane fouling rate. The results demonstrate that application of the BCF reduced the biopolymer concentration of the effluent and reduced membrane fouling. The effect of BCF was also established in an actual drinking water treatment plant. It was found that optimizing the contact time of raw water with the BCF was crucial to reduce membrane fouling.

  3. Power and phase monitoring system for the lower hybrid phased array heating system on ATC machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, B.W.

    1975-01-01

    A four waveguide phased array slow wave structure has been constructed to couple microwave energy into plasma in the ATC Tokamac at Princeton. Theory has indicated that the coupling of power into the plasma column is a strong function of the imposed fourier spectrum at the antenna aperture. To optimize heating, and to verify theoretical results, a precision amplitude and phase monitoring system has been designed and constructed. The system data output is routed to an IBM 1800 computer where the fourier spectrum in n/sub parallel/ space is computed for discrete increments of time during an RF pulse. Computer output data is used to update the adjustment of transmission line parameters in between pulses

  4. System For Characterizing Three-Phase Brushless dc Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1996-01-01

    System of electronic hardware and software developed to automate measurements and calculations needed to characterize electromechanical performances of three-phase brushless dc motors, associated shaft-angle sensors needed for commutation, and associated brushless tachometers. System quickly takes measurements on all three phases of motor, tachometer, and shaft-angle sensor simultaneously and processes measurements into performance data. Also useful in development and testing of motors with not only three phases but also two, four, or more phases.

  5. Non-contact ulcer area calculation system for neuropathic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth; Mahajan, Siddaram; Nageswaran, Sharmila; Paul, Sathish Kumar; Ebenzer, Mannam

    2017-08-11

    Around 125,785 new cases in year 2013-14 of leprosy were detected in India as per WHO report on leprosy in September 2015 which accounts to approximately 62% of the total new cases. Anaesthetic foot caused by leprosy leads to uneven loading of foot leading to ulcer in approximately 20% of the cases. Much efforts have gone in identifying newer techniques to efficiently monitor the progress of ulcer healing. Current techniques followed in measuring the size of ulcers, have not been found to be so accurate but are still is followed by clinicians across the globe. Quantification of prognosis of the condition would be required to understand the efficacy of current treatment methods and plan for further treatment. This study aims at developing a non contact technique to precisely measure the size of ulcer in patients affected by leprosy. Using MATLAB software, GUI was designed to process the acquired ulcer image by segmenting and calculating the pixel area of the image. The image was further converted to a standard measurement using a reference object. The developed technique was tested on 16 ulcer images acquired from 10 leprosy patients with plantar ulcers. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc analysis software to find the reliability of the system. The analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient (r=0.9882) between the ulcer area measurements done using traditional technique and the newly developed technique, The reliability of the newly developed technique was significant with a significance level of 99.9%. The designed non-contact ulcer area calculating system using MATLAB is found to be a reliable system in calculating the size of ulcers. The technique would help clinicians have a reliable tool to monitor the progress of ulcer healing and help modify the treatment protocol if needed. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase and amplitude control system for Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    The computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 micro-second 2856 MHz rf pulse at a 180 Hz rate. This will be used for phase feedback control, and also for phase and amplitude jitter measurement. The program, which was originally written by John Fox and Keith Jobe, has been modified to improve the function of the system. The software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  7. Phase Multistability in Coupled Oscillator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2003-01-01

    along the orbit of the individual oscillator. Focusing on the mechanisms underlying the appearance of phase multistability, the paper examines a variety of phase-locked patterns. In particular we demonstrate the nested structure of synchronization regions for oscillations with multicrest wave forms...

  8. The phase detection and calculation for low hybrid wave phase-feedback control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Liang Hao; Zhou Yongzhao; Shan Jiafang

    2008-01-01

    A method of phase detection and calculation for low hybrid wave phase-feedback control system and the implementing the algorithms on DSP cores embedded in FPGA is introduced. By taking the advantages of matlab-aided design and algorithms optimization to carry out parallel processing of multi-channel phase calculation in FPGA with rich resources, the purposed of fast phase-feedback control is achieved under the need of complicated mathematical operations. (authors)

  9. Identification of some nonsmooth evolution systems with illustration on adhesive contacts at small strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Lukáš; Outrata, Jiří; Roubíček, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 12 (2017), s. 2025-2049 ISSN 0233-1934 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25911S; GA ČR GA13-18652S; GA ČR GAP201/10/0357; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV 260225/2015 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : rate-independent systems * optimal control * identification * fractional-step time discretization * quadratic programming * gradient evaluation * variational analysis * implicit programming approach * limiting subdifferential * coderivative * nonsmooth contact mechanics * delamination Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UT-L) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Pure mathematics (UT-L) Impact factor: 0.943, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/adam-0453289.pdf

  10. Performance investigation of a solar-assisted direct contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a solar-assisted direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system with novel energy recovery concepts for a continuous 24-h-a-day operation. A temperature modulating scheme is introduced to the solar-thermal system that supplies feed seawater to the DCMD modules. This scheme attenuates extreme temperature fluctuations of the feed water by storing the collected energy during solar-peak hours and reutilizing it throughout the day. Thus, the energy savings is realized yet the feed seawater temperature is maintained within the desired range. Additionally, the system employs heat recovery from the permeate and brine streams to the feed seawater. The simulations for such a system with a shell-and-tube type DCMD modules are carried out to examine the spatial property variations and the sensitivity of system performance (i.e., transmembrane pressure, permeate flux and performance ratio) to the operating conditions (inlet temperature and flow rate) and the fiber dimensions (fiber length and packing density). It is found that there are trade-offs between mean permeate flux and performance ratio with respect to permeate inlet temperature and flow rate and between total distillate production and performance ratio with respect to packing density. For the solar-assisted DCMD system having evacuated-tube collectors of 3360m2 with 160m3 seawater storage tanks and 50 DCMD modules, the annual solar fraction and the collector efficiency are found to be 77% and 53%, respectively, whilst the overall permeate production capacity is 31m3/day. The overall specific thermal energy consumption of the DCMD system with heat recovery is found to be 436kWh/m3 and it is about 43% lower as compared to the system without heat recovery. It is observed that the specific thermal energy consumption decreases significantly by 55% with increased collector area from 1983m2 to 3360m2 whereas the specific electrical energy consumption increases slightly by 16%. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. System identification on two-phase flow stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaorong; Zhang Youjie; Wang Dazhong; Bo Jinghai; Wang Fei

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical principle, experimental method and results of interrelation analysis identification for the instability of two-phase flow are described. A completely new concept of test technology and method on two-phase flow stability was developed by using he theory of information science on system stability and system identification for two-phase flow stability in thermo-physics field. Application of this method would make it possible to identify instability boundary of two-phase flow under stable operation conditions of two-phase flow system. The experiment was carried out on the thermohydraulic test system HRTL-5. Using reverse repeated pseudo-random sequences of heating power as input signal sources and flow rate as response function in the test, the two-phase flow stability and stability margin of the natural circulation system are investigated. The effectiveness and feasibility of identifying two-phase flow stability by using this system identification method were experimentally demonstrated. Basic data required for mathematics modeling of two-phase flow and analysis of two-phase flow stability were obtained, which are useful for analyzing, monitoring of the system operation condition, and forecasting of two-phase flow stability in engineering system

  12. Characteristics of patients patch tested in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network, 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2015-01-01

    from 63 530 consultations collected by 53 departments from 12 countries participating in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) ( www.essca-dc.org) between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: Considerable variation in the prevalence of the MOAHLFA factors between departments was found...... one department per country give valuable insights into the spectrum of contact allergy prevalence rates in that country, but are not as representative as national data pooled from several departments....

  13. Salinity-Dependent Contact Angle Alteration in Oil/Brine/Silicate Systems: the Critical Role of Divalent Cations

    OpenAIRE

    Haagh, Martinus Everardus Johannes; Sîretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting forces and to infer the microscopic origin of the resultant contact angle alteration. We focus, in particular, on two competing mechanisms debated in the literature, namely, double-layer expansion and ...

  14. A phase one AR/C system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachmar, Peter M.; Polutchko, Robert J.; Matusky, Martin; Chu, William; Jackson, William; Montez, Moises

    1991-01-01

    The Phase One AR&C System Design integrates an evolutionary design based on the legacy of previous mission successes, flight tested components from manned Rendezvous and Proximity Operations (RPO) space programs, and additional AR&C components validated using proven methods. The Phase One system has a modular, open architecture with the standardized interfaces proposed for Space Station Freedom system architecture.

  15. On analytical justification of phase synchronization in different chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erjaee, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    In analytical or numerical synchronizations studies of coupled chaotic systems the phase synchronizations have less considered in the leading literatures. This article is an attempt to find a sufficient analytical condition for stability of phase synchronization in some coupled chaotic systems. The method of nonlinear feedback function and the scheme of matrix measure have been used to justify this analytical stability, and tested numerically for the existence of the phase synchronization in some coupled chaotic systems.

  16. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  17. Social Analysis Systems (SAS2) - Phase III

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling Up the International Impact of Action Research : Social Analysis ... up the international impact of action research : SAS phase 3; final technical report ... 000 Canadians abroad to work at the local level on various development issues.

  18. Three-dimensional finite analysis of acetabular contact pressure and contact area during normal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangye; Huang, Wenjun; Song, Qi; Liang, Jinfeng

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to analyze the contact areas and pressure distributions between the femoral head and mortar during normal walking using a three-dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM). Computed tomography (CT) scanning technology and a computer image processing system were used to establish the 3D-FEM. The acetabular mortar model was used to simulate the pressures during 32 consecutive normal walking phases and the contact areas at different phases were calculated. The distribution of the pressure peak values during the 32 consecutive normal walking phases was bimodal, which reached the peak (4.2 Mpa) at the initial phase where the contact area was significantly higher than that at the stepping phase. The sites that always kept contact were concentrated on the acetabular top and leaned inwards, while the anterior and posterior acetabular horns had no pressure concentration. The pressure distributions of acetabular cartilage at different phases were significantly different, the zone of increased pressure at the support phase distributed at the acetabular top area, while that at the stepping phase distributed in the inside of acetabular cartilage. The zones of increased contact pressure and the distributions of acetabular contact areas had important significance towards clinical researches, and could indicate the inductive factors of acetabular osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Phase-space networks of geometrically frustrated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yilong

    2009-11-01

    We illustrate a network approach to the phase-space study by using two geometrical frustration models: antiferromagnet on triangular lattice and square ice. Their highly degenerated ground states are mapped as discrete networks such that the quantitative network analysis can be applied to phase-space studies. The resulting phase spaces share some comon features and establish a class of complex networks with unique Gaussian spectral densities. Although phase-space networks are heterogeneously connected, the systems are still ergodic due to the random Poisson processes. This network approach can be generalized to phase spaces of some other complex systems.

  20. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  1. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  2. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) : Results with the European baseline series, 2013/14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W.; Amario-Hita, J. C.; Balato, A.; Ballmer-Weber, B.; Bauer, A.; Fortina, A. Belloni; Bircher, A.; Chowdhury, M. M. U.; Cooper, S. M.; Czarnecka-Operacz, M.; Dugonik, A.; Gallo, R.; Gimenez-Arnau, A.; Johansen, J. D.; John, S. M.; Kiec-Swierczynska, M.; Kmecl, T.; Krezcisz, B.; Filon, F. Larese; Mahler, V.; Pesonen, M.; Rustemeyer, T.; Sadowska-Przytocka, A.; Sanchez-Perez, J.; Schliemann, S.; Schuttelaar, M. L.; Simon, D.; Spiewak, R.; Valiukeviciene, S.; Weisshaar, E.; White, I. R.; Wilkinson, S. M.

    Background Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes.

  3. On the Frictional Heating in Single Summit Contacts: Towards Failure at Asperity Level in Lubricated Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness and thermal conductivity on seizure in lubricated contacts is described in this work by quantifying the action of individual asperities in relation to local surface temperature rise. Application of the model to a contact situation in metal forming of stainless

  4. MOIDSS?- Mobile Online Intelligent Decision Support System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRID has had a successfully completed Phase I 'Mobile Online Intelligent Decision Support System' (MOIDSS). The system developed into a total solution that supports...

  5. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  6. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging the Phase I achievements of the Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) including its software toolsets and system building...

  7. Mars Ascent Vehicle Reaction Control System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I NASA program, Valley Tech Systems (VTS) will develop an innovative solid Reaction Control System (RCS) architecture concept design that can...

  8. Development of Phase Lock Loop System for Synchronisation of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Phase locked loop (PLL), grid synchronisation, simulations, PI regulator, hybrid system. .... system. AC. - D. C co nv erter. DC-DC converter. DC. - AC co nverter. Load ... The box named Discrete Transfer Fcn is the PI-regulator.

  9. Electronic construction collaboration system -- final phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This phase of the research project involved two major efforts: (1) Complete the implementation of AEC-Sync (formerly known as : Attolist) on the Iowa Falls Arch Bridge project and (2) develop a WPMS for projects under $10 million. : For the first maj...

  10. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  11. Enthalpy of phase transition and prediction of phase Equilibria in systems of glycols and glycol ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Esina, Zoya; Miroshnikov, Aleksandr; Korchuganova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The PCEAS model was used to study the liquid-solid and liquid-vapor phase transitions at constant pressure in systems containing glycols and glycol ethers. This method is based on minimizing the excess Gibbs energy over the solvation parameter, which takes into account the processes of association of molecules in various phases. To compute the diagrams, the data on enthalpy and phase transition temperatures of pure components are required, while the information about the interactions in the b...

  12. CDI Systems Are Stably Maintained by a Cell-Contact Mediated Surveillance Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C Ruhe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI systems are widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria where they play important roles in inter-cellular competition and biofilm formation. CDI+ bacteria use cell-surface CdiA proteins to bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains. CDI+ cells also express CdiI immunity proteins that specifically neutralize toxins delivered from adjacent siblings. Genomic analyses indicate that cdi loci are commonly found on plasmids and genomic islands, suggesting that these Type 5 secretion systems are spread through horizontal gene transfer. Here, we examine whether CDI toxin and immunity activities serve to stabilize mobile genetic elements using a minimal F plasmid that fails to partition properly during cell division. This F plasmid is lost from Escherichia coli populations within 50 cell generations, but is maintained in ~60% of the cells after 100 generations when the plasmid carries the cdi gene cluster from E. coli strain EC93. By contrast, the ccdAB "plasmid addiction" module normally found on F exerts only a modest stabilizing effect. cdi-dependent plasmid stabilization requires the BamA receptor for CdiA, suggesting that plasmid-free daughter cells are inhibited by siblings that retain the CDI+ plasmid. In support of this model, the CDI+ F plasmid is lost rapidly from cells that carry an additional cdiI immunity gene on a separate plasmid. These results indicate that plasmid stabilization occurs through elimination of non-immune cells arising in the population via plasmid loss. Thus, genetic stabilization reflects a strong selection for immunity to CDI. After long-term passage for more than 300 generations, CDI+ plasmids acquire mutations that increase copy number and result in 100% carriage in the population. Together, these results show that CDI stabilizes genetic elements through a toxin-mediated surveillance mechanism in which cells that lose the CDI system are detected and eliminated by

  13. The influence of the spin-dependent phases of tunneling electrons on the conductance of a point ferromagnet/isolator/d-wave superconductor contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopyanov, B P

    2010-05-12

    The influence of the spin-dependent phase shifts (SDPSs) associated with the electronic reflection and transmission amplitudes acquired by electrons upon scattering at the potential barrier on the Andreev reflection probability of electron and hole excitations for a ferromagnet/isolator/d-wave superconductor (FIS) contact and on the charge conductance of the FIS contact is studied. Various superconductor orientations are considered. It has been found that for strong ferromagnets and ultrathin interface potential for the {110} oriented d-wave superconductor the presence of the SDPS can lead to the appearance of finite-voltage peaks in the charge conductance of the F/I/d-wave superconductor contact. On the contrary, for the {100} orientation of the d-wave superconductor the presence of the SDPS can lead to restoration of the zero-voltage peak and suppression of finite-voltage peaks. The spin-dependent amplitudes of the Andreev reflection probability and energy levels of the spin-dependent Andreev bound states are found.

  14. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrynenko, O. M.; Pavlenko, O. Yu; Shchukin, Yu S.

    2016-02-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  15. Bio-Inspiered Blood-Contacting Materials Elaborated For The Heart Assist System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main achievements of the author on the development of blood contacting materials. The main objective of the work is to elaborate materials dedicated for the heart support systems. Appropriately designed biomaterial surfaces enable fully controlled cellular differentiation, proliferation, and even restoration of the tissue structure on solids. The paper presents two approaches to modify the surface, which can control the life processes of tissue. The first solution considers the topography in the form of cell niches. The main objective of the study is a modified surface of thin films deposited on the polymer substrate constituting the microenvironment for the cells caused by residual stress and optimized stiffness of the surface using the plasma methods. The research hypothesis was the plasma surface modification method generating a controlled contribution of residual stress in the coating affect the surface topography in the form of nano- wrinkles similar to the niches in the tissue environment. Topography and stiffness of the surface coating allows the targeted cellular differentiation. The properly formed surface topography effectively inhibits blood clotting processes. The second solution considers implementation of self-organizing feature of extracellular matrix like coatings and selective cell mobilization. The multiscale analysis and phenomenologic description were performed to experimental research. For this purpose, the deposition method was based on electrostatic interactions in polyelectrolytes. This type of cell-polymer structure imitate the native structures.

  16. Air microjet system for non-contact force application and the actuation of micro-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, S M; Venkataraman, V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-contact technique to apply calibrated and localized forces in the micro-Newton to milli-Newton range using an air microjet. An electromagnetically actuated diaphragm controlled by a signal generator is used to generate the air microjet. With a nozzle diameter of 150 μm, the microjet diameter was maintained to a maximum of 1 mm at a distance of 5 mm from the nozzle. The force generated by the microjet was measured using a commercial force sensor to determine the velocity profile of the jet. Axial flow velocities of up to 25 m s −1 were obtained at distances as long as 6 mm. The microjet exerted a force up to 1 μN on a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micropillar (50 μm in diameter, 157 μm in height) and 415 μN on a PDMS membrane (3 mm in diameter, 28 μm thick). We also demonstrate that from a distance of 6 mm our microjet can exert a peak pressure of 187 Pa with a total force of about 84 μN on a flat surface with 8 V operating voltage. Out of the cleanroom fabrication and robust design make this system cost effective and durable. (technical note)

  17. Air microjet system for non-contact force application and the actuation of micro-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, S. M.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-contact technique to apply calibrated and localized forces in the micro-Newton to milli-Newton range using an air microjet. An electromagnetically actuated diaphragm controlled by a signal generator is used to generate the air microjet. With a nozzle diameter of 150 μm, the microjet diameter was maintained to a maximum of 1 mm at a distance of 5 mm from the nozzle. The force generated by the microjet was measured using a commercial force sensor to determine the velocity profile of the jet. Axial flow velocities of up to 25 m s-1 were obtained at distances as long as 6 mm. The microjet exerted a force up to 1 μN on a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micropillar (50 μm in diameter, 157 μm in height) and 415 μN on a PDMS membrane (3 mm in diameter, 28 μm thick). We also demonstrate that from a distance of 6 mm our microjet can exert a peak pressure of 187 Pa with a total force of about 84 μN on a flat surface with 8 V operating voltage. Out of the cleanroom fabrication and robust design make this system cost effective and durable.

  18. Interfacial Mechanics Analysis of a Brittle Coating–Ductile Substrate System Involved in Thermoelastic Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, interfacial stress analysis for a brittle coating/ductile substrate system, which is involved in a sliding contact with a rigid ball, is presented. By combining interface mechanics theory and the image point method, stress and displacement responses within a coated material for normal load, tangential load, and thermal load are obtained; further, the Green’s functions are established. The effects of coating thickness, friction coefficient, and a coating’s thermoelastic properties on the interfacial shear stress, τxz, and transverse stress, σxx, distributions are discussed in detail. A phenomenon, where interfacial shear stress tends to be relieved by frictional heating, is found in the case of a coating material’s thermal expansion coefficient being less than a substrate material’s thermal expansion coefficient. Additionally, numerical results show that distribution of interfacial stress can be altered and, therefore, interfacial damage can be modified by adjusting a coating’s structural parameters and thermoelastic properties.

  19. Optimum gain and phase for stochastic cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, S. van der.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed analysis of optimum gain and phase adjustment in stochastic cooling systems reveals that the result is strongly influenced by the beam feedback effect and that for optimum performance the system phase should change appreciably across each Schottky band. It is shown that the performance is not greatly diminished if a constant phase is adopted instead. On the other hand, the effect of mixing between pick-up and kicker (which produces a phase change similar to the optimum one) is shown to be less perturbing than is usually assumed, provided that the absolute value of the gain is not too far from the optimum value. (orig.)

  20. A fully discrete energy stable scheme for a phase filed moving contact line model with variable densities and viscosities

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Guangpu

    2018-01-26

    In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation with the generalized Navier boundary condition. Variable densities and viscosities are incorporated in this model. A rigorous proof of energy stability is provided for the fully discrete scheme based on a semi-implicit temporal discretization and a finite difference method on the staggered grids for the spatial discretization. A splitting method based on the pressure stabilization is implemented to solve the Navier-Stokes equation, while the stabilization approach is also used for the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Numerical results in both 2-D and 3-D demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and decaying property of discrete energy of the proposed scheme.

  1. Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communications Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's latest effort in developing a common platform for space communication and navigation systems is the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) standard. It...

  2. Space Radiation Intelligence System (SPRINTS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Federal Systems proposes an innovative SPace Radiation INTelligence System (SPRINTS) which provides an interactive and web-delivered capability that...

  3. Subaqueous ice-contact fans: Depositional systems characterised by highly aggradational supercritical flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous ice-contact fans are deposited by high-energy plane-wall jets from subglacial conduits into standing water bodies. Highly aggradational conditions during flow expansion and deceleration allow for the preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows, which are commonly considered rare in the depositional record. We present field examples from gravelly and sandy subaqueous ice-contact fan successions, which indicate that deposition by supercritical flows might be considered as a characteristic feature of these depositional systems. The studied successions were deposited in deep ice-dammed lakes, which formed along the margins of the Middle Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets across Northern Germany. The gravel-rich subaqueous fan deposits are dominated by large scour-fills (up to 25 m wide and 3 m) deep and deposits of turbulent hyperconcentrated flows, which are partly attributed to supercritical flow conditions (Winsemann et al., 2009). Scours (up to 4.5 m wide and 0.9 m deep) infilled by gravelly backsets are observed above laterally extensive erosional surfaces and are interpreted as deposits of cyclic steps. Laterally discontinuous beds of low-angle cross-stratified gravel are interpreted as antidune deposits. Downflow and up-section the gravel-rich deposits pass into sand-rich successions, which include deposits of chutes-and-pools, breaking antidunes, stationary antidunes and humpback dunes (Lang and Winsemann, 2013). Deposits of chutes-and-pools and breaking antidunes are characterised by scour-fills (up to 4 m wide and 1.2 m deep) comprising backsets or gently dipping sigmoidal foresets. Stationary antidune deposits consist of laterally extensive sinusoidal waveforms with long wavelengths (1-12 m) and low amplitudes (0.1-0.5 m), which formed under quasi-steady flows at the lower limit of the supercritical flow stage and high rates of sedimentation. Humpback dunes are characterised by divergent sigmoidal foresets and are interpreted as

  4. Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System demonstration project. Phase 2 accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Singleterry, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase 2 efforts. the rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include further development of the data acquisition system and procurement of necessary hardware/software, options and associated costs for plutonium canning systems and gloveboxes, initiation of facility modifications, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, results from sensor system trade study, and preliminary storage configuration designs. Resources invested during Phase 1 and Phase 2 are summarized and budgetary requirements for completion of Phase 3 presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase 2 deliverables

  5. Maintenance Decision Support System, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of the project was to address barriers that limit NDOTs ability to implement MDSS and MMS systems. The four project tasks included: Task 1: Develop system for tracking sand and/or deicing material usage: A system that tracks where and w...

  6. An algorithm for reliability analysis of phased-mission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.; Trivedi, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an efficient Boolean algebraic algorithm that provides exact solution to the unreliability of a multi-phase mission system where the configurations are described through fault trees. The algorithm extends and improves the Boolean method originally proposed by Somani and Trivedi. By using the Boolean algebraic method, we provide an efficient modeling approach which avoids the state space explosion and the mapping problems that are encountered by the Markov chain approach. To calculate the exact solution of the phased-mission system with deterministic phase durations, we introduce the sum of disjoint phase products (SDPP) formula, which is a phased-extension of the sum of disjoint products (SDP) formula. Computationally, the algorithm is quite efficient because it calls an SDP generation algorithm in the early stage of the SDPP computation. In this way, the phase products generated in the early stage of the SDPP formula are guaranteed to be disjoint. Consequently, the number of the intermediate phase products is greatly reduced. In this paper, we also consider the transient analysis of the phased-mission system. Special care is needed to account for the possible latent failures at the mission phase change times. If there are more stringent success criteria just after a mission phase change time, an unreliability jump would occur at that time. Finally, the algorithm has been implemented in the software package SHARPE. With SHARPE, the complexities of the phased-mission system is made transparent to the potential users. The user can conveniently specify a phased-mission model at a high level (through fault trees) and analyze the system quantitatively

  7. Imaging phase holdup distribution of three phase flow systems using dual source gamma ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Rajneesh; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna; O'Sullivan, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Multiphase reaction and process systems are used in abundance in the chemical and biochemical industry. Tomography has been successfully employed to visualize the hydrodynamics of multiphase systems. Most of the tomography methods (gamma ray, x-ray and electrical capacitance and resistance) have been successfully implemented for two phase dynamic systems. However, a significant number of chemical and biochemical systems consists of dynamic three phases. Research effort directed towards the development of tomography techniques to image such dynamic system has met with partial successes for specific systems with applicability to limited operating conditions. A dual source tomography scanner has been developed that uses the 661 keV and 1332 keV photo peaks from the 137 Cs and 60 Co for imaging three phase systems. A new approach has been developed and applied that uses the polyenergetic Alternating Minimization (A-M) algorithm, developed by O'Sullivan and Benac (2007), for imaging the holdup distribution in three phases' dynamic systems. The new approach avoids the traditional post image processing approach used to determine the holdup distribution where the attenuation images of the mixed flow obtained from gamma ray photons of two different energies are used to determine the holdup of three phases. In this approach the holdup images are directly reconstructed from the gamma ray transmission data. The dual source gamma ray tomography scanner and the algorithm were validated using a three phase phantom. Based in the validation, three phase holdup studies we carried out in slurry bubble column containing gas liquid and solid phases in a dynamic state using the dual energy gamma ray tomography. The key results of the holdup distribution studies in the slurry bubble column along with the validation of the dual source gamma ray tomography system would be presented and discussed

  8. Clinical features of 31 patients with systemic contact dermatitis due to the ingestion of Rhus (lacquer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S D; Lee, S W; Chun, J H; Cha, S H

    2000-05-01

    In Korea, Rhus has been used as a folk medicine to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food. We review the clinicopathological and laboratory findings in patients with systemic contact dermatitis caused by intake of Rhus. We reviewed medical records and histopathological sections from 31 patients during a 10-year period. The male/female ratio was 1.4: 1 and the average age was 43.8 years (range 22-70). Ten patients (32%) had a known history of allergy to lacquer. Rhus was ingested to treat gastrointestinal problems including indigestion and gastritis (45%), and as a health food (39%), in cooked meat, in herbal medicine, or taken by inhalation. The patients developed skin lesions such as a maculopapular eruption (65%), erythema multiforme (EM, 32%), erythroderma (19%), pustules, purpura, weals and blisters. Erythroderma was very frequent in patients with a known history of allergy to lacquer, but maculopapular and EM-type eruptions were more frequently observed in those without a history of allergy. All patients experienced generalized or localized pruritus. Other symptoms included gastrointestinal problems (32%), fever (26%), chills and headache; many developed leucocytosis (70%) with neutrophilia (88%), while some showed toxic effects on liver and kidney. Fifty-nine per cent of patients observed cutaneous or general symptoms within a day after ingestion of Rhus. There was no difference in the time lag for symptoms to develop between patients allergic and not allergic to Rhus. All patients responded well to treatment with systemic steroids and antihistamines. Common histopathological findings were vascular dilatation, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltration, and extravasation of red blood cells in the upper dermis. Rhus lacquer should not be ingested in view of its highly allergic and toxic effects.

  9. Using the phase-space imager to analyze partially coherent imaging systems: bright-field, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, differential phase contrast, and spiral phase contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shalin B.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2010-05-01

    Various methods that use large illumination aperture (i.e. partially coherent illumination) have been developed for making transparent (i.e. phase) specimens visible. These methods were developed to provide qualitative contrast rather than quantitative measurement-coherent illumination has been relied upon for quantitative phase analysis. Partially coherent illumination has some important advantages over coherent illumination and can be used for measurement of the specimen's phase distribution. However, quantitative analysis and image computation in partially coherent systems have not been explored fully due to the lack of a general, physically insightful and computationally efficient model of image formation. We have developed a phase-space model that satisfies these requirements. In this paper, we employ this model (called the phase-space imager) to elucidate five different partially coherent systems mentioned in the title. We compute images of an optical fiber under these systems and verify some of them with experimental images. These results and simulated images of a general phase profile are used to compare the contrast and the resolution of the imaging systems. We show that, for quantitative phase imaging of a thin specimen with matched illumination, differential phase contrast offers linear transfer of specimen information to the image. We also show that the edge enhancement properties of spiral phase contrast are compromised significantly as the coherence of illumination is reduced. The results demonstrate that the phase-space imager model provides a useful framework for analysis, calibration, and design of partially coherent imaging methods.

  10. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  11. Dynamics of Shape Memory Alloy Systems, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Systems with Discontinuous Support Using a Switch Model”, DINAME 2005 - XI International Conference on Dynamic Problems in...AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2016-0003 Dynamics of Shape Memory Alloy Systems , Phase 2 Marcelo Savi FUNDACAO COORDENACAO DE PROJETOS PESQUISAS E EEUDOS TECNOL...release. 2 AFOSR FINAL REPORT Grant Title: Nonlinear Dynamics of Shape Memory Alloy Systems , Phase 2 Grant #: FA9550-11-1-0284 Reporting Period

  12. Quantum trajectory approach to the geometric phase: open bipartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, X X; Liu, D P; Wang, W

    2005-01-01

    Through the quantum trajectory approach, we calculate the geometric phase acquired by a bipartite system subjected to decoherence. The subsystems that compose the bipartite system interact with each other and then are entangled in the evolution. The geometric phase due to the quantum jump for both the bipartite system and its subsystems is calculated and analysed. As an example, we present two coupled spin-1/2 particles to detail the calculations

  13. AC system stabilization via phase shift transformer with thyristor commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Carlos de; Guimaraes, Geraldo Caixeta; Moraes, Adelio Jose [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil); Abreu, Jose Policarpo G. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Edimar Jose de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This article aims to present initially the constructive and operative forms of a phase-shift autotransformer which provides both magnitude and phase angle change through thyristor commutation, including a technic to reduce the number of thyristors. Following, it is proposed a control system to make such equipment an efficient AC system stabilizing tool. It is presented some simulation results to show the operation of this transformer in an electrical system. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Contacting gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for contacting substantially immiscible phases to transfer material from one phase to another, which comprises passing the phases through a contactor, while causing portions of at least one phase to be repeatedly passed through at least one other phase. One phase in the contactor is gaseous, and another liquid. A further phase can be liquid or solid The process may be used for extracting impurities from china clay, or extracting uranium values from ore with oxygen gas acting to oxidise the uranium. (author)

  15. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  16. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  17. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  18. Salinity-Dependent Contact Angle Alteration in Oil/Brine/Silicate Systems : the Critical Role of Divalent Cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagh, Martinus Everardus Johannes; Sîretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting

  19. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance

  20. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-03-10

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance. (LCL)

  1. Phase considerations in a rotating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron interferometer in constant absolute rotation will exhibit a certain phase-shift between its two beams, a phenomenon shared with the classic Sagnac or Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiments or with the modern laser-gyrocompass composed of lasers in a ring. To first order in the rotational frequency, it is possible to understand by employing only rudimentary theory, the essence of this phenomenon to any degree of relativistiness of the participating particle. This paper is mainly paedagogical, noting the similarity due to permanent rotation between photon-, electron and neutron-interferometers. Future experimentation, aside from corroborating well believed tenets, may hope with improving precision to bring new approaches to measurement of fundamental effects

  2. TWO-LAYER PHASE COMPENSATING INTERFERENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiy V. Nikandrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of optical interferential coatings, giving the possibility to form the wave front without the change of energy characteristics of the incident and reflected radiation. Correction is achieved due to the layer, which thickness is a function of coordinate of an optical element surface. Selection technique is suggested for refractive index materials, forming two-layer interference coating that creates a coating with a constant coefficient of reflection on the surface of the optical element. By this procedure the change of coefficient of reflection for the optical element surface, arising because of the variable thickness is eliminated. Magnesium oxide and zirconium dioxide were used as the film-forming materials. The paper presents experimentally obtained thickness distribution of the layer, which is a part of the phase compensating coating. A new class of optical coatings proposed in the paper can find its application for correcting the form of a wave front.

  3. System design description for master equipment list, phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    This System Design Description (SDD) is for the Master Equipment List Phase I (MEL). It has been prepared following the WI-IC-CM-3-10, ''Software Practices,'' (Ref. 6). This SDD describes the internal design for implementation of the MEL Phase I

  4. A phase locked neutron chopper rotor drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace-Sims, G.R.

    1980-09-01

    A system is described for synchronising up to four neutron chopper rotors to an externally generated master pulse source. Phasing is adjustable in 1 0 steps from 0 to 360 0 relative to the master pulses. Additionally a pulse adjustable in phase is generated for initiating time of flight analyser equipment. (author)

  5. Development and applicability estimation of the tire contact pressure measurement system; Tire secchiatsukei no kaihatsu to oyosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Y.; Amago, T.; Takahashi, T.; Sakuma, S.; Mori, N. [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Aichi (Japan); Nagae, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Yasuoka, M. [Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    A pressure sensor more reliable than the conventional types and a tire pressure measurement system using a plurality of sensors of the said reliable type have been developed. The sensor is an inverted T in shape, the upper surface of the vertical beam thereof receives the pressure, and the two ends of the horizontal beam are fixed. The load per unit area imposed on the pressure receiving surface is separated into three components, the X and Y components in the tangential direction are sensed by the vertical beam while the Z component in the vertical direction is sensed by a distortion gauge attached to the horizontal beam. For the measurement of the contact pressure distribution for the entire contact surface, a measuring device was developed, comprising a multiple point contact pressure gauge with 30 sensors of the reliable type discussed here embedded therein, a tire rolling tester, and a data processing unit. A tire wear estimation test was conducted using this pressure sensor and a contact probe type slip sensor, and it was found that a tire of a greater friction energy ratio is easier to experience abnormal abrasion and that the new pressure sensor is useful in estimating abnormal abrasion. Further, it was indicated that the present measuring device is applicable to the analysis of the mechanism wherein shaft force results from contact pressure on the soil. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Contribution to the development and the modelling of an ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer for the contact inspection of 3D complex geometry components; Contribution au developpement et a la modelisation d'un traducteur ultrasonore multielements conformable pour l'inspection au contact de composants a geometrie complexe 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, O

    2005-04-15

    With the difficulties encountered for the exploration of complex shape surfaces, particularly in nuclear industry, the ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer allows a non destructive evaluation of parts with 3D complex parts. For this, one can use the Smart Contact Transducer principle to generate an ultrasonic field by adaptive dynamic focalisation, with a matrix array composed of independent elements moulded in a soft resin. This work deals with the electro-acoustic conception, with the realization of such a prototype and with the study of it's mechanical and acoustic behaviour. The array design is defined using a radiation model adapted to the simulation of contact sources on a free surface. Once one have defined the shape of the radiating elements, a vibratory analysis using finite elements method allows the determination of the emitting structure with 1-3 piezocomposite, witch leads to the realization of emitting-receiving elements. With the measurement of the field transmitted by such elements, we deduced new hypothesis to change the model of radiation. Thus one can take into account normal and tangential stresses calculated with finite element modelling at the interface between the element and the propagation medium, to use it with the semi-analytical model. Some vibratory phenomena dealing with fluid coupling of contact transducers have been studied, and the prediction of the transverse wave radiation profile have been improved. The last part of this work deals with the realization of the first prototype of the conformable phased array transducer. For this a deformation measuring system have been developed, to determine the position of each element on real time with the displacement of the transducer on complex shape surfaces. With those positions, one can perform the calculation of the a delay law intended for the adaptive dynamic focusing of the desired ultrasonic field. The conformable phased array transducer have been characterized in

  7. Contribution to the development and the modelling of an ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer for the contact inspection of 3D complex geometry components; Contribution au developpement et a la modelisation d'un traducteur ultrasonore multielements conformable pour l'inspection au contact de composants a geometrie complexe 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, O

    2005-04-15

    With the difficulties encountered for the exploration of complex shape surfaces, particularly in nuclear industry, the ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer allows a non destructive evaluation of parts with 3D complex parts. For this, one can use the Smart Contact Transducer principle to generate an ultrasonic field by adaptive dynamic focalisation, with a matrix array composed of independent elements moulded in a soft resin. This work deals with the electro-acoustic conception, with the realization of such a prototype and with the study of it's mechanical and acoustic behaviour. The array design is defined using a radiation model adapted to the simulation of contact sources on a free surface. Once one have defined the shape of the radiating elements, a vibratory analysis using finite elements method allows the determination of the emitting structure with 1-3 piezocomposite, witch leads to the realization of emitting-receiving elements. With the measurement of the field transmitted by such elements, we deduced new hypothesis to change the model of radiation. Thus one can take into account normal and tangential stresses calculated with finite element modelling at the interface between the element and the propagation medium, to use it with the semi-analytical model. Some vibratory phenomena dealing with fluid coupling of contact transducers have been studied, and the prediction of the transverse wave radiation profile have been improved. The last part of this work deals with the realization of the first prototype of the conformable phased array transducer. For this a deformation measuring system have been developed, to determine the position of each element on real time with the displacement of the transducer on complex shape surfaces. With those positions, one can perform the calculation of the a delay law intended for the adaptive dynamic focusing of the desired ultrasonic field. The conformable phased array transducer have been characterized in

  8. Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System (AMWAS) recovers and purifies water from Mars soils for oxygen and fuel production, life support, food production, and...

  9. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a wearable health monitoring system for the human body that is functional, comfortable,...

  10. Electronic construction collaboration system -- phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    During the first year of research, work was completed to identify Iowa DOT needs for web-based project management system (WPMS) : and evaluate how commercially available solutions could meet these needs. Researchers also worked to pilot test custom d...

  11. Deep Space Cryocooler System (DSCS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA missions continue to extend the horizon beyond near-Earth missions, higher performance systems must evolve to address the challenges of reduced power...

  12. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  13. Mars Aqueous Processing System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  14. Helium-Hydrogen Recovery System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Immense quantities of expensive liquefied helium are required at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers for pre-cooling rocket engine propellant systems prior to filling...

  15. Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...

  16. Plenoptic Attitude Monitoring System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking an optical system capable of analyzing the attitude of wind tunnel models in real time, with a high angular resolution and robustness. To address...

  17. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a wearable health monitoring system for the human body that is functional, comfortable,...

  18. System Engineering Process Realization Toolkit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA faces many systems engineering challenges as it seeks to conduct exploration and science missions concurrently. One such challenge is implementing a repeatable...

  19. Advanced Green Micropropulsion System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systima in collaboration with University of Washington is developing a high performance injection system for advanced green monopropellant AF-M315E micropropulsion...

  20. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  1. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  2. Phase transitions in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, S.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some experiences are related using synchrotron radiation beams, to characterize solid-liquid (fusion) and commensurate solid-uncommensurate solid transitions in two-dimensional systems. Some ideas involved in the modern theories of two-dimensional fusion are shortly exposed. The systems treated consist of noble gases (Kr,Ar,Xe) adsorbed in the basal plane of graphite and thin films formed by some liquid crystal shells. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Phased mission analysis of maintained systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpstra, K.

    1984-09-01

    The present study is devoted to system reliability and is mainly directed to the quantitative evaluation of accident sequences. Event tree methodology and fault tree analysis are applied as basic techniques. It introduces a new methodology for the calculation of the probability of occurrence of an accident sequence. This new methodology takes correctly into account shared equipment dependencies between the different systems present in an accident sequence. Since large and/or complex systems may contain a large number of minimal cut sets (sometimes millions of it), it is not possible as a rule to obtain the exact analytical solution. Therefore, upper and lower bounds for the probability of occurrence of an accident sequence are presented. Calculation results show that this probability is under-estimated if system dependencies are not fully taken into account. The new methodology also offers the possibility to get insight into the degree of dependency between systems based on quantitative calculations. To make the methodology manageable for complex systems, it is implemented in the reliability computer program PHAMISS. This program is written in FORTRAN-IV for the CDC-Cyber 175. PHAMISS is users friendly and has proven to be a fast and efficient program. (Auth.)

  4. The Use of Energy Storage Systems for Supporting the Voltage Needs of Urban and Suburban Railway Contact Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pagano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to contribute to the use of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC sets for boosting voltages of contact lines in urban and suburban railway traction systems. Different electrical configurations of contact lines are considered and investigated. For each of them, proper mathematical models are suggested to evaluate the electrical performances of the contact lines. They give rise, also, to sample design procedures for the sizing of the most appropriate energy storage systems, to be distributed along the lines, for boosting line voltages and avoiding undesired voltage drops. A numerical example based on the “Cumana” suburban Naples railway network is presented to give an idea of the weights and sizes of electric double layer capacitors needed to boost the voltage of a sample contact line. In particular, three different EDLC systems, for a overall installed energy of 9.6 kWh, have been placed nearby the stations presenting the highest voltage drops during the most representative situation of trains’ service. The new voltage drop is equal to 32% of that obtained in absence of EDLCs.

  5. The Use of Energy Storage Systems for Supporting the Voltage Needs of Urban and Suburban Railway Contact Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Diago [University of Federico II, Naples (Italy). Electrical Engineering Department; Pagano, Enrico [University of Federico II, Naples (Italy). Electrical Engineering Department; Tricoli, Pietro [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The paper aims to contribute to the use of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) sets for boosting voltages of contact lines in urban and suburban railway traction systems. Different electrical configurations of contact lines are considered and investigated. For each of them, proper mathematical models are suggested to evaluate the electrical performances of the contact lines. They give rise, also, to sample design procedures for the sizing of the most appropriate energy storage systems, to be distributed along the lines, for boosting line voltages and avoiding undesired voltage drops. A numerical example based on the “Cumana” suburban Naples railway network is presented to give an idea of the weights and sizes of electric double layer capacitors needed to boost the voltage of a sample contact line. In particular, three different EDLC systems, for a overall installed energy of 9.6 kWh, have been placed nearby the stations presenting the highest voltage drops during the most representative situation of trains’ service. The new voltage drop is equal to 32% of that obtained in absence of EDLCs.

  6. Wettability in the liquid Cu-Ag alloy – fireproof material – gas phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, results of wettability studies on the liquid metal – fireproof material – gas phase system using copper and Cu-Ag alloys as well as typical fireproof materials, i.e. aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide and graphite, are presented. Contact angle measurements were conducted at 1 373–1 573 K by means of a high-temperature microscope coupled with a camera and a computer equipped with a program for recording and analysing images. For the measurements, the sessile drop method was used.

  7. Contact parameters in two dimensions for general three-body systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.

    2014-01-01

    a subsystem is composed of two identical non-interacting particles. We also show that the three-body contact parameter is negligible in the case of one non-interacting subsystem compared to the situation where all subsystem are bound. As example, we present results for mixtures of Lithium with two Cesium......We study the two dimensional three-body problem in the general case of three distinguishable particles interacting through zero-range potentials. The Faddeev decomposition is used to write the momentum-space wave function. We show that the large-momentum asymptotic spectator function has the same...... to obtain two- and three-body contact parameters. We specialize from the general cases to examples of two identical, interacting or non-interacting, particles. We find that the two-body contact parameter is not a universal constant in the general case and show that the universality is recovered when...

  8. Wigner Functions for the Bateman System on Noncommutative Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Tai-Hua; Lin, Bing-Sheng; Jing, Si-Cong

    2010-09-01

    We study an important dissipation system, i.e. the Bateman model on noncommutative phase space. Using the method of deformation quantization, we calculate the Exp functions, and then derive the Wigner functions and the corresponding energy spectra.

  9. Wigner Functions for the Bateman System on Noncommutative Phase Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai-Hua, Heng; Bing-Sheng, Lin; Si-Cong, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We study an important dissipation system, i.e. the Bateman model on noncommutative phase space. Using the method of deformation quantization, we calculate the Exp functions, and then derive the Wigner functions and the corresponding energy spectra

  10. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I effort demonstrated, through actual development and tests with a spacecraft system, the technical and programmatic feasibility of developing, within the...

  11. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter. ... KK Mishra, R Gupta ... load varies from time to time, the non linear load ranging from voltage source type harmonic load (VSHL) dominant to current source type harmonic ...

  12. WDM Phase-Modulated Millimeter-Wave Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Prince, Kamau; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a computer simulation case study of two typical WDM phase-modulated millimeter-wave systems. The phase-modulated 60 GHz fiber multi-channel transmission systems employ single sideband (SSB) and double sideband subcarrier modulation (DSB-SC) schemes and present one of the lat......This chapter presents a computer simulation case study of two typical WDM phase-modulated millimeter-wave systems. The phase-modulated 60 GHz fiber multi-channel transmission systems employ single sideband (SSB) and double sideband subcarrier modulation (DSB-SC) schemes and present one...... of the latest research efforts in the rapidly emerging Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) application space for in-house access networks....

  13. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  14. A Application of WD Model to EB Type Contact Binary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Oh

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The EB type contact binaries show large temperature difference ( T 1,000K between two components. Thus we have modified the mode 3 of the WD program to adjust albedos, limb darkening coefficients and gravity darkening exponents for both components of such binaries, while the values for those parameters should be same for both components in the original WD program. Both of the modified and the original versions have been applied to the EB type contact binaries such as DO Cas, GO Cyg, and FS Lup. The computed light curves with modified version fit better to the observations.

  15. Negative heat capacity at phase-separation in macroscopic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, D. H. E.

    2005-01-01

    Systems with long-range as well with short-range interactions should necessarily have a convex entropy S(E) at proper phase transitions of first order, i.e. when a separation of phases occurs. Here the microcanonical heat capacity c(E)= -\\frac{(\\partial S/\\partial E)^2}{\\partial^2S/\\partial E^2} is negative. This should be observable even in macroscopic systems when energy fluctuations with the surrounding world can be sufficiently suppressed.

  16. Interactive Model-Centric Systems Engineering (IMCSE) Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Interactive Model-Centric Systems Engineering (IMCSE) Phase 5 Technical Report SERC-2018-TR-104 Feb 28, 2018 Principal Investigator...Date February 28, 2018 Copyright © 2018 Stevens Institute of Technology, Systems Engineering ...Research Center The Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC) is a federally funded University Affiliated Research Center managed by Stevens

  17. ESR imaging investigations of two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Werner; Stösser, Reinhard; Borchert, Hans-Hubert

    2007-06-01

    The possibilities of electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron spin resonance imaging (ESRI) for investigating the properties of the spin probes TEMPO and TEMPOL in two-phase systems have been examined in the systems water/n-octanol, Miglyol/Miglyol, and Precirol/Miglyol. Phases and regions of the phase boundary could be mapped successfully by means of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constants, and, moreover, the quantification of rotational and lateral diffusion of the spin probes was possible. For the quantitative treatment of the micropolarity, a simplified empirical model was established on the basis of the Nernst distribution and the experimentally determined isotropic hyperfine coupling constants. The model does not only describe the summarized micropolarities of coexisting phases, but also the region of the phase boundary, where solvent molecules of different polarities and tendencies to form hydrogen bonds compete to interact with the NO group of the spin probe. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  19. Phase separation in fermionic systems with particle–hole asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montorsi, Arianna

    2008-01-01

    We determine the ground-state phase diagram of a Hubbard Hamiltonian with correlated hopping, which is asymmetric under particle–hole transform. By lowering the repulsive Coulomb interaction U at appropriate filling and interaction parameters, the ground state separates into hole and electron conducting phases: two different wavevectors characterize the system and charge–charge correlations become incommensurate. By further decreasing U another transition occurs at which the hole conducting region becomes insulating, and conventional phase separation takes place. Finally, for negative U the whole system eventually becomes a paired insulator. It is speculated that such behavior could be at the origin of the incommensurate superconducting phase recently discovered in the 1D Hirsch model. The exact phase boundaries are calculated in one dimension. (letter)

  20. The geometric phase in two-level atomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Mingzhen; Barber, Zeb W.; Fischer, Joe A.; Randall Babbitt, Wm.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of the geometric phase in a closed two-level atomic system using stimulated photon echoes. The two-level system studied consists of the two-electronic energy levels ( 3 H 4 and 3 H 6 ) of Tm 3+ doped in YAG crystal. When a two-level atom at an arbitrary superposition state is excited by a pair of specially designed laser pulses, the excited state component gains a relative phase with respect to the ground state component. We identified the phase shift to be of pure geometric nature. The dynamic phase associated to the driving Hamiltonian is unchanged. The experiment results of the phase change agree with the theory to the extent of the measurement limit

  1. Phase structure rewrite systems in information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbiel, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Operational level automatic indexing requires an efficient means of normalizing natural language phrases. Subject switching requires an efficient means of translating one set of authorized terms to another. A phrase structure rewrite system called a Lexical Dictionary is explained that performs these functions. Background, operational use, other applications and ongoing research are explained.

  2. Integrated microwave photonics for phase modulated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    For the last 25 years, microwave photonic (MWP) systems and links have relied almost exclusively on discrete optoelectronic devices, standard optical fibers and fiber-based components. With this concept, various functionalities like RF signal generation, distribution, processing and analysis have

  3. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system in an oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Polat, Yasin

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins σ=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T abs and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i 1 , i 2 , i 3 ) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i 1 +p, i 2 +p and i 3 +p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.

  4. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system in an oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Polat, Yasin [Institutes of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins {sigma}=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T{sub abs} and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i{sub 1}, i{sub 2}, i{sub 3}) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i{sub 1}+p, i{sub 2}+p and i{sub 3}+p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.

  5. Local Void Fractions and Bubble Velocity in Vertical Air-Water Two-Phase Flows Measured by Needle-Contact Capacitance Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanfang Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase flow measurements have become increasingly important in a wide range of industrial fields. In the present study, a dual needle-contact capacitance probe was newly designed to measure local void fractions and bubble velocity in a vertical channel, which was verified by digital high-speed camera system. The theoretical analyses and experiments show that the needle-contact capacitance probe can reliably measure void fractions with the readings almost independent of temperature and salinity for the experimental conditions. In addition, the trigger-level method was chosen as the signal processing method for the void fraction measurement, with a minimum relative error of −4.59%. The bubble velocity was accurately measured within a relative error of 10%. Meanwhile, dynamic response of the dual needle-contact capacitance probe was analyzed in detail. The probe was then used to obtain raw signals for vertical pipe flow regimes, including plug flow, slug flow, churn flow, and bubbly flow. Further experiments indicate that the time series of the output signals vary as the different flow regimes and are consistent with each flow structure.

  6. Phase Diagram of the Ethylene Glycol-Dimethylsulfoxide System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonina, I. A.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Kiselev, M. R.; Khoroshilov, A. V.; Shirokova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The phase diagram of ethylene glycol (EG)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) system is studied in the temperature range of +25 to -140°C via differential scanning calorimetry. It is established that the EG-DMSO system is characterized by strong overcooling of the liquid phase, a glass transition at -125°C, and the formation of a compound with the composition of DMSO · 2EG. This composition has a melting temperature of -60°C, which is close to those of neighboring eutectics (-75 and -70°C). A drop in the baseline was observed in the temperature range of 8 to -5°C at DMSO concentrations of 5-50 mol %, indicating the existence of a phase separation area in the investigated system. The obtained data is compared to the literature data on the H2O-DMSO phase diagram.

  7. Inactive trials of transport systems: phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.; Kennedy, S.T.

    1986-11-01

    Progress made during 1984-85 is reviewed in four sections: the design and installation of a stainless steel working floor in the mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction facility; the detailed evaluation of a single air pad of the type used on commercial air-transporter; an experimental programme designed to examine the problems associated with the operation of a commercial air-transporter; the design, manufacture and commissioning trials of two powered conveyor units which when combined complete a remotely operated transfer system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility. (author)

  8. Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRYE-MASON, GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER, EDWIN J.; HIETALA, VINCENT M.; KOTTENSTETTE, RICHARD; LEWIS, PATRICK R.; MANGINELL, RONALD P.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; WONG, CHUNGNIN C.

    1999-01-01

    A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ((micro)ChemLab(trademark)) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described

  9. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a 'Phase 1' fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system

  10. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume I. Phase II program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Phase II of the overall 3-phase KIPS program is described. This volume presents a program plan for qualifying the organic Rankine power system for flight test in 1982. The program plan calls for the design and fabrication of the proposed flight power system; conducting a development and a qualification program including both environmental and endurance testing, using an electrical and a radioisotope heat source; planning for flight test and spacecraft integration; and continuing ground demonstration system testing to act as a flight system breadboard and to accumulate life data

  11. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A continuous booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the imperative demand of “clean” power generation from renewables. Grid-connected PV systems will thus become an even more active player in the future mixed power systems, which...... systems. This chapter thus gives an overview of the advancement of power electronics converters in single-phase grid-connected PV systems, being commonly used in residential applications. Demands to single-phase grid-connected PV systems and the general control strategies are also addressed...... are linked together by a vast of power electronics converters and the power grid. In order to achieve a reliable and efficient power generation from PV systems, more stringent demands have been imposed on the entire PV system. It, in return, advances the development of the power converter technology in PV...

  12. Organic Rankine Kilowatt Isotope Power System. Final phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    On 1 August 1975 under Department of Energy Contract EN-77-C-02-4299, Sundstrand Energy Systems commenced development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980s and beyond. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W/sub (e)/ with a minimum of system changes. The principal objectives of the Phase 1 development effort were to: conceptually design a flight system; design a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) that is prototypic of the flight system in order to prove the feasibility of the flight system design; fabricate and assemble the GDS; and performance and endurance test the GDS using electric heaters in lieu of the isotope heat source. Results of the work performed under the Phase 1 contract to 1 July 1978 are presented

  13. An ultra-bright white LED based non-contact skin cancer imaging system with polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Basu, C.; Roth, B.; Meinhardt-Wollweber, M.

    2013-06-01

    Early detection and excision of melanoma skin cancer is crucial for a successful therapy. Dermoscopy in direct contact with the skin is routinely used for inspection, but screening is time consuming for high-risk patients with a large number of nevi. Features like symmetry, border, color and most importantly changes like growth or depigmentation of a nevus may indicate malignancy. We present a non-contact remote imaging system for human melanocytic nevi with homogenous illumination by an ultra-bright white LED. The advantage compared to established dermoscopy systems requiring direct skin contact is that deformation of raised nevi is avoided and full-body scans of the patients may time-efficiently be obtained while they are in a lying, comfortable position. This will ultimately allow for automated screening in the future. In addition, calibration of true color rendering, which is essential for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions and to ensure reproducibility and comparison between individual check-ups in order to follow nevi evolution is implemented as well as suppression of specular highlights on the skin surface by integration of polarizing filters. Important features of the system which will be crucial for future integration into automated systems are the possibility to record images without artifacts in combination with short exposure times which both reduce image blurring caused by patient motion.

  14. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Isotropic–Nematic Phase Transitions in Gravitational Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roupas, Zacharias; Kocsis, Bence [Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We examine dense self-gravitating stellar systems dominated by a central potential, such as nuclear star clusters hosting a central supermassive black hole. Different dynamical properties of these systems evolve on vastly different timescales. In particular, the orbital-plane orientations are typically driven into internal thermodynamic equilibrium by vector resonant relaxation before the orbital eccentricities or semimajor axes relax. We show that the statistical mechanics of such systems exhibit a striking resemblance to liquid crystals, with analogous ordered-nematic and disordered-isotropic phases. The ordered phase consists of bodies orbiting in a disk in both directions, with the disk thickness depending on temperature, while the disordered phase corresponds to a nearly isotropic distribution of the orbit normals. We show that below a critical value of the total angular momentum, the system undergoes a first-order phase transition between the ordered and disordered phases. At a critical point, the phase transition becomes second order, while for higher angular momenta there is a smooth crossover. We also find metastable equilibria containing two identical disks with mutual inclinations between 90° and 180°.

  16. Phase flow and statistical structure of Galton-board systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, A.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    Galton boards, found in museum exhibits devoted to science and technology, are often used to demonstrate visually the ubiquity of so-called ''laws of probability'' via an experimental realization of normal distributions. A detailed theoretical study of Galton-board phase-space dynamics and statistical behavior is presented. The study is based on a simple inelastic-collision model employing a particle fall- ing through a spatially periodic lattice of rigid, convex scatterers. We show that such systems exhibit indeterminate behavior through the presence of strange attractors or strange repellers in phase space; nevertheless, we also show that these systems exhibit regular and predictable behavior under specific circumstances. Phase-space strange attractors, periodic attractors, and strange repellers are present in numerical simulations, confirming results anticipated from geometric analysis. The system's geometry (dictated by lattice geometry and density as well as the direction of gravity) is observed to play a dominant role in stability, phase-flow topology, and statistical observations. Smale horseshoes appear to exist in the low-lattice-density limit and may exist in other regimes. These horseshoes are generated by homoclinic orbits whose existence is dictated by system characteristics. The horseshoes lead directly to deterministic chaos in the system. Strong evidence exists for ergodicity in all attractors. Phase-space complexities are manifested at all observed levels, particularly statistical ones. Consequently, statistical observations are critically dependent upon system details. Under well-defined circumstances, these observations display behavior which does not constitute a realization of the ''laws of probability.''

  17. Two-phase systems. Fundamentals and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woillez, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Two-phase flows are omnipresent in industrial processes in different sectors with the behaviour and control of non-mixing mixtures of gas and liquids, of several liquids, of solids and fluids which are present in the production of raw materials, in the environment, in energy production, in chemistry, in pharmaceutical or food industry. The author presents the fundamentals elements which are needed to perform hardware predictive calculations and to understand typical phenomena associated with these flows. The chapters address fluids mechanics (movement equations, Bernoulli equation, load losses, turbulence, heat exchange coefficients, thermodynamics, compressible flows), two-phase systems (characteristic values, modes of appearance of two-phase flows, conduct flows, suspension mechanics, mass transfers, similarity, numerical simulation), the applications (energy production, agitation and mixing, phase separation, sprays), and peculiar phenomena (Marangoni effect, the tea cup effect, entry jets, water hammer effect, sound speed, two-phase pumping, fluidization)

  18. Preliminary investigation of liquid phase sintering in ferrous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1975-04-01

    Liquid phase sintering was utilized to achieve, by a simple compaction and sintering procedure involving short times and moderate temperatures, a virtually full dense high carbon Fe:C alloy and high boron Fe:B alloy. Parameters such as powder characteristics and mixing, compacting pressure, heating program and the liquid phase fraction were found to influence the sintered density. The response of the Fe:C alloy to a heat treatment is reported along with preliminary experiments in the iron base ternary system Fe:W:C. Residual porosities observed in microstructures of certain liquid phase sintered compacts were accounted for by a proposed capillary flow of the liquid phase and a local densification competing against an overall densification. Some general recommendations are made for liquid phase sintering of powder aggregates. 15 fig., 7 tables

  19. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...... phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...

  20. Salinity-Dependent Contact Angle Alteration in Oil/Brine/Silicate Systems: the Critical Role of Divalent Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagh, M E J; Siretanu, I; Duits, M H G; Mugele, F

    2017-04-11

    The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting forces and to infer the microscopic origin of the resultant contact angle alteration. We focus, in particular, on two competing mechanisms debated in the literature, namely, double-layer expansion and divalent cation bridging. Our experiments involve aqueous droplets with a variable content of chloride salts of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ , wetting surfaces of muscovite and amorphous silica, and an environment of ambient decane containing small amounts of fatty acids to represent polar oil components. By diluting the salt content in various manners, we demonstrate that the water contact angle on muscovite, not on silica, decreases by up to 25° as the divalent cation concentration is reduced from typical concentrations in seawater to zero. Decreasing the ionic strength at a constant divalent ion concentration, however, has a negligible effect on the contact angle. We discuss the consequences for the interpretation of core flooding experiments and the identification of a microscopic mechanism of low salinity water flooding, an increasingly popular, inexpensive, and environment-friendly technique for enhanced oil recovery.

  1. Chaotic behaviour in the non-linear optimal control of unilaterally contacting building systems during earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a new numerical approach for a non-linear optimal control problem arising in earthquake civil engineering. This problem concerns the elastoplastic softening-fracturing unilateral contact between neighbouring buildings during earthquakes when Coulomb friction is taken into account under second-order instabilizing effects. So, the earthquake response of the adjacent structures can appear instabilities and chaotic behaviour. The problem formulation presented here leads to a set of equations and inequalities, which is equivalent to a dynamic hemivariational inequality in the way introduced by Panagiotopoulos [Hemivariational Inequalities. Applications in Mechanics and Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993]. The numerical procedure is based on an incremental problem formulation and on a double discretization, in space by the finite element method and in time by the Wilson-theta method. The generally non-convex constitutive contact laws are piecewise linearized, and in each time-step a non-c...

  2. Capacitance and conductance of mesoscopic systems connected by quantum point contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten

    1993-01-01

    We study the transport properties of quantum dots and quantum point contacts in the Coulomb blockade regime and in the limit where the quantum point contact has nearly fully transmitting channels. Using a transformation to a multichannel Tomonaga-Luttinger-type model, we find the scaling behavior...... of the junction close to pinchoff. It is shown that the junction scales to an insulating junction. We find a crossover between a low-temperature regime with Coulomb blockade to a high-temperature regime where the quantum charge fluctuations are dominant. The crossover temperature between these regimes is given...... by Tc∼U[1-G0/NGH]N/2, where U are the bare charging energy, G0 is the nominal conductance, N is the number of channels, and GH=e2/h....

  3. Phase equilibrium data for the ternary system (propane + chloroform + oryzanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Fernanda V.; Comim, Sibele R.R.; Cesaro, Aline M. de; Rigo, Aline A.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Hense, Haiko; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The compound oryzanol available in the rice bran (oriza sativa) is well known for its antioxidant activity. Phase equilibrium data involving oryzanol in compressed fluids, hardly found in the literature, are important to provide the basis for the extraction and fractionation processes. In this sense, the aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium measurements for the system (γ-oryzanol + chloroform) in compressed propane. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using the static synthetic method (cloud points transition data) in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K, pressures up to 17 MPa, for oryzanol overall mass fractions of 2 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt% in (propane + chloroform) mixtures. A complex phase behaviour comprising vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapour-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid-vapour transitions were visually observed for the system studied.

  4. Phase equilibrium data for the ternary system (propane + chloroform + oryzanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Fernanda V.; Comim, Sibele R.R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cesaro, Aline M. de; Rigo, Aline A.; Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil); Hense, Haiko [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@uricer.edu.b [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The compound oryzanol available in the rice bran (oriza sativa) is well known for its antioxidant activity. Phase equilibrium data involving oryzanol in compressed fluids, hardly found in the literature, are important to provide the basis for the extraction and fractionation processes. In this sense, the aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium measurements for the system ({gamma}-oryzanol + chloroform) in compressed propane. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using the static synthetic method (cloud points transition data) in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K, pressures up to 17 MPa, for oryzanol overall mass fractions of 2 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt% in (propane + chloroform) mixtures. A complex phase behaviour comprising vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapour-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid-vapour transitions were visually observed for the system studied.

  5. Interfacial properties and phase behaviour of an ionic microemulsion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis reports a study of a microemulsion model system composed of the ionic surfactant SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate), the cosurfactant pentanol and/or hexanol, water, salt and cyclohexane. Depending on the concentrations of the constituent parts, this system may form microemulsion phases and

  6. Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two

  7. The minimization of ac phase noise in interferometric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Ignacy; Gordon, R A

    1994-01-01

    bladder vibration isolators are used incorrectly and do not provide sufficient reduction in the contribution of floor vibrations to phase noise. Several simple trampoline-type air bladder vibration isolator systems are described which are comparable in performance to commercial systems. With the exception...

  8. Induction accelerators for the phase rotator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, Lou; Yu, Simon; Vanecek, Dave

    2001-01-01

    The principle of magnetic induction has been applied to the acceleration of high current beams in betatrons and a variety of induction accelerators. The linear induction accelerator (LIA) consists of a simple nonresonant structure where the drive voltage is applied to an axially symmetric gap that encloses a toroidal ferromagnetic material. The change in flux in the magnetic core induces an axial electric field that provides particle acceleration. This simple nonresonant (low Q) structure acts as a single turn transformer that can accelerate from hundreds of amperes to tens of kiloamperes, basically only limited by the drive impedance. The LIA is typically a low gradient structure that can provide acceleration fields of varying shapes and time durations from tens of nanoseconds to several microseconds. The efficiency of the LIA depends on the beam current and can exceed 50% if the beam current exceeds the magnetization current required by the ferromagnetic material. The acceleration voltage available is simply given by the expression V=A dB/dt. Hence, for a given cross section of material, the beam pulse duration influences the energy gain. Furthermore, a premium is put on minimizing the diameter, which impacts the total weight or cost of the magnetic material. The diameter doubly impacts the cost of the LIA since the power (cost) to drive the cores is proportional to the volume as well. The waveform requirements during the beam pulse makes it necessary to make provisions in the pulsing system to maintain the desired dB/dt during the useful part of the acceleration cycle. This is typically done two ways, by using the final stage of the pulse forming network (PFN) and by the pulse compensation network usually in close proximity of the acceleration cell. The choice of magnetic materials will be made by testing various materials both ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic. These materials will include the nickel-iron, silicon steel amorphous and various types of ferrites not

  9. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  10. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K T [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  11. MRI-guided Therapeutic Ultrasound : In vitro Validation of a New MR Compatible, Phased Array, Contact Endorectal Ultrasound Transducer with Active Feedback Control of Temperature Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomir, Rares; Rata, Mihaela; Lafon, Cyril; Melodelima, David; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Mathias, Adrien; Cotton, François; Bonmartin, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2006-05-01

    Contact application of high intensity ultrasound was demonstrated to be suitable for thermal ablation of sectorial tumours of the digestive duct. Experimental validation of a new MR compatible ultrasonic device is described here, dedicated to the minimal invasive therapy of localized colorectal cancer. This is a cylindrical 1D 64-element phased array transducer of 14 mm diameter and 25 mm height (Imasonic, France) allowing electronic rotation of the acoustic beam. Operating frequency ranges from 3.5 to 4.0 MHz and up to 5 effective electrical watts per element are available. A plane wave is reconstructed by simultaneous excitation of eigth adjacent elements with an appropriate phase law. Driving electronics operates outside the Faraday cage of the scanner and provides fast switching capabilities. Excellent passive and active compatibility with the MRI data acquisition has been demonstrated. In addition, feasibility of active temperature control has been demonstrated based on real-time data export out of the MR scanner and a PID feedback algorithm. Further studies will address the in-vivo validation and the integration of a miniature NMR coil for increased SNR in the near field.

  12. Adaptive nonlinear control of single-phase to three-phase UPS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissaoui M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problems of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS based on the single-phase to three-phase converters built in two stages: an input bridge rectifier and an output three phase inverter. The two blocks are joined by a continuous intermediate bus. The objective of control is threefold: i power factor correction “PFC”, ii generating a symmetrical three-phase system at the output even if the load is unknown, iii regulating the DC bus voltage. The synthesis of controllers has been reached by two nonlinear techniques that are the sliding mode and adaptive backstepping control. The performances of regulators have been validated by numerical simulation in MATLAB / SIMULINK.

  13. Phase Analysis of the Cellulose Triacetate-Nitromethane System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Shipovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was made on the cellulose triacetate-nitromethane system to explore its phase separation within ranges 2–25 wt.% and −5÷+80°C by means of polarization light and electron microscopy, the turbidity spectrum method, differential thermal and X-ray analyses, and rheological techniques. The physical state of the polymer was identified within the phase coexistence boundaries on the phase diagram which included three types of phase separation (amorphous (with a UCST at Tcr=57∘C and ccr=7.3 wt.%, crystal, and liquid crystal. The boundaries of the regions determining the coexistence of the liquid crystal (LC and the partly crystal phase were found to be inside the region of amorphous liquid-liquid phase separation. For cellulose ester-solvent systems, this state diagram is the first experimental evidence for the possibility of coexistence of several phases with amorphous, LC, and crystal polymer ordering.

  14. Phase synchronization of multiple klystrons in RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of the Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. The first LEDA RF system includes three, 1.2 MW, 350 MHz, continuous wave, klystrons driving a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). A phase control loop is necessary for each individual klystron in order to guarantee the phase matching of these klystrons. To meet this objective, they propose adaptive PI controllers which are based on simple adaptive control. These controllers guarantee not only phase matching but also amplitude matching

  15. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Issues related to the design of biphasic (liquid) catalytic reaction operations are discussed. A chemical system involving the reaction of an organic-phase soluble reactant (A) with an aqueous-phase soluble reactant (B) in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) is modeled and based on it......, some of the design issues related to improved reaction operation are analyzed. Since the solubility of the different forms of the PTC in the organic solvent affects ultimately the catalyst partition coefficients, therefore, the organic solvent plays an important role in the design of PTC-based reacting...

  16. Phase equilibria in Ca–Co–O system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmidubský, D.; Jakeš, V.; Jankovský, O.; Leitner, J.; Šofer, Z.; Hejtmánek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 194, OCT (2012), s. 199-205 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Ca–Co–O system , Misfit cobaltites, Thermodynamic data, Phase diagrams * misfit cobaltites * thermodynamic data * phase diagrams Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.040, year: 2012

  17. Modelling of Phase Equlibria in the Hf-V System\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vřešťál, Jan; Pavlů, Jana; Wdowik, U. D.; Šob, Mojmír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2017), s. 239-247 ISSN 1450-5339 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15576S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Laves phases * Hf-V system * Ab initio calculations * Phase diagram * Zero Kelvin * CALPHAD method Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2016

  18. Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.

  19. PHASE NOISE COMPARISON OF SHORT PULSE LASER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; John Hansknecht; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-08-27

    This paper describes phase noise measurements of several different laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on state-of-the-art short pulse lasers, especially drive lasers for photocathode injectors. Phase noise comparison of the FEL drive laser, electron beam and FEL laser output also will be presented.

  20. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.

    2017-11-01

    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  1. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO 2 and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer (∼ 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface

  2. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-03-06

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO{sub 2} and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer ({approx} 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface

  3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  4. In reactor measurements, modeling and assessments to predict liquid injection shutdown system nozzle to Calandria tube time to contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, K.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been an expanding effort to assess the potential for Calandria Tubes (CTs) coming into contact with Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) Nozzles to ensure continued contact-free operation as required by CSA N285.4. LISS Nozzles (LINs), which run perpendicular to and between rows of fuel channels, sag at a slower rate than the fuel channels. As a result certain LINs may come in contact with CTs above them. The CT/LIN gaps can be predicted from calculated CT sag, LIN sag and a number of component and installation tolerances. This method however results in very conservative predictions when compared to measurements, confirmed with the in reactor measurements initiated in 2000, when gaps were successfully measured the first time using images obtained from a camera-assisted measurement tool inserted into the calandria. To reduce the conservatism of the CT/LIN gap predictions, statistical CT/LIN gap models are used instead. They are derived from a comparison between calculated gaps based on nominal dimensions and the visual image based measured gaps. These reactor specific (typically 95% confidence level) CT/LIN gap models account for all uncertainties and deviations from nominal values. Prediction error margins reduce as more in-reactor gap measurements become available. Each year more measurements are being made using this standardized visual CT/LIN proximity method. The subsequently prepared reactor-specific models have been used to provide time to contact for every channel above the LINs at these stations. In a number of cases it has been used to demonstrate that the reactor can be operated to its end of life before refurbishment with no predicted contact, or specific at-risk channels have been identified for which appropriate remedial actions could be implemented in a planned manner. (author)

  5. Contact Line Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  6. Competing failure analysis in phased-mission systems with functional dependence in one of phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaonan; Xing, Liudong; Levitin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for the reliability analysis of non-repairable phased-mission systems (PMS) subject to competing failure propagation and isolation effects. A failure originating from a system component which causes extensive damage to other system components is a propagated failure. When the propagated failure affects all the system components, causing the entire system failure, a propagated failure with global effect (PFGE) is said to occur. However, the failure propagation can be isolated in systems subject to functional dependence (FDEP) behavior, where the failure of a component (referred to as trigger component) causes some other components (referred to as dependent components) to become inaccessible or unusable (isolated from the system), and thus further failures from these dependent components have no effect on the system failure behavior. On the other hand, if any PFGE from dependent components occurs before the trigger failure, the failure propagation effect takes place, causing the overall system failure. In summary, there are two distinct consequences of a PFGE due to the competition between the failure isolation and failure propagation effects in the time domain. Existing works on such competing failures focus only on single-phase systems. However, many real-world systems are phased-mission systems (PMS), which involve multiple, consecutive and non-overlapping phases of operations or tasks. Consideration of competing failures for PMS is a challenging and difficult task because PMS exhibit dynamics in the system configuration and component behavior as well as statistical dependencies across phases for a given component. This paper proposes a combinatorial method to address the competing failure effects in the reliability analysis of binary non-repairable PMS. The proposed method is verified using a Markov-based method through a numerical example. Different from the Markov-based approach that is limited to exponential distribution, the

  7. Unexpected Ge-Ge contacts in the two-dimensional Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te phase and analysis of their chemical cause with the density of energy (DOE) function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepers, Michael; Konze, Philipp M.; Maintz, Stefan; Steinberg, Simon [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Chair of Solid-State and Quantum Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mio, Antonio M.; Cojocaru-Miredin, Oana; Zhu, Min; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mueller, Merlin; Mayer, Joachim [Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Luysberg, Martina [Ernst-Ruska-Center, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Dronskowski, Richard [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Chair of Solid-State and Quantum Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA-HPC), RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2017-08-14

    A hexagonal phase in the ternary Ge-Se-Te system with an approximate composition of GeSe{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.25} has been known since the 1960s but its structure has remained unknown. We have succeeded in growing single crystals by chemical transport as a prerequisite to solve and refine the Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te structure. It consists of layers that are held together by van der Waals type weak chalcogenide-chalcogenide interactions but also display unexpected Ge-Ge contacts, as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. The nature of the electronic structure of Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te was characterized by chemical bonding analysis, in particular by the newly introduced density of energy (DOE) function. The Ge-Ge bonding interactions serve to hold electrons that would otherwise go into antibonding Ge-Te contacts. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables

  9. Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1980-01-01

    This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Phase diagram of a modified Lennard-Jones system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagami, Takahiro; Fuchizaki, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The well-known Lennard-Jones potential is modified in such a way that it smoothly vanishes at a certain distance. A system whose interparticle interaction is given by such a potential is referred to as a modified Lennard-Jones system, and is served as a standard system describing simple solids and fluids. A phase diagram is determined based on the free energies obtained through thermodynamic integration.

  11. Passivity Based Stabilization of Non-minimum Phase Nonlinear Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Travieso-Torres, J.C.; Duarte-Mermoud, M.A.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), s. 417-426 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : nonlinear systems * stabilisation * passivity * state feedback Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-passivity based stabilization of non-minimum phase nonlinear systems.pdf

  12. Phase transition temperatures of Sn-Zn-Al system and their comparison with calculated phase diagrams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smetana, B.; Zlá, S.; Kroupa, Aleš; Žaludová, M.; Drápala, J.; Burkovič, R.; Petlák, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 1 (2012), s. 369-378 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08053 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Sn-Zn-Al system * DTA * phase transition temperatures Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.982, year: 2012

  13. Adsorbed layers on (111)InAs faces in contact with In-As-Cl-H gas phase, and the possibility of phase transitions in the adsorbed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.; Ruzaikin, M. P.

    1981-04-01

    Adsorption of various species existing in the In-As-Cl-H CVD gaseous system on both InAs (111) faces is considered. Arsenic is supposed to be adsorbed in the form of triangles As 3 and tetrahedrons As 4, each of them occupying 3 atomic sites above In or As atoms on (111)In or (111)As, respectively. The system of polyatomic adsorption equations was used to find the coverages of the faces by various species. Admolecule-surface bond strengths are taken to be equal to the ones for the single bonds in molecules. Pauling electronegativities were used to find the effective charges of the atoms in the adsorption layer. Thus, the dipole moments of adsorbed molecules which arise are directed along the In-As bonds in the InAs lattice. With this geometry, the calculated electrostatic dipole-dipole attraction between InCl molecules forming a dense layer on (111)As exceeds 12 kcal/mol. Thus, condensation of the two-dimensional gas of adsorbed InCl molecules should be expected. Corresponding S-shape isotherms θ( P) are calculated for different As 3 vapor pressures, θ and P being the surface coverage and bulk vapor pressure of InCl. Intervals of {InCl 3}/{H 2} ratios at different temperatures where the two-dimensional condensation may occur, are presented for realistic CVD conditions. Two-dimensional condensation may result in sharp changes in kinetic coefficient and thus in autho-oscillations in growth rate and doping level creating periodic superstructures. Nucleation and CVD growth processes are discussed.

  14. Non-Contact Thermal Properties Measurement with Low-Power Laser and IR Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Troy L.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    As shown by the Phoenix Mars Lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), contact measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity (using a modified flux-plate or line-source heat-pulse method) are constrained by a number of factors. Robotic resources must be used to place the probe, making them unavailable for other operations for the duration of the measurement. The range of placement is also limited by mobility, particularly in the case of a lander. Placement is also subject to irregularities in contact quality, resulting in non-repeatable heat transfer to the material under test. Most important from a scientific perspective, the varieties of materials which can be measured are limited to unconsolidated or weakly-cohesive regolith materials, rocks, and ices being too hard for nominal insertion strengths. Accurately measuring thermal properties in the laboratory requires significant experimental finesse, involving sample preparation, controlled and repeatable procedures, and, practically, instrumentation much more voluminous than the sample being tested (heater plates, insulation, temperature sensors). Remote measurements (infrared images from orbiting spacecraft) can reveal composite properties like thermal inertia, but suffer both from a large footprint (low spatial resolution) and convolution of the thermal properties of a potentially layered medium. In situ measurement techniques (the Phoenix TECP is the only robotic measurement of thermal properties to date) suffer from problems of placement range, placement quality, occupation of robotic resources, and the ability to only measure materials of low mechanical strength. A spacecraft needs the ability to perform a non-contact thermal properties measurement in situ. Essential components include low power consumption, leveraging of existing or highly-developed flight technologies, and mechanical simplicity. This new in situ method, by virtue of its being non-contact, bypasses all of these

  15. Development of in-situ observation system of dynamic contact interface between dies and materials during microforming operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Tetsuhide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of diamond like carbon (DLC films are reported in several microforming processes, in view of its great tribological performance owe to the low friction and the high chemical stability. However, due to its high internal residual stress, the film properties with the low adhesion strength and the high wear rate under severe tribological conditions are still remain as technical issues. However, since the dynamic variation of the contact state cannot be observed during the forming operation, it is difficult to recognize the origin and the influential tribological factors of tool life for DLC coated microforming die. Therefore, the appropriate DLC film properties for the contact state in microforming operation have not been clarified. To observe the dynamic variation of the contact state during the microforming operation, present study developed a novel microforming die assembly installed the in-situ observation system with silica glass die and high speed recording camera. By using this system, the dynamic delamination behaviour of DLC films during the progressive micro-bending process was successfully demonstrated. The influential factors for the durability of DLC coated microdies were discussed.

  16. Cox17 Protein Is an Auxiliary Factor Involved in the Control of the Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organizing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2015-06-12

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a recently discovered protein complex that is crucial for establishing and maintaining the proper inner membrane architecture and contacts with the outer membrane of mitochondria. The ways in which the MICOS complex is assembled and its integrity is regulated remain elusive. Here, we report a direct link between Cox17, a protein involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase, and the MICOS complex. Cox17 interacts with Mic60, thereby modulating MICOS complex integrity. This interaction does not involve Sco1, a partner of Cox17 in transferring copper ions to cytochrome c oxidase. However, the Cox17-MICOS interaction is regulated by copper ions. We propose that Cox17 is a newly identified factor involved in maintaining the architecture of the MICOS complex. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Flux modeling and analysis of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lin, S.-Y.; Yang, Y.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mathematical approach for analyzing static/dynamic characteristics of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application will be provided. The dependent reluctances among the motor secondary steel plate and primary poles have been systematically formulated; hence, the operational performance of the system can be derived conveniently. Results showed that not only the motor structure is suitable for the design objective, but also the proposed magnetic equivalent circuit can provide appropriate and convenient modeling for relative analytical investigations

  18. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of the contact angle in a liquid-gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Seung Yeob; Park, Cheon Tae; Kim, Keung Koo

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has gained much attention for its ability to simulate fluid flows, and for its potential advantages over a conventional CFD method. The key advantages of LBM are, (1) suitability for parallel computations, (2) absence of the need to solve the time-consuming Poisson equation for a pressure, and (3) an ease with multiphase flows, complex geometries and interfacial dynamics may be treated. The shape of a moving droplet is difficult to investigate analytically because the classical continuum hydrodynamic equations of motion with the usual no-slip condition at the surface predict a singularity in the stress at the contact line. Briant et al. have proposed a wetting boundary condition by using the wetting potential. In this study, we introduce the wetting boundary condition into the LBM proposed by Zheng et al. The static contact angle of a droplet onto a wall in order to validate the method is calculated. By adopting a finite difference gradient operator of a sufficient isotropy, the spurious currents can be made small in the wall surface. The main objective of the present work is to establish the lattice Boltzmann method as a viable tool for the simulation of multiphase or multi-component flows

  20. Chaotic behaviour in the non-linear optimal control of unilaterally contacting building systems during earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liolios, A.A.; Boglou, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a new numerical approach for a non-linear optimal control problem arising in earthquake civil engineering. This problem concerns the elastoplastic softening-fracturing unilateral contact between neighbouring buildings during earthquakes when Coulomb friction is taken into account under second-order instabilizing effects. So, the earthquake response of the adjacent structures can appear instabilities and chaotic behaviour. The problem formulation presented here leads to a set of equations and inequalities, which is equivalent to a dynamic hemivariational inequality in the way introduced by Panagiotopoulos [Hemivariational Inequalities. Applications in Mechanics and Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993]. The numerical procedure is based on an incremental problem formulation and on a double discretization, in space by the finite element method and in time by the Wilson-θ method. The generally non-convex constitutive contact laws are piecewise linearized, and in each time-step a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved with a reduced number of unknowns

  1. Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

  2. Antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic crossover in UO2-TiOx multi-phase systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akio; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Yoshii, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    An antiferromagnetic (AF)-weakly ferromagnetic (WF) crossover has been found for UO 2 -TiO x multi-phase systems, (1-y)UO 2 +yTiO x (y=0.05-0.72, x=0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0), when these mixtures are heat treated at high temperature in vacuum. From the powder X-ray diffraction and electron-microprobe analyses, their phase assemblies were as follows: for x=0, 1.0 and 1.5, a heterogeneous two-phase mixture of UO 2 +TiO x ; for x=2.0, that of UO 2 +UTi 2 O 6 for y 0.67 that of UTi 2 O 6 +TiO 2 (plus residual minor UO 2 ). Magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the present UO 2 powder was confirmed to exhibit an antiferromagnetic sharp drop at T N (=30.5 K). In contrast, χ of these multi-phase systems was found to exhibit a sharp upturn at the respective T N , while their T N values remained almost constant with varying y. This χ upturn at T N is most pronounced for UO 2 +Ti-oxide (titania) systems (x=1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) over the wide mixture ratio above y∼0.10. These observations indicate that an AF-WF crossover is induced for these multi-phase systems, plausibly due to the interfacial magnetic modification of UO 2 in contact with the oxide partners

  3. Tube Radial Distribution Flow Separation in a Microchannel Using an Ionic Liquid Aqueous Two-Phase System Based on Phase Separation Multi-Phase Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Kosuke; Shihata, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems were delivered into a capillary tube to achieve tube radial distribution flow (TRDF) or annular flow in a microspace. The phase diagram, viscosity of the phases, and TRDF image of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and NaOH system were examined. The TRDF was formed with inner ionic liquid-rich and outer ionic liquid-poor phases in the capillary tube. The phase configuration was explained using the viscous dissipation principle. We also examined the distribution of rhodamine B in a three-branched microchannel on a microchip with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems for the first time.

  4. Quantum Phase Transitions in Conventional Matrix Product Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Min; Huang, Fei; Chang, Yan

    2017-02-01

    For matrix product states(MPSs) of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains, we investigate a new kind of conventional quantum phase transition(QPT). We find that the system has two different ferromagnetic phases; on the line of the two ferromagnetic phases coexisting equally, the system in the thermodynamic limit is in an isolated mediate-coupling state described by a paramagnetic state and is in the same state as the renormalization group fixed point state, the expectation values of the physical quantities are discontinuous, and any two spin blocks of the system have the same geometry quantum discord(GQD) within the range of open interval (0,0.25) and the same classical correlation(CC) within the range of open interval (0,0.75) compared to any phase having no any kind of correlation. We not only realize the control of QPTs but also realize the control of quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems on the critical line by adjusting the environment parameters, which may have potential application in quantum information fields and is helpful to comprehensively and deeply understand the quantum correlation, and the organization and structure of quantum correlation especially for long-range quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems.

  5. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z Q; Heron, J T; Clarkson, J D; Hong, J; Ko, C; Biegalski, M D; Aschauer, U; Hsu, S L; Nowakowski, M E; Wu, J; Christen, H M; Salahuddin, S; Bokor, J B; Spaldin, N A; Schlom, D G; Ramesh, R

    2015-01-07

    In numerous systems, giant physical responses have been discovered when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. Here we have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a 'giant' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  6. Note: Reliable and non-contact 6D motion tracking system based on 2D laser scanners for cargo transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Keun, E-mail: ykkim@handong.edu [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Soo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Maritime transportation demands an accurate measurement system to track the motion of oscillating container boxes in real time. However, it is a challenge to design a sensor system that can provide both reliable and non-contact methods of 6-DOF motion measurements of a remote object for outdoor applications. In the paper, a sensor system based on two 2D laser scanners is proposed for detecting the relative 6-DOF motion of a crane load in real time. Even without implementing a camera, the proposed system can detect the motion of a remote object using four laser beam points. Because it is a laser-based sensor, the system is expected to be highly robust to sea weather conditions.

  7. Specific interface area in a thin layer system of two immiscible liquids with vapour generation at the contact interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Gazdaliev, Ilias M.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2017-06-01

    For well-stirred multiphase fluid systems the mean interface area per unit volume, or “specific interface area” SV, is a significant characteristic of the system state. In particular, it is important for the dynamics of systems of immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. We estimate the value of parameter SV as a function of the heat influx {\\dot{Q}}V to the system or the average system overheat above the interfacial boiling point. The derived results can be reformulated for the case of an endothermic chemical reaction between two liquid reagents with the gaseous form of one of the reaction products. The final results are restricted to the case of thin layers, where the potential gravitational energy of bubbles leaving the contact interface is small compared to their surface tension energy.

  8. The potential of cloud point system as a novel two-phase partitioning system for biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilong

    2007-05-01

    Although the extractive biotransformation in two-phase partitioning systems have been studied extensively, such as the water-organic solvent two-phase system, the aqueous two-phase system, the reverse micelle system, and the room temperature ionic liquid, etc., this has not yet resulted in a widespread industrial application. Based on the discussion of the main obstacles, an exploitation of a cloud point system, which has already been applied in a separation field known as a cloud point extraction, as a novel two-phase partitioning system for biotransformation, is reviewed by analysis of some topical examples. At the end of the review, the process control and downstream processing in the application of the novel two-phase partitioning system for biotransformation are also briefly discussed.

  9. HPT Clearance Control: Intelligent Engine Systems-Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The following work has been completed to satisfy the Phase I Deliverables for the "HPT Clearance Control" project under NASA GRC's "Intelligent Engine Systems" program: (1) Need for the development of an advanced HPT ACC system has been very clearly laid out, (2) Several existing and potential clearance control systems have been reviewed, (3) A scorecard has been developed to document the system, performance (fuel burn, range, payload, etc.), thermal, and mechanical characteristics of the existing clearance control systems, (4) Engine size and flight cycle selection for the advanced HPT ACC system has been reviewed with "large engine"/"long range mission" combination showing the most benefit, (5) A scoring criteria has been developed to tie together performance parameters for an objective, data driven comparison of competing systems, and (6) The existing HPT ACC systems have been scored based on this scoring system.

  10. Phase transformations and systems driven far from equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.; Atzmon, M.; Bellon, P.; Trivedi, R.

    1998-01-01

    This volume compiles invited and contributed papers that were presented at Symposium B of the 1997 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Phase Transformations and Systems Driven Far From Equilibrium, which was held December 1--5, in Boston, Massachusetts. While this symposium followed the tradition of previous MRS symposia on the fundamental topic of phase transformations, this year the emphasis was on materials systems driven far from equilibrium. The central theme of the majority of the work presented is the understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations, with significant coverage of metastable materials and externally forced transformations driven, for example, by energy beams or mechanical deformation. The papers are arranged in seven sections: solidification theory and experiments; nucleation; solid state transformations and microstructural evolution; beam-induced transformations; amorphous solids; interfacial and thin film transformations; and nanophases and mechanical alloying. One hundred three papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  11. Standing phase angle reduction for power system restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D. [Assam Engineering College (India). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Sinha, A.K. [IIT Khargpur (India). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a methodology for the reduction of standing phase angle (SPA) difference between two buses of a power system, which is essential before interconnecting a line between two buses. This problem is encountered normally during restoration operations of a power system. For this purpose, the standing phase angle difference between two specific buses is represented in terms of sensitivity factors associated with the change in real power injections at the buses. To arrive at the desired standing phase angle difference between two buses, the modified contribution at generation/load buses have been evaluated based on 'higher the sensitivity higher the participation' logic. This methodology acts as a direct help to reduce excessive SPA difference between two buses to an acceptable limit, which otherwise requires regulation of various generation levels on a trial and error basis. (author)

  12. Geometric phase for N-level systems through unitary integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, D. B.; Rau, A. R. P.

    2006-01-01

    Geometric phases are important in quantum physics and are now central to fault-tolerant quantum computation. For spin 1/2, the Bloch sphere S 2 , together with a U(1) phase, provides a complete SU(2) description. We generalize to N-level systems and SU(N) in terms of a 2(N-1)-dimensional base space and reduction to a (N-1)-level problem, paralleling closely the two-dimensional case. This iteratively solves the time evolution of an N-level system and gives (N-1) geometric phases explicitly. A complete analytical construction of an S 4 Bloch-like sphere for two qubits is given for the Spin(5) or SO(5) subgroup of SU(4)

  13. Space reactor electric systems: system integration studies, Phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.; Katz, B.; Keshishian, V.; Lillie, A.F.; Thomson, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the results of preliminary space reactor electric system integration studies performed by Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group (ESG). The preliminary studies investigated a broad range of reactor electric system concepts for powers of 25 and 100 KWe. The purpose of the studies was to provide timely system information of suitable accuracy to support ongoing mission planning activities. The preliminary system studies were performed by assembling the five different subsystems that are used in a system: the reactor, the shielding, the primary heat transport, the power conversion-processing, and the heat rejection subsystems. The subsystem data in this report were largely based on Rockwell's recently prepared Subsystem Technology Assessment Report. Nine generic types of reactor subsystems were used in these system studies. Several levels of technology were used for each type of reactor subsystem. Seven generic types of power conversion-processing subsystems were used, and several levels of technology were again used for each type. In addition, various types and levels of technology were used for the shielding, primary heat transport, and heat rejection subsystems. A total of 60 systems were studied

  14. The intermittent contact impact problem in piping systems of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Ricard, A.; Millard, A.

    1981-09-01

    The intermittent contact problem is important in many pipe whip studies, specially as to the safety of nuclear reactors. The impact concept adopted is that of instantaneous impact, so that at the time of impact the two impacting structures instantaneously acquire the same velocity in the impact direction. Energy is dissipated by some mechanism whose spatial and temporal scale is small compared to these scales in the discrete model. This dissipation is associated with local plastic deformation. Different solutions are presented for solving this problem. The first one is a generalization of the modal superposition method, when the nonlinearities of the structure are only due to impact between structural components; the other ones are included in a step by step time history and can take in account geometrical non linearities and of behavior. Some industrial applications in nuclear technology are presented

  15. The role of type III secretion system and lens material on adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Elizabeth P; Tsay, Ruey-Yug; Chia, Jean-San; Wu, Semon; Lee, Jing-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2012-09-21

    To determine the distribution of invasive and cytotoxic genotypes among ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa and investigate the influence of the type III secretion system (T3SS) on adhesion to conventional, cosmetic, and silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CL). Clinical isolates from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed by multiplex PCR for exoS, exoU, and exoT genes. Bacterial adhesion to etafilcon, nelfilcon (gray colored), balafilcon, and galyfilcon CL with or without artificial tear fluid (ATF) incubation were compared. Surface characteristics were determined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Among 87 total isolates, 64 strains were from microbial keratitis cases. CL-related microbial keratitis (CLMK) isolates were mostly of the cytotoxic genotype (expressing exoU) (P = 0.002). No significant differences were found in bacterial adhesion to all types of CL between the genotypes under T3SS-inducing conditions. A trend for least bacterial adhesion of galyfilcon compared to the other CL was noted for both genotypes. Needle complex pscC mutants adhered less to all materials than the wild type (P bacteria adhering on CL surfaces. CLMK isolates were mostly of cytotoxic genotype. Different genotypes did not significantly differ in its adhesion to various CL. T3SS and other adhesins are involved in bacteria-contact lens adhesion through complex interactions. Contact lens materials may also play an important role in the adherence of both genotypes of P. aeruginosa.

  16. A Transformer-less Single Phase Inverter For photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Qu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A single phase transformer-less inverter is introduced in this paper. The negative polarities of the input voltage and output terminal have common ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem that is common in PV systems is eliminated naturally. In addition, the proposed inverter has fewer comp...

  17. On the classical limit of Berry's phase integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Berry's Phase is given by integration of a characteristic two form. We consider integrable systems defined by Weyl quantized classical Hamiltonians. It is shown that the limit of ℎ/i times this two form is the curvature of the classical connection whose holonomy are the Hannay angles. A result of this type was derived by Berry [B2]. (orig.)

  18. Phase analysis of Fe-B-V system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, V.; Výrostková, A.; Čiripová, L.; Kroupa, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 135-139 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/1908 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : CALPHAD method * Fe-B-V system * phase diagram Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.546, year: 2013

  19. Predicting phase equilibria in one-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M. R.; Esina, Z. N.

    2015-07-01

    It is shown that Simon equation coefficients for n-alkanes and n-alcohols can be modeled using critical and triple point parameters. Predictions of the phase liquid-vapor, solid-vapor, and liquid-solid equilibria in one-component systems are based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, Van der Waals and Simon equations, and the principle of thermodynamic similarity.

  20. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  1. A nonlocal phase-field system with inertial term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grasselli, M.; Petzeltová, Hana; Schimperna, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2007), s. 451-469 ISSN 0033-569X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : nonlocal phase-field system * Lojasiewicz inequality * convergence to equilibria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2007

  2. Wet Process Induced Phase Transited Drug Delivery System as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non-disintegrating, asymmetric membrane capsular system for a poorly water soluble drug, flurbiprofen, was developed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Asymmetric membrane capsules were made by phase inversion. The effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied.

  3. An expert system as applied to bridges : software development phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of the third of a four-part study dealing with the use of a computerized expert system to assist bridge engineers in their structures management program. In this phase of the study, software (called DOBES) was writte...

  4. A proposed phase equilibrium diagram for Pt-Zr system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.E.; Gribaudo, L.

    1993-01-01

    A revision of the phase diagram of the Pt-Zr system is presented using up to date information from recent publications. The proposed change concerning the invariant transformation in the Pt-rich zone is supported by simplified thermodynamic evaluations. (author). 12 refs., 1 fig

  5. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  6. Coercion in patients who at their first contact with the psychiatric services system were diagnosed within the schizophrenia-spectrum in Denmark. A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlaeger, Johan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2008-01-01

    The level of use of coercive measures in patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder at their first contact with the psychiatric services system in Denmark is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of use of coercive measures during first year of contact in thi...

  7. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  8. Phase transitions in spin systems with modulated order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho Filho, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Spin systems which may display modulated structures are treated. A layered Ising model with competing interactions between nearest and next-nearest layers in the presence of a magnetic field is studied. In the context of a mean-field approximation, the high-temperature region of the phase diagram is studied analytically. The Λ surface, separating the paramagnetic and the modulated phases, is bounded by two lines of tricritical points which join smoothly at the Lifshitz point and terminate at multicritical points, beyond which lines of critical and double critical end points are expected to appear. The low-temperature region is studied numerically. T-H phase diagrams, which exhibit a variety of modulated phases, for various values of the ratio of the strength of the competing interactions are constructed. A theoretical interpretation for the occurrence of a Lifshitz point in the field-temperature phase diagram of MnP is presented. These results, which are based on a X-Y localized spin Hamiltonian, are in qualitative agreement with recently reported experiments. In particular, asymptotic expressions are obtained for the phase boundaries, which meet tangentially at the Lifshitz point, and for some other thermodynamic quantities of interest, such as the longitudinal and transverse susceptibilities. (Author) [pt

  9. Prototyping of CBRN threat assessment system. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ina, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Maeno, Akihiro; Sakaue, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats, that is, CBRN threats have emerged. In order to support the Japan Self Defense Forces unit coping with the CBRN threats, it is important to take measures against these invisible threats. Our CBRN threat assessment system will make invisible CBRN threats visible. This report describes a prototyping of the CBRN threat assessment system (PHASE 1) carried out from fiscal year 2012-2014. (author)

  10. Peptide-tagged proteins in aqueous two-phase systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with proteins containing peptide tags for improved partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. Qualitatively the peptide-tagged protein partitioning could be predicted from peptide data, i.e. partitioning trends found for peptides were also found for the peptide-tagged proteins. However, full effect of the tag as expected from peptide partitioning was not found in the tagged protein. When alkyl-ethylene oxide surfactant was included in a two-polymer system, almost full effect...

  11. Mixing phases of unstable two-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Brentano, P. von.

    1993-01-01

    An unstable two-level system decaying into an arbitrary number of channels is considered. It is shown that the mixing phases of the two overlapping resonances can be expressed in the terms of their partial widths and one additional universal mixing parameter. Some applications to a doublet of 2 + resonances in 8 Be and to the ρ-ω systems are considered. 18 refs

  12. Synthesis of adaptive traffic control discrete neminimalno-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Азарсков

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  An adaptive approach to synthesizing the digital tracking system with direct set-point coupling is extended under conditions when a plant is non-minimum phase. Some bounded set of belonging of servo drive unknown parameters vector is believed to be known. The object’s model non-singularity condition is established. The asymptotical properties of control system are studied. Simulation results are given.

  13. Automated phased array ultrasonic inspection system for rail wheel sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, Paul; Weiland, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the design, system automation, calibration and validation of an automated ultrasonic system for the inspection of new and in service wheel set assemblies from diesel-electric locomotives and gondola cars. This system uses Phased Array (PA) transducers for flaw detection and Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) for the measurement of residual stress. The system collects, analyses, evaluates and categorizes the wheel sets automatically. This data is archived for future comparison and trending. It is also available for export to a portal lathe for increased efficiency and accuracy of machining, therefore allowing prolonged wheel life.

  14. The Improvement of Telerobotic System Behavior in Contact with Remote Environment by Extension of an Impedance Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Osmic

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The teleoperation (telerobotic systems often face two key challenges: the existence of communication delays between the master and slave site as well as the addition of force feedback to improve the user’s sense of presence. The first goal of this paper is that the slave manipulator should track the position of the master manipulator and the second goal is that the environmental force acting on the slave, when it contacts a remote environment, be accurately transmitted to the master. For solving both problems we proposed the symmetric impedance matched teleoperation systems with a wave filter in feedback loop. Simulations results using a single-degree of freedom master/slave system are presented showing the performance of the resulting system.

  15. Code-modulated interferometric imaging system using phased arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Greene, Kevin; Floyd, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging provides compelling capabilities for security screening, navigation, and bio- medical applications. Traditional scanned or focal-plane mm-wave imagers are bulky and costly. In contrast, phased-array hardware developed for mass-market wireless communications and automotive radar promise to be extremely low cost. In this work, we present techniques which can allow low-cost phased-array receivers to be reconfigured or re-purposed as interferometric imagers, removing the need for custom hardware and thereby reducing cost. Since traditional phased arrays power combine incoming signals prior to digitization, orthogonal code-modulation is applied to each incoming signal using phase shifters within each front-end and two-bit codes. These code-modulated signals can then be combined and processed coherently through a shared hardware path. Once digitized, visibility functions can be recovered through squaring and code-demultiplexing operations. Pro- vided that codes are selected such that the product of two orthogonal codes is a third unique and orthogonal code, it is possible to demultiplex complex visibility functions directly. As such, the proposed system modulates incoming signals but demodulates desired correlations. In this work, we present the operation of the system, a validation of its operation using behavioral models of a traditional phased array, and a benchmarking of the code-modulated interferometer against traditional interferometer and focal-plane arrays.

  16. Phase equilibria, phases and compounds in the Ti-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, Aleksandr I

    2002-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the phase equilibria in the titanium-carbon system are generalised. The generalised thermodynamic characteristics of disordered titanium carbide TiC y , are reported. Peculiarities of the crystal structures of all the known and hypothetical compounds of titanium with carbon are considered in detail. The X-ray diffraction patterns which allow identification of all these compounds are presented. The phase diagrams of the Ti-C system constructed with allowance for atomic ordering of non-stoichio metric carbide, TiC y , and for the existence of the molecular cluster-like compounds Ti 8 C 12 and Ti 13 C 22 (TiC 2 ) are discussed. The bibliography includes 142 references.

  17. Phase equilibria, phases and compounds in the Ti-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical investigations related to the phase equilibria in the titanium-carbon system are generalized. The generalized thermodynamic characteristics of the disordered titanium carbide TiC y are given. The crystal structure of all the discovered and hypothetical compounds of titanium with carbon are considered in detail. The x-ray diffraction patterns which allow one to identify all these compounds are given. The phase diagrams of the Ti-C system constructed with allowance for atomic ordering of non-stoichiometric TiC y carbide and for the existence of the compounds Ti 8 C 12 and Ti 13 C 22 (TiC 2 ) of the molecule cluster type are discussed [ru

  18. FGD systems: What utilities chose in phase 1 and what they might choose in phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.

    1995-07-01

    Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is imposing new limitations on the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from electric power plants. The Act requires utilities to develop compliance plans to reduce these emissions, and indications are that these plans will dramatically alter traditional operating procedures. A key provision of the SO{sub 2} control program defined in Title IV is the creation of a system of emission allowances, with utilities having, the option of complying by adjusting system emissions and allowance holdings. The central focus of this paper is the identification of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) control options being implemented by the electric utility industry, current compliance trends, synergistic control issues and a discussion of the implications of Phase I decisions for Phase II.

  19. System for fast and accurate filling of a two-phase cooling device, notably a heat pipe, adapted for use in an automated process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Ten Hoeve, Harm Jan; Te Riele Gert, Jan; Van Es, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The current invention relates to a system for fast and accurate filling of a two-phase cooling device, comprising a binding device (30) intended to be hermetically mounted onto the cooling device, the binding device (30) comprising a through-hole (32) able to be in fluid contact with the cooling

  20. SYSTEM FOR FAST AND ACCURATE FILLING OF A TWO-PHASE COOLING DEVICE, NOTABLY A HEAT PIPE, ADAPTED FOR USE IN AN AUTOMATED PROCESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Ten Hoeve, Harm Jan; Te Riele Gert, Jan; Van Es, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The current invention relates to a system for fast and accurate filling of a two- phase cooling device, comprising a binding device (30) intended to be hermetically mounted onto the cooling device, the binding device (30) comprising a through-hole (32) able to be in fluid contact with the cooling

  1. SYSTEM FOR FAST AND ACCURATE FILLING OF A TWO-PHASE COOLING DEVICE, NOTABLY A HEAT PIPE, ADAPTED FOR USE IN AN AUTOMATED PROCESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Ten Hoeve, Harm Jan; Te Riele Gert, Jan; Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems; Ten Hoeve, Harm Jan; Te Riele, Gerhardus Wilhelmus; Van Es, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The current invention relates to a system for fast and accurate filling of a two-phase cooling device, comprising a binding device (30) intended to be hermetically mounted onto the cooling device, the binding device (30) comprising a through-hole (32) able to be in fluid contact with the cooling

  2. Phase transitions in glassy systems via convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao

    Machine learning is a powerful approach commonplace in industry to tackle large data sets. Most recently, it has found its way into condensed matter physics, allowing for the first time the study of, e.g., topological phase transitions and strongly-correlated electron systems. The study of spin glasses is plagued by finite-size effects due to the long thermalization times needed. Here we use convolutional neural networks in an attempt to detect a phase transition in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses. Our results are compared to traditional approaches.

  3. Phase behavior of (CO2 + methanol + lauric acid) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Franciele M.; Ramos, Luiz P.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured SVL, LLE and VLE for the binary system {lauric acid + methanol + CO 2 }. → Bubble point and dew point were measured at high pressures. → The experimental data were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals mixing rule. - Abstract: In this study the phase equilibrium behaviors of the binary system (CO 2 + lauric acid) and the ternary system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) were determined. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed to obtain the experimental data in the temperature range of (293 to 343) K and pressures up to 24 MPa. The mole fractions of carbon dioxide were varied according to the systems as follows: (0.7524 to 0.9955) for the binary system (CO 2 + lauric acid); (0.4616 to 0.9895) for the ternary system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) with a methanol to lauric acid molar ratio of (2:1); and (0.3414 to 0.9182) for the system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) with a methanol to lauric acid molar ratio of (6:1). For these systems (vapor + liquid), (liquid + liquid), (vapor + liquid + liquid), and (solid + fluid) transitions were observed. The phase equilibrium data obtained for the systems were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals mixing rule with a satisfactory correlation between experimental and calculated values.

  4. Use of contact Nd:YAG sapphire-laser system for performing partial hepatectomy and splenectomy in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chibing; Jing, Shujuan; Cai, Huimin; Shao, Lanxing; Zou, Hegui

    1993-03-01

    An Nd:YAG Sapphire laser blade was used for performing hepatectomy and splenectomy in dogs. The results suggest that a laser blade provides a new way to reduce intraoperative bleeding and to minimize tissue damage. In recent years, there have been some reports on performing surgical procedures using a contact Nd:YAG Sapphire laser system. The current animal study was conducted in order to explore the capability of incision and excision of the laser tip, the damage to the tissue, and the recovery course.

  5. An optical ASK and FSK phase diversity transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, H.; Vanetten, W.; Dekrom, W. H. C.; Vanbennekom, P.; Huijskens, F.; Niessen, L.; Deleijer, F.

    1992-12-01

    The results of a contribution to an electrooptical project for a 'phase diversity system', covering ASK and FSK (Amplitude and Frequency Shift Keying), are described. Specifications of subsystems, and tolerances and consequences of these tolerances for the final system performance, were derived. For the optical network of the phase diversity receiver, a manufacturing set up for three by three fused biconical taper fiber couplers was developed. In order to characterize planar optical networks, a set up was constructed to measure the phase relations at 1523 nm. The optical frequency of the local oscillator laser has to be locked on to the frequency of the received optical signal. This locking circuit is described. A complete optical three by three phase diversity transmission system was developed that can be used as a testbed for subsystems. The sensitivity of the receiver at a bit error rate of 10 to the minus 9th power is -47.2 dBm, which is 4.2 dB better than the value of the specifications.

  6. Phase equilibria in the niobium-vanadium-hydrogen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethin, J. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA)); Welch, D.O. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Pick, M.A. (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (UK). JET Joint Undertaking)

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vanadium additions to niobium on the metal-hydrogen phase equilibria has been studied. Measurements of the equilibrium H{sub 2}(D{sub 2}) pressure-composition-temperature isotherms for Nb{sub 1-x}V{sub x} alloys with 0{le}x<0.2 were used to determine the depression of the {alpha} - {alpha}' critical temperature with increasing vanadium concentration. A simple lattice-fluid model guided reduction of the data. Changes in the triple point temperature as well as the shift of the {zeta} {yields} {epsilon} phase transition were determined by differential scanning calorimetry measurements. A rapid overall depression was found, of the order of 7 K (at.% substituted V){sup -1}, for the metal-hydrogen (deuterium) phase boundary structure when compared with the Nb-H system in the hydrogen concentration range of interest. The results explain the enhanced terminal solubility of hydrogen in this system found previously by other authors. The changes in the phase equilibria are discussed in terms of the effect of hydrogen trapping and compared with the results of a cluster-variation calculation for random-field systems of previous authors, taking into account a distribution of H-site energies due to alloying. (author).

  7. A Multi-Agent System for Tracking the Intent of Surface Contacts in Ports and Waterways

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Kok S

    2005-01-01

    ...) and employ them to identify asymmetric maritime threats in port and waterways. Each surface track is monitored by a compound multi-agent system that comprise of the several intent models, each containing a nested multi-agent system...

  8. Brayton isotope power system, phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Phase I program resulted in the development and ground demonstration of a dynamic power conversion system. The two key contractual objectives of 25% conversion efficiency and 1000 h of endurance testing were successfully met. As a result of the Phase I effort, the BIPS is a viable candidate for further development into a flight system capable of sustained operation in space. It represents the only known dynamic space power system to demonstrate the performance and endurance coupled with the simplicity necessary for reliable operation. This final report follows thirty-five monthly reports. For expediency, it makes liberal use of referenced documents which have been submitted to DOE during the course of the program

  9. Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Á.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase-space Fisher information coming from the canonical distribution is derived for the ground state of quantum mechanical systems. • Quantum mechanical phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. • A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator. - Abstract: Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini–Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.

  10. Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Á., E-mail: anagy@madget.atomki.hu

    2016-06-17

    Highlights: • Phase-space Fisher information coming from the canonical distribution is derived for the ground state of quantum mechanical systems. • Quantum mechanical phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. • A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator. - Abstract: Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini–Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.

  11. Dissipation-driven quantum phase transitions in collective spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S; Parkins, A S

    2008-01-01

    We consider two different collective spin systems subjected to strong dissipation-on the same scale as interaction strengths and external fields-and show that either continuous or discontinuous dissipative quantum phase transitions can occur as the dissipation strength is varied. First, we consider a well-known model of cooperative resonance fluorescence that can exhibit a second-order quantum phase transition, and analyse the entanglement properties near the critical point. Next, we examine a dissipative version of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick interacting collective spin model, where we find that either first- or second-order quantum phase transitions can occur, depending only on the ratio of the interaction and external field parameters. We give detailed results and interpretation for the steady-state entanglement in the vicinity of the critical point, where it reaches a maximum. For the first-order transition we find that the semiclassical steady states exhibit a region of bistability. (fast track communication)

  12. A multi-wavelength, high-contrast contact radiography system for the study of low-density aerogel foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Koch, J. A.; Haugh, M. J.; Romano, E.; Lee, J. J.; Huffman, E.; Weber, F. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bowers, J. W. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Benedetti, L. R.; Wilson, M.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Baumann, T. F.; Lenhardt, J. M.; Cook, A.; Arsenlis, A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    A multi-wavelength, high contrast contact radiography system has been developed to characterize density variations in ultra-low density aerogel foams. These foams are used to generate a ramped pressure drive in materials strength experiments at the National Ignition Facility and require precision characterization in order to reduce errors in measurements. The system was used to characterize density variations in carbon and silicon based aerogels to ∼10.3% accuracy with ∼30 μm spatial resolution. The system description, performance, and measurement results collected using a 17.8 mg/cc carbon based JX–6 (C{sub 20}H{sub 30}) aerogel are discussed in this manuscript.

  13. Biosurfactant as an Enhancer of Geologic Carbon Storage: Microbial Modification of Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle in Carbon dioxide/Water/Quartz Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehyung; Joo, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Gyeong-Yeong; Kim, Seunghee; Yoon, Sukhwan; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Injecting and storing of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in deep geologic formations is considered as one of the promising approaches for geologic carbon storage. Microbial wettability alteration of injected CO 2 is expected to occur naturally by microorganisms indigenous to the geologic formation or microorganisms intentionally introduced to increase CO 2 storage capacity in the target reservoirs. The question as to the extent of microbial CO 2 wettability alteration under reservoir conditions still warrants further investigation. This study investigated the effect of a lipopeptide biosurfactant-surfactin, on interfacial tension (IFT) reduction and contact angle alteration in CO 2 /water/quartz systems under a laboratory setup simulating in situ reservoir conditions. The temporal shifts in the IFT and the contact angle among CO 2 , brine, and quartz were monitored for different CO 2 phases (3 MPa, 30°C for gaseous CO 2 ; 10 MPa, 28°C for liquid CO 2 ; 10 MPa, 37°C for supercritical CO 2 ) upon cultivation of Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 with induced surfactin secretion activity. Due to the secreted surfactin, the IFT between CO 2 and brine decreased: from 49.5 to 30 mN/m, by ∼39% for gaseous CO 2 ; from 28.5 to 13 mN/m, by 54% for liquid CO 2 ; and from 32.5 to 18.5 mN/m, by ∼43% for supercritical CO 2 , respectively. The contact angle of a CO 2 droplet on a quartz disk in brine increased: from 20.5° to 23.2°, by 1.16 times for gaseous CO 2 ; from 18.4° to 61.8°, by 3.36 times for liquid CO 2 ; and from 35.5° to 47.7°, by 1.34 times for supercritical CO 2 , respectively. With the microbially altered CO 2 wettability, improvement in sweep efficiency of injected and displaced CO 2 was evaluated using 2-D pore network model simulations; again the increment in sweep efficiency was the greatest in liquid CO 2 phase due to the largest reduction in capillary factor. This result provides novel insights as to the role of naturally occurring biosurfactants in CO 2

  14. Biosurfactant as an Enhancer of Geologic Carbon Storage: Microbial Modification of Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle in Carbon dioxide/Water/Quartz Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Injecting and storing of carbon dioxide (CO2 in deep geologic formations is considered as one of the promising approaches for geologic carbon storage. Microbial wettability alteration of injected CO2 is expected to occur naturally by microorganisms indigenous to the geologic formation or microorganisms intentionally introduced to increase CO2 storage capacity in the target reservoirs. The question as to the extent of microbial CO2 wettability alteration under reservoir conditions still warrants further investigation. This study investigated the effect of a lipopeptide biosurfactant—surfactin, on interfacial tension (IFT reduction and contact angle alteration in CO2/water/quartz systems under a laboratory setup simulating in situ reservoir conditions. The temporal shifts in the IFT and the contact angle among CO2, brine, and quartz were monitored for different CO2 phases (3 MPa, 30°C for gaseous CO2; 10 MPa, 28°C for liquid CO2; 10 MPa, 37°C for supercritical CO2 upon cultivation of Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 with induced surfactin secretion activity. Due to the secreted surfactin, the IFT between CO2 and brine decreased: from 49.5 to 30 mN/m, by ∼39% for gaseous CO2; from 28.5 to 13 mN/m, by 54% for liquid CO2; and from 32.5 to 18.5 mN/m, by ∼43% for supercritical CO2, respectively. The contact angle of a CO2 droplet on a quartz disk in brine increased: from 20.5° to 23.2°, by 1.16 times for gaseous CO2; from 18.4° to 61.8°, by 3.36 times for liquid CO2; and from 35.5° to 47.7°, by 1.34 times for supercritical CO2, respectively. With the microbially altered CO2 wettability, improvement in sweep efficiency of injected and displaced CO2 was evaluated using 2-D pore network model simulations; again the increment in sweep efficiency was the greatest in liquid CO2 phase due to the largest reduction in capillary factor. This result provides novel insights as to the role of naturally occurring biosurfactants in CO2 storage and

  15. Utilizing Non-Contact Stress Measurement System (NSMS) as a Health Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Terry; Hayes, Bryan; Bynum, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Continuously monitor all 156 blades throughout the entire operating envelope without adversely affecting tunnel conditions or compromise compressor shell integrity, Calculate dynamic response and identify the frequency/mode to determine individual blade deflection amplitudes, natural frequencies, phase, and damping (Q), Log static deflection to build a database of deflection values at certain compressor conditions to use as basis for real-time online Blade Stack monitor, Monitor for stall, surge, flutter, and blade damage, Operate with limited user input, low maintenance cost, safe illumination of probes, easy probe replacement, and require little or no access to compressor.

  16. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N=26) or non-allergens (N=22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2-5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (≥ 1.5 fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity = 96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity = 86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity. PMID:19665512

  17. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N = 26) or non-allergens (N = 22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2 to 5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (≥1.5-fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity = 96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity = 86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity.

  18. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  19. Ferroelectric properties of tungsten bronze morphotropic phase boundary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.R.; Neurgaonkar, R.R.; Cross, L.E.; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten bronze ferroelectrics which have a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) can have a number or enhanced dielectric, piezoelectric, and electrooptic properties compared to more conventional ferroelectric materials. The structural and ferroelectric properties of several MPB bronze systems are presented, including data from sintered and hot-pressed ceramics, epitaxial thin films, and bulk single crystals. Included among these are three systems which had not been previously identified as morphotropic. The potential advantages and limitations of these MPB systems are discussed, along with considerations of the appropriate growth methods for their possible utilization in optical, piezoelectric, or pyroelectric device applications

  20. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  1. Quantum phase transitions of strongly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Masatoshi

    1998-01-01

    Interacting electrons in solids undergo various quantum phase transitions driven by quantum fluctuations. The quantum transitions take place at zero temperature by changing a parameter to control quantum fluctuations rather than thermal fluctuations. In contrast to classical phase transitions driven by thermal fluctuations, the quantum transitions have many different features where quantum dynamics introduces a source of intrinsic fluctuations tightly connected with spatial correlations and they have been a subject of recent intensive studies as we see below. Interacting electron systems cannot be fully understood without deep analyses of the quantum phase transitions themselves, because they are widely seen and play essential roles in many phenomena. Typical and important examples of the quantum phase transitions include metal-insulator transitions, (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) metal-superconductor transitions, superconductor-insulator transitions, magnetic transitions to antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic phases in metals as well as in Mott insulators, and charge ordering transitions. Here, we focus on three different types of transitions

  2. Intelligent System for Diagnosis of a Three-Phase Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ioniţă

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent systems for diagnosis have been used in a variety of domains: financial evaluation, credit scoring problem, identification of software and hardware problems of mechanical and electronic equipment, medical diagnosis, fault detection in gas-oil production plants etc. The goal of diagnosis systems is to classify the observed symptoms as being caused by some diagnosis class while advising systems perform such a classification and offer corrective remedies (recommendations. The current paper discuss the opportunity to combine more intelligent techniques and methodologies (intelligent agents, data mining and expert systems to increase the accuracy of results obtained from the diagnosis of a three-phase separator. The results indicate that the diagnosis hybrid system benefits from the advantages of each module component: intelligent agent module, data mining module and expert system module.

  3. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  4. Phase transition universality classes of classical, nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, G

    2004-01-01

    In the first chapter I summarize the most important critical exponents and relations used in this work. In the second chapter I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions.In chapter three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in chapter four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In chapter five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of known transitions in low dimensional systems are between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type systems, but I briefly introduce related classes that appear in interface growth models in chapter six. Some of them are related to critical behavior of coupled, multi-component systems. Finally in chapter seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and the most freq...

  5. Three-Phase Harmonic Analysis Method for Unbalanced Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hao Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unbalanced features of distribution systems, a three-phase harmonic analysis method is essential to accurately analyze the harmonic impact on distribution systems. Moreover, harmonic analysis is the basic tool for harmonic filter design and harmonic resonance mitigation; therefore, the computational performance should also be efficient. An accurate and efficient three-phase harmonic analysis method for unbalanced distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The variations of bus voltages, bus current injections and branch currents affected by harmonic current injections can be analyzed by two relationship matrices developed from the topological characteristics of distribution systems. Some useful formulas are then derived to solve the three-phase harmonic propagation problem. After the harmonic propagation for each harmonic order is calculated, the total harmonic distortion (THD for bus voltages can be calculated accordingly. The proposed method has better computational performance, since the time-consuming full admittance matrix inverse employed by the commonly-used harmonic analysis methods is not necessary in the solution procedure. In addition, the proposed method can provide novel viewpoints in calculating the branch currents and bus voltages under harmonic pollution which are vital for harmonic filter design. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Phase chemistry of the system Nb–Rh–O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, K.T.; Gupta, Preeti; Vinay, M.; Waseda, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Phase relations in the system Nb–Rh–O at 1223 K were investigated by isothermal equilibration of eleven compositions and analysis of quenched samples using OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. The oxide phase in equilibrium with the alloy changes progressively from NbO to NbO 2 , NbO 2.422 and Nb 2 O 5−x with increasing Rh. Only one ternary oxide NbRhO 4 with tetragonal structure (a=0.4708 nm and c=0.3017 nm) was detected. It coexists with Rh and Nb 2 O 5 . The standard Gibbs energy of formation of NbRhO 4 from its component binary oxides measured using a solid-state electrochemical cell can be represented by the equation; ΔG f,ox o (J/mol)=−38,350+5.818×T(±96) Constructed on the basis of thermodynamic information of the various alloy and oxide phases are oxygen potential diagram for the system Nb–Rh–O at 1223 K and temperature–composition diagrams at constant partial pressures of oxygen. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal section of ternary phase diagram for the system Nb–Rh–O at 1223 K. - Highlights: • First complete isothermal section for the system Nb–Rh–O has been established. • An electrochemical cell is used to measure the thermodynamic properties of NbRhO 4 . • Oxygen potential diagram at 1223 K is computed from thermodynamic data. • Temperature–composition diagrams at constant oxygen partial pressures. • A complete thermodynamic characterization of the system Nb–Rh–O is presented

  7. Phase chemistry of the system Nb–Rh–O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.T., E-mail: katob@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Gupta, Preeti; Vinay, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Waseda, Y. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Phase relations in the system Nb–Rh–O at 1223 K were investigated by isothermal equilibration of eleven compositions and analysis of quenched samples using OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. The oxide phase in equilibrium with the alloy changes progressively from NbO to NbO₂, NbO₂.₄₂₂ and Nb₂O5–x with increasing Rh. Only one ternary oxide NbRhO₄ with tetragonal structure (a=0.4708 nm and c=0.3017 nm) was detected. It coexists with Rh and Nb₂O₅. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of NbRhO₄ from its component binary oxides measured using a solid-state electrochemical cell can be represented by the equation; ΔGf,oxo(J/mol)=-38,350+5.818×T(±96) Constructed on the basis of thermodynamic information of the various alloy and oxide phases are oxygen potential diagram for the system Nb–Rh–O at 1223 K and temperature–composition diagrams at constant partial pressures of oxygen. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal section of ternary phase diagram for the system Nb–Rh–O at 1223 K. Highlights: • First complete isothermal section for the system Nb–Rh–O has been established. • An electrochemical cell is used to measure the thermodynamic properties of NbRhO₄. • Oxygen potential diagram at 1223 K is computed from thermodynamic data. • Temperature–composition diagrams at constant oxygen partial pressures. • A complete thermodynamic characterization of the system Nb–Rh–O is presented.

  8. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  9. Adiabatically steered open quantum systems: Master equation and optimal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmilehto, J.; Solinas, P.; Ankerhold, J.; Moettoenen, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an alternative way to derive the generalized form of the master equation recently presented by J. P. Pekola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 030401 (2010)] for an adiabatically steered two-level quantum system interacting with a Markovian environment. The original derivation employed the effective Hamiltonian in the adiabatic basis with the standard interaction picture approach but without the usual secular approximation. Our approach is based on utilizing a master equation for a nonsteered system in the first superadiabatic basis. It is potentially efficient in obtaining higher-order equations. Furthermore, we show how to select the phases of the adiabatic eigenstates to minimize the local adiabatic parameter and how this selection leads to states which are invariant under a local gauge change. We also discuss the effects of the adiabatic noncyclic geometric phase on the master equation.

  10. Photon detection system for ProtoDUNE dual phase

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C. (on behalf of DUNE collaboration)

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a 40-kton underground liquid argon time-projection-chamber (LAr TPC) detector, for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. Photon detector systems embedded within the LAr TPC add precise timing capabilities for non-beam events. The ProtoDUNE dual phase detector will consist of a 6x6x6 m3 liquid argon time-projection chamber placed at CERN and the light readout will be formed by 8-inch cryogenic photomultipliers from Hamamatsu. The characterization of the 36 photomultipliers, the base design, and the light calibration system are described. In addition, preliminary results from a 3x1x1 m3 LAr double phase detector operating at CERN are presented.

  11. Bunching phase evolution of short-pulse FEL oscillator system

    CERN Document Server

    Song, S B; Choi, D I

    2000-01-01

    We studied numerically the short-pulse FEL oscillator system using properly defined bunching phase theta sub B and PSI sub B. In stable operation, we have found that the optical field 'locks' the phase to pi/2 at the trailing edge, which gives the maximum gain. Moreover, electrons can be detrapped from ponderomotive bucket due to the spatial variation of the optical field, and this detrapping effect is a major cause of the limit cycle oscillation of the system. The 'bump' of the output power during the amplification usually exists at the near-perfect cavity synchronism regime, which can be explained as the change of the matching condition between electron micropulse and optical pulse.

  12. Field-induced phase transitions in antiferromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, J.P.M.

    1984-05-01

    Neutron scattering experiments and magnetization measurements are carried out on cobalt bromide hexahydrate, of which 48% of the water molecules are replaced by deuterium oxide molecules. Results were compared with data obtained from non-deuterated cobalt bromide hexahydrate. Neutron scattering experiments showed the importance of the deuterium fraction. Interplay exists between the crystallographic system and the magnetic system, which is influenced by changing the deuterium fraction. Neutron scattering and magnetization experiments on partially deuterated RbFeCl 3 .2H 2 O and CsFeCl 3 .2H 2 O were performed to study the magnetic phase transitions in these quasi one-dimensional Ising compounds. The observed behaviour in the various phases can be described by the nucleation theory of chain reversals. (Auth.)

  13. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, So-myo; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Takeishi, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Toshiaki; O'shima, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, it is very important to foresee occurring events with in-operation -inspection (IOI) since the foreseeing makes plant maintenance more speedy and reliable. Moreover, information on plant condition under operating would make period of in-service inspection (ISI) shorter because maintenance plan can be made effectively using the information. In this study, a high cycle fatigue diagnostic system is being developed applying to especially pipe branches with small diameter under in-operating condition, which are in the radioactive areas of PWR plants and hard to access. This paper presents a concept of the in-operating diagnostic system and current status of developing sensing systems. (author)

  14. Porous Aromatic Framework 48/Gel Hybrid Material Coated Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber for the Determination of the Migration of Styrene from Polystyrene Food Contact Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhongyue; Yang, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Le; Li, Zhonghao; Niu, Jiajia

    2017-01-17

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by a porous aromatic framework 48 (PAF-48)/gel hybrid material through a sol-gel process. PAF-48 is a porous organic framework (POF) material that was polymerized from 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene. The uniform pore structure, high surface area, continuous conjugate network, and hydrophobicity make PAF-48 expected to have special abilities to absorb and extract styrene as well as some other harmful volatile aromatic compounds (VACs). The PAF-48/gel-coated fiber was explored for the extraction of styrene and six VACs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) from aqueous food simulants followed by gas chromatography (GC) separation. The fiber was found to be very sensitive for the determination of the target molecules with wide linear ranges (0.1-200 or 500 μg·kg -1 ), low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003-0.060 μg·kg -1 ), acceptable precisions (intraday relative standard deviation, RSD 200 times). Particularly for styrene, the PAF-48/gel-coated fiber exhibited a much lower LOD (0.006 μg·kg -1 ) compared with most of the reported fibers. Moreover, the PAF-48/gel-coated fiber had a high extraction selectivity for styrene and VACs over alcohols, phenols, aromatic amines, and alkanes and show a molecular sieving effect for the different molecule sizes. Finally, the PAF-48/gel-coated SPME fiber was successfully applied in GC for the determination of the specific migrations of styrene and VACs from polystyrene (PS) plastic food contact materials (FCMs).

  15. Universal phase diagram for high-piezoelectric perovskite systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.E.; Noheda, B.; Shirane, G.; Uesu, Y.; Fujishiro, K.; Yamada, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Strong piezoelectricity in perovskite-type PbZn1-xTixO3 (PZT) and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PZN–PT) systems is generally associated with the existence of a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) separating regions with rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetry. An x-ray study of PZN–9% PT has revealed the

  16. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  17. Automatic Identification System (AIS) Transmit Testing in Louisville Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Firewall Louisville QM 65.206.28.x NAIS Site Controller PC RS232 Serial cable TV32 Computer Cmd Center Serial splitter SAAB R40 AIS Base Station...172.17.14.6 Rack mount computer AIS Radio Interface Ethernet Switch 192.168.0.x Firewall Cable Modem 192.168.0.1 VTS Accred. Boundary serial connection...Automatic Identification System ( AIS ) Transmit Testing in Louisville Phase 2 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release

  18. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Heath A.; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  19. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-01

    A management plan is presented for implementation during the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System - Phase I study project. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the 1985-1990 time frame. The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.

  1. Competition for synchronization in a phase oscillator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanovich, Yakov; Burylko, Oleksandr; Borisyuk, Roman

    2013-10-01

    A system of phase oscillators with a Central Oscillator (CO) and a set of n Peripheral Oscillators (POs) is considered. Feed-forward and feedback connections between the CO and POs are determined by two interaction functions which are assumed to be smooth, odd, and periodic. To describe the competition of POs for synchronization with the CO, we study the asymptotic stability of fixed points corresponding to in-phase synchronization of a group of k POs, while other POs are in anti-phase with the CO. It is shown that stability conditions can be formulated in terms of four parameters that describe the slopes of the interaction functions at zero and half-period points. Analytical description of stability in terms of the regions in 4-dimensional parameter space is given. Combining stability analysis with the detailed study of geometry of invariant manifolds, the bifurcations of fixed points are investigated. We show that various dynamical regimes such as multistability, heteroclinic orbits, and chaos are possible. Analytical stability conditions for global synchronization of POs with the CO are formulated for the systems with local connections between POs. It is shown that synchronization in a large system with local connections becomes unstable even under weak desynchronizing influence from the CO. The application of the results to modeling in neuroscience and, in particular, for modeling visual attention is discussed.

  2. Diffusion and phase growth in heterophase systems. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mchedlov-Petrosyan, P.O.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper gives the view of theoretical study of diffusion processes in ternary and more component solid-state systems, caused by chemical reactions and phase growth. Internal oxidation of alloys, nitridation, borating etc. are the well-known and widely investigated processes of such type. Self-consistent theoretical model of such processes must take into account both the effect of concentration macroscopic districutions on new phase precipitation growth and precipitation reaction on concentration distribution; heterophase must be explicitly allowed for. As for binary system, diffusion theory, running into the phase growth, is well developed and completely presented in monographs, the carried out theoretical investigations of ternary systems are explicitly deficient. The first part of the review presents analysis of available theoretical studies approximately up to 1980. Ratios between various analytically solved models are discussed in detail. It is shown that they don't satisfy to full extent the above-given requirements. More consistent, both numerically and analytically solvable models developed for the last years, are considered in the review second part. 119 refs

  3. Choice of optical system is critical for the security of double random phase encryption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cassidy, Derek; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Healy, John J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-06-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) is used in modeling a coherent light-field propagation through first-order optical systems. Recently, a generic optical system, known as the quadratic phase encoding system (QPES), for encrypting a two-dimensional image has been reported. In such systems, two random phase keys and the individual LCT parameters (α,β,γ) serve as secret keys of the cryptosystem. It is important that such encryption systems also satisfy some dynamic security properties. We, therefore, examine such systems using two cryptographic evaluation methods, the avalanche effect and bit independence criterion, which indicate the degree of security of the cryptographic algorithms using QPES. We compared our simulation results with the conventional Fourier and the Fresnel transform-based double random phase encryption (DRPE) systems. The results show that the LCT-based DRPE has an excellent avalanche and bit independence characteristics compared to the conventional Fourier and Fresnel-based encryption systems.

  4. Renormalization group theory of phase transitions in square Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhuis, B.

    1978-01-01

    Some renormalization group calculations are presented on a number of phase transitions in a square Ising model, both second and first order. Of these transitions critical exponents are calculated, the amplitudes of the power law divergences and the locus of the transition. In some cases attention is paid to the thermodynamic functions also far from the critical point. Universality and scaling are discussed and the renormalization group theory is reviewed. It is shown how a renormalization transformation, which relates two similar systems with different macroscopic dimensions, can be constructed, and how some critical properties of the system follow from this transformation. Several numerical and analytical applications are presented. (Auth.)

  5. Physics Detector Simulation Facility Phase II system software description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scipioni, B.; Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Marquez, M.; Estep, P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF) Phase II system software. A key element in the design of a distributed computing environment for the PDSF has been the separation and distribution of the major functions. The facility has been designed to support batch and interactive processing, and to incorporate the file and tape storage systems. By distributing these functions, it is often possible to provide higher throughput and resource availability. Similarly, the design is intended to exploit event-level parallelism in an open distributed environment

  6. Dynamical tunneling in systems with a mixed phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeck, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Tunneling is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics. While the tunneling process in one-dimensional integrable systems is well understood, its quantitative prediction for systems with a mixed phase space is a long-standing open challenge. In such systems regions of regular and chaotic dynamics coexist in phase space, which are classically separated but quantum mechanically coupled by the process of dynamical tunneling. We derive a prediction of dynamical tunneling rates which describe the decay of states localized inside the regular region towards the so-called chaotic sea. This approach uses a fictitious integrable system which mimics the dynamics inside the regular domain and extends it into the chaotic region. Excellent agreement with numerical data is found for kicked systems, billiards, and optical microcavities, if nonlinear resonances are negligible. Semiclassically, however, such nonlinear resonance chains dominate the tunneling process. Hence, we combine our approach with an improved resonance-assisted tunneling theory and derive a unified prediction which is valid from the quantum to the semiclassical regime. We obtain results which show a drastically improved accuracy of several orders of magnitude compared to previous studies. (orig.)

  7. Dynamical tunneling in systems with a mixed phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeck, Steffen

    2010-04-22

    Tunneling is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics. While the tunneling process in one-dimensional integrable systems is well understood, its quantitative prediction for systems with a mixed phase space is a long-standing open challenge. In such systems regions of regular and chaotic dynamics coexist in phase space, which are classically separated but quantum mechanically coupled by the process of dynamical tunneling. We derive a prediction of dynamical tunneling rates which describe the decay of states localized inside the regular region towards the so-called chaotic sea. This approach uses a fictitious integrable system which mimics the dynamics inside the regular domain and extends it into the chaotic region. Excellent agreement with numerical data is found for kicked systems, billiards, and optical microcavities, if nonlinear resonances are negligible. Semiclassically, however, such nonlinear resonance chains dominate the tunneling process. Hence, we combine our approach with an improved resonance-assisted tunneling theory and derive a unified prediction which is valid from the quantum to the semiclassical regime. We obtain results which show a drastically improved accuracy of several orders of magnitude compared to previous studies. (orig.)

  8. Glass and liquid phase diagram of a polyamorphic monatomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Shaina; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a monatomic system with Fermi-Jagla (FJ) pair potential interactions. This model system exhibits polyamorphism both in the liquid and glass state. The two liquids, low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL), are accessible in equilibrium MD simulations and can form two glasses, low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid, upon isobaric cooling. The FJ model exhibits many of the anomalous properties observed in water and other polyamorphic liquids and thus, it is an excellent model system to explore qualitatively the thermodynamic properties of such substances. The liquid phase behavior of the FJ model system has been previously characterized. In this work, we focus on the glass behavior of the FJ system. Specifically, we perform systematic isothermal compression and decompression simulations of LDA and HDA at different temperatures and determine "phase diagrams" for the glass state; these phase diagrams varying with the compression/decompression rate used. We obtain the LDA-to-HDA and HDA-to-LDA transition pressure loci, PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T), respectively. In addition, the compression-induced amorphization line, at which the low-pressure crystal (LPC) transforms to HDA, PLPC-HDA(T), is determined. As originally proposed by Poole et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 4605 (1993)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.4605 simulations suggest that the PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T) loci are extensions of the LDL-to-HDL and HDL-to-LDL spinodal lines into the glass domain. Interestingly, our simulations indicate that the PLPC-HDA(T) locus is an extension, into the glass domain, of the LPC metastability limit relative to the liquid. We discuss the effects of compression/decompression rates on the behavior of the PLDA-HDA(T), PHDA-LDA(T), PLPC-HDA(T) loci. The competition between glass polyamorphism and crystallization is also addressed. At our "fast rate," crystallization can be partially suppressed and the

  9. Efficient Phase Locking of Fiber Amplifiers Using a Low-Cost and High-Damage-Threshold Phase Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Zhou; Yan-Xing, Ma; Xiao-Lin, Wang; Hao-Tong, Ma; Xiao-Jun, Xu; Ze-Jin, Liu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a low-cost and high-damage-threshold phase control system that employs a piezoelectric ceramic transducer modulator controlled by a stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm. Efficient phase locking of two fiber amplifiers is demonstrated. Experimental results show that energy encircled in the target pinhole is increased by a factor of 1.76 and the visibility of the fringe pattern is as high as 90% when the system is in close-loop. The phase control system has potential in phase locking of large-number and high-power fiber laser endeavors. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  10. The role of creep in the time-dependent resistance of Ohmic gold contacts in radio frequency microelectromechanical system devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanian, O.; Brown, C.; Zikry, M. A.; Kingon, A. I.; Krim, J.; Irving, D. L.; Brenner, D. W.

    2008-07-01

    It is shown that measured and calculated time-dependent electrical resistances of closed gold Ohmic switches in radio frequency microelectromechanical system (rf-MEMS) devices are well described by a power law that can be derived from a single asperity creep model. The analysis reveals that the exponent and prefactor in the power law arise, respectively, from the coefficient relating creep rate to applied stress and the initial surface roughness. The analysis also shows that resistance plateaus are not, in fact, limiting resistances but rather result from the small coefficient in the power law. The model predicts that it will take a longer time for the contact resistance to attain a power law relation with each successive closing of the switch due to asperity blunting. Analysis of the first few seconds of the measured resistance for three successive openings and closings of one of the MEMS devices supports this prediction. This work thus provides guidance toward the rational design of Ohmic contacts with enhanced reliabilities by better defining variables that can be controlled through material selection, interface processing, and switch operation.

  11. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  12. Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau theory for a one-dimensional system with contact interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert; Hanizl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper we give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Here we present our results in the simplified case of a one-dimensional system of particles interacting via a delta-potential....

  13. Quantum phase transition in strongly correlated many-body system

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wenlong

    The past decade has seen a substantial rejuvenation of interest in the study of quantum phase transitions (QPTs), driven by experimental advance on the cuprate superconductors, the heavy fermion materials, organic conductors, Quantum Hall effect, Fe-As based superconductors and other related compounds. It is clear that strong electronic interactions play a crucial role in the systems of current interest, and simple paradigms for the behavior of such systems near quantum critical points remain unclear. Furthermore, the rapid progress in Feshbach resonance and optical lattice provides a flexible platform to study QPT. Quantum Phase Transition (QPT) describes the non-analytic behaviors of the ground-state properties in a many-body system by varying a physical parameter at absolute zero temperature - such as magnetic field or pressure, driven by quantum fluctuations. Such quantum phase transitions can be first-order phase transition or continuous. The phase transition is usually accompanied by a qualitative change in the nature of the correlations in the ground state, and describing this change shall clearly be one of our major interests. We address this issue from three prospects in a few strong correlated many-body systems in this thesis, i.e., identifying the ordered phases, studying the properties of different phases, characterizing the QPT points. In chapter 1, we give an introduction to QPT, and take one-dimensional XXZ model as an example to illustrate the QPT therein. Through this simple example, we would show that when the tunable parameter is varied, the system evolves into different phases, across two quantum QPT points. The distinct phases exhibit very different behaviors. Also a schematic phase diagram is appended. In chapter 2, we are engaged in research on ordered phases. Originating in the work of Landau and Ginzburg on second-order phase transition, the spontaneous symmetry breaking induces nonzero expectation of field operator, e.g., magnetization M

  14. LANL Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    : (505) 665-3664 ethics@lanl.gov Journalist queries Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Media contacts programs and employee resources. General Employee directory Emergency communication Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Ethics & Audits Internal Audit: (505) 665-3104 Ethics Office: (505) 667-7506 Fax

  15. Design and dosimetric characteristics of a new endocavitary contact radiotherapy system using an electronic brachytherapy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Susan; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Lu, Wei; Myerson, Robert J; Parikh, Parag

    2012-11-01

    To present design aspects and acceptance tests performed for clinical implementation of electronic brachytherapy treatment of early stage rectal adenocarcinoma. A dosimetric comparison is made between the historically used Philips RT-50 unit and the newly developed Axxent(®) Model S700 electronic brachytherapy source manufactured by Xoft (iCad, Inc.). Two proctoscope cones were manufactured by ElectroSurgical Instruments (ESI). Two custom surface applicators were manufactured by Xoft and were designed to fit and interlock with the proctoscope cones from ESI. Dose rates, half value layers (HVL), and percentage depth dose (PDD) measurements were made with the Xoft system and compared to historical RT-50 data. A description of the patient treatment approach and exposure rates during the procedure is also provided. The electronic brachytherapy system has a lower surface dose rate than the RT-50. The dose rate to water on the surface from the Xoft system is approximately 2.1 Gy∕min while the RT-50 is 10-12 Gy∕min. However, treatment times with Xoft are still reasonable. The HVLs and PDDs between the two systems were comparable resulting in similar doses to the target and to regions beyond the target. The exposure rate levels around a patient treatment were acceptable. The standard uncertainty in the dose rate to water on the surface is approximately ±5.2%. The Philips RT-50 unit is an out-of-date radiotherapy machine that is no longer manufactured with limited replacement parts. The use of a custom-designed proctoscope and Xoft surface applicators allows delivery of a well-established treatment with the ease of a modern radiotherapy device. While the dose rate is lower with the use of Xoft, the treatment times are still reasonable. Additionally, personnel may stand farther away from the Xoft radiation source, thus potentially reducing radiation exposure to the operator and other personnel.

  16. Design and dosimetric characteristics of a new endocavitary contact radiotherapy system using an electronic brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Susan; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Lu Wei; Myerson, Robert J.; Parikh, Parag

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present design aspects and acceptance tests performed for clinical implementation of electronic brachytherapy treatment of early stage rectal adenocarcinoma. A dosimetric comparison is made between the historically used Philips RT-50 unit and the newly developed Axxent ® Model S700 electronic brachytherapy source manufactured by Xoft (iCad, Inc.). Methods: Two proctoscope cones were manufactured by ElectroSurgical Instruments (ESI). Two custom surface applicators were manufactured by Xoft and were designed to fit and interlock with the proctoscope cones from ESI. Dose rates, half value layers (HVL), and percentage depth dose (PDD) measurements were made with the Xoft system and compared to historical RT-50 data. A description of the patient treatment approach and exposure rates during the procedure is also provided. Results: The electronic brachytherapy system has a lower surface dose rate than the RT-50. The dose rate to water on the surface from the Xoft system is approximately 2.1 Gy/min while the RT-50 is 10–12 Gy/min. However, treatment times with Xoft are still reasonable. The HVLs and PDDs between the two systems were comparable resulting in similar doses to the target and to regions beyond the target. The exposure rate levels around a patient treatment were acceptable. The standard uncertainty in the dose rate to water on the surface is approximately ±5.2%. Conclusions: The Philips RT-50 unit is an out-of-date radiotherapy machine that is no longer manufactured with limited replacement parts. The use of a custom-designed proctoscope and Xoft surface applicators allows delivery of a well-established treatment with the ease of a modern radiotherapy device. While the dose rate is lower with the use of Xoft, the treatment times are still reasonable. Additionally, personnel may stand farther away from the Xoft radiation source, thus potentially reducing radiation exposure to the operator and other personnel.

  17. Design and dosimetric characteristics of a new endocavitary contact radiotherapy system using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Susan; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Lu Wei; Myerson, Robert J.; Parikh, Parag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To present design aspects and acceptance tests performed for clinical implementation of electronic brachytherapy treatment of early stage rectal adenocarcinoma. A dosimetric comparison is made between the historically used Philips RT-50 unit and the newly developed Axxent{sup Registered-Sign} Model S700 electronic brachytherapy source manufactured by Xoft (iCad, Inc.). Methods: Two proctoscope cones were manufactured by ElectroSurgical Instruments (ESI). Two custom surface applicators were manufactured by Xoft and were designed to fit and interlock with the proctoscope cones from ESI. Dose rates, half value layers (HVL), and percentage depth dose (PDD) measurements were made with the Xoft system and compared to historical RT-50 data. A description of the patient treatment approach and exposure rates during the procedure is also provided. Results: The electronic brachytherapy system has a lower surface dose rate than the RT-50. The dose rate to water on the surface from the Xoft system is approximately 2.1 Gy/min while the RT-50 is 10-12 Gy/min. However, treatment times with Xoft are still reasonable. The HVLs and PDDs between the two systems were comparable resulting in similar doses to the target and to regions beyond the target. The exposure rate levels around a patient treatment were acceptable. The standard uncertainty in the dose rate to water on the surface is approximately {+-}5.2%. Conclusions: The Philips RT-50 unit is an out-of-date radiotherapy machine that is no longer manufactured with limited replacement parts. The use of a custom-designed proctoscope and Xoft surface applicators allows delivery of a well-established treatment with the ease of a modern radiotherapy device. While the dose rate is lower with the use of Xoft, the treatment times are still reasonable. Additionally, personnel may stand farther away from the Xoft radiation source, thus potentially reducing radiation exposure to the operator and other personnel.

  18. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  19. Phase II Vault Testing of the Argonne RFID System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-45)) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  20. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step