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Sample records for contact line pinning

  1. Pinning of the Contact Line during Evaporation on Heterogeneous Surfaces: Slowdown or Temporary Immobilization? Insights from a Nanoscale Study.

    Zhang, Jianguo; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-07-14

    The question of the effect of surface heterogeneities on the evaporation of liquid droplets from solid surfaces is addressed through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The mechanism behind contact line pinning which is still unclear is discussed in detail on the nanoscale. Model systems with the Lennard-Jones interaction potential were employed to study the evaporation of nanometer-sized cylindrical droplets from a flat surface. The heterogeneity of the surface was modeled through alternating stripes of equal width but two chemical types. The first type leads to a contact angle of 67°, and the other leads to a contact angle of 115°. The stripe width was varied between 2 and 20 liquid-particle diameters. On the surface with the narrowest stripes, evaporation occurred at constant contact angle as if the surface was homogeneous, with a value of the contact angle as predicted by the regular Cassie-Baxter equation. When the width was increased, the contact angle oscillated during evaporation between two boundaries whose values depend on the stripe width. The evaporation behavior was thus found to be a direct signature of the typical size of the surface heterogeneity domains. The contact angle both at equilibrium and during evaporation could be predicted from a local Cassie-Baxter equation in which the surface composition within a distance of seven fluid-particle diameters around the contact line was considered, confirming the local nature of the interactions that drive the wetting behavior of droplets. More importantly, we propose a nanoscale explanation of pinning during evaporation. Pinning should be interpreted as a drastic slowdown of the contact line dynamics rather than a complete immobilization of it during a transition between two contact angle boundaries.

  2. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  3. How pinning and contact angle hysteresis govern quasi-static liquid drop transfer.

    Chen, H; Tang, T; Zhao, H; Law, K-Y; Amirfazli, A

    2016-02-21

    This paper presents both experimental and numerical simulations of liquid transfer between two solid surfaces with contact angle hysteresis (CAH). Systematic studies on the role of the advancing contact angle (θa), receding contact angle (θr) and CAH in determining the transfer ratio (volume of the liquid transferred onto the acceptor surface over the total liquid volume) and the maximum adhesion force (Fmax) were performed. The transfer ratio was found to be governed by contact line pinning at the end of the transfer process caused by CAH of surfaces. A map based on θr of the two surfaces was generated to identify the three regimes for liquid transfer: (I) contact line pinning occurs only on the donor surface, (II) contact line pinning occurs on both surfaces, and (III) contact line pinning occurs only on the acceptor surface. With this map, an empirical equation is provided which is able to estimate the transfer ratio by only knowing θr of the two surfaces. The value of Fmax is found to be strongly influenced by the contact line pinning in the early stretching stage. For symmetric liquid bridges between two identical surfaces, Fmax may be determined only by θa, only by θr, or by both θa and θr, depending on the magnitude of the contact angles. For asymmetric bridges, Fmax is found to be affected by the period when contact lines are pinned on both surfaces.

  4. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  5. Contact Line Dynamics

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  6. Improved pinning by multiple in-line damage

    Weinstein, Roy [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Gandini, Alberto [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Columnar pinning centres provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinnable field, B{sub pin}. Characteristics of ion-generated columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of the percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centres limit B{sub pin} to less than 4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. The goal of maximizing U{sub pin}, via columnar centres, appears to have obscured a more rewarding approach and resulted in neglect of a large regime of ion interactions. Evidence is reviewed that multiple in-line damage (MILD), described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c} and B{sub pin}, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. The MILD pinning centre morphology is discussed, and it is estimated that for present-day large grain high T{sub c} superconductors, a J{sub c} value of {approx}10{sup 6}Acm{sup -2} is obtainable at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. In addition, the pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these calculations, directly compare MILD pinning to continuous columnar pinning, and determine the optimum MILD structure. Applications of MILD pinning are discussed.

  7. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  8. Performance of electrical contact pins near a nuclear explosion

    Ragan, C.E.; Silbert, M.G.; Ellis, A.N.; Robinson, E.E.; Daddario, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The pressures attainable in equation-of-state studies using nuclear-explosion-driven shock waves greatly exceed those that can be reached in normal laboratory conditions. However, the diagnostic instrumentation must survive in the high-radiation environment present near such an explosion. Therefore, a set of experiments were fielded on the Redmud event to test the feasibility of using electrical contact pins in this environment. In these experiments a 60-cm-high shield of boron-lead was placed on the rack lid approximately 1 m from the device. A sample consisting of slabs of molybdenum and 238 U was placed on top of the shield, and twelve electrical contact pins were embedded to five different depths in the materials. Five different multiplexing-charging circuits were used for the pins, and a piezoelectric quartz gauge was placed on top of the uranium to obtain an estimate of the fission-energy deposition. All of the charged pins survived the radiation and produced signals indicating shock arrival. The uncertainty in determining the pin-closure time was approximately 3 ns. The signal from the quartz gauge corresponded to a pressure that was consistent with the calculated neutron fluence

  9. Measurement of contact angle in a clearance-fit pin-loaded hole

    Prabhakaran, R.; Naik, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A technique which measures load-contact variation in a clearance-fit, pin-loaded hole is presented in detail. A steel instrumented pin, which activates a make-or-break electrical circuit in the pin-hole contact region, was inserted into one aluminum and one polycarbonate specimen. The resulting load-contact variations are indicated schematically. The ability to accurately determine the arc of contact at any load was crucial to this measurement. It is noted that this simple experimental technique is applicable to both conducting and nonconducting materials.

  10. An elastic-plastic contact model for line contact structures

    Zhu, Haibin; Zhao, Yingtao; He, Zhifeng; Zhang, Ruinan; Ma, Shaopeng

    2018-06-01

    Although numerical simulation tools are now very powerful, the development of analytical models is very important for the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of line contact structures for deeply understanding contact problems and engineering applications. For the line contact structures widely used in the engineering field, few analytical models are available for predicting the mechanical behaviour when the structures deform plastically, as the classic Hertz's theory would be invalid. Thus, the present study proposed an elastic-plastic model for line contact structures based on the understanding of the yield mechanism. A mathematical expression describing the global relationship between load history and contact width evolution of line contact structures was obtained. The proposed model was verified through an actual line contact test and a corresponding numerical simulation. The results confirmed that this model can be used to accurately predict the elastic-plastic mechanical behaviour of a line contact structure.

  11. Moving droplets : The measurement of contact lines

    Poelma, C.; Franken, M.J.Z.; Kim, H.; Westerweel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Contact lines are the locations where a gas, liquid and a solid meet. From everyday experience we know that such contact lines can be mobile, for example in the case of a water droplet sliding over a glass surface. However, the continuum description of the flow towards or away from a contact line

  12. Response function of a moving contact line

    Perrin, H.; Belardinelli, D.; Sbragaglia, M.; Andreotti, B.

    2018-04-01

    The hydrodynamics of a liquid-vapor interface in contact with a heterogeneous surface is largely impacted by the presence of defects at the smaller scales. Such defects introduce morphological disturbances on the contact line and ultimately determine the force exerted on the wedge of liquid in contact with the surface. From the mathematical point of view, defects introduce perturbation modes, whose space-time evolution is governed by the interfacial hydrodynamic equations of the contact line. In this paper we derive the response function of the contact line to such generic perturbations. The contact line response may be used to design simplified one-dimensional time-dependent models accounting for the complexity of interfacial flows coupled to nanoscale defects, yet offering a more tractable mathematical framework to explore contact line motion through a disordered energy landscape.

  13. Geometry-Dependent Electrostatics near Contact Lines

    Chou, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Long-ranged electrostatic interactions in electrolytes modify contact angles on charged substrates in a scale and geometry-dependent manner. For angles measured at scales smaller than the typical Debye screening length, the wetting geometry near the contact line must be explicitly considered. Using variational and asymptotic methods, we derive new transcendental equations for the contact angle as functions of the electrostatic potential only at the three phase contact line. Analytic expressions are found in certain limits and compared with predictions for contact angles measured with lower resolution. An estimate for electrostatic contributions to line tension is also given

  14. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  15. Pinning in BSCCO above the ordinary irreversibility line

    Indenbom, M. V.; van der Beek, C. J.; Berseth, V.; Konczykowski, M.; Motohira, N.; Berger, H.; Benoit, W.

    1996-12-01

    Frequency-dependent observations of magnetic flux structures are used to show that pinning plays a principal role in the whole mixed state in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (BSCCO) single crystals. We speculate that the random pinning force on the moving vortices may dominate over thermal fluctuations and considerably modify the position of the vortex lattice phase transition.

  16. Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces

    Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.

  17. On the Influence of Clearance in Orthotropic Disc-Pin Contacts

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2007-01-01

    , an orthotropic disc-pin contact problem. The most simple solutions are named Hertz solutions (from 1882), and we use one of these solutions for comparison with finite element results. As a function of the total contact force we find (inversely) the size of the contact area, the distribution of the contact......Solutions to contact problems are important in mechanical as well as in civil engineering, and even for the most simple problems there is still a need for research results. In the present paper we use an alternative super element procedure to solve directly, without iteration and incrementation...... pressure, and the contact compliance. In models of finite size the compliance depends on the flexibility of the total model, including the boundary condition of the model, and therefore disagreement with the locally based analytical models is expected. The examples of an earlier paper were restricted...

  18. Evaporation-induced flow in an inviscid liquid line at any contact angle

    Petsi, A. J.; Burganos, V. N.

    2006-04-01

    The problem of potential flow inside an evaporating liquid line, shaped as an infinitely long cylindrical segment lying on a flat surface, is considered and an analytical solution is obtained for any contact angle in (0,π) . In this way, microflow details inside linear liquid bodies evaporating on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and strongly hydrophobic substrates can now be obtained. The mathematical formulation employs the velocity potential and stream function formulations in bipolar coordinates and the solution is obtained using the technique of Fourier transform. Both pinned and depinned contact lines are considered. The solution is applicable to any evaporation mechanism but for illustration purposes numerical results are presented here for the particular case of kinetically controlled evaporation. For hydrophilic substrates, the flow inside the evaporating liquid line is directed towards the edges for pinned contact lines, thus, promoting a coffee stain effect. The opposite flow direction is observed for depinned contact lines. However, for strongly hydrophobic substrates, flow is directed outwards for both pinned and depinned contact lines, but owing to its low magnitude compared to that on hydrophilic substrates, a craterlike colloidal deposit should be expected rather than a ringlike deposit, in agreement with experimental observations.

  19. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    Sonin, Ain A.; Duthaler, Gregg; Liu, Michael; Torresola, Javier; Qiu, Taiqing

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a basic understanding of how a molten material front spreads over a solid that is below its melting point, arrests, and freezes. Our hope is that the work will contribute toward a scientific knowledge base for certain new applications involving molten droplet deposition, including the "printing" of arbitrary three-dimensional objects by precise deposition of individual molten microdrops that solidify after impact. Little information is available at this time on the capillarity-driven motion and arrest of molten contact line regions. Schiaffino and Sonin investigated the arrest of the contact line of a molten microcrystalline wax spreading over a subcooled solid "target" of the same material. They found that contact line arrest takes place at an apparent liquid contact angle that depends primarily on the Stefan number S=c(T(sub f) -T(sub t)/L based on the temperature difference between the fusion point and the target temperature, and proposed that contact line arrest occurs when the liquid's dynamic contact angle approaches the angle of attack of the solidification front just behind the contact line. They also showed, however, that the conventional continuum equations and boundary conditions have no meaningful solution for this angle. The solidification front angle is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux is singular at that point. By comparing experiments with numerical computations, Schiaffino and Sonin estimated that the conventional solidification model must break down within a distance of order 0.1 - 1 microns of the contact line. The physical mechanism for this breakdown is as yet undetermined, and no first-principles theory exists for the contact angle at arrest. Schiaffino and Sonin also presented a framework for understanding how to moderate Weber number molten droplet deposition in terms of similarity laws and experimentation. The study is based on experiments with three molten

  20. Quasi-static motion of microparticles at the depinning contact line of an evaporating droplet on PDMS surface

    Yu, Ying-Song; Xia, Xue-Lian; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Xianfu; Zhou, Jin-Zhi

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, evaporation of sessile water droplets containing fluorescent polystyrene (PS) microparticles on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with different curing ratios was studied experimentally using laser confocal microscopy. At the beginning, there were some microparticles located at the contact line and some microparticles moved towards the line. Due to contact angle hysteresis, at first both the contact line and the microparticles were pinned. With the depinning contact line, the microparticles moved together spontaneously. Using the software ImageJ, the location of contact lines at different time were acquired and the circle centers and radii of the contact lines were obtained via the least square method. Then the average distance of two neighbor contact lines at a certain time interval was obtained to characterize the motion of the contact line. Fitting the distance-time curve at the depinning contact line stage with polynomials and differentiating the polynomials with time, we obtained the velocity and acceleration of both the contact line and the microparticles located at the line. The velocity and the maximum acceleration were, respectively, of the orders of 1 μm/s and 20-200 nm/s2, indicating that the motion of the microparticles located at the depinning contact line was quasi-static. Finally, we presented a theoretical model to describe the quasi-static process, which may help in understanding both self-pinning and depinning of microparticles.

  1. On multiscale moving contact line theory.

    Li, Shaofan; Fan, Houfu

    2015-07-08

    In this paper, a multiscale moving contact line (MMCL) theory is presented and employed to simulate liquid droplet spreading and capillary motion. The proposed MMCL theory combines a coarse-grained adhesive contact model with a fluid interface membrane theory, so that it can couple molecular scale adhesive interaction and surface tension with hydrodynamics of microscale flow. By doing so, the intermolecular force, the van der Waals or double layer force, separates and levitates the liquid droplet from the supporting solid substrate, which avoids the shear stress singularity caused by the no-slip condition in conventional hydrodynamics theory of moving contact line. Thus, the MMCL allows the difference of the surface energies and surface stresses to drive droplet spreading naturally. To validate the proposed MMCL theory, we have employed it to simulate droplet spreading over various elastic substrates. The numerical simulation results obtained by using MMCL are in good agreement with the molecular dynamics results reported in the literature.

  2. Pinning, de-pinning and re-pinning of a slowly varying rivulet

    Paterson, C.; Wilson, S.K.; Duffy, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The solutions for the unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet with prescribed volume flux down an inclined planar substrate are used to describe the locally unidirectional flow of a rivulet with constant width (i.e. pinned contact lines) but slowly varying contact angle as well as the possible pinning and subsequent de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle and the possible de-pinning and subsequent re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width as they flow in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder. Despite being the same locally, the global behaviour of a rivulet with constant width can be very different from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle. In particular, while a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can always run from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, the behaviour of a rivulet with constant width depends on the value of the width. Specifically, while a narrow rivulet can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, a wide rivulet can run from the top of the cylinder only to a critical azimuthal angle. The scenario in which the hitherto pinned contact lines of the rivulet de-pin at the critical azimuthal angle and the rivulet runs from the critical azimuthal angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle but slowly varying width is discussed. The pinning and de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle, and the corresponding situation involving the de-pinning and re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width at a non-zero contact angle which generalises the de-pinning at zero contact angle discussed earlier, are described. In the latter situation, the mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the constant width. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Pinning, de-pinning and re-pinning of a slowly varying rivulet

    Paterson, C.

    2013-09-01

    The solutions for the unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet with prescribed volume flux down an inclined planar substrate are used to describe the locally unidirectional flow of a rivulet with constant width (i.e. pinned contact lines) but slowly varying contact angle as well as the possible pinning and subsequent de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle and the possible de-pinning and subsequent re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width as they flow in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder. Despite being the same locally, the global behaviour of a rivulet with constant width can be very different from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle. In particular, while a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can always run from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, the behaviour of a rivulet with constant width depends on the value of the width. Specifically, while a narrow rivulet can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, a wide rivulet can run from the top of the cylinder only to a critical azimuthal angle. The scenario in which the hitherto pinned contact lines of the rivulet de-pin at the critical azimuthal angle and the rivulet runs from the critical azimuthal angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle but slowly varying width is discussed. The pinning and de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle, and the corresponding situation involving the de-pinning and re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width at a non-zero contact angle which generalises the de-pinning at zero contact angle discussed earlier, are described. In the latter situation, the mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the constant width. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A fiber-optic technique for the measurement of contact angle in a clearance-fit pin-loaded hole

    Prabhakaran, R.; Naik, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A fiber-optic technique for measuring contact angle during pin loading of a specimen is proposed. The experimental design and procedures for loading a 49.8-mm-diameter instrumented pin into an quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy specimen are described. The optical fiber was located just above the surface of the pin outer diameter in order to obtain accurate pin-hole contact-angle measurements at increasing load levels. The movement of the optical fiber through the no-contact, contact, and no-contact regions is discussed; the photodiode output decreased monotonically as the fiber moved from the no-contact to the contact region and then decreased monotonically as the fiber moved from the contact region to the no-contact region. Variations in the contact angle measurements are examined as function of applied load level. The measurements are compared to contact angle values obtained using a finite element analysis and an electrical technique; it is determined that the data correlate well.

  5. Stokes flow inside an evaporating liquid line for any contact angle

    Petsi, A. J.; Burganos, V. N.

    2008-09-01

    Evaporation of droplets or liquid films lying on a substrate induces internal viscous flow, which affects the transport of suspended particles and, thus, the final deposit profile in numerous applications. In this work, the problem of Stokes flow inside a two-dimensional droplet, representing the cross section of an evaporating liquid line lying on a flat surface, is considered. The stream function formulation is adopted, leading to the biharmonic equation in bipolar coordinates. A solution in closed form is obtained for any contact angle in (0,π) and is, thus, valid for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. The solution can be used with any type of evaporation mechanism, including diffusion, convection, or kinetically controlled modes. Both pinned and depinned contact lines are considered. For the boundary conditions to be compatible at the contact lines, the Navier slip boundary condition is applied on the substrate. Numerical results are presented for kinetically and diffusion controlled evaporation. For pinned contact lines, the flow inside the evaporating liquid line is directed towards the edges, thus, promoting the coffee stain phenomenon. In the case of depinned contact lines and contact angle less than π/2 , the flow is directed towards the center of the droplet, whereas, for strongly hydrophobic substrates it is directed outwards.

  6. Segmental front line dynamics of randomly pinned ferroelastic domain walls

    Puchberger, S.; Soprunyuk, V.; Schranz, W.; Carpenter, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measurements as a function of temperature, frequency, and dynamic force amplitude are used to perform a detailed study of the domain wall motion in LaAlO3. In previous DMA measurements Harrison et al. [Phys. Rev. B 69, 144101 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.144101] found evidence for dynamic phase transitions of ferroelastic domain walls in LaAlO3. In the present work we focus on the creep-to-relaxation region of domain wall motion using two complementary methods. We determine, in addition to dynamic susceptibility data, waiting time distributions of strain jerks during slowly increasing stress. These strain jerks, which result from self-similar avalanches close to the depinning threshold, follow a power-law behavior with an energy exponent ɛ =1.7 ±0.1 . Also, the distribution of waiting times between events follows a power law N (tw) ∝tw-(n +1 ) with an exponent n =0.9 , which transforms to a power law of susceptibility S (ω ) ∝ω-n . The present dynamic susceptibility data can be well fitted with a power law, with the same exponent (n =0.9 ) up to a characteristic frequency ω ≈ω* , where a crossover from stochastic DW motion to the pinned regime is well described using the scaling function of Fedorenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 70, 224104 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.224104].

  7. Transport and contact-free investigation of REBCO thin film temperature dependent pinning landscapes

    Sinclair, John; Jaroszynski, Jan; Hu, Xinbo; Santos, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Studies of the pinning mechanisms and landscapes of REBa2Cu3Ox (RE=rare earth elements) thin films have been a topic of study in recent years due to, among other reasons, their ability to introduce nonsuperconducting phases and defects. Here we will focus on REBCO thin films with BaZrO3 nanocolumns and other isotropic defects. The evolution of the dominant pinning mechanisms seems to change as a function of temperature even to the point that samples with similar critical current density properties at high temperatures can have distinctly different properties at low temperatures. Earlier work focused on the angular selectivity of the current density profile, though other properties (such as alpha values) can evolve as well. Characteristic results accentuating this evolution of current density properties will be presented. Challenges exist in evaluating these low temperature properties in high magnetic fields, therefore both transport and contact-free results were be presented to compliment the work. Support for this work is provided by the NHMFL via NSF DRM 0654118.

  8. Pinning of a curved flux line by macroscopic inclusions in a type II superconductor

    Shehata, L.N.; Saif, A.G.

    1983-08-01

    The pinning force is calculated as a function of the distance between a curved (or straight) flux line and the centre of a macroscopic superconducting (or normal) ellipsoidal inclusion. When the ellipsoidal tends to a spherical inclusion the results agree with those previously obtained. (author)

  9. A three-dimensional full Stokes model of the grounding line dynamics: effect of a pinning point beneath the ice shelf

    L. Favier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The West Antarctic ice sheet is confined by a large area of ice shelves, fed by inland ice through fast flowing ice streams. The dynamics of the grounding line, which is the line-boundary between grounded ice and the downstream ice shelf, has a major influence on the dynamics of the whole ice sheet. However, most ice sheet models use simplifications of the flow equations, as they do not include all the stress components, and are known to fail in their representation of the grounding line dynamics. Here, we present a 3-D full Stokes model of a marine ice sheet, in which the flow problem is coupled with the evolution of the upper and lower free surfaces, and the position of the grounding line is determined by solving a contact problem between the shelf/sheet lower surface and the bedrock. Simulations are performed using the open-source finite-element code Elmer/Ice within a parallel environment. The model's ability to cope with a curved grounding line and the effect of a pinning point beneath the ice shelf are investigated through prognostic simulations. Starting from a steady state, the sea level is slightly decreased to create a contact point between a seamount and the ice shelf. The model predicts a dramatic decrease of the shelf velocities, leading to an advance of the grounding line until both grounded zones merge together, during which an ice rumple forms above the contact area at the pinning point. Finally, we show that once the contact is created, increasing the sea level to its initial value does not release the pinning point and has no effect on the ice dynamics, indicating a stabilising effect of pinning points.

  10. Nonthermal ice nucleation observed at distorted contact lines of supercooled water drops.

    Yang, Fan; Cruikshank, Owen; He, Weilue; Kostinski, Alex; Shaw, Raymond A

    2018-02-01

    Ice nucleation is the crucial step for ice formation in atmospheric clouds and therefore underlies climatologically relevant precipitation and radiative properties. Progress has been made in understanding the roles of temperature, supersaturation, and material properties, but an explanation for the efficient ice nucleation occurring when a particle contacts a supercooled water drop has been elusive for over half a century. Here, we explore ice nucleation initiated at constant temperature and observe that mechanical agitation induces freezing of supercooled water drops at distorted contact lines. Results show that symmetric motion of supercooled water on a vertically oscillating substrate does not freeze, no matter how we agitate it. However, when the moving contact line is distorted with the help of trace amounts of oil or inhomogeneous pinning on the substrate, freezing can occur at temperatures much higher than in a static droplet, equivalent to ∼10^{10} increase in nucleation rate. Several possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the observations. One plausible explanation among them, decreased pressure due to interface curvature, is explored theoretically and compared with the observational results quasiquantitatively. Indeed, the observed freezing-temperature increase scales with contact line speed in a manner consistent with the pressure hypothesis. Whatever the mechanism, the experiments demonstrate a strong preference for ice nucleation at three-phase contact lines compared to the two-phase interface, and they also show that movement and distortion of the contact line are necessary contributions to stimulating the nucleation process.

  11. Universality in dynamic wetting dominated by contact-line friction.

    Carlson, Andreas; Bellani, Gabriele; Amberg, Gustav

    2012-04-01

    We report experiments on the rapid contact-line motion present in the early stages of capillary-driven spreading of drops on dry solid substrates. The spreading data fail to follow a conventional viscous or inertial scaling. By integrating experiments and simulations, we quantify a contact-line friction μ(f) which is seen to limit the speed of the rapid dynamic wetting. A scaling based on this contact-line friction is shown to yield a universal curve for the evolution of the contact-line radius as a function of time, for a range of fluid viscosities, drop sizes, and surface wettabilities.

  12. Drop evaporation on superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces driven by contact line dynamics.

    Ramos, S M M; Dias, J F; Canut, B

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, we experimentally study the evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile drops of water on highly hydrophobic surfaces (contact angle ∼160°), heated to temperatures ranging between 40° and 70 °C. These surfaces were initially constructed by means of controlled tailoring of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The evaporation of droplets was observed to occur in three distinct phases, which were the same for the different substrate temperatures. The drops started to evaporate in the constant contact radius (CCR) mode, then switched to a more complex mode characterized by a set of stick-slip events accompanied by a decrease in contact angle, and finally shifted to a mixed mode in which the contact radius and contact angle decreased simultaneously until the drops had completely evaporated. It is shown that in the case of superhydrophobic surfaces, the energy barriers (per unit length) associated with the stick-slip motion of a drop ranges in the nJ m(-1) scale. Furthermore, analysis of the evaporation rates, determined from experimental data show that, even in the CCR mode, a linear relationship between V(2/3) and the evaporation time is verified. The values of the evaporation rate constants are found to be higher in the pinned contact line regime (the CCR mode) than in the moving contact line regime. This behavior is attributed to the drop's higher surface to volume ratio in the CCR mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wetting dynamics at high values of contact line speed

    Пономарев, К. О.; Феоктистов, Дмитрий Владимирович; Орлова, Евгения Георгиевна

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results analyses of dynamic contact angle change under the conditions of substrate wetting by distilled water at high values of the contact line speed was conducted. Three spreading modes for copper substrates with different roughness were selected: drop formation, spreading and equilibrium contact angle formation. Peculiarity of droplet spreading on superhydrophobic surface is found. It consists in a monotonic increase of the advancing dynamic contact angle. The effect of the dr...

  14. How and why discontinuous multiple-in-line-damage results in much higher Jc than continuous columnar pinning centres

    Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Sawh, Ravi; Mayes, Bill; Parks, Drew

    2006-01-01

    We review a recent experiment in which pinning centres, composed of discontinuous multiple-in-line damage (MILD), were compared to continuous columnar pinning centres (CCPCs). The methods used, results of the experiment, and the initial steps taken toward a phenomenological theory explaining the unusual results, are discussed. Experimental results show that MILD pinning centres, despite their reduced pinning potential, are far superior to CCPCs. Using MILD pinning, a new record J c has been achieved in large grain YBCO. The value of H irr (MILD) is comparable to, or larger, than H irr (CCPCs). Pinning effects alone, with no modification of texture, weak links or oxygenation of the YBCO, increase J c by as much as a factor of 17. Splay is expected to further increase this factor. The experimental dependence of J c on the energy lost by the ion per unit length is approximately reproduced by a phenomenological theory, including only the effects of diminished percolation, critical temperature, and pinning potential

  15. A contact angle hysteresis model based on the fractal structure of contact line.

    Wu, Shuai; Ma, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle is one of the most popular concept used in fields such as wetting, transport and microfludics. In practice, different contact angles such as equilibrium, receding and advancing contact angles are observed due to hysteresis. The connection among these contact angles is important in revealing the chemical and physical properties of surfaces related to wetting. Inspired by the fractal structure of contact line, we propose a single parameter model depicting the connection of the three angles. This parameter is decided by the fractal structure of the contact line. The results of this model agree with experimental observations. In certain cases, it can be reduced to other existing models. It also provides a new point of view in understanding the physical nature of the contact angle hysteresis. Interestingly, some counter-intuitive phenomena, such as the binary receding angles, are indicated in this model, which are waited to be validated by experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance test of Si PIN photodiode line scanner for thermal neutron detection

    Totsuka, Daisuke, E-mail: totsuka@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Nihon Kessho Kogaku Co., Ltd., 810-5 Nobe-cho Tatebayashi, Gunma 374-0047 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe) 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Tokuyama Corp., 3 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Pejchal, Jan [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6, 162-53 (Czech Republic); Yokota, Yuui [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe) 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-12-11

    Thermal neutron imaging using Si PIN photodiode line scanner and Eu-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} crystal scintillator has been developed. The pixel dimensions of photodiode are 1.18 mm (width) Multiplication-Sign 3.8 mm (length) with 0.4 mm gap and the module has 192 channels in linear array. The emission peaks of Eu-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} after thermal neutron excitation are placed at 370 and 590 nm, and the corresponding photon sensitivities of photodiode are 0.04 and 0.34 A/W, respectively. Polished scintillator blocks with a size of 1.18 mm (width) Multiplication-Sign 3.8 mm (length) Multiplication-Sign 5.0 mm (thickness) were wrapped by several layers of Teflon tapes as a reflector and optically coupled to the photodiodes by silicone grease. JRR-3 MUSASI beam line emitting 13.5 meV thermal neutrons with the flux of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2} s was used for the imaging test. As a subject for imaging, a Cd plate was moved at the speed of 50 mm/s perpendicular to the thermal neutron beam. Analog integration time was set to be 416.6 {mu}s, then signals were converted by a delta-sigma A/D converter. After the image processing, we successfully obtained moving Cd plate image under thermal neutron irradiation using PIN photodiode line scanner coupled with Eu-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillator.

  17. Performance test of Si PIN photodiode line scanner for thermal neutron detection

    Totsuka, Daisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Pejchal, Jan; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Thermal neutron imaging using Si PIN photodiode line scanner and Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 crystal scintillator has been developed. The pixel dimensions of photodiode are 1.18 mm (width)×3.8 mm (length) with 0.4 mm gap and the module has 192 channels in linear array. The emission peaks of Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 after thermal neutron excitation are placed at 370 and 590 nm, and the corresponding photon sensitivities of photodiode are 0.04 and 0.34 A/W, respectively. Polished scintillator blocks with a size of 1.18 mm (width)×3.8 mm (length)×5.0 mm (thickness) were wrapped by several layers of Teflon tapes as a reflector and optically coupled to the photodiodes by silicone grease. JRR-3 MUSASI beam line emitting 13.5 meV thermal neutrons with the flux of 8×10 5 n/cm 2 s was used for the imaging test. As a subject for imaging, a Cd plate was moved at the speed of 50 mm/s perpendicular to the thermal neutron beam. Analog integration time was set to be 416.6 μs, then signals were converted by a delta-sigma A/D converter. After the image processing, we successfully obtained moving Cd plate image under thermal neutron irradiation using PIN photodiode line scanner coupled with Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 scintillator.

  18. Multi-scale strategies for dealing with moving contact lines

    Smith, Edward R.; Theodorakis, Panagiotis; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) has great potential to elucidate the dynamics of the moving contact line. As a more fundamental model, it can provide a priori results for fluid-liquid interfaces, surface tension, viscosity, phase change, and near wall stick-slip behaviour which typically show very good agreement to experimental results. However, modelling contact line motion combines all this complexity in a single problem. In this talk, MD simulations of the contact line are compared to the experimental results obtained from studying the dynamics of a sheared liquid bridge. The static contact angles are correctly matched to the experimental data for a range of different electro-wetting results. The moving contact line results are then compared for each of these electro-wetting values. Despite qualitative agreement, there are notable differences between the simulation and experiments. Many MD simulation have studied contact lines, and the sheared liquid bridge, so it is of interest to review the limitations of this setup in light of this discrepancy. A number of factors are discussed, including the inter-molecular interaction model, molecular-scale surface roughness, model of electro-wetting and, perhaps most importantly, the limited system sizes possible using MD simulation. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  19. Using radio frequency and ultrasonic antennas for inspecting pin-type insulators on medium-voltage overhead distribution lines

    Cícero Lefort Borges

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the activities undertaken when using antennas (ultrasound and radiofrequency for identifying insulators in pre-failure state by detecting the noise emitted by the distribution line and correlating this with these insulators (porcelain pin type dielectric breakdown. This has led to developing low-cost maintenance procedures and providing support and criteria for engineer-ing decisions regarding replacing these insulators. The technique used two detectors; a radio frequency detector was used in a first investigation of a particular distribution line, set to 40 MHz and installed on the roof of a moving vehicle. The ultrasound detector was used for inspecting (phases A, B, C each structure (pole selected. Atmospheric conditions had no influence on defining pre-failure insulators (pin type based on the noise detection technique. Pin type insulators emitting noise should be replaced since measurement was made from the ground and near the base of the post.

  20. Numerical methods for two-phase flow with contact lines

    Walker, Clauido

    2012-07-01

    This thesis focuses on numerical methods for two-phase flows, and especially flows with a moving contact line. Moving contact lines occur where the interface between two fluids is in contact with a solid wall. At the location where both fluids and the wall meet, the common continuum descriptions for fluids are not longer valid, since the dynamics around such a contact line are governed by interactions at the molecular level. Therefore the standard numerical continuum models have to be adjusted to handle moving contact lines. In the main part of the thesis a method to manipulate the position and the velocity of a contact line in a two-phase solver, is described. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using an explicit finite difference method on a staggered grid. The position of the interface is tracked with the level set method and the discontinuities at the interface are treated in a sharp manner with the ghost fluid method. The contact line is tracked explicitly and its dynamics can be described by an arbitrary function. The key part of the procedure is to enforce a coupling between the contact line and the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the level set method. Results for different contact line models are presented and it is demonstrated that they are in agreement with analytical solutions or results reported in the literature.The presented Navier-Stokes solver is applied as a part in a multiscale method to simulate capillary driven flows. A relation between the contact angle and the contact line velocity is computed by a phase field model resolving the micro scale dynamics in the region around the contact line. The relation of the microscale model is then used to prescribe the dynamics of the contact line in the macro scale solver. This approach allows to exploit the scale separation between the contact line dynamics and the bulk flow. Therefore coarser meshes can be applied for the macro scale flow solver compared to global phase field simulations

  1. Vortex lines in layered superconductors. II. Pinning and critical currents in high temperature superconductors

    Manuel, P.

    1994-02-01

    In this article, a qualitative survey is given on the various phenomena which influence the critical current of high temperature superconductors. Critical current is defined as a property related to a non-zero electric field criterion, the level of which is fixed by experimental considerations, or efficiency requirements of applications. The presentation is restricted to extrinsic intragranular critical current, which depends in a complex way on the interplay between the characteristics of pinning centres and the properties of the vortex lattice. The discussion is focussed on the configuration {B} / / {c}, which contains the main elements of this problem. Differences of behaviour between Y(123) and BSCCO (Bi(2212) or Bi(2223)) are analysed in the context of their respective anisotropy factors. Possible regimes for pinning and creep are discussed in various temperature domains. From critical current results, a strong pinning regime is found to occur in BSCCO, whereas the pinning strength in Y(123) is still an open question. The thermal decrease of critical current allows a collective creep regime to appear in both materials, but at different temperature ranges. The disappearance of correlation effects near the irreversibility line results in a fall of the effective pinning energy. We show that in BSCCO, the effective pinning energy deduced from experimental results is not in agreement with pinning by randomly dispersed oxygen vacancies. Finally, we shortly describe the microstructures which could allow a more efficient pinning in future materials. On effectue une présentation qualitative des divers phénomènes qui contrôlent la valeur du courant critique dans les supraconducteurs à haute température. La notion de courant critique qui est utilisée est reliée à un critère de champ électrique non nul, fixé par des considérations expérimentales ou des exigences de rendement pour les applications. On se restreint au problème des courants critiques

  2. Direct measurement of friction of a fluctuating contact line.

    Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2013-07-12

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating (and slipping) contact line using a thin vertical glass fiber of diameter d with one end glued onto a cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity η, we find the friction coefficient of the contact line has a universal form, ξ(c)≃0.8πdη, independent of the liquid-solid contact angle. The obtained scaling law is further supported by the numerical simulation based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  3. Interfacial waves generated by electrowetting-driven contact line motion

    Ha, Jonghyun; Park, Jaebum; Kim, Yunhee; Shin, Bongsu; Bae, Jungmok; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-10-01

    The contact angle of a liquid-fluid interface can be effectively modulated by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technology. Rapid movement of the contact line can be achieved by swift changes of voltage at the electrodes, which can give rise to interfacial waves under the strong influence of surface tension. Here we experimentally demonstrate EWOD-driven interfacial waves of overlapping liquids and compare their wavelength and decay length with the theoretical results obtained by a perturbation analysis. Our theory also allows us to predict the temporal evolution of the interfacial profiles in either rectangular or cylindrical containers, as driven by slipping contact lines. This work builds a theoretical framework to understand and predict the dynamics of capillary waves of a liquid-liquid interface driven by EWOD, which has practical implications on optofluidic devices used to guide light.

  4. Vortex lattices in different configurations of periodic pinning line-arrays

    Lima, Clessio Leao S.; Cabral, Leonardo R.E.; Souza Silva, Clecio C. de; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2006-01-01

    The vortex lattice (VL) ground-state configurations are found using Monte Carlo (MC) simulated annealing with a local molecular dynamics (MD) in the London limit. We study the field dependence of the melting temperature for commensurate and incommensurate vortex lattices interacting with different periodic arrays of pinning. We also investigated the proliferation of topological defects and its dependence on the periodic pinning array symmetry and temperature

  5. High-speed railway lines. Fatigue of contact wires

    Avronsart, Stephane; Kalsbeek, Guido van [SNCF, La Plaine St. Denis (France); Mai, Si Hai; Massat, Jean Pierre; Nguyen-Tajan, Thi Mac-Lan [SNCF, Paris (France)

    2013-06-15

    With more than 30 years of operation of High-Speed Lines, SNCF has a large feedback on behaviour of components. Regarding the contact wire, the only operation of maintenance consists in measuring the thickness in order to estimate the remaining lifetime which in total is around 50 years. With such a long period of operation the question was raised on fatigue phenomena. The research project launched by SNCF on this topic in 2011 includes tests on copper material characteristics, modelling of the crack initiation and propagation and detection of cracks on the contact wire. The result of this research project could lead to request for changes in EN 50149 by introducing new material characteristic parameters for contact wire related to fatigue. (orig.)

  6. Interaction of pantographs and contact lines at Shinkansen

    Ikeda, Mitsuru; Uzuka, Tetsuo [Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Tokaido Shinkansen started service between Tokyo and Osaka in 1964. Today, the Shinkansen network comprises 2388 km of lines. The Shinkansen pantograph/contact line system was continuously developed in response to changes in the conditions surrounding railways. Today, there are several unique features. The Auto-transformer feeding system with changeover sections permits electrical connection between pantographs. The Shinkansen train sets are equipped with two pantographs with electrical connection in general. Since due to the electrical connection of pantographs which avoids intense arcing, the mean contact force can be kept low leading to a highly reliable design without serious troubles caused by fatigue. New pantographs achieve very low noise performance, helping the system to be environmental friendly. Today, the Shinkansen network provides stable operation whereby the achievements reported hereafter were implemented. (orig.)

  7. Contact pin-printing of albumin-fungicide conjugate for silicon nitride-based sensors biofunctionalization: Multi-technique surface analysis for optimum immunoassay performance

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.gajos@doctoral.uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza, 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza, 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Tsialla, Zoi; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St., Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil; Dąbczyński, Paweł [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza, 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza, 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St., Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St., Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Contact pin-printing of overlapping probe spots and spotting by hand are compared. • Contact pin-printing favors probe immobilization with two-fold higher surface density. • Incomplete monolayer develops to bilayer as printing solution concentration increases. • Blocking molecules complete probe monolayer but reduce probe bilayer. • Surface immunoreaction increases with probe concentration in printing solution. - Abstract: Mass fabrication of integrated biosensors on silicon chips is facilitated by contact pin-printing, applied for biofunctionalization of individual Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based transducers at wafer-scale. To optimize the biofunctionalization for immunochemical (competitive) detection of fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ), Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces are modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and examined after: immobilization of BSA-TBZ conjugate (probe) from solutions with different concentration, blocking with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and immunoreaction with a mouse monoclonal antibody against TBZ. Nanostructure, surface density, probe composition and coverage uniformity of protein layers are evaluated with Atomic Force Microscopy, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Contact pin-printing of overlapping probe spots is compared with hand spotted areas. Contact pin-printing resulted in two-fold increase of immobilized probe surface density as compared to hand spotting. Regarding BSA-TBZ immobilization, an incomplete monolayer develops into a bilayer as the concentration of BSA-TBZ molecules in the printing solution increases from 25 to 100 μg/mL. Upon blocking, however, a complete protein monolayer is formed for all the BSA-TBZ concentrations used. Free surface sites are filled with BSA for low surface coverage with BSA-TBZ, whereas loosely bound BSA-TBZ molecules are removed from the BSA-TBZ bilayer. As a consequence immunoreaction efficiency

  8. Correlating contact line capillarity and dynamic contact angle hysteresis in surfactant-nanoparticle based complex fluids

    Harikrishnan, A. R.; Dhar, Purbarun; Agnihotri, Prabhat K.; Gedupudi, Sateesh; Das, Sarit K.

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic wettability and contact angle hysteresis can be correlated to shed insight onto any solid-liquid interaction. Complex fluids are capable of altering the expected hysteresis and dynamic wetting behavior due to interfacial interactions. We report the effect of capillary number on the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of surfactant-based nanocolloidal solutions on hydrophilic, near hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces by performing forced wetting and de-wetting experiments by employing the embedded needle method. A segregated study is performed to infer the contributing effects of the constituents and effects of particle morphology. The static contact angle hysteresis is found to be a function of particle and surfactant concentrations and greatly depends on the nature of the morphology of the particles. An order of estimate of line energy and a dynamic flow parameter called spreading factor and the transient variations of these parameters are explored which sheds light on the dynamics of contact line movement and response to perturbation of three-phase contact. The Cox-Voinov-Tanner law was found to hold for hydrophilic and a weak dependency on superhydrophobic surfaces with capillary number, and even for the complex fluids, with a varying degree of dependency for different fluids.

  9. Planning of overhead contact lines and simulation of the pantograph running; Oberleitungsplanung und Simulation des Stromabnehmerlaufes

    Hofbauer, Gerhard [ALPINE-ENERGIE Oesterreich GmbH, Linz (Austria); Hofbauer, Werner

    2009-07-01

    Using the software FLTG all planning steps for overhead contact lines can be carried out based on the parameters of the contact line type and the line data. Contact line supports and individual spans are presented graphically. The geometric interaction of pantograph and contact line can be simulated taking into account the pantograph type, its sway and the wind action. Thus, the suitability of a line for the interoperability of the transEuropean rail system can be demonstrated. (orig.)

  10. Contact pin-printing of albumin-fungicide conjugate for silicon nitride-based sensors biofunctionalization: Multi-technique surface analysis for optimum immunoassay performance

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Budkowski, Andrzej; Tsialla, Zoi; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Dąbczyński, Paweł; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2017-07-01

    Mass fabrication of integrated biosensors on silicon chips is facilitated by contact pin-printing, applied for biofunctionalization of individual Si3N4-based transducers at wafer-scale. To optimize the biofunctionalization for immunochemical (competitive) detection of fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ), Si3N4 surfaces are modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and examined after: immobilization of BSA-TBZ conjugate (probe) from solutions with different concentration, blocking with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and immunoreaction with a mouse monoclonal antibody against TBZ. Nanostructure, surface density, probe composition and coverage uniformity of protein layers are evaluated with Atomic Force Microscopy, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Contact pin-printing of overlapping probe spots is compared with hand spotted areas. Contact pin-printing resulted in two-fold increase of immobilized probe surface density as compared to hand spotting. Regarding BSA-TBZ immobilization, an incomplete monolayer develops into a bilayer as the concentration of BSA-TBZ molecules in the printing solution increases from 25 to 100 μg/mL. Upon blocking, however, a complete protein monolayer is formed for all the BSA-TBZ concentrations used. Free surface sites are filled with BSA for low surface coverage with BSA-TBZ, whereas loosely bound BSA-TBZ molecules are removed from the BSA-TBZ bilayer. As a consequence immunoreaction efficiency increases with the printing probe concentration.

  11. Contact angle hysteresis on doubly periodic smooth rough surfaces in Wenzel's regime: The role of the contact line depinning mechanism.

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Iliev, Pavel

    2018-04-01

    We report here on the contact angle hysteresis, appearing when a liquid meniscus is in contact with doubly sinusoidal wavelike patterned surfaces in Wenzel's wetting regime. Using the full capillary model we obtain numerically the contact angle hysteresis as a function of the surface roughness factor and the equilibrium contact angle for a block case and a kink case contact line depinning mechanism. We find that the dependencies of the contact angle hysteresis on the surface roughness factor are different for the different contact line depinning mechanisms. These dependencies are different also for the two types of rough surfaces we studied. The relations between advancing, receding, and equilibrium contact angles are investigated. A comparison with the existing asymptotical, numerical, and experimental results is carried out.

  12. Contact lines are unstable even under non-splashing droplets

    Pack, Min; Kaneelil, Paul; Sun, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Drop impact is fundamental to natural and industrial processes such as rain-induced soil erosion and spray coating technologies. In this study, we elucidate the interfacial instabilities formed by air entrainment at the wetting front of impacting droplets on atomically smooth, viscous silicone oil films of constant thickness with varying droplet velocity, viscosity, surface tension, and ambient pressures. A high-speed total internal reflection microscopy technique accounting for the Fresnel relations at the droplet interface allowed for in-situ measurements of an entrained air rim at the wetting front. The growth of the air rim is a prerequisite to the instability which is formed when the gas pressure balances the capillary pressure near the wetting front. A critical capillary number, which inversely scales as the ambient pressure, is predicted and the result agrees well with the experiments. The wavenumber in the instability is shown to increase with viscosity and velocity but decrease with surface tension of the impacting drop. We thus conclude that the instability mechanism is in qualitative agreement with the Saffman-Taylor instability - where the low viscosity air is displacing the higher viscosity droplet. The low We contact line instabilities observed in this study provide a paradigm shift in the conventional understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities under drop impact which usually require We >>10.

  13. Dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics.

    Yu, Dong In; Kwak, Ho Jae; Doh, Seung Woo; Ahn, Ho Seon; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2015-02-17

    For several decades, evaporation phenomena have been intensively investigated for a broad range of applications. However, the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation has only been inductively inferred on the basis of experimental data and remains unclear. This study focuses on the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics. Considering the decrease in the Gibbs free energy of a system with different evaporation modes, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the receding contact angle during contact line depinning as a function of surface conditions. Comparison of experimentally measured and theoretically modeled receding contact angles indicated that the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation was caused by the most favorable thermodynamic process encountered during constant contact radius (CCR mode) and constant contact angle (CCA mode) evaporation to rapidly reach an equilibrium state during droplet evaporation.

  14. Molecular dynamics study of the nanosized droplet spreading: The effect of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation

    Yoon, Hong Min; Kondaraju, Sasidhar; Lee, Jung Shin; Suh, Youngho; Lee, Joonho H.; Lee, Joon Sang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Contact line forces, including friction and spreading forces are directly calculated. • Overall trends of variations in contact line forces during droplet spreading process show characteristics of contact line forces. • Detail relations of contact line forces and atomic kinetics in the contact line provide a clear evidence of the possible energy dissipation mechanism in droplet spreading process. - Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that contact line forces play an important role in the droplet spreading process. Despite their significance, the physics related to them has been studied only indirectly and the effect of contact line forces is still being disputed. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and mimicked the droplet spreading process at the nanoscale. Based on the results of the simulation, the contact line forces were directly calculated. We found that the forces acting on the bulk and the contact line region showed different trends. Distinct positive and negative forces, contact line spreading, and friction forces were observed near the contact line. We also observed a strong dependency of the atomic kinetics in the contact line region on the variations in the contact line forces. The atoms of the liquid in the contact line region lost their kinetic energy due to the contact line friction force and became partially immobile on the solid surface. The results of the current study will be useful for understanding the role of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation in the contact line region.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of the nanosized droplet spreading: The effect of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation

    Yoon, Hong Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kondaraju, Sasidhar [Department of Mechanical Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751013 (India); Lee, Jung Shin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Youngho; Lee, Joonho H. [Samsung Electronics, Mechatronics R& D Center, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 445-330 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Sang, E-mail: joonlee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Contact line forces, including friction and spreading forces are directly calculated. • Overall trends of variations in contact line forces during droplet spreading process show characteristics of contact line forces. • Detail relations of contact line forces and atomic kinetics in the contact line provide a clear evidence of the possible energy dissipation mechanism in droplet spreading process. - Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that contact line forces play an important role in the droplet spreading process. Despite their significance, the physics related to them has been studied only indirectly and the effect of contact line forces is still being disputed. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and mimicked the droplet spreading process at the nanoscale. Based on the results of the simulation, the contact line forces were directly calculated. We found that the forces acting on the bulk and the contact line region showed different trends. Distinct positive and negative forces, contact line spreading, and friction forces were observed near the contact line. We also observed a strong dependency of the atomic kinetics in the contact line region on the variations in the contact line forces. The atoms of the liquid in the contact line region lost their kinetic energy due to the contact line friction force and became partially immobile on the solid surface. The results of the current study will be useful for understanding the role of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation in the contact line region.

  16. Flow topology adjacent to a fast moving contact line

    Royon, A.; Ehrhard, P.

    2001-10-01

    Coating processes are commonly used in industry. In the present report the physical mechanisms involved in such wetting phenomena are investigated (a) by a numerical and (b) by an experimental approach in a plane section perpendicular to the contact line. The problem relates to a tape plunging vertically into a pool of two immiscible fluids. The equations and boundary conditions describing the problem are treated in non-dimensional form. Several simplifications are introduced to obtain a first approximative solution to the problem. The relevant parameters are the viscosity ratio V V , the density ratio D V and the Reynolds number of the heavy fluid, Re 1 . By a variation of the viscosity ratio or of the Reynolds number we demonstrate the existence of three typical flow structures: (1) stagnation point streamline in the light fluid, (2) stagnation point streamline in the heavy fluid or (3) transition flow with stagnation point streamlines in both fluids. The structure changes continuously from a complex flow in the light fluid to a complex flow in the heavy fluid by an increase of the viscosity ratio or by an increase of the Reynolds number in the heavy fluid. The mechanisms of the transitions, involving a thickening of the viscous boundary layer and inertial effects, are discussed in detail. The solution only weakly depends on the density ratio. In the experiment a PE-tape plunges into a pool of (a) silicone oil M1000 and air, (b) water and silicone oil M50 or (c) water and silicone oil M10. The experimental investigations confirm the existence of the two limit structures, namely a stagnation point streamline in air for the combination (a) or a stagnation point streamline in water for the combination (b). Even the transition from one flow structure to the other is observed with an increase of the Reynolds number for the combination (c). (orig.)

  17. Contact wire positions and contact forces. Measurements at high-speed lines in China; Fahrdrahtlage und Kontaktkraefte. Messungen an Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in China

    Heland, Joerg; Rick, Frank; Sarnes, Bernhard [DB Systemtechnik GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Puschmann, Rainer [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Infrastructure and Cities

    2012-07-15

    The reliable energy transmission from overhead contact line to pantograph of traction units without interruption decides on the successful operation of high-speed railway lines. Measurements of contact wire position and contact forces are suited to assess interaction of overhead contact line and pantograph. Chinese Railways actually implement the biggest electrification program for high-speed lines worldwide. For these projects contact wire position and contact forces are monitored by procedures developed in Germany. The experience confirms that keeping the contact wire position within the specified limits lead to a superior energy transmission up to 350 km/h. (orig.)

  18. Drop deposition on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis: Liquid-bridge stability and breakup

    Akbari, Amir; Hill, Reghan J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on a surface with contact-angle hysteresis under zero-gravity conditions. Theoretical predictions of the stability limits are validated by experimental measurements. Experiments are conducted in a water-methanol-silicon oil system where the gravity force is offset by buoyancy. We highlight cases where stability is lost during the transition from a pinned-pinned to pinned-free interface when the receding contact angl...

  19. The investigation of contact line effect on nanosized droplet wetting behavior with solid temperature condition

    Haegon, Lee; Joonsang, Lee

    2017-11-01

    In many multi-phase fluidic systems, there are essentially contact interfaces including liquid-vapor, liquid-solid, and solid-vapor phase. There is also a contact line where these three interfaces meet. The existence of these interfaces and contact lines has a considerable impact on the nanoscale droplet wetting behavior. However, recent studies have shown that Young's equation does not accurately represent this behavior at the nanoscale. It also emphasized the importance of the contact line effect.Therefore, We performed molecular dynamics simulation to imitate the behavior of nanoscale droplets with solid temperature condition. And we find the effect of solid temperature on the contact line motion. Furthermore, We figure out the effect of contact line force on the wetting behavior of droplet according to the different solid temperature condition. With solid temperature condition variation, the magnitude of contact line friction decreases significantly. We also divide contact line force by effect of bulk liquid, interfacial tension, and solid surface. This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1A5A1037668) and BrainKorea21plus.

  20. Charge transfer and partial pinning at the contacts as the origin of a double dip in the transfer characteristics of graphene-based field-effect transistors

    Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Giubileo, Filippo; Santandrea, Salvatore; Romeo, Francesco; Citro, Roberta; Schroeder, Thomas; Lupina, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the origin of an additional dip other than the charge neutrality point observed in the transfer characteristics of graphene-based field-effect transistors with a Si/SiO 2 substrate used as the back-gate. The double dip is proved to arise from charge transfer between the graphene and the metal electrodes, while charge storage at the graphene/SiO 2 interface can make it more evident. Considering a different Fermi energy from the neutrality point along the channel and partial charge pinning at the contacts, we propose a model which explains all the features observed in the gate voltage loops. We finally show that the double dip enhanced hysteresis in the transfer characteristics can be exploited to realize graphene-based memory devices.

  1. Modified fixation with pinning and external fixation components for feline femur multiple-lined fracture: A case report

    Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S.; Matuhashi, A.

    1992-01-01

    A 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat, weighing 3kg, was referred to us because of right hind leg lameness occuring for 3 days' duration. Radiography of the affected leg revealed severe femoral diaphysial comminuted fracture. The affected leg was treated using wire with an intramedullary Stainman pin being placed completely through the femur. After suturing the wound, both ends of the intramedullary pin exposed both proximally and distally were fixed with external fixation components (two double clamps, two single clamps, two short rods and one long rod) to prevent the pin from rotation. There was a slight gait problem due to the external apparatus and no post-operative infection. The function of the right hind leg gradually recovered. The intramedullary pin and external fixative apparatus were removed on the 52nd day after surgery. This modified fixation appears to offer versatility in the treatment of various fractures in smaller dogs and cats

  2. Contact line motion in confined liquid–gas systems: Slip versus phase transition

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2010-01-01

    -slip boundary condition, as the latter leads to a nonintegrable stress singularity. Recently, various diffuse-interface models have been proposed to explain the contact line motion using mechanisms missing from the sharp-interface treatments in fluid mechanics

  3. Pin fin compliant heat sink with enhanced flexibility

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2018-04-10

    Heat sinks and methods of using the same include a top and bottom plate, at least one of which has a plurality of pin contacts flexibly connected to one another, where the plurality of pin contacts have vertical and lateral flexibility with respect to one another; and pin slice layers, each having multiple pin slices, arranged vertically between the top and bottom plates such that the plurality of pin slices form substantially vertical pins connecting the top and bottom plates.

  4. Pin care

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Pin care URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000481.htm Pin care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Broken bones can be fixed in surgery with metal ...

  5. Moving contact lines: linking molecular dynamics and continuum-scale modelling.

    Smith, Edward R; Theodorakis, Panagiotis E; Craster, Richard V; Matar, Omar K

    2018-05-04

    Despite decades of research, the modelling of moving contact lines has remained a formidable challenge in fluid dynamics whose resolution will impact numerous industrial, biological, and daily-life applications. On the one hand, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has the ability to provide unique insight into the microscopic details that determine the dynamic behavior of the contact line, which is not possible with either continuum-scale simulations or experiments. On the other hand, continuum-based models provide the link to the macroscopic description of the system. In this Feature Article, we explore the complex range of physical factors, including the presence of surfactants, which govern the contact line motion through MD simulations. We also discuss links between continuum- and molecular-scale modelling, and highlight the opportunities for future developments in this area.

  6. The Communication System using One Communication Line during a Physical Contact

    平田, 隆幸; 大場, 公隆

    2009-01-01

    The communication system during a physical contact for swarm robots was modified. An algorithm for the contact communication system using one communication line was proposed. Although we don't aim to make the perfect communication system free from a miss in data transmission, the success rate of communication is an important factor for the design of communication system. We tested the performance of of our modified communication system. The success rate of communication was considerably impro...

  7. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  8. Numerical study on the stick-slip motion of contact line moving on heterogeneous surfaces

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Xiao-Peng

    2017-08-01

    We present a numerical study of a moving contact line (CL) crossing the intersecting region of hydrophilic and hydrophobic patterns on a solid wall using lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs). To capture the interface between the two phases properly, we applied a phase field model coupled with the LBM. The evolutions of the CL velocity, dynamic contact angle, and apparent contact angle are analyzed for the so-called "stick" and "slip" processes. In the two processes, the evolution of the quantities follows different rules shortly after the initial quick transition, which is probably caused by finite interfacial thickness or non-equilibrium effects. For the stick process, the CL is almost fixed and energy is extracted from the main flow to rebuild the meniscus' profile. The evolution of the meniscus is mainly governed by mass conservation. The CL is depinned after the apparent contact angle surpasses the dynamic one, which implies that the interfacial segment in the vicinity of contact line is bended. For the slip process, the quantities evolve with features of relaxation. In the microscopic scale, the velocity of the CL depends on the balance between unbalanced Young's capillary force and viscous drag. To predict the apparent contact angle evolution, a model following the dynamics of an overdamped spring-mass system is proposed. Our results also show that the capillary flows in a channel with heterogeneous wall can be described generally with the Poiseuille flow superimposed by the above transient one.

  9. Contact Lens Care

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative Contact ...

  10. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    Alimov, Mars M. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Kornev, Konstantin G. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade.

  11. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    Alimov, Mars M.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2016-01-01

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade

  12. Obtaining macroscopic quantities for the contact line problem from Density Functional Theory using asymptotic methods

    Sibley, David; Nold, Andreas; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2015-11-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT), a statistical mechanics of fluids approach, captures microscopic details of the fluid density structure in the vicinity of contact lines, as seen in computations in our recent study. Contact lines describe the location where interfaces between two fluids meet solid substrates, and have stimulated a wealth of research due to both their ubiquity in nature and technological applications and also due to their rich multiscale behaviour. Whilst progress can be made computationally to capture the microscopic to mesoscopic structure from DFT, complete analytical results to fully bridge to the macroscale are lacking. In this work, we describe our efforts to bring asymptotic methods to DFT to obtain results for contact angles and other macroscopic quantities in various parameter regimes. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  13. Contact line motion in confined liquid–gas systems: Slip versus phase transition

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2010-11-30

    In two-phase flows, the interface intervening between the two fluid phases intersects the solid wall at the contact line. A classical problem in continuum fluid mechanics is the incompatibility between the moving contact line and the no-slip boundary condition, as the latter leads to a nonintegrable stress singularity. Recently, various diffuse-interface models have been proposed to explain the contact line motion using mechanisms missing from the sharp-interface treatments in fluid mechanics. In one-component two-phase (liquid–gas) systems, the contact line can move through the mass transport across the interface while in two-component (binary) fluids, the contact line can move through diffusive transport across the interface. While these mechanisms alone suffice to remove the stress singularity, the role of fluid slip at solid surface needs to be taken into account as well. In this paper, we apply the diffuse-interface modeling to the study of contact line motion in one-component liquid–gas systems, with the fluid slip fully taken into account. The dynamic van der Waals theory has been presented for one-component fluids, capable of describing the two-phase hydrodynamics involving the liquid–gas transition [A. Onuki, Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)]. This theory assumes the local equilibrium condition at the solid surface for density and also the no-slip boundary condition for velocity. We use its hydrodynamicequations to describe the continuum hydrodynamics in the bulk region and derive the more general boundary conditions by introducing additional dissipative processes at the fluid–solid interface. The positive definiteness of entropy production rate is the guiding principle of our derivation. Numerical simulations based on a finite-difference algorithm have been carried out to investigate the dynamic effects of the newly derived boundary conditions, showing that the contact line can move through both phase transition and slip, with their relative

  14. Vorticity dipoles and a theoretical model of a finite force at the moving contact line singularity

    Zhang, Peter; Devoria, Adam; Mohseni, Kamran

    2017-11-01

    In the well known works of Moffatt (1964) and Huh & Scriven (1971), an infinite force was reported at the moving contact line (MCL) and attributed to a non-integrable stress along the fluid-solid boundary. In our recent investigation of the boundary driven wedge, a model of the MCL, we find that the classical solution theoretically predicts a finite force at the contact line if the forces applied by the two boundaries that make up the corner are taken into consideration. Mathematically, this force can be obtained by the complex contour integral of the holomorphic vorticity-pressure function given by G = μω + ip . Alternatively, this force can also be found using a carefully defined real integral that incorporates the two boundaries. Motivated by this discovery, we have found that the rate of change in circulation, viscous energy dissipation, and viscous energy flux is also finite per unit contact line length. The analysis presented demonstrates that despite a singular stress and a relatively simple geometry, the no-slip semi-infinite wedge is capable of capturing some physical quantities of interest. Furthermore, this result provides a foundation for other challenging topics such as dynamic contact angle.

  15. Improved pinning regime by energetic ions using reduction of pinning potential

    Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Mayes, Bill

    2003-05-15

    When ion damage is used to create pinning centers, full columnar pinning centers provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinned field, B{sub pin}. Some of the characteristics of columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centers are limited to B{sub pin}<4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. Evidence is reviewed that aligned damage, or broken-columnar pinning centers, described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c}, and higher pinned field, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. A pinning center morphology is discussed which utilizes multiple-in-line-damage (MILD). For, e.g., present day large grain HTS J{sub c}, obtainable by MILD pinning, is estimated to be of the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. Pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these observations, and to directly compare MILD to columnar pinning centers. It will also determine the optimum MILD structure. Other measurements of interest, made possible by the same data set, are described.

  16. Effects on Jc of Pinning Center Morphology for Multiple-in-Line-Damage in Coated Conductor and Bulk, Melt-Textured HTS

    Weinstein, R. [University of Houston, Houston; Parks, D. [University of Houston, Houston; Sawh, R.-P. [University of Houston, Houston; Mayes, B. [University of Houston, Houston; Gandini, A. [University of Houston, Houston; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Chen, Y. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2009-01-01

    The properties of discontinuous aligned pinning centers (PCs) created by high-energy heavy-ions are compared for bulk melt-textured and coated conductor HTS. Properties of PCs, which increase J{sub c} (pinning potential and entanglement), and negative properties which decrease J{sub c} (e.g., decreased T{sub c} and percolation paths) are evaluated. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the very large increases in J{sub c} resulting from multiple-in-line-damage (MILD) compared to continuous columnar pinning centers (CCPC). In particular, a mechanism which results in fluxoid entanglement, even for parallel (unsplayed) PCs, is discussed. The same mechanism is found to also account for restoration of much of the pinning potential expected to be lost due to the gaps in MILD PCs. It also accounts for the fact that at high fluence, J{sub c} increases as fluence is increased, instead of decreasing as expected. The very low self-field in coated conductor permits separation of the negative and positive effects of PCs. It is found that parameters developed to quantify the negative effects in bulk melt-textured YBCO, by 63 GeV U{sup 238} ions, successfully describe damage to 2.1 {micro}m thick coated conductor by 1 GeV Ru{sup 44} ions. Coated conductor at 77 K and self-field is generally known to have J{sub c} about 100 times that of melt-textured YBCO. However, at 77 K and applied field of 1 T, when both forms of HTS are processed with comparable numbers of near-optimum MILD PCs, the difference in J{sub c} is reduced to a factor of 1.3-2. Whereas J{sub c} for melt-textured YBCO increased sharply, by a factor of up to 16.8 for high-fluence MILD PCs, J{sub c} in coated conductor increased by a smaller factor of 2.5-3.0. Nevertheless, 2.1 {micro}m thick coated conductor, with near-optimum MILD PCs, exhibits J{sub c} = 543 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and applied field of 1.0 T, and I{sub c} = 114 A/cm-width of conductor. This is the highest value we find in the literature. The

  17. Effects on Jc of pinning center morphology for multiple-in-line-damage in coated conductor and bulk, melt-textured HTS

    Weinstein, R.; Parks, D.; Sawh, R.-P.; Mayes, B.; Gandini, A.; Goyal, A.; Chen, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of discontinuous aligned pinning centers (PCs) created by high-energy heavy-ions are compared for bulk melt-textured and coated conductor HTS. Properties of PCs, which increase J c (pinning potential and entanglement), and negative properties which decrease J c (e.g., decreased T c and percolation paths) are evaluated. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the very large increases in J c resulting from multiple-in-line-damage (MILD) compared to continuous columnar pinning centers (CCPC). In particular, a mechanism which results in fluxoid entanglement, even for parallel (unsplayed) PCs, is discussed. The same mechanism is found to also account for restoration of much of the pinning potential expected to be lost due to the gaps in MILD PCs. It also accounts for the fact that at high fluence, J c increases as fluence is increased, instead of decreasing as expected. The very low self-field in coated conductor permits separation of the negative and positive effects of PCs. It is found that parameters developed to quantify the negative effects in bulk melt-textured YBCO, by 63 GeV U 238 ions, successfully describe damage to 2.1 μm thick coated conductor by 1 GeV Ru 44 ions. Coated conductor at 77 K and self-field is generally known to have J c about 100 times that of melt-textured YBCO. However, at 77 K and applied field of 1 T, when both forms of HTS are processed with comparable numbers of near-optimum MILD PCs, the difference in J c is reduced to a factor of 1.3-2. Whereas J c for melt-textured YBCO increased sharply, by a factor of up to 16.8 for high-fluence MILD PCs, J c in coated conductor increased by a smaller factor of 2.5-3.0. Nevertheless, 2.1 μm thick coated conductor, with near-optimum MILD PCs, exhibits J c = 543 kA/cm 2 at 77 K and applied field of 1.0 T, and I c = 114 A/cm-width of conductor. This is the highest value we find in the literature. The phenomenology developed indicates that for optimum MILD PCs in coated conductor, J c ∼ 700

  18. Droplets and the three-phase contact line at the nano-scale. Statics and dynamics

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Sibley, David; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the behaviour of the solid-liquid-vapour contact line at the scale of several tens of molecular diameters is important in wetting hydrodynamics with applications in micro- and nano-fluidics, including the design of lab-on-a-chip devices and surfaces with specific wetting properties. Due to the fluid inhomogeneity at the nano-scale, the application of continuum-mechanical approaches is limited, and a natural way to remedy this is to seek descriptions accounting for the non-local molecular-level interactions. Density Functional Theory (DFT) for fluids offers a statistical-mechanical framework based on expressing the free energy of the fluid-solid pair as a functional of the spatially varying fluid density. DFT allows us to investigate small drops deposited on planar substrates whilst keeping track of the microscopic structural details of the fluid. Starting from a model of intermolecular forces, we systematically obtain interfaces, surface tensions, and the microscopic contact angle. Using a dynamic extension of equilibrium DFT, we investigate the diffusion-driven evolution of the three-phase contact line to gain insight into the dynamic behaviour of the microscopic contact angle, which is still under debate.

  19. A finite-element model for moving contact line problems in immiscible two-phase flow

    Kucala, Alec

    2017-11-01

    Accurate modeling of moving contact line (MCL) problems is imperative in predicting capillary pressure vs. saturation curves, permeability, and preferential flow paths for a variety of applications, including geological carbon storage (GCS) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The macroscale movement of the contact line is dependent on the molecular interactions occurring at the three-phase interface, however most MCL problems require resolution at the meso- and macro-scale. A phenomenological model must be developed to account for the microscale interactions, as resolving both the macro- and micro-scale would render most problems computationally intractable. Here, a model for the moving contact line is presented as a weak forcing term in the Navier-Stokes equation and applied directly at the location of the three-phase interface point. The moving interface is tracked with the level set method and discretized using the conformal decomposition finite element method (CDFEM), allowing for the surface tension and the wetting model to be computed at the exact interface location. A variety of verification test cases for simple two- and three-dimensional geometries are presented to validate the current MCL model, which can exhibit grid independence when a proper scaling for the slip length is chosen. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  20. Happy Pinning

    Fausing, Bent

    2012-01-01

    This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...

  1. Measurement of contact-line dissipation in a nanometer-thin soap film.

    Guo, Shuo; Lee, Chun Huen; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient ξ(c) of two fluctuating contact lines formed on a fiber surface when a long glass fiber intersects the two water-air interfaces of a thin soap film. The glass fiber of diameter d in the range of 0.4-4 μm and length 100-300 μm is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever used for atomic force microscopy. As a sensitive mechanical resonator, the hanging fiber probe can accurately measure a minute change of its viscous damping caused by the soap film. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the hanging fiber probe with varying viscosity η of the soap film and different surface treatments of the glass fiber, we confirm that the contact line dissipation obeys a universal scaling law, ξ(c)=απdη, where the coefficient α=1.1±0.3 is insensitive to the change of liquid-solid contact angle. The experimental result is in good agreement with the numerical result based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  2. Visualization of the contact line during the water exit of flat plates

    Tassin, A.; Breton, T.; Forest, B.; Ohana, J.; Chalony, S.; Le Roux, D.; Tancray, A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate experimentally the time evolution of the wetted surface during the lifting of a body initially floating at the water surface. This phenomenon is referred to as the water exit problem. The water exit experiments were conducted with transparent (PMMA) mock-ups of two different shapes: a circular disc and a square flat plate. Two different lighting systems were used to diffuse light in the mock-up material: a central high-power LED light normal to the surface and an edge-lighting system featuring an array of LED lights. These setups make it possible to illuminate the contact line, which delimits the surface of contact between the mock-up and the water. The characteristic size of the mock-ups is about 20 cm and the acceleration of the mock-up oscillates between 0 and 25 m/s^2. We show that the central light setup gives satisfactory results for the circular disc and that the edge lighting technique makes it possible to follow a contact line with a time-evolving complex shape (strong changes of convexity) up to 1000 fps. The observations presented in the paper support the possibility of extending this promising technique to more general three-dimensional bodies with arbitrary motion (e.g., including pitch motion).

  3. Modeling and simulations for molecular scale hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in immiscible two-phase flows

    Qian, Tiezheng

    2009-10-29

    This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Real-Time Dynamic Observation of Micro-Friction on the Contact Interface of Friction Lining

    Zhang, Dekun; Chen, Kai; Guo, Yongbo

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the microscopic friction mechanism based on in situ microscopic observation in order to record the deformation and contact situation of friction lining during the frictional process. The results show that friction coefficient increased with the shear deformation and energy loss of the surfacee, respectively. Furthermore, the friction mechanism mainly included adhesive friction in the high-pressure and high-speed conditions, whereas hysteresis friction was in the low-pressure and low-speed conditions. The mixed-friction mechanism was in the period when the working conditions varied from high pressure and speed to low pressure and speed. PMID:29498677

  5. Modeling and simulations for molecular scale hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in immiscible two-phase flows

    Qian, Tiezheng; Wu, Congmin; Lei, Siu Long; Wang, Xiao Ping; Sheng, Ping

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line

  6. A fully discrete energy stable scheme for a phase filed moving contact line model with variable densities and viscosities

    Zhu, Guangpu; Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu; Yao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation

  7. Contact Line Instability Caused by Air Rim Formation under Nonsplashing Droplets.

    Pack, Min; Kaneelil, Paul; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Sun, Ying

    2018-05-01

    Drop impact is fundamental to various natural and industrial processes such as rain-induced soil erosion and spray-coating technologies. The recent discovery of the role of air entrainment between the droplet and the impacting surface has produced numerous works, uncovering the unique physics that correlates the air film dynamics with the drop impact outcomes. In this study, we focus on the post-failure air entrainment dynamics for We numbers well below the splash threshold under different ambient pressures and elucidate the interfacial instabilities formed by air entrainment at the wetting front of impacting droplets on perfectly smooth, viscous films of constant thickness. A high-speed total internal reflection microscopy technique accounting for the Fresnel reflection at the drop-air interface allows for in situ measurements of an entrained air rim at the wetting front. The presence of an air rim is found to be a prerequisite to the interfacial instability which is formed when the capillary pressure in the vicinity of the contact line can no longer balance the increasing gas pressure near the wetting front. A critical capillary number for the air rim formation is experimentally identified above which the wetting front becomes unstable where this critical capillary number inversely scales with the ambient pressure. The contact line instabilities at relatively low We numbers ( We ∼ O(10)) observed in this study provide insight into the conventional understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities under drop impact which usually require We ≫ 10.

  8. Can hydrodynamic contact line paradox be solved by evaporation-condensation?

    Janeček, V; Doumenc, F; Guerrier, B; Nikolayev, V S

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a possibility to regularize the hydrodynamic contact line singularity in the configuration of partial wetting (liquid wedge on a solid substrate) via evaporation-condensation, when an inert gas is present in the atmosphere above the liquid. The no-slip condition is imposed at the solid-liquid interface and the system is assumed to be isothermal. The mass exchange dynamics is controlled by vapor diffusion in the inert gas and interfacial kinetic resistance. The coupling between the liquid meniscus curvature and mass exchange is provided by the Kelvin effect. The atmosphere is saturated and the substrate moves at a steady velocity with respect to the liquid wedge. A multi-scale analysis is performed. The liquid dynamics description in the phase-change-controlled microregion and visco-capillary intermediate region is based on the lubrication equations. The vapor diffusion is considered in the gas phase. It is shown that from the mathematical point of view, the phase exchange relieves the contact line singularity. The liquid mass is conserved: evaporation existing on a part of the meniscus and condensation occurring over another part compensate exactly each other. However, numerical estimations carried out for three common fluids (ethanol, water and glycerol) at the ambient conditions show that the characteristic length scales are tiny. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stick-Slip Motion of Moving Contact Line on Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    Wu, Congmin; Lei, Siulong; Qian, Tiezheng; Wang, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    Based on our continuum hydrodynamic model for immiscible two-phase flows at solid surfaces, the stick-slip motion has been predicted for moving contact line at chemically patterned surfaces [Wang et al., J. Fluid Mech., 605 (2008), pp. 59-78]. In this paper we show that the continuum predictions can be quantitatively verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our MD simulations are carried out for two immiscible Lennard-Jones fluids confined by two planar solid walls in Poiseuille flow geometry. In particular, one solid surface is chemically patterned with alternating stripes. For comparison, the continuum model is numerically solved using material parameters directly measured in MD simulations. From oscillatory fluid-fluid interface to intermittent stick-slip motion of moving contact line, we have quantitative agreement between the continuum and MD results. This agreement is attributed to the accurate description down to molecular scale by the generalized Navier boundary condition in our continuum model. Numerical results are also presented for the relaxational dynamics of fluid-fluid interface, in agreement with a theoretical analysis based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. © 2010 Global-Science Press.

  10. Moving contact lines in partial wetting: bridging the gap across the scales

    Pahlavan, Amir; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; McKinley, Gareth; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-11-01

    The spreading and dewetting of liquid films on solid substrates is a common phenomenon in nature and industry from a snail secreting a mucosal film to printing and coating processes. A quantitative description of these phenomena, however, requires a detailed understanding of the flow physics at the nanoscale as the intermolecular interactions become important close to the contact line. Classical hydrodynamic theory describes wetting as an interplay between viscous and interfacial forces, neglecting the intermolecular interactions, leading to a paradox known as the moving contact line singularity. By contrast, molecular kinetic theory describes wetting as an activated process, neglecting the bulk hydrodynamics in the spreading viscous fluid film altogether. Here, we show that our recently developed model for thin liquid films in partial wetting, which properly incorporates the role of van der Waals interactions in a thin spreading fluid layer into a height-dependent surface tension, bridges the gap between these two approaches and leads to a unified framework for the description of wetting phenomena. We further use our model to investigate the instability and dewetting of nanometric liquid films, and show that it brings theoretical predictions closer to experimental observations.

  11. A gradient stable scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem

    Gao, Min

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, an efficient numerical scheme is designed for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,4]. The nonlinear version of the scheme is semi-implicit in time and is based on a convex splitting of the Cahn-Hilliard free energy (including the boundary energy) together with a projection method for the Navier-Stokes equations. We show, under certain conditions, the scheme has the total energy decaying property and is unconditionally stable. The linearized scheme is easy to implement and introduces only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy and stability of the scheme. The behavior of the solution near the contact line is examined. It is verified that, when the interface intersects with the boundary, the consistent splitting scheme [21,22] for the Navier Stokes equations has the better accuracy for pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line.

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-12-30

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid.

  13. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  14. Coupling with concentric contact around motor shaft for line start synchronous motor

    Melfi, Michael J.; Burdeshaw, Galen E.

    2017-10-03

    A method comprises providing a line-start synchronous motor. The motor has a stator, a rotor core disposed within the stator, and a motor shaft. In accordance with a step of the method, a coupling for coupling a load to the motor is provided. The coupling has a motor shaft attachment portion configured to provide substantially concentric contact around the shaft at the end of the motor shaft. The coupling has a load attachment portion configured to operatively connect to a load. In accordance with a step of the method, a load is coupled to the motor with the coupling, and driven from start to at least near synchronous speed during steady state operation of the motor with a load coupled thereto. The motor shaft attachment portion may comprise a bushing assembly with matching and opposed tapered surfaces that cooperate to secure the motor shaft attachment portion around the motor shaft.

  15. Sliding three-phase contact line of printed droplets for single-crystal arrays

    Kuang, Minxuan; Wu, Lei; Li, Yifan; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Xingye; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the behaviours of printed droplets is an essential requirement for inkjet printing of delicate three-dimensional (3D) structures or high-resolution patterns. In this work, molecular deposition and crystallization are regulated by manipulating the three-phase contact line (TCL) behaviour of the printed droplets. The results show that oriented single-crystal arrays are fabricated based on the continuously sliding TCL. Owing to the sliding of the TCL on the substrate, the outward capillary flow within the evaporating droplet is suppressed and the molecules are brought to the centre of the droplet, resulting in the formation of a single crystal. This work provides a facile strategy for controlling the structures of printed units by manipulating the TCL of printed droplets, which is significant for realizing high-resolution patterns and delicate 3D structures. (paper)

  16. A study on non-contact ultrasonic technique for on-line inspection of CFRP

    Lee, Seung-Joon; Park, Won-Su; Lee, Joon-Hyun; Byun, Joon-Hyung

    2007-01-01

    The advantages of carbon fiber reinforced plastic materials (CFRP) are: they are light structure materials, they have corrosion resistance, and higher specific strength and elasticity. The recently developed 3-dimentional fiber placement system is able to produce a more complex and various shaped structures due to less limitations of a product shape according to the problem in conventional fabrication process. This fiber placement system stacks the narrow prepreg tape on the mold according to the designed sequence and thickness. Non-destructive evaluation was rquired for these composites to evaluate changes in strength caused by defects such as delamination and porosity. Additionally, the expectent quality should be satisfied for the high cost fabrication process using the fiber placement system. Therefore, an on line non-destructive evaluation system is required and real-time complement is needed when the defects are detected [1]. Defect imaging by the ultrasonic C-scan method is a useful technique for defect detection in CFRP. However, the conventional ultrasonic C-scan technique cannot be applied during the fabrication process because the test piece should be immersed into the water. Therefore, non-contact ultrasonic techniques should be applied during the fabricating process. For the development of non-contact ultrasonic techniques available in non-destructive evaluation of CFRP, a recent laser-generated ultrasonic technique and an air-coupled transducer that transmit and receive ultrasounds in the air are studied [2-3]. In this study, generating and receiving techniques of laser-generated ultrasound and the characteristics of received signals upon the internal defects of CFRO were studied for non-contact inspection

  17. Assessment of the U937 cell line for the detection of contact allergens

    Python, Francois; Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The human myeloid cell line U937 was evaluated as an in vitro test system to identify contact sensitizers in order to develop alternatives to animal tests for the cosmetic industry. Specific culture conditions (i.e., presence of interleukin-4, IL-4) were applied to obtain a dendritic cell-like phenotype. In the described test protocol, these cells were exposed to test chemicals and then analyzed by flow cytometry for CD86 expression and by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for IL-1β and IL-8 gene expressions. Eight sensitizers, three non-sensitizers and five oxidative hair dye precursors were examined after 24-, 48- and 72-h exposure times. Test item-specific modulations of the chosen activation markers (CD86, IL-1β and IL-8) suggest that this U937 activation test could discriminate test items classified as contact sensitizers or non-sensitizers in the local lymph node assay in mice (LLNA). More specifically, a test item can be considered as a potential sensitizer when it significantly induced the upregulation of the expression of at least two markers. Using this approach, we could correctly evaluate the dendritic cell (DC) activation potential for 15 out of 16 tested chemicals. We conclude that the U937 activation test may represent an useful tool in a future in vitro test battery for predicting sensitizing properties of chemicals

  18. Liquid-bridge stability and breakup on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis.

    Akbari, Amir; Hill, Reghan J

    2016-08-10

    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis (CAH) under zero-gravity conditions. Non-ideal surfaces exhibit CAH because of surface imperfections, by which the constraints on three-phase contact lines are influenced. Given that interfacial instabilities are constraint-sensitive, understanding how CAH affects the stability and breakup of liquid bridges is crucial for predicting the drop size in contact-drop dispensing. Unlike ideal surfaces on which contact lines are always free irrespective of surface wettability, contact lines may undergo transitions from pinned to free and vice versa during drop deposition on non-ideal surfaces. Here, we experimentally and theoretically examine how stability and breakup are affected by CAH, highlighting cases where stability is lost during a transition from a pinned-pinned (more constrained) to pinned-free (less constrained) interface-rather than a critical state. This provides a practical means of expediting or delaying stability loss. We also demonstrate how the dynamic contact angle can control the contact-line radius following stability loss.

  19. Scatterometry measurement of nested lines, dual space, and rectangular contact CD on phase-shift masks

    Lee, Kyung M.; Yedur, Sanjay; Henrichs, Sven; Tavassoli, Malahat; Baik, Kiho

    2007-03-01

    Evaluation of lithography process or stepper involves very large quantity of CD measurements and measurement time. In this paper, we report on a application of Scatterometry based metrology for evaluation of binary photomask lithography. Measurements were made on mask level with ODP scatterometer then on wafer with CD-SEM. 4 to 1 scaling from mask to wafer means 60nm line on wafer translates to 240nm on mask, easily measurable on ODP. Calculation of scatterometer profile information was performed by a in-situ library-based analysis (5sec/site). We characterized the CD uniformity, linearity, and metal film thickness uniformity. Results show that linearity measured from fixed-pitch, varying line/space ratio targets show good correlation to top-down CD-SEM with R2 of more than 0.99. ODP-SEM correlation results for variable pitch shows that careful examination of scatterometer profile results in order to obtain better correlation to CD SEM, since both tools react differently to the target profile variation. ODP results show that global CD distribution is clearly measurable with less outliers compared to CD SEM data. This is thought to be due to 'averaging' effect of scatterometer. The data show that Scatterometry provides a nondestructive and faster mean of characterizing lithography stepper performanceprofiles. APSM 1st level (before Cr removal) 'dual-space' CDs and EPSM rectangular contacts were also measured with and results demonstrates that Scatterometer is capable of measuring these targets with reasonable correlation to SEM.

  20. The Use of Energy Storage Systems for Supporting the Voltage Needs of Urban and Suburban Railway Contact Lines

    Enrico Pagano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to contribute to the use of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC sets for boosting voltages of contact lines in urban and suburban railway traction systems. Different electrical configurations of contact lines are considered and investigated. For each of them, proper mathematical models are suggested to evaluate the electrical performances of the contact lines. They give rise, also, to sample design procedures for the sizing of the most appropriate energy storage systems, to be distributed along the lines, for boosting line voltages and avoiding undesired voltage drops. A numerical example based on the “Cumana” suburban Naples railway network is presented to give an idea of the weights and sizes of electric double layer capacitors needed to boost the voltage of a sample contact line. In particular, three different EDLC systems, for a overall installed energy of 9.6 kWh, have been placed nearby the stations presenting the highest voltage drops during the most representative situation of trains’ service. The new voltage drop is equal to 32% of that obtained in absence of EDLCs.

  1. The Use of Energy Storage Systems for Supporting the Voltage Needs of Urban and Suburban Railway Contact Lines

    Iannuzzi, Diago [University of Federico II, Naples (Italy). Electrical Engineering Department; Pagano, Enrico [University of Federico II, Naples (Italy). Electrical Engineering Department; Tricoli, Pietro [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The paper aims to contribute to the use of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) sets for boosting voltages of contact lines in urban and suburban railway traction systems. Different electrical configurations of contact lines are considered and investigated. For each of them, proper mathematical models are suggested to evaluate the electrical performances of the contact lines. They give rise, also, to sample design procedures for the sizing of the most appropriate energy storage systems, to be distributed along the lines, for boosting line voltages and avoiding undesired voltage drops. A numerical example based on the “Cumana” suburban Naples railway network is presented to give an idea of the weights and sizes of electric double layer capacitors needed to boost the voltage of a sample contact line. In particular, three different EDLC systems, for a overall installed energy of 9.6 kWh, have been placed nearby the stations presenting the highest voltage drops during the most representative situation of trains’ service. The new voltage drop is equal to 32% of that obtained in absence of EDLCs.

  2. Investigation of contact line dynamics under a vapor bubble at boiling on the transparent heater

    Surtaev, A. S.; Serdyukov, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of dynamics of vapor bubble growth and departure at pool boiling, obtained with the use of high-speed video recording and IR thermography. The study was carried out at saturated water boiling under the atmospheric pressure in the range of heat fluxes of 30-150 kW/m2. To visualize the process and determine the growth rates of the outer bubble diameter, microlayer region and dry spot area, transpa-rent thin film heater with the thickness of 1 μm deposited on sapphire substrate was used in the experiments, and video recording was performed from the bottom side of the heating surface. To study integral heat transfer as well as local non-stationary thermal characteristics, high-speed infrared thermography with a frequency of up to 1000 FPS was used. High-speed video recording showed that after formation of vapor bubble and microlayer region, dry spot appears in a short time (up to 1 ms) under the vapor bubble. Various stages of contact line boundary propagation were ob-served. It was shown that at the initial stage before the development of small-scale perturbations, the dry spot propaga-tion rate is constant. It was also showed that the bubble departure stage begins after complete evaporation of liquid in the microlayer region.

  3. Do the contact angle and line tension of surface-attached droplets depend on the radius of curvature?

    Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Virnau, Peter; Winter, David; Binder, Kurt

    2018-06-27

    Results from Monte Carlo simulations of wall-attached droplets in the three-dimensional Ising lattice gas model and in a symmetric binary Lennard-Jones fluid, confined by antisymmetric walls, are analyzed, with the aim to estimate the dependence of the contact angle [Formula: see text] on the droplet radius [Formula: see text] of curvature. Sphere-cap shape of the wall-attached droplets is assumed throughout. An approach, based purely on 'thermodynamic' observables, e.g. chemical potential, excess density due to the droplet, etc, is used, to avoid ambiguities in the decision which particles belong (or do not belong, respectively) to the droplet. It is found that the results are compatible with a variation [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] being the contact angle in the thermodynamic limit ([Formula: see text]). The possibility to use such results to estimate the excess free energy related to the contact line of the droplet, namely the line tension, at the wall, is discussed. Various problems that hamper this approach and were not fully recognized in previous attempts to extract the line tension are identified. It is also found that the dependence of wall tensions on the difference of chemical potential of the droplet from that at the bulk coexistence provides effectively a change of the contact angle of similar magnitude. The simulation approach yields precise estimates for the excess density due to wall-attached droplets and the corresponding free energy excess, relative to a system without a droplet at the same chemical potential. It is shown that this information suffices to estimate nucleation barriers, not affected by ambiguities on droplet shape, contact angle and line tension.

  4. Internal fuel pin oxidizer

    Andrews, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel pin has positioned within it material which will decompose to release an oxidizing agent which will react with the cladding of the pin and form a protective oxide film on the internal surface of the cladding

  5. Dynamic behaviour of the contact line for 350 km/h on the new line Wuhan - Guangzhou; Dynamisches Verhalten der Oberleitung fuer 350 km/h auf der neuen Strecke Wuhan - Guangzhou

    Zimmert, Gerhard [Balfour Beatty Rail, Beijing (China)

    2010-04-15

    Only after four and a half years of construction activities regular services started on the approximately 1 000 km long new high-speed line Wuhan - Guangzhou in the People's Republic of China. Achieving 320 to 330 km/h commercial speed, this line is the fastest railway connection in the world. The dynamic interaction between contact line and pantograph determines the maximally possible speed to an increasing extent. Worldwide, there is only low experience on the contact line dynamic behavior at this speed level. Balfour Beatty Rail designed the contact line for this installation, participated essentially in the implementation and, therefore, was in charge of proving the contact line quality. A series of test runs concerning the geometrical requirements and the contact force behaviour eventually proved the suitability of the system. (orig.)

  6. Towards a more accurate microscopic description of the moving contact line problem - incorporating nonlocal effects through a statistical mechanics framework

    Nold, Andreas; Goddard, Ben; Sibley, David; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    Multiscale effects play a predominant role in wetting phenomena such as the moving contact line. An accurate description is of paramount interest for a wide range of industrial applications, yet it is a matter of ongoing research, due to the difficulty of incorporating different physical effects in one model. Important small-scale phenomena are corrections to the attractive fluid-fluid and wall-fluid forces in inhomogeneous density distributions, which often previously have been accounted for by the disjoining pressure in an ad-hoc manner. We systematically derive a novel model for the description of a single-component liquid-vapor multiphase system which inherently incorporates these nonlocal effects. This derivation, which is inspired by statistical mechanics in the framework of colloidal density functional theory, is critically discussed with respect to its assumptions and restrictions. The model is then employed numerically to study a moving contact line of a liquid fluid displacing its vapor phase. We show how nonlocal physical effects are inherently incorporated by the model and describe how classical macroscopic results for the contact line motion are retrieved. We acknowledge financial support from ERC Advanced Grant No. 247031 and Imperial College through a DTG International Studentship.

  7. Dynamic contact angle of water-based titanium oxide nanofluid

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into spreading dynamics and dynamic contact angle of TiO2-deionized water nanofluids. Two mechanisms of energy dissipation, (1) contact line friction and (2) wedge film viscosity, govern the dynamics of contact line motion. The primary stage of spreading has the contact line friction as the dominant dissipative mechanism. At the secondary stage of spreading, the wedge film viscosity is the dominant dissipative mechanism. A theoretical model based on combination of molecular kinetic theory and hydrodynamic theory which incorporates non-Newtonian viscosity of solutions is used. The model agreement with experimental data is reasonable. Complex interparticle interactions, local pinning of the contact line, and variations in solid–liquid interfacial tension are attributed to errors. PMID:23759071

  8. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-25

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints. 3 figs.

  9. Electro-optical fuel pin identification system

    Kirchner, T.L.

    1978-09-01

    A prototype Electro-Optical Fuel Pin Identification System referred to as the Fuel Pin Identification System (FPIS) has been developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) presently under construction at HEDL. The system is designed to remotely read an alpha-numeric identification number that is roll stamped on the top of the fuel pin end cap. The prototype FPIS consists of four major subassemblies: optical read head, digital compression electronics, video display, and line printer

  10. Modeling of On-Line Catalyst Addition Effects in a Short Contact Time Reactor

    Zerkle, David K; Allendorf, Mark Donald; Wolf, Markus; Deutschmann, Olaf

    2000-01-01

    ... operating ( on-line catalyst addition). Our simulations indicate that the fundamental behavior of the ethane SCTR prepared with catalyst added online is the result of coupled heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical processes...

  11. Crossing ethnic lines? The impact of in-group favouritism and acculturation preferences on inter-ethnic contacts

    Joachim Brüb

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the notion that making individuals in-teract across ethnic lines seems to be a major difficulty (Amir,1976, this comparative field study offers two explanations for the differences in inter-ethnic contacts among German, Turkish and Aussiedler (Resettler adolescents. One assumption is based on Social Identity Theory research with its central proposition that in group affiliation is likely to trigger out-group rejection. Thus in group favouritism is expected to decrease the frequency of inter-ethnic encounters. The other assumption is built on acculturation research and argues that certain dispositions towards acculturation facilitate or inhibit inter-ethnic contacts considerably. A preference for interaction is supposed to function as a facilitating factor where as assimilation is likely to prevent inter-ethnic encounters.On the whole the findings of this field study corroborate the assumptionsfor in-group favouritism and acculturation preferences.Further, young men tend more often to approve of in-group favouritism which prohibits inter-ethnic contact, while in contrast, young women more often agree with notions of dissimilation orinteraction which facilitate encounters with out-group members.Finally, subgroup analyses point to the importance of religious affiliation sand their consequences for inter-ethnic contacts under certain conditions.

  12. MICROCONTROLLER PIN CONFIGURATION TOOL

    Bhaskar Joshi; F. Mohammed Rizwan; Dr. Rajashree Shettar

    2012-01-01

    Configuring the micro controller with large number of pins is tedious. Latest Infine on microcontroller contains more than 200 pins and each pin has classes of signals. Therefore the complexity of the microcontroller is growing. It evolves looking into thousands of pages of user manual. For a user it will take days to configure the microcontroller with the peripherals. We need an automated tool to configure the microcontroller so that the user can configure the microcontroller without having ...

  13. On a free-surface problem with moving contact line: From variational principles to stable numerical approximations

    Fumagalli, Ivan; Parolini, Nicola; Verani, Marco

    2018-02-01

    We analyze a free-surface problem described by time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. Surface tension, capillary effects and wall friction are taken into account in the evolution of the system, influencing the motion of the contact line - where the free surface hits the wall - and of the dynamics of the contact angle. The differential equations governing the phenomenon are first derived from the variational principle of minimum reduced dissipation, and then discretized by means of the ALE approach. The numerical properties of the resulting scheme are investigated, drawing a parallel with the physical properties holding at the continuous level. Some instability issues are addressed in detail, in the case of an explicit treatment of the geometry, and novel additional terms are introduced in the discrete formulation in order to damp the instabilities. Numerical tests assess the suitability of the approach, the influence of the parameters, and the effectiveness of the new stabilizing terms.

  14. Optimization of Rear Local Al-Contacts on High Efficiency Commercial PERC Solar Cells with Dot and Line Openings

    Peisheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline silicon PERCs with dot or line openings on rear surface were studied here. By measuring the minor carrier lifetimes of the PERCs with dot and line openings, passivation effects of rear surface with dot and line openings were discussed. The performance affected by dot and line openings was analyzed in detail by testing the open-circuit voltages, short-circuit current densities, fill factors, and conversion efficiencies of the PERCs. The results show that the wider space resulted in better minor carrier lifetimes on the rear surface. And the cells with a line opening space of 0.5 mm had an average of 0.22% improvement of conversion efficiency, compared with the cells with full-area Al-BSF. On the other hand, the dot opening PERCs exhibited only a conversion efficiency of 17.4%, although there had been good rear surface reflectivity. The bad Al-Si alloy layer and large hollow densities in dot Al-contacts resulted in bad performance of the PERCs with dot openings.

  15. Development of a PIN diode based on-line measurement system for Radon (222Rn) and Thoron (220Rn) in environment

    Ashokkumar, P.; Chaudhury, Probal; Sumesh, C.G.; Sahoo, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radon, thoron and their progenies are universally present in outdoor air, and can reach higher levels in indoor air due to poor ventilation. Several instruments have been developed for accurate measurement of radon and thoron in the environment. Semiconductor detector based system employing spectroscopic method has been proved to be the best among them. A PIN diode based electrostatic collection type online real-time instrument has been developed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron in an environment while both 222 Rn and 220 Rn are present. This system can be used for determination of radon and thoron concentrations at residence or workplace. Furthermore, since the 222 Rn and 220 Rn are differentiated from each other through spectroscopy, this monitor can be used even in a mixed radon/thoron environment

  16. Beyond Cassie equation: Local structure of heterogeneous surfaces determines the contact angles of microdroplets

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianren

    2014-01-01

    The application of Cassie equation to microscopic droplets is recently under intense debate because the microdroplet dimension is often of the same order of magnitude as the characteristic size of substrate heterogeneities, and the mechanism to describe the contact angle of microdroplets is not clear. By representing real surfaces statistically as an ensemble of patterned surfaces with randomly or regularly distributed heterogeneities (patches), lattice Boltzmann simulations here show that the contact angle of microdroplets has a wide distribution, either continuous or discrete, depending on the patch size. The origin of multiple contact angles observed is ascribed to the contact line pinning effect induced by substrate heterogeneities. We demonstrate that the local feature of substrate structure near the contact line determines the range of contact angles that can be stabilized, while the certain contact angle observed is closely related to the contact line width. PMID:25059292

  17. Vortex lattice melting, pinning and kinetics

    Doniach, S.; Ryu, S.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenology of the high T c superconductors is discussed both at the level of the thermodynamics of melting of the Abrikosov flux lattice and in terms of the melting and kinetics of the flux lattice for a pinned system. The authors review results on 3D melting obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation approach in which the 2D open-quotes pancakeclose quotes vortices are treated as statistical variables. The authors discuss pinning in the context of the strong pinning regime in which the vortex density given in terms of the applied field B is small compared to that represented by an effective field B pin measuring the pinning center density. The authors introduce a new criterion for the unfreezing of a vortex glass on increase of magnetic field or temperature, in the strong pinning, small field unit. The authors model this limit in terms of a single flux line interacting with a columnar pin. This model is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. By applying a tilt potential, the authors study the kinetics of the vortex motion in an external current and show that the resulting current-voltage characteristic follows a basic vortex glass-like scaling relation in the vicinity of the depinning transition

  18. Spontaneous Marangoni Mixing of Miscible Liquids at a Liquid-Liquid-Air Contact Line.

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Lee, Jeongsu; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-08-11

    We investigate the flow patterns created when a liquid drop contacts a reservoir liquid, which has implications on various physicochemical and biochemical reactions including mixing in microfluidic systems. The localized vortical flow spontaneously triggered by the difference of surface tension between the two liquids is studied, which is thus termed the Marangoni vortex. To quantitatively investigate the strength of vortices, we performed particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments by varying the surface tension difference, the gap of the flow cell, the density and viscosity of the reservoir liquid, and the size of the drop. A scaling law that balances the interfacial energy of the system with the kinetic energy of the vortical flows allows us to understand the functional dependence of the Marangoni vortex strength on various experimental parameters.

  19. Close Proximity Robotic Maneuvering through Flux Pinning Manipulation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-contacting actuation technology like flux pinning has never been demonstrated in space. The development of a nonphysical joint is critical for maneuvers such as...

  20. Stick-Jump (SJ) Evaporation of Strongly Pinned Nanoliter Volume Sessile Water Droplets on Quick Drying, Micropatterned Surfaces.

    Debuisson, Damien; Merlen, Alain; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2016-03-22

    We present an experimental study of stick-jump (SJ) evaporation of strongly pinned nanoliter volume sessile water droplets drying on micropatterned surfaces. The evaporation is studied on surfaces composed of photolithographically micropatterned negative photoresist (SU-8). The micropatterning of the SU-8 enables circular, smooth, trough-like features to be formed which causes a very strong pinning of the three phase (liquid-vapor-solid) contact line of an evaporating droplet. This is ideal for studying SJ evaporation as it contains sequential constant contact radius (CCR) evaporation phases during droplet evaporation. The evaporation was studied in nonconfined conditions, and forced convection was not used. Micropatterned concentric circles were defined having an initial radius of 1000 μm decreasing by a spacing ranging from 500 to 50 μm. The droplet evaporates, successively pinning and depinning from circle to circle. For each pinning radius, the droplet contact angle and volume are observed to decrease quasi-linearly with time. The experimental average evaporation rates were found to decrease with decreasing pining radii. In contrast, the experimental average evaporation flux is found to increase with decreasing droplet radii. The data also demonstrate the influence of the initial contact angle on evaporation rate and flux. The data indicate that the total evaporation time of a droplet depends on the specific micropattern spacing and that the total evaporation time on micropatterned surfaces is always less than on flat, homogeneous surfaces. Although the surface patterning is observed to have little effect on the average droplet flux-indicating that the underlying evaporation physics is not significantly changed by the patterning-the total evaporation time is considerably modified by patterning, up to a factor or almost 2 compared to evaporation on a flat, homogeneous surface. The closely spaced concentric circle pinning maintains a large droplet radius and

  1. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  2. Pinning in the flux-line-cutting regime of Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 single crystals at high field

    D'Anna, G.; André, M.-O.; Indenbom, M. V.; Benoit, W.

    1994-09-01

    Using a low-frequency torsion pendulum we show that in a Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 single crystal the irreversibility line Birr( T) is frequency dependent down to 10 -5 Hz in the high-field regime. The activation energy has a logarithmic field dependence, U0( B)= U∗ 1n( B∗/ B). A microscopic model for flux-line-cutting and pancake collision yields quantitative expressions for U0 and for Birr( T)= B∗ exp(- T/T∗), which reproduce the experimental data very well.

  3. 3D adaptive finite element method for a phase field model for the moving contact line problems

    Shi, Yi

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive finite element method for simulating the moving contact line problems in three dimensions. The model that we used is the coupled Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition(GNBC) proposed in [18]. In our algorithm, to improve the efficiency of the simulation, we use the residual type adaptive finite element algorithm. It is well known that the phase variable decays much faster away from the interface than the velocity variables. There- fore we use an adaptive strategy that will take into account of such difference. Numerical experiments show that our algorithm is both efficient and reliable. © 2013 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  4. A fully discrete energy stable scheme for a phase filed moving contact line model with variable densities and viscosities

    Zhu, Guangpu

    2018-01-26

    In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation with the generalized Navier boundary condition. Variable densities and viscosities are incorporated in this model. A rigorous proof of energy stability is provided for the fully discrete scheme based on a semi-implicit temporal discretization and a finite difference method on the staggered grids for the spatial discretization. A splitting method based on the pressure stabilization is implemented to solve the Navier-Stokes equation, while the stabilization approach is also used for the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Numerical results in both 2-D and 3-D demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and decaying property of discrete energy of the proposed scheme.

  5. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Groß, K.; Schmitt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ a and the receding θ r contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis

  6. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    Heib, F., E-mail: f.heib@mx.uni-saarland.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hempelmann, R. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S. [Department of Informatics and Microsystem Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern, 66482 Zweibrücken (Germany); Fug, F.; Possart, W. [Department of Adhesion and Interphases in Polymers, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Groß, K.; Schmitt, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ{sub a} and the receding θ{sub r} contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple

  7. Fuel pin transfer tool

    Patenaude, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel pin transfer tool has a latching device of the collet type attached to a first member movable vertically through a long work stroke enabling a fuel pin in an under water assembly to be engaged and withdrawn therefrom or placed therein and released. The latching device has a collet provided with a plurality of resilient fingers having cam portions normally spaced apart to receive the upper end of a fuel pin between them and a second member, movable vertically through a short stroke relative to the first member is provided with cam portions engageable with those of the fingers and is yieldably and resiliently held in a raised position in which its cam portions engage those of the fingers and force the fingers into their pin-gripping positions. When a predetermined force is applied to the second member, it is so moved that its cam portions are disengaged from the cam portions of the fingers permitting the latter to move into their normal relationship in which a gripped pin is released or another pin received but with their pin-gripping relationship positively re-established and maintained once the force on the tubular member is lessened. Movement of the first member in either direction and movement of the second member into its raised position is attended by forces inadequate to affect the integrity of fuel pin cladding. That force is applied in the preferred embodiment, by a power operated actuator which is within the upper portion of a housing and, in the preferred embodiment, carried by the long stroke member but always in the upper housing portion which is of a material sufficiently translucent to enable the actuator to be observed throughout the work stroke and is sufficiently light in weight to prevent the tool from being top heavy

  8. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  9. First-order and tricritical wetting transitions in the two-dimensional Ising model caused by interfacial pinning at a defect line.

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V; Binder, Kurt

    2014-08-01

    We present a study of the critical behavior of the Blume-Capel model with three spin states (S=±1,0) confined between parallel walls separated by a distance L where competitive surface magnetic fields act. By properly choosing the crystal field (D), which regulates the density of nonmagnetic species (S=0), such that those impurities are excluded from the bulk (where D=-∞) except in the middle of the sample [where D(M)(L/2)≠-∞], we are able to control the presence of a defect line in the middle of the sample and study its influence on the interface between domains of different spin orientations. So essentially we study an Ising model with a defect line but, unlike previous work where defect lines in Ising models were defined via weakened bonds, in the present case the defect line is due to mobile vacancies and hence involves additional entropy. In this way, by drawing phase diagrams, i.e., plots of the wetting critical temperature (T(w)) versus the magnitude of the crystal field at the middle of the sample (D(M)), we observe curves of (first-) second-order wetting transitions for (small) high values of D(M). Theses lines meet in tricritical wetting points, i.e., (T(w)(tc),D(M)(tc)), which also depend on the magnitude of the surface magnetic fields. It is found that second-order wetting transitions satisfy the scaling theory for short-range interactions, while first-order ones do not exhibit hysteresis, provided that small samples are used, since fluctuations wash out hysteretic effects. Since hysteresis is observed in large samples, we performed extensive thermodynamic integrations in order to accurately locate the first-order transition points, and a rather good agreement is found by comparing such results with those obtained just by observing the jump of the order parameter in small samples.

  10. The cytokine-dependent MUTZ-3 cell line as an in vitro model for the screening of contact sensitizers

    Azam, Philippe; Peiffer, Jean-Luc; Chamousset, Delphine; Tissier, Marie-Helene; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine; Vian, Laurence; Fabre, Isabelle; Ourlin, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are key mediators of contact allergenicity in the skin. However, no in vitro methods exist which are based on the activation process of LC to predict the sensitization potential of chemicals. In this study, we have evaluated the performances of MUTZ-3, a cytokine-dependent human monocytic cell line, in its response to sensitizers. First, we compared undifferentiated MUTZ-3 cells with several standard human cells such as THP-1, KG-1, HL-60, K-562, and U-937 in their response to the strong sensitizer DNCB and the irritant SDS by monitoring the expression levels of HLA-DR, CD54, and CD86 by flow cytometry. Only MUTZ-3 and THP-1 cells show a strong and specific response to sensitizer, while other cell lines showed very variable responses. Then, we tested MUTZ-3 cells against a wider panel of sensitizers and irritants on a broader spectrum of cell surface markers (HLA-DR, CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86, B7-H1, B7-H2, B7-DC). Of these markers, CD86 proved to be the most reliable since it detected all sensitizers, including benzocaine, a classical false negative in local lymph node assay (LLNA) but not irritants. We confirmed the MUTZ-3 response to DNCB by real-time PCR analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that undifferentiated MUTZ-3 cells may represent a valuable in vitro model for the screening of potential sensitizers

  11. PINS-3X Operations

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  12. An efficient scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem with variable density and viscosity

    Gao, Min

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient numerical method for the two phase moving contact line problem with variable density, viscosity, and slip length. The physical model is based on a phase field approach, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,5]. To overcome the difficulties due to large density and viscosity ratio, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a splitting method based on a pressure Poisson equation [11], while the Cahn-Hilliard equation is solved by a convex splitting method. We show that the method is stable under certain conditions. The linearized schemes are easy to implement and introduce only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy, stability and efficiency of the schemes. The method allows us to simulate the interface problems with extremely small interface thickness. Three dimensional simulations are included to validate the efficiency of the method. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  13. An efficient scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem with variable density and viscosity

    Gao, Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient numerical method for the two phase moving contact line problem with variable density, viscosity, and slip length. The physical model is based on a phase field approach, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,5]. To overcome the difficulties due to large density and viscosity ratio, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a splitting method based on a pressure Poisson equation [11], while the Cahn-Hilliard equation is solved by a convex splitting method. We show that the method is stable under certain conditions. The linearized schemes are easy to implement and introduce only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy, stability and efficiency of the schemes. The method allows us to simulate the interface problems with extremely small interface thickness. Three dimensional simulations are included to validate the efficiency of the method. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Pinning Down versus Density

    Juhász, István; Soukup, Lajos; Szentmiklóssy, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The pinning down number $ {pd}(X)$ of a topological space $X$ is the smallest cardinal $\\kappa$ such that for any neighborhood assignment $U:X\\to \\tau_X$ there is a set $A\\in [X]^\\kappa$ with $A\\cap U(x)\

  15. Analyzing the use of pins in safety bearings

    da Fonseca, Cesar A. L. L.; Weber, Hans I.; Fleischer, Philip F.

    2015-01-01

    A new concept for safety bearings is analyzed: useful in emergency situations, it shall protect the bearing from destruction by the use of pins which impact with a disc, both capable of good energy dissipation. Results of work in progress are presented by validating partial stages......–Kutta method is validated with experimental results. Simulations of rotor orbits due to the impact condition are analyzed and compared to data obtained from the experiment giving a good perspective on the use of pins. The contact interaction between rotor and pins uses an elastic-dissipative model. In addition...

  16. Pin clad strains in Phenix

    Languille, A.

    1979-07-01

    The Phenix reactor has operated for 4 years in a satisfactory manner. The first 2 sub-assembly loadings contained pins clad in solution treated 316. The principal pin strains are: diametral strain (swelling and irradiation creep), ovality and spiral bending of the pin (interaction of wire and pin cluster and wrapper). A pin cluster irradiated to a dose of 80 dpa F reached a pin diameter strain of 5%. This strain is principally due to swelling (low fission gas pressure). The principal parameters governing the swelling are instantaneous dose, time and temperature for a given type of pin cladding. Other types of steel are or will be irradiated in Phenix. In particular, cold-worked titanium stabilised 316 steel should contribute towards a reduction in the pin clad strains and increase the target burn-up in this reactor. (author)

  17. Roles of pinning strength and density in vortex melting

    Obaidat, I M; Khawaja, U Al; Benkraouda, M

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the role of pinning strength and density on the equilibrium vortex-lattice to vortex-liquid phase transition under several applied magnetic fields. This study was conducted using a series of molecular dynamic simulations on several samples with different strengths and densities of pinning sites which are arranged in periodic square arrays. We have found a single solid-liquid vortex transition when the vortex filling factor n>1. We have found that, for fixed pinning densities and strengths, the melting temperature, T m , decreases almost linearly with increasing magnetic field. Our results provide direct numerical evidence for the significant role of both the strength and density of pinning centers on the position of the melting line. We have found that the vortex-lattice to vortex-liquid melting line shifts up as the pinning strength or the pinning density was increased. The effect on the melting line was found to be more pronounced at small values of strength and density of pinning sites

  18. The mechanism and universal scaling law of the contact line friction for the Cassie-state droplets on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces.

    Zhao, Lei; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2018-04-05

    Besides the Wenzel state, liquid droplets on micro/nanostructured surfaces can stay in the Cassie state and consequently exhibit intriguing characteristics such as a large contact angle, small contact angle hysteresis and exceptional mobility. Here we report molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the wetting dynamics of Cassie-state water droplets on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces with an emphasis on the genesis of the contact line friction (CLF). From an ab initio perspective, CLF can be ascribed to the collective effect of solid-liquid retarding and viscous damping. Solid-liquid retarding is related to the work of adhesion, whereas viscous damping arises from the viscous force exerted on the liquid molecules within the three-phase (liquid/vapor/solid) contact zone. In this work, a universal scaling law is derived to generalize the CLF on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces. With the decreasing fraction of solid-liquid contact (i.e., the solid fraction), CLF for a Cassie-state droplet gets enhanced due to the fact that viscous damping is counter-intuitively intensified while solid-liquid retarding remains unchanged. Nevertheless, the overall friction between a Cassie-state droplet and the structured surface is indeed reduced since the air cushion formed in the interstices of the surface roughness underneath the Cassie-state droplet applies negligible resistance to the contact line. Our results have revealed the genesis of CLF from an ab initio perspective, demonstrated the effects of surface structures on a moving contact line and justified the critical role of CLF in the analysis of wetting-related situations.

  19. Nuclear fuel pin

    Hartley, Kenneth; Moulding, T.L.J.; Rostron, Norman.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel pin for use in fast breeder nuclear reactors containing fissile and fertile areas of which the fissile and fertile materials do not mix. The fissile material takes the shape of large and small diameter microspheres (the small diameter microspheres can pass through the interstices between the large microspheres). The barrier layers being composed of microspheres with a diameter situated between those of the large and small microspheres ensure that the materials do not mix [fr

  20. Pinning in nonmagnetic borocarbides

    Zholobenko, A.N.; Mikitik, G.P.; Fil, V.D.; Kim, J.D.; Lee, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    The field dependences of the Labush parameter in nonmagnetic borocarbides are measured by the method which does not require the free flux flow regime. The anticipated critical current densities are estimated. These values are by two orders of magnitude higher than those measured 'directly' in transport (magnetic) experiments. The giant peak-effect in the field dependences of the Labush parameter is revealed in the Y-based borocarbides. Its behavior is well approximated by the collective pinning theory

  1. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  2. Flux pinning by voids in surface-oxidized superconducting niobium and vanadium

    Meij, G.P. van der.

    1984-03-01

    The volume pinning force in several niobium and vanadium samples with voids is determined at various temperatures. Reasonable agreement is found with the collective pinning theory of Larkin and Ovchinnikov above the field of maximum pinning, if the flux line lattice is assumed to be amorphous in this region and if the elementary pinning force is calculated from the quasi-classical theory of Thuneberg, Kurkijaervi, and Rainer. Also some history and relaxation effects are studied in an alternating field. A qualitative explanation is given in terms of flux line dislocations, which reduce the shear strength of the flux line lattice. (Auth.)

  3. Spectroscopic On-Line Monitoring of Cu/W Contacts Erosion in HVCBs Using Optical-Fibre Based Sensor and Chromatic Methodology.

    Wang, Zhixiang; Jones, Gordon R; Spencer, Joseph W; Wang, Xiaohua; Rong, Mingzhe

    2017-03-06

    Contact erosion is one of the most crucial factors affecting the electrical service lifetime of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs). On-line monitoring the contacts' erosion degree is increasingly in demand for the sake of condition based maintenance to guarantee the functional operation of HVCBs. A spectroscopic monitoring system has been designed based upon a commercial 245 kV/40 kA S F 6 live tank circuit breaker with copper-tungsten (28 wt % and 72 wt %) arcing contacts at atmospheric S F 6 pressure. Three optical-fibre based sensors are used to capture the time-resolved spectra of arcs. A novel approach using chromatic methods to process the time-resolved spectral signal has been proposed. The processed chromatic parameters have been interpreted to show that the time variation of spectral emission from the contact material and quenching gas are closely correlated to the mass loss and surface degradation of the plug arcing contact. The feasibility of applying this method to online monitoring of contact erosion is indicated.

  4. Self-organized critical behavior in pinned flux lattices

    Pla, O.; Nori, F.

    1991-01-01

    We study the response of pinned fluxed lattices, under small perturbations in the driving force, below and close to the pinning-depinning transition. For driving Lorentz forces below F c (the depinning force at which the whole flux lattice slides), the system has instabilities against small force increases, with a power-law distribution characteristic of self-organized criticality. Specifically, D(d)∼d -1,3 , where d is the displacement of a flux line after a very small force increase. We also study the initial stages of the motion of the lattice once the driving force overcomes the pinning forces

  5. Diminution of contact angle hysteresis under the influence of an oscillating force.

    Manor, Ofer

    2014-06-17

    We suggest a simple quantitative model for the diminution of contact angle hysteresis under the influence of an oscillatory force invoked by thermal fluctuations, substrate vibrations, acoustic waves, or oscillating electric fields. Employing force balance rather than the usual description of contact angle hysteresis in terms of Gibbs energy, we highlight that a wetting system, such as a sessile drop or a bubble adhered to a solid substrate, appears at long times to be partially or fully independent of contact angle hysteresis and thus independent of static friction forces, as a result of contact line pinning. We verify this theory by studying several well-known experimental observations such as the approach of an arbitrary contact angle toward the Young contact angle and the apparent decrease (or increase) in an advancing (or a receding) contact angle under the influence of an external oscillating force.

  6. Enhanced expression of IL-8 in normal human keratinocytes and human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT in vitro after stimulation with contact sensitizers, tolerogens and irritants.

    Mohamadzadeh, M; Müller, M; Hultsch, T; Enk, A; Saloga, J; Knop, J

    1994-12-01

    To investigate the interleukin-8 production of keratinocytes after stimulation in vitro we have used various agents: (i) contact sensitizer (2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, 3-n-pentadecylcatechol); (ii) tolerogen (5-methyl-3-n-pentadecylcatechol); (iii) irritant (sodium lauryl sulfate). Interleukin-8 gene expression was assessed by northern blot hybridization of the total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from subconfluent normal human keratinocyte cultures and the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT using a radiolabeled DNA probe specific for human interleukin-8. Interleukin-8 gene expression was markedly increased upon in vitro stimulation after 1-6 h with contact sensitizers, tolerogen and the irritant. In contrast, interleukin-8 production was not detectable in unstimulated normal human keratinocytes or the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line. These results suggest that the induction and production of interleukin-8 is a response to nonspecific stimuli and may play a critical role in the early response to immunogenic or inflammatory signals in man.

  7. A finite element method for the numerical solution of the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes system for moving contact line problems

    Bao, Kai

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a semi-implicit finite element method is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition for the moving contact line problems. In our method, the system is solved in a decoupled way. For the Cahn-Hilliard equations, a convex splitting scheme is used along with a P1-P1 finite element discretization. The scheme is unconditionally stable. A linearized semi-implicit P2-P0 mixed finite element method is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. With our method, the generalized Navier boundary condition is extended to handle the moving contact line problems with complex boundary in a very natural way. The efficiency and capacity of the present method are well demonstrated with several numerical examples. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

  8. A finite element method for the numerical solution of the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes system for moving contact line problems

    Bao, Kai; Shi, Yi; Sun, Shuyu; Wang, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a semi-implicit finite element method is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition for the moving contact line problems. In our method, the system is solved in a decoupled way. For the Cahn-Hilliard equations, a convex splitting scheme is used along with a P1-P1 finite element discretization. The scheme is unconditionally stable. A linearized semi-implicit P2-P0 mixed finite element method is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. With our method, the generalized Navier boundary condition is extended to handle the moving contact line problems with complex boundary in a very natural way. The efficiency and capacity of the present method are well demonstrated with several numerical examples. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

  9. Spectroscopic On-Line Monitoring of Cu/W Contacts Erosion in HVCBs Using Optical-Fibre Based Sensor and Chromatic Methodology

    Zhixiang Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Contact erosion is one of the most crucial factors affecting the electrical service lifetime of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs. On-line monitoring the contacts’ erosion degree is increasingly in demand for the sake of condition based maintenance to guarantee the functional operation of HVCBs. A spectroscopic monitoring system has been designed based upon a commercial 245 kV/40 kA S F 6 live tank circuit breaker with copper–tungsten (28 wt % and 72 wt % arcing contacts at atmospheric S F 6 pressure. Three optical-fibre based sensors are used to capture the time-resolved spectra of arcs. A novel approach using chromatic methods to process the time-resolved spectral signal has been proposed. The processed chromatic parameters have been interpreted to show that the time variation of spectral emission from the contact material and quenching gas are closely correlated to the mass loss and surface degradation of the plug arcing contact. The feasibility of applying this method to online monitoring of contact erosion is indicated.

  10. Experimental and numerical study of Bondura® 6.6 PIN joints

    Berkani, I.; Karlsen, Ø.; Lemu, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    Pin joints are widely used in heavy-duty machinery such as aircrafts, cranes and offshore drilling equipment to transfer multi-dimensional shear forces. Their strength and service life depend on the clamping force in the contact region that is provided by interference fits. Though the interference fits provide full contact at the pin-hole interface under pretension loads, the contact interface reduces when the pin is subjected to an external load and hence a smaller contact surface leads to dramatic increase of the contact stress. The PIN joint of Bondura® Technology, investigated in this study, is an innovative solution intended to reduce the slack at the contact surface of the pin joint of heavy-duty machinery by using tapered sleeves on each end of the PIN. The study is aimed to better understand the contact pressure build-up and stress distribution in the supporting contact surface under pre-loading of the joint and the influence of temperature difference between part assembly and operation conditions. Numerical simulation using finite element method and diverse experimental tests were conducted. The numerical simulation and the test results, particularly the tests conducted with lubricated joints, show good conformance.

  11. Clinical and histomorphometrical study on titanium dioxide-coated external fixation pins.

    Koseki, Hironobu; Asahara, Tomohiko; Shida, Takayuki; Yoda, Itaru; Horiuchi, Hidehiko; Baba, Koumei; Osaki, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Pin site infection is the most common and significant complication of external fixation. In this work, the efficacy of pins coated with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) for inhibition of infection was compared with that of stainless steel control pins in an in vivo study. Pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into femoral bone in a rat model and exposed to ultraviolet A light for 30 minutes. On day 14, the animals were sacrificed and the bone and soft tissue around the pin were retrieved. The clinical findings and histological findings were evaluated in 60 samples. Clinical signs of infection were present in 76.7% of untreated pins, but in only 36.7% of TiO(2)-coated pins. The histological bone infection score and planimetric rate of occupation for bacterial colonies and neutrophils in the TiO(2)-coated pin group were lower than those in the control group. The bone-implant contact ratio of the TiO(2)-coated pin group was significantly higher (71.4%) than in the control pin group (58.2%). The TiO(2) was successful in decreasing infection both clinically and histomorphometrically. The photocatalytic bactericidal effect of TiO(2) is thought to be useful for inhibiting pin site infection after external fixation.

  12. Circuit reliability boosted by soldering pins of disconnect plugs to sockets

    Pierce, W. B.

    1964-01-01

    Where disconnect pins must be used for wiring and testing a circuit, improved system reliability is obtained by making a permanent joint between pins and sockets of the disconnect plug. After the circuit has been tested, contact points may be fused through soldering, brazing, or welding.

  13. Transformation of Helicopter PinS Procedures for Airplanes

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibility to use existing helicopter Point in Space procedures with minor changes for airplanes. The basis is to find parts of PinS procedures that need to be changed, suggest these changes, and then determine whether the revised procedures could be usable and could bring the benefits for airplane operations.

  14. Loss of Pin1 Suppresses Hedgehog-Driven Medulloblastoma Tumorigenesis

    Tao Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Therapeutic approaches to medulloblastoma (combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have led to significant improvements, but these are achieved at a high cost to quality of life. Alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Genetic mutations leading to the activation of the Hedgehog pathway drive tumorigenesis in ~30% of medulloblastoma. In a yeast two-hybrid proteomic screen, we discovered a novel interaction between GLI1, a key transcription factor for the mediation of Hedgehog signals, and PIN1, a peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase that regulates the postphosphorylation fate of its targets. The GLI1/PIN1 interaction was validated by reciprocal pulldowns using epitope-tagged proteins in HEK293T cells as well as by co-immunoprecipiations of the endogenous proteins in a medulloblastoma cell line. Our results support a molecular model in which PIN1 promotes GLI1 protein abundance, thus contributing to the positive regulation of Hedgehog signals. Most importantly, in vivo functional analyses of Pin1 in the GFAP-tTA;TRE-SmoA1 mouse model of Hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma demonstrate that the loss of Pin1 impairs tumor development and dramatically increases survival. In summary, the discovery of the GLI1/PIN1 interaction uncovers PIN1 as a novel therapeutic target in Hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.

  15. The behaviour of Phenix fuel pin bundle under irradiation

    Marbach, G.; Millet, P.; Blanchard, P.; Huillery, R.

    1979-07-01

    An entire Phenix sub-assembly has been mounted and sectioned after irradiation. The examination of cross-sections revealed the effects of mechanical interaction in the bundle (ovalisations and contacts between clads). According to analysis of the sodium channels, cooling of the pin bundle remained uniform. (author)

  16. Dependence of J c on pinning center morphology: An explanation of record J c observed for discontinuous columnar pinning of vortices

    Weinstein, R.; Gandini, A.; Parks, D.; Sawh, R.; Mayes, B.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study of defects caused by ion irradiation has proven that very discontinuous multiple-in-line-damage results in much higher J c than continuous columnar pinning centers. This is contrary to conventional wisdom. We develop a first approximation to a theory relating J c to the morphology of pinning centers. Qualitative agreement with experiment is achieved. Conclusions indicate the relative importance of pinning potential, percolation, and critical temperature for various morphologies. Results suggest the leading importance of pinning, compared to texture, weak links and oxygenation in achievement of the goal of high J c especially in large grain HTS

  17. Vortex pinning and creep experiments

    Kes, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief review of basic flux-pinning and flux-creep ingredients and a selection of experimental results on high-temperature-superconductivity compounds is presented. Emphasis is put on recent results and on those properties which are central to the emerging understanding of the flux-pinning and flux-creep mechanisms of these fascinating materials

  18. Where is the line? Phylogeography and secondary contact of western Palearctic coal tits (Periparus ater: Aves, Passeriformes, Paridae)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Tritsch, Christian; Martens, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    -European delimitation of a postulated secondary contact zone among coal tits from the north-eastern Palearctic ater subspecies group and those from the south-western Palearctic abietum group. Generally, between population differentiation was greatest in the Mediterranean range, which was explained by a greater...... separation in multiple Pleistocene refuge areas compared to the lower differentiation across the northeastern Palearctic range. Genetic diversity indices were lowest on Mediterranean island populations as compared to continental populations. Pairwise ˚ST values were highest among island populations....... At the same time, at least four distinct genetic lineages emerged in eastern Eurasia, the nominate ater subspecies group being one of them. Finally, during the Holocene extant wide-range secondary contact in Europe was established via rapid westward range expansion from an East Asian refuge and via...

  19. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  20. Nanotopography induced contact guidance of the F11 cell line during neuronal differentiation: a neuronal model cell line for tissue scaffold development

    Wieringa, Paul; Micera, Silvestro; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Cecchini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The F11 hybridoma, a dorsal root ganglion-derived cell line, was used to investigate the response of nociceptive sensory neurons to nanotopographical guidance cues. This established this cell line as a model of peripheral sensory neuron growth for tissue scaffold design. Cells were seeded on substrates of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) films imprinted via nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with a grating pattern of nano-scale grooves and ridges. Different ridge widths were employed to alter the focal adhesion formation, thereby changing the cell/substrate interaction. Differentiation was stimulated with forskolin in culture medium consisting of either 1 or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Per medium condition, similar neurite alignment was achieved over the four day period, with the 1% serum condition exhibiting longer, more aligned neurites. Immunostaining for focal adhesions found the 1% FBS condition to also have fewer, less developed focal adhesions. The robust response of the F11 to guidance cues further builds on the utility of this cell line as a sensory neuron model, representing a useful tool to explore the design of regenerative guidance tissue scaffolds. (paper)

  1. LINES

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  2. A least-squares/finite element method for the numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes-Cahn–Hilliard system modeling the motion of the contact line

    He, Qiaolin

    2011-06-01

    In this article we discuss the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard system modeling the motion of the contact line separating two immiscible incompressible viscous fluids near a solid wall. The method we employ combines a finite element space approximation with a time discretization by operator-splitting. To solve the Cahn-Hilliard part of the problem, we use a least-squares/conjugate gradient method. We also show that the scheme has the total energy decaying in time property under certain conditions. Our numerical experiments indicate that the method discussed here is accurate, stable and efficient. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Automated fuel pin loading system

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  4. Pinning down the axion

    Dabholkar, A.; Quashnock, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Davis has argued that, without inflation, the decay of axionic strings is the primary source of axions. This implies a cosmological lower bound on the axion mass of 10 -5 to 10 -3 eV. In order to obtain a sharper bound it is essential to know the spectrum of emitted axions and the detailed motion of a global string strongly coupled to the axionic field. To this end, we obtain self-consistent, renormalized equations that describe the dynamics of a radiating global string interacting with its surrounding axionic field. We describe the numerical formalism for evolving string trajectories using these equations. From the numerical and analytical evidence we argue that, with appropriate renormalization, the motion of an interacting cosmic string loop can be well approximated by the motion of a free Nambu-Goto string. This implies a lower bound for the axion mass of 10 -3 eV. Together with the recent upper bound of 4x10 -4 eV from the supernova SN1987a, this marginally rules out the invisible axion, or at least pins down the axion mass to a very narrow window around 10 -3 eV. This still leaves open the window around 2 eV for hardronic axions, but in that case the axion is no longer a serious dark matter candidate. (orig.)

  5. Self-Sealed Bionic Long Microchannels with Thin Walls and Designable Nanoholes Prepared by Line-Contact Capillary-Force Assembly.

    Lao, Zhao-Xin; Hu, Yan-Lei; Pan, Deng; Wang, Ren-Yan; Zhang, Chen-Chu; Ni, Jin-Cheng; Xu, Bing; Li, Jia-Wen; Wu, Dong; Chu, Jia-Ru

    2017-06-01

    Long microchannels with thin walls, small width, and nanoholes or irregular shaped microgaps, which are similar to capillaries or cancerous vessels, are urgently needed to simulate the physiological activities in human body. However, the fabrication of such channels remains challenging. Here, microchannels with designable holes are manufactured by combining laser printing with line-contact capillary-force assembly. Two microwalls are first printed by femtosecond laser direct-writing, and subsequently driven to collapse into a channel by the capillary force that arises in the evaporation of developer. The channel can remain stable in solvent due to the enhanced Van der Waals' force caused by the line-contact of microwalls. Microchannels with controllable nanoholes and almost arbitrary patterns can be fabricated without any bonding or multistep processes. As-prepared microchannels, with wall thicknesses less than 1 µm, widths less than 3 µm, lengths more than 1 mm, are comparable with human capillaries. In addition, the prepared channels also exhibit the ability to steer the flow of liquid without any external pump. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Pinning Mechanisms in YBCO Tapes

    Spera, Marcello; Ballarino, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis work, a study on flux pinning mechanisms of commercial YBCO tapes is presented. This study has been performed via critical current characterization using transport (via direct I-V curves) and magnetization (via a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) measurements. The latter ones turned out to be better concerning the comprehension of the pinning landscape of the provided samples, as a wider range of magnetic fields and temperatures is available for those measurements in the setup I used. The comparison of the experimental data with existing theoretical models allowed me to draw a picture of the pinning mechanisms underlying in each sample, and they turned out to be quite different one another. Moreover, for high-performance research tapes, another interesting feature has been found: the counterplay between the self-field critical current and the in-field one. Very well engineered artificial pinning structures limit the self-field critical current density due to the hi...

  7. Automated system for loading nuclear fuel pins

    Marshall, J.L.

    1983-10-01

    A completely automatic and remotely controlled fuel pin fabrication system is being designed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The Pin Operations System will produce fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The system will assemble fuel pin components into cladding tubes in a controlled environment. After fuel loading, the pins are filled with helium, the tag gas capsules are inserted, and the top end cap welded. Following welding, the pins are surveyed to assure they are free of contamination and then the pins are helium leak tested

  8. Automation of FBTR fuel pin inspection using FPGA

    Khare, K.M.; Pai, Siddhesh; Pant, Brijesh; Sendhil Raja, S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    A non-contact metrology system for inspection of FBTR fuel pins has been developed. The system consists of a stepper motors driven mechanism for orientation and positioning of FBTR fuel pin, a telecentric imaging system, absolute linear encoder with 0.1 μm resolution and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPCA) based controller. The FBTR pin assembly is telecentrically illuminated from bottom by a red LED and its shadow graph is imaged using a CCD camera through telecentric imaging lens system. For system control and automation we have used a FPGA that has integrated soft picoblaze processor, X-θ axis motion controller, custom IPs for encoder data acquisition, synchronization circuit, RS485 interface along with other l/Os. Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) on a PC the system is initialized at home position and the controller provides the trigger signal for start of data acquisition of CCD camera. CCD image of pin and the corresponding X-θ information is captured. After the acquisition of one set of images, the imaging module is moved with a step size pre-programmed to ensure proper stitching of acquired images. The GUI is programmed to analyze these X-θ Images to calculate the required parameters of the fuel pin like the diameter variation, pitch and bow. The details of the instrument and measurements made with it will be presented. (author)

  9. Enhanced pinning in superconducting thin films with graded pinning landscapes

    Motta, M.; Colauto, F.; Ortiz, W. A.; Fritzsche, J.; Cuppens, J.; Gillijns, W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.; Sanchez, A.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the sample border, decreasing linearly towards the center. Its overall performance is noticeably superior than that for a sample with uniformly distributed antidots: For high temperatures and low fields, the critical current is enhanced, whereas the region of thermomagnetic instabilities in the field-temperature diagram is significantly suppressed. These findings confirm the relevance of graded landscapes on the enhancement of pinning efficiency, as recently predicted by Misko and Nori [Phys. Rev. B 85, 184506 (2012)].

  10. Flexible CIGS solar cells on large area polymer foils with in-line deposition methods and application of alternative back contacts - Final report

    Tiwari, A. N.

    2009-08-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work performed within this project and also reports on synergies with other projects that helped to make a significant contribution to the development of CIGS thin film solar cells on flexible substrates such as polymer foils. The project's aims were to learn more about up-scaling issues and to demonstrate the abilities required for the processing of layers on large area polyimide foils for flexible CIGS solar cells. Custom-built evaporators that were designed and constructed in-house are described. A CIGS system for in-line deposition was also modified for roll-to-roll deposition and alternative electrical back contacts to conventional ones were evaluated on flexible polyimide foils. The objectives of the project and the results obtained are looked at and commented on in detail.

  11. Molybdenum thin film deposited by in-line DC magnetron sputtering as a back contact for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Li Zhaohui; Cho, Eou-Sik [Department of Electronics Engineering, Kyungwon University, San 65, Bokjung-dong, Soojung-gu, Seongnam city, Kyunggi-do, 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Jik, E-mail: sjkwon@kyungwon.ac.kr [Department of Electronics Engineering, Kyungwon University, San 65, Bokjung-dong, Soojung-gu, Seongnam city, Kyunggi-do, 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we reported the effect of the power and the working pressure on the molybdenum (Mo) films deposited using an in-line direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. The electrical and the structural properties of Mo film were improved by increasing DC power from 1 to 3 kW. On the other side, the resistivity of the Mo films became higher with the increasing working pressure. However, the adhesion property was improved when the working pressure was higher. In this work, in order to obtain an optimal Mo film as a back metal contact of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells, a bilayer Mo film was formed through the different film structures depending on the working pressure. The first layer was formed at a high pressure of 12 mTorr for a better adhesion and the second layer was formed at a low pressure of 3 mTorr for a lower resistivity.

  12. Evidence for an anisotropic contact shift. Proton NMR study of line shapes in uranocene and (C5H5)3UCl powders

    McGarvey, B.R.; Nagy, S.

    1987-01-01

    The proton NMR spectra of solid powders of uranocene and (C 5 H 5 ) 3 UCl were measured from 90 to 298 K. The line shapes of both systems became increasingly anisotropic as the temperature was lowered. The cyclooctatetraene rings in uranocene were found to be rotating at a frequency greater than 100 kHz down to 90 K. The (C 5 H 5 ) 3 UCl molecules were found to be reorienting rapidly above 220 K, but below 140 K the NMR spectra were characteristic of a rigid lattice with no rotation of the cyclopentadienyl rings. The spectra of both compounds could be simulated by assuming an axial paramagnetic shift tensor and an orientation-dependent line width. Comparison of the experimental shift tensor with that calculated for a point dipolar interaction revealed a large and very anisotropic paramagnetic shift for uranocene due to unpaired spin transferred into the ligand orbitals. The shift was large when the magnetic field was along the 8-fold symmetry axis of the molecule and nearly zero perpendicular to the axis. It appears conclusive that the contact shift in uranocene is not isotropic at all. A similar anisotropy in the contact shift associated with the cyclopentadienyl rings is evident also in the results for (C 5 H 5 )UCl. The average solid-state shift of uranocene agreed with the solution shift, within experimental error, but the solid state shift of (C 5 H 5 ) 3 UCl was 42 ppm greater than the solution shift at 298 K, indicating a difference in molecular geometry between the crystalline state and solution. 32 references, 8 figures, 3 tables

  13. Stress relaxation of thermally bowed fuel pins

    Crossland, I.G.; Speight, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of cross-pin temperature gradients in nuclear reactor fuel pins produces differential thermal expansion which, in turn, causes the fuel pin to bow elastically. If the pin is restrained in any way, such thermal bowing causes the pin to be stressed. At high temperatures these stresses can relax by creep and it is shown here that this causes the pin to suffer an additional permanent deflection, so that when the cross-pin temperature difference is removed the pin remains bowed. By representing the cylindrical pin by an equivalent I-beam, the present work examines this effect when it takes place by secondary creep. Two restraint systems are considered, and it is demonstrated that the rate of relaxation depends mainly upon the creep equation, and hence the temperature, and also the magnitude of the initial stresses. (author)

  14. Defect pin behaviour in the DFR

    Sloss, W.M.; Bagley, K.Q.; Edmonds, E.; Potter, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of defective fuel pin irradiations has been carried out in the DFR. This program employed fuel pins which had failed during previous irradiations (natural defects) and pins in which simulated failures (artificial defects) had been induced prior to irradiation or during an intermediate examination stage at moderate or substantial burnups. The artificial defects simulated longitudinal ruptures and were normally located at positions near the top, middle and bottom of the pin where clad temperatures were 450, 540 and 630 0 C respectively. The fuel was mixed U-Pu oxide, and fuel form, stoichiometry, clad type, pin diameter, linear rating, and burnup were among the variables examined. The defect pin tests were normally carried out in single pin or trefoil type vehicles. After irradiation all the pins were subjected to the normal nondestructive examination procedures and the visual, radiographic, gamma-scanning, and dimensional change results are presented. Several pins were destructively examined and the metallographic data are discussed

  15. Development of a semiconductor neutron dosimeter with a PIN diode

    Kim, Seungho; Lee, Namho; Cho, Jaiwan; Youk, Geunuck

    2004-01-01

    When a Si PIN diode is exposed to fast neutrons, it produces displacement in Si lattice structure of the diode. Defects induced from structural dislocation become effective recombination centers for carriers which pass through the base of a PIN diode. Hence, increasing the resistivity of the diode decreases the current for the applied forward voltage. This paper involves the development of a neutron sensor based on the phenomena of the displacement effect damaged by neutron exposure. The neutron effect on the semiconductor was analyzed, and multi PIN diode arrays with various intrinsic layer (I layer) thicknesses and cross sections were fabricated. Under irradiation tests with a neutron beam, the manufactured diodes have good characteristics of linearity in a neutron irradiation experiment and give results that the increase of thickness of I layer and the decrease of the cross-section of the PIN diodes improve the sensitivity. Newly developed PIN diodes with a thicker I layer and various cross sections were retested and showed the best neutron sensitivity in the condition that the I layer thickness was similar to the length of a side of the cross-section. On the basis of two test results, final PIN diodes with a rectangular shape were manufactured and the characteristics for neutron detectors were analyzed through the neutron beam test using the on-line electronic dosimetry system. The developed PIN diode shows a good linearity to absorbed dose in the range of 0 to 1,000cGy (Tissue) and its neutron sensitivity is 13 mV/cGy at a constant current of 5 mA, that is three higher than that of similar commercially developed neutron detectors. Moreover the device shows less dependency on the orientation of the neutron beam and a considerable stability in an annealing test for a long period. (author)

  16. MONJU fuel pin performance analysis

    Kitagawa, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Hayashi, H.

    1979-01-01

    Monju fuel pin has almost the same properties as other LMFBR fuel pins, i.e. Phenix, PFR, CRBR, but would be irradiated under severe conditions: maximum linear heat rate of 381 watt/cm, hot spot cladding temperature of 675 deg C, peak burnup of 131,000 MWd/t, peak fluence (E greater than 0.1 MeV) of 2.3 10 23 n/cm 2 . In order to understand in-core performance of Monju fuel pin, its thermal and mechanical behaviour was predicted using the fast running performance code SIMPLE. The code takes into account pellet-cladding interaction due to thermal expansion and swelling, gap conductance, structural changes of fuel pellets, fission product gas release with burnup and temperature increase, swelling and creep of fuel pellets, corrosion of cladding due to sodium flow and chemical attack by fission products, and cumulative damage of the cladding due to thermal creep

  17. Neutron radiography of fuel pins

    Jackson, C.N. Jr.; Powers, H.G.; Burgess, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron radiography performed with a reactor source has been shown to be a superior radiographic method for the examination of unirradiated mixed oxide fuel pins at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. Approximately 1,700 fuel pins were contained in a sample that demonstrated the capability of the method for detecting laminations, structural flaws, fissile density variation, hydrogenous inclusions and voids in assembled fuel pins. The nature, extent, and importance of the detected conditions are substantiated by gamma autoradiography and by destructive analysis employing alpha autoradiography, electron microprobe and visual inspection. Also, a series of radiographs illustrate the response of neutron radiography as compared to low voltage and high voltage x-ray and gamma source Iridium 192 radiography. (U.S.)

  18. Mode of failure of LMFBR fuel pins

    Washburn, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the irradiation test described were to evaluate mixed-oxide fuel performance and to confirm the design adequacy of the FFTF fuel pins. After attainment of the initial objectives the irradiation of several of the original fuel pins was continued until a cladding breach occurred. The consequences of a cladding breach were evaluated by reconstituting the original 37-pin subassembly into two 19-pin subassemblies after a burnup at 50,000 MWd/MTM (5.2 a/o). The original pins were supplemented with fresh pins as necessary. Irradiation of the subassemblies was continued until a cladding breach occurred. Results are presented and discussed

  19. Generation of dissolved organic matter and byproducts from activated sludge during contact with sodium hypochlorite and its implications to on-line chemical cleaning in MBR.

    Cai, Weiwei; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Ng, Wun Jern; Liu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    On-line chemical cleaning of membranes with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been commonly employed for maintaining a constant permeability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) due to its simple and efficient operation. However, activated sludge is inevitably exposed to NaClO during this cleaning process. In spite of the broad applications of on-line chemical cleaning in MBR such as chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) and chemical enhanced backwash (CEB), little information is currently available for the release of emerging dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts from this prevalent practice. Therefore, in this study, activated sludge suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution was exposed to different doses of NaClO in order to determine the generation of potential DOM and byproducts. The results showed the occurrence of significant DOM release (up to 24.7 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon) after exposure to NaClO for 30 min. The dominant components of the released DOM were characterized to be humic acid-like as well as protein-like substances by using an excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrophotometer. Furthermore, after the contact of activated sludge with NaClO, 19 kinds of chlorinated and brominated byproducts were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, eight of which were confirmed and characterized with standard compounds. Many byproducts were found to be halogenated aromatic compounds, including halopyrroles and halo(hydro)benzoquinones, which had been reported to be significantly more toxic than the halogenated aliphatic ones. Consequently, this study offers new insights into the practice of on-line chemical cleaning, and opens up a window to re-examine the current operation of MBR by looking into the generation of micropollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Velocity distribution measurement in wire-spaced fuel pin bundle

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ohtake, Toshihide; Uruwashi, Shinichi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    1974-01-01

    Flow distribution measurement was made in the subchannels of a pin bundle in air flow. The present paper is interim because the target of this work is the decision of temperature of the pin surface in contact with wire spacers. The wire-spaced fuel pin bundle used for the experiment consists of 37 simulated fuel pins of stainless steel tubes, 3000 mm in length and 31.6 mm in diameter, which are wound spirally with 6 mm stainless steel wire. The bundle is wrapped with a hexagonal tube, 3500 mm in length and 293 mm in flat-to-flat distance. The bundle is fixed with knock-bar at the entrance of air flow in the hexagonal tube. The pitch of pins in the bundle is 37.6 mm (P/D=1.19) and the wrapping pitch of wire is 1100 mm (H/D=34.8). A pair of arrow-type 5-hole Pitot tubes are used to measure the flow velocity and the direction of air flow in the pin bundle. The measurement of flow distribution was made with the conditions of air flow rate of 0.33 m 3 /sec, air temperature of 45 0 C, and average Reynolds number of 15100 (average air velocity of 20.6 m/sec.). It was found that circular flow existed in the down stream of wire spacers, that axial flow velocity was slower in the subchannels, which contained wire spacers, than in those not affected by the wire, and that the flow angle to the axial velocity at the boundary of subchannels was two thirds smaller than wire wrapping angle. (Tai, I.)

  1. Multicenter Study of Pin Site Infections and Skin Complications Following Pinning of Pediatric Supracondylar Humerus Fractures.

    Combs, Kristen; Frick, Steven; Kiebzak, Gary

    2016-12-03

    Pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common elbow fractures in pediatric patients. Surgical fixation using pins is the primary treatment for displaced fractures. Pin site infections may follow supracondylar humerus fracture fixation; the previously reported incidence rate in the literature is 2.34%, but there is significant variability in reported incidence rates of pin site infection. This study aims to define the incidence rate and determine pre-, peri-, and postoperative factors that may contribute to pin site infection following operative reduction, pinning, and casting. A retrospective chart analysis was performed over a one-year period on patients that developed pin site infection. A cast care form was added to Nemours' electronic medical records (EMR) system (Epic Systems Corp., Verona, WI) to identify pin site infections for retrospective review. The cast care form noted any inflamed or infected pins. Patients with inflamed or infected pin sites underwent a detailed chart review. Preoperative antibiotic use, number and size of pins used, method of postoperative immobilization, pin dressings, whether postoperative immobilization was changed prior to pin removal, and length of time pins were in place was recorded. A total of 369 patients underwent operative reduction, pinning, and casting. Three patients developed a pin site infection. The pin site infection incidence rate was 3/369=0.81%. Descriptive statistics were reported for the three patients that developed pin site infections and three patients that developed pin site complications. Pin site infection development is low. Factors that may contribute to the development of pin site infection include preoperative antibiotic use, length of time pins are left in, and changing the cast prior to pin removal.

  2. Color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model for simulating droplet motion with contact-angle hysteresis.

    Ba, Yan; Liu, Haihu; Sun, Jinju; Zheng, Rongye

    2013-10-01

    Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is an effective tool for simulating the contact-line motion due to the nature of its microscopic dynamics. In contact-line motion, contact-angle hysteresis is an inherent phenomenon, but it is neglected in most existing color-gradient based LBMs. In this paper, a color-gradient based multiphase LBM is developed to simulate the contact-line motion, particularly with the hysteresis of contact angle involved. In this model, the perturbation operator based on the continuum surface force concept is introduced to model the interfacial tension, and the recoloring operator proposed by Latva-Kokko and Rothman is used to produce phase segregation and resolve the lattice pinning problem. At the solid surface, the color-conserving wetting boundary condition [Hollis et al., IMA J. Appl. Math. 76, 726 (2011)] is applied to improve the accuracy of simulations and suppress spurious currents at the contact line. In particular, we present a numerical algorithm to allow for the effect of the contact-angle hysteresis, in which an iterative procedure is used to determine the dynamic contact angle. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the developed model, including the droplet partial wetting process and droplet dynamical behavior in a simple shear flow. The obtained results are compared with theoretical solutions and experimental data, indicating that the model is able to predict the equilibrium droplet shape as well as the dynamic process of partial wetting and thus permits accurate prediction of contact-line motion with the consideration of contact-angle hysteresis.

  3. Evaluation of bundle duct interaction by out-of-pile compression test of FBR fuel pin bundles

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nagamine, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2001-06-01

    Bundle duct interaction (BDI) caused by expansion of fuel pin bundle is a main factor to limit the fuel lifetime. Therefore, it is important for the design of fast reactor fuel assembly to understand the fuel pin deformation behavior under BDI condition. In order to understand the fuel pin deformation behavior under BDI condition, out-of-pile compression tests were conducted for FBR fuel pin bundle by use of X-ray CT equipment. In these compression tests, two kinds of fuel pin bundles were conducted. One was the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch and the other was the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch and large diameter claddings. The general discussions were also performed based on the results of out-of-pile compression tests obtained by use of X-ray CT equipment in the previous work. Following results were obtained. 1) The occurrence of the pin-to-duct contact depends on the wire-pitch. In the fuel pin bundle with large wire-pitch, the pin-to-duct contact occurred at the early stage of BDI. The reason of this result is due to the low bowing rigidity of the fuel pins with long wire-pitch. 2) The value of the ovalation stiffness strongly depends on the geometry of cladding (diameter, thickness) and especially on wire-pitch. This result in this work revealed that the occurrence of the pin-to-duct contact depends on the value of the ovalation stiffness. 3) The occurrence of wire dispersion and dispersive displacement of pins depends on the wire-pitch strongly. In the fuel pin bundle with the long wire-pitch, the occurrence of the above-mentioned suppression mechanism to BDI is remarkable. 4) The suppression mechanism to BDI of the fuel pin bundle with the long wire-pitch is elastic oval deformation of cladding, wire dispersion and dispersive displacement of pins. On the other hand, the elastic and plastic oval deformation of cladding is the major suppression mechanism to BDI in the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch. 5) The appearance of

  4. Material accountancy for metallic fuel pin casting

    Bucher, R.G.; Orechwa, Y.; Beitel, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The operation of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) is based on the electrometallurgical processing of spent metallic reactor fuel. The pin casting operation, although only one of several operations in FCF, was the first to be on-line. As such, it has served to demonstrate the material accountancy system in many of its facets. This paper details, for the operation of the pin casting process with depleted uranium, the interaction between the mass tracking system (MTG) and some of the ancillary computer codes which generate pertinent information for operations and material accountancy. It is necessary to distinguish between two types of material balance calculations -- closeout for operations and material accountancy for safeguards. The two have much in common, for example, the mass tracking system database and the calculation of an inventory difference, but, in general, are not congruent with regard to balance period and balance spatial domain. Moreover, the objective, assessment, and reporting requirements of the calculated inventory difference are very different in the two cases

  5. Clinical and histomorphometrical study on titanium dioxide-coated external fixation pins

    Koseki H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hironobu Koseki,1 Tomohiko Asahara,1 Takayuki Shida,1 Itaru Yoda,1 Hidehiko Horiuchi,1 Koumei Baba,2 Makoto Osaki11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, 2Industrial Technology Center of Nagasaki, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: Pin site infection is the most common and significant complication of external fixation. In this work, the efficacy of pins coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2 for inhibition of infection was compared with that of stainless steel control pins in an in vivo study.Methods: Pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into femoral bone in a rat model and exposed to ultraviolet A light for 30 minutes. On day 14, the animals were sacrificed and the bone and soft tissue around the pin were retrieved. The clinical findings and histological findings were evaluated in 60 samples.Results: Clinical signs of infection were present in 76.7% of untreated pins, but in only 36.7% of TiO2-coated pins. The histological bone infection score and planimetric rate of occupation for bacterial colonies and neutrophils in the TiO2-coated pin group were lower than those in the control group. The bone-implant contact ratio of the TiO2-coated pin group was significantly higher (71.4% than in the control pin group (58.2%. The TiO2 was successful in decreasing infection both clinically and histomorphometrically.Conclusion: The photocatalytic bactericidal effect of TiO2 is thought to be useful for inhibiting pin site infection after external fixation.Keywords: titanium dioxide, external fixation, bactericidal activity, Staphylococcus aureus

  6. Fuel pin bowing in CAGR

    Crossland, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the more important mechanisms by which pin bowing can occur in Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors are examined. These include creep relaxation of the stresses which occur when thermal bowing is restrained and asymmetric axial clad creep. The clad temperature changes which accompany such bowing are also investigated and the theoretical results briefly compared with the empirical behaviour. (author)

  7. Suspension scheme for fuel pin

    Butts, C.E.; Gray, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is presented of a nuclear fuel pin suspension arrangement comprising, in combination, a rod; a first beam member connected to said rod at one end; a plurality of parallel-spaced slidable fuel support plates attached to said first beam member, the longitudinal axis of first beam member being perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of each of said fuel support plates, a first coupling means disposed along the length of the first beam member for permitting slidable fuel support plates parallel movement with respect to the longitudinal axis of said first beam member, a second coupling means located at one end of each of slidable fuel plates for slidably engaging first coupling means of first beam member, a second beam member connected to the other end of each of parallel-spaced slidable fuel support plates and providing an extension, second beam member being provided with a third coupling means disposed along the length of second beam member at one end thereof; and a plurality of fuel pins provided with a fourth coupling means located at one end of each fuel pin for slidably engaging third coupling means of second beam member to permit each fuel pin parallel movement with respect to the longitudinal axis of second beam member. (U.S.)

  8. Anisotropic shift of the irreversibility line by neutron irradiation

    Sauerzopf, F.M.; Wiesinger, H.P.; Weber, H.W.; Crabtree, G.W.; Frischherz, M.C.; Kirk, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    The irreversibility line of high-T c superconductors is shifted considerably by irradiating the material with fast neutrons. The anisotropic and non-monotonous shift is qualitatively explained by a simple model based on an interaction between three pinning mechanisms, the intrinsic pinning by the ab-planes, the weak pinning by the pre-irradiation defect structure, and strong pinning by neutron induced defect cascades. A correlation between the cascade density and the position of the irreversibility line is observed

  9. Development of a FBR fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code 'BAMBOO' . Development of a dispersion model and its validation

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Asaga, Takeo

    2002-03-01

    Bundle Duct Interaction (BDI) is one of the life limiting factors of a FBR fuel subassembly. Under the BDI condition, the fuel pin dispersion would occur mainly by the deviation of the wire position due to the irradiation. In this study the effect of the dispersion on the bundle deformation was evaluated by using the BAMBOO code and following results were obtained. (1) A new contact analysis model was introduced in BAMBOO code. This model considers the contact condition at the axial position other than the nodal point of the beam element that composes the fuel pin. This improvement made it possible in the bundle deformation analysis to cause fuel pin dispersion due to the deviations of the wire position. (2) This model was validated with the results of the out-of-pile compression test with the wire deviation. The calculated pin-to-duct and pin-to-pin clearances with the dispersion model almost agreed with the test results. Therefore it was confirmed that the BAMBOO code reasonably predicts the bundle deformation with the dispersion. (3) In the dispersion bundle the pin-to-pin clearances widely scattered. And the minimum pin-to-duct clearance increased or decreased depending on the dispersion condition compared to the no-dispersion bundle. This result suggests the possibility that the considerable dispersion would affect the thermal integrity of the bundle. (author)

  10. Improvement on post-OPC verification efficiency for contact/via coverage check by final CD biasing of metal lines and considering their location on the metal layout

    Kim, Youngmi; Choi, Jae-Young; Choi, Kwangseon; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Lee, Sooryong

    2011-04-01

    As IC design complexity keeps increasing, it is more and more difficult to ensure the pattern transfer after optical proximity correction (OPC) due to the continuous reduction of layout dimensions and lithographic limitation by k1 factor. To guarantee the imaging fidelity, resolution enhancement technologies (RET) such as off-axis illumination (OAI), different types of phase shift masks and OPC technique have been developed. In case of model-based OPC, to cross-confirm the contour image versus target layout, post-OPC verification solutions continuously keep developed - contour generation method and matching it to target structure, method for filtering and sorting the patterns to eliminate false errors and duplicate patterns. The way to detect only real errors by excluding false errors is the most important thing for accurate and fast verification process - to save not only reviewing time and engineer resource, but also whole wafer process time and so on. In general case of post-OPC verification for metal-contact/via coverage (CC) check, verification solution outputs huge of errors due to borderless design, so it is too difficult to review and correct all points of them. It should make OPC engineer to miss the real defect, and may it cause the delay time to market, at least. In this paper, we studied method for increasing efficiency of post-OPC verification, especially for the case of CC check. For metal layers, final CD after etch process shows various CD bias, which depends on distance with neighbor patterns, so it is more reasonable that consider final metal shape to confirm the contact/via coverage. Through the optimization of biasing rule for different pitches and shapes of metal lines, we could get more accurate and efficient verification results and decrease the time for review to find real errors. In this paper, the suggestion in order to increase efficiency of OPC verification process by using simple biasing rule to metal layout instead of etch model

  11. Experimental Qualification of the Sleeved Pin Multilink Attachment for Divertor PFC's

    Poutanen, J.; McCallum, A.; Turner, A.; Merola, M.

    2006-01-01

    The latest design for connecting the limited life ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC's) to the reusable cassette body is the so called sleeved pin multilink attachment. The connection is made by expanding a 43 mm diameter hollow AlBr pin inside the fixation holes of components of the cassette body and PFC by a swaging process. The multilink is an easy, safe and fast assembly method, but the original dismantling method of drilling out the pin was found troublesome. Therefore, in the latest attachment design a thin sleeve is incorporated between the pin and the holes, which makes it possible to dismantle the joint by simply pulling out the pin and sleeve sequentially. Experimental qualification of the new sleeved design is now proceeding. The aim of the experimental qualification is to prove that the sleeved design meets the requirements of load carrying capability, clearance free connection, and easy and safe removal. Associated analytical studies were performed to develop and verify theoretical models and correlations for use in design. Results from the experimental qualification will provide reference information for developing tools for making and removing the connection. Theoretical finite element models in association with the results of earlier test campaigns with nonsleeved design were used to determine pin expansion parameters. The expansion parameters were verified with plate-pin tests measuring contact pressures produced by pin expansion. The plate-pin tests were also used to demonstrate the feasibility of pin removal and develop pin removal methodology. The mechanical capabilities of the connection design are being examined with test series of cyclic tensile loading plus articulation-induced loading of a single connection mock-up. Remaking properties of the attachment are being studied with multiple swaging and removing of the pin into the fixation holes. Finally the dismantling of the connection will be examined with full length pin extraction

  12. Fabrication of Fast Reactor Fuel Pins for Test Irradiations

    Karsten, G. [Institute for Applied Reactor Physics, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Dippel, T. [Institute for Radiochemistry, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Laue, H. J. [Institute for Applied Reactor Physics, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1967-09-15

    An extended irradiation programme is being carried out for the fuel element development of the Karlsruhe fast breeder project. A very important task within the programme is the testing of plutonium-containing fuel pins in a fast-reactor environment. This paper deals with fabrication of such pins by our laboratories at Karlsruhe. For the fast reactor test positions at present envisaged a fuel with 15% plutonium and the uranium fully enriched is appropriate. Hie mixed oxide is both pelletized and vibro-compacted with smeared densities between 80 and 88% theoretical. The pin design is, for example, such that there are two gas plena at the top and bottom, and one blanket above the fuel with the fuel zone fitting to the test reactor core length. The specifications both for fuel and cladding have been adapted to the special purpose of a fast-breeder reactor - the outer dimensions, the choice of cladding and fuel types, the data used and the kind of tests outline the targets of the development. The fuel fabrication is described in detail, and also the powder line used for vibro-compaction. The source materials for the fuel are oxalate PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} from the UF{sub 6} process. The special problems of mechanical mixing and of plutonium homogeneity have been studied. The development of the sintering technique and grain characteristics for vibratory compactive fuel had to overcome serious problems in order to reach 82-83% theoretical. The performance of the pin fabrication needed a major effort in welding, manufacturing of fits and decontamination of the pin surfaces. This was a stimulation for the development of some very subtle control techniques, for example taking clear X-ray photographs and the tube testing. In general the selection of tests was a special task of the production routine. In conclusion the fabrication of the pins resulted in valuable experiences for the further development of fast reactor fuel elements. (author)

  13. Two-dimensional steady-state thermal and hydraulic analysis code for prediction of detailed temperature fields around distorted fuel pin in LMFBR assembly: SPOTBOW

    Shimizu, T.

    1983-01-01

    SPOTBOW computer program has been developed for predicting detailed temperature and turbulent flow velocity fields around distorted fuel pins in LMFBR fuel assemblies, in which pin to pin and pin to wrapper tube contacts may occur. The present study started from the requirement of reactor core designers to evaluate local hot spot temperature due to the wire contact effect and the pin bowing effect on cladding temperature distribution. This code calculates for both unbaffled and wire-wrapped pin bundles. The Galerkin method and iterative procedure were used to solve the basic equations which govern the local heat and momentum transfer in turbulent fluid flow around the distorted pins. Comparisons have been made with cladding temperatures measured in normal and distorted pin bundle mockups to check the validity of this code. Predicted peak temperatures in the vicinity of wire contact point were somewhat higher than the measured values, and the shape of the peaks agreed well with measurement. The changes of cladding temperature due to the decrease of gap width between bowing pin and adjacent pin were predicted well

  14. New Universal Tribometer as Pin or Ball-on-Disc and Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Types

    H. Kaleli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains a description of a new Universal Tribometer design which enables simulation of different contact and test types such as pin-on-disc, ball-on-disc and linear reciprocating tests. There are many models of wear Tribometer in the world market. These devices are manufactured by various companies abroad and are imported to our country. Cost of this devices start from 50.000 euros and goes to hundreds of thousands of euros. One of the most commonly used of this device is Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Tribo Test Machine. This wear tester is produced at a low limited cost within the KAP (Scientifical Research Project Coordinator of Yıldız Technical University. The test machine can work including three types of Tribotest rigs (Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate, Pin-on-Disc and Ball-on-Disc. It is designed to operate also at high temperatures up to 500 ˚C. The new piece of equipment allows instrumented tribological testing of piston ring and cylinder liner samples at low and high temperatures and boundary lubrication conditions of any typical gasoline or Diesel engines. Some friction results were shown in boundary lubricating conditions between piston ring and cylinder liner sliding pairs describing Tribotest machine is driven by AC servo motor which is more accurate than DC motor.

  15. Predictors of chronic pulmonary vein reconnections after contact force-guided ablation: importance of completing electrical isolation with circumferential lines and creating sufficient ablation lesion densities.

    Nakamura, Kohki; Naito, Shigeto; Sasaki, Takehito; Minami, Kentaro; Take, Yutaka; Shimizu, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Yano, Toshiaki; Senga, Michiharu; Yamashita, Eiji; Sugai, Yoshinao; Kumagai, Koji; Funabashi, Nobusada; Oshima, Shigeru

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to identify the predictors of chronic pulmonary vein reconnections (CPVRs) after contact force (CF)-guided circumferential PV isolation (CPVI) of atrial fibrillation (AF). Forty-nine consecutive patients undergoing second ablation procedures for recurrent AF after CF-guided ablation were retrospectively studied. The CPVI was performed by point-by-point ablation with a target CF of 15-20 g. The incidence of CPVRs was evaluated along the right- and left-sided anterior and posterior CPVI regions (Ant-RPVs, Post-RPVs, Ant-LPVs, and Post-LPVs). CPVRs were observed in 30.6, 22.4, 20.4, and 32.7 % of patients along the Ant-RPVs, Post-RPVs, Ant-LPVs, and Post-LPVs, respectively (P = 0.436). In the multivariate logistic analyses, completing a left atrium-PV conduction block with touch-up ablation inside the initially estimated CPVI lines (Ant-RPVs, Post-RPVs, Ant-LPVs, Post-LPVs; odds ratio [OR] 5.747, 15.000, 207.619, 7.940; P = 0.032, 0.004, 0.034, 0.021) and region length (Post-LPVs; OR 3.183, P = 0.027) were positive predictors of CPVRs, while the mean CF (Ant-RPVs; OR 0.861, P = 0.045) and number of radiofrequency applications per unit length (Ant-LPVs, Post-LPVs; OR 0.038, 0.122; P = 0.034, 0.029) were negative predictors. At optimal cutoffs of 5.8 cm for the region length, 14.2 g for the mean CF, and 1.97/cm (Ant-LPVs) and 2.01/cm (Post-LPVs) for the radiofrequency application density, the sensitivity and specificity were 93.8 and 63.6 %, 60.0 and 76.5 %, 90.0 and 64.1 %, and 75.0 and 63.6 %, respectively. Completing PVI with circumferential lines without touch-up ablation and creating a sufficient density of radiofrequency ablation lesions on the lines with a sufficient CF may be necessary to prevent CPVRs after a CF-guided CPVI.

  16. Pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network

    Wang, Lei; Sun, You-xian

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the problem of controlling a group of mobile agents in a plane in order to move them towards a desired orbit via pinning control, in which each agent is associated with a chaotic oscillator coupled with those of neighboring agents, and the pinning strategy is to have the common linear feedback acting on a small fraction of agents by random selection. We explore the effects of the pinning probability, feedback gains and agent density in the pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network under a fast-switching constraint, and perform numerical simulations for validation. In particular, we show that there exists a critical pinning density for network synchronization with an unbounded region: above the threshold, the dynamical network can be controlled by pinning; below it, anarchy prevails. And for the network with a single bounded synchronization region, pinning control has little effect as regards enhancing network synchronizability

  17. Intrinsic pinning in superconductors with extremely small coherence lengths

    Schimmele, L.; Kronmueller, H.; Teichler, H.

    1988-01-01

    By means of a Ginsburg-Landau-type theory which takes into account the discrete lattice structure the variation of the energy ('Peierls potential') of an isolated flux line is calculated when shifted relatively to the crystal lattice. In particular, a primitive cubic lattice is considered with a straight flux line, aligned parallel to a cubic axis. The resulting Peierls potential may lead to intrinsic pinning if the coherence length is smaller than about two nearest neighbour distances. The coherence lengths at low temperatures determined for the recently discovered high T c superconductors of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 class come very close to this value so that intrinsic pinning might possibly be relevant for these superconductors. (author)

  18. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein from the drug resistant human bladder cancer cell line BIU-87 does not require cell-to-cell contact.

    Zhou, Hui-liang; Zheng, Yong-jun; Cheng, Xiao-zhi; Lv, Yi-song; Gao, Rui; Mao, Hou-ping; Chen, Qin

    2013-09-01

    The efflux activity of transmembrane P-glycoprotein prevents various therapeutic drugs from reaching lethal concentrations in cancer cells, resulting in multidrug resistance. We investigated whether drug resistant bladder cancer cells could transfer functional P-glycoprotein to sensitive parental cells. Drug sensitive BIU-87 bladder cancer cells were co-cultured for 48 hours with BIU-87/ADM, a doxorubicin resistant derivative of the same cell line, in a Transwell® system that prevented cell-to-cell contact. The presence of P-glycoprotein in recipient cell membranes was established using fluorescein isothiocyanate, laser scanning confocal microscopy and Western blot. P-glycoprotein mRNA levels were compared between cell types. Rhodamine 123 efflux assay was done to confirm that P-glycoprotein was biologically active. The amount of P-glycoprotein protein in BIU-87 cells co-cultured with BIU-87/ADM was significantly higher than in BIU-87 cells (0.44 vs 0.25) and BIU-87/H33342 cells (0.44 vs 0.26, each p transfer. P-glycoprotein mRNA expression was significantly higher in BIU-87/ADM cells than in co-cultured BIU-87 cells (1.28 vs 0.30), BIU-87/H33342 (0.28) and BIU-87 cells (0.25, each p <0.001), ruling out a genetic mechanism. After 30 minutes of efflux, rhodamine 123 fluorescence intensity was significantly lower in BIU-87/ADM cells (5.55 vs 51.45, p = 0.004) and co-cultured BIU-87 cells than in BIU-87 cells (14.22 vs 51.45, p <0.001), indicating that P-glycoprotein was functional. Bladder cancer cells can acquire functional P-glycoprotein through a nongenetic mechanism that does not require direct cell contact. This mechanism is consistent with a microparticle mediated process. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A simple nondestructive technique for monitoring the bond gas in sealed fast reactor nuclear fuel pins

    Shriwastwa, B B; Mehrotra, R S; Ghosh, J K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiometallurgy Div.

    1994-12-31

    A simple nondestructive testing technique has been developed to identify bond gas inside a welded fuel pin. The technique is based on the accurate surface temperature measurement of fuel pins heated in a constant temperature water bath. This technique can be applied in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) fuel pin production line due to simplicity of the set up, simple operation and quick response time. An attempt was made to develop a non destructive test method for monitoring the bond gas composition. Preliminary development work carried out in this connection, the test method adopted and the test results are presented. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Flux pinning property in a single crystal NdBa2Cu3Oy superconductor

    Hasan, M.N.; Kurokawa, T.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Matsushita, T.; Chikumoto, N.; Machi, T.; Muralidhar, M.; Murakami, M.

    2005-01-01

    The critical current density J c and the apparent pinning potential U 0 * in a single crystal NdBa 2 Cu 3 O y superconductor which shows a broad peak effect are investigated by measuring a DC magnetization and its relaxation. The field-induced pinning mechanism does not explain the temperature dependence of peak field B p and dip field B d . The experimental results of J c and U 0 * are compared with the theoretical analysis based on the flux creep-flow model, taking the distribution of the flux pinning strength into account. The number of flux lines in the flux bundle (g 2 ), the most probable value of pinning strength (A m ) and distribution width (σ 2 ) are determined so that a good fit is obtained between the experimental and theoretical results. The behavior of these parameters is discussed in correspondence to the disorder transition of flux lines

  1. Rigid levitation, flux pinning, thermal depinning, and fluctuation in high-Tc superconductors

    Brandt, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    Here, the author shows that the strong velocity-independent frictional force on a levitating superconductor and on any type-II superconductor moving in a homogeneous magnetic field is caused by pinning and depinning of the magnetic flux lines in its interior. Levitation may thus be used to investigate the pinning properties of a superconductor, and friction in a superconductor bearing may be minimized by choosing appropriate materials and geometries

  2. Effect of surface texturing on superoleophobicity, contact angle hysteresis, and "robustness".

    Zhao, Hong; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Law, Kock-Yee

    2012-10-23

    Previously, we reported the creation of a fluorosilane (FOTS) modified pillar array silicon surface comprising ~3-μm-diameter pillars (6 μm pitch with ~7 μm height) that is both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic, with water and hexadecane contact angles exceeding 150° and sliding angles at ~10° owing to the surface fluorination and the re-entrant structure in the side wall of the pillar. In this work, the effects of surface texturing (pillar size, spacing, and height) on wettability, contact angle hysteresis, and "robustness" are investigated. We study the static, advancing, and receding contact angles, as well as the sliding angles as a function of the solid area fraction. The results reveal that pillar size and pillar spacing have very little effect on the static and advancing contact angles, as they are found to be insensitive to the solid area fraction from 0.04 to ~0.4 as the pillar diameter varies from 1 to 5 μm and the center-to-center spacing varies from 4.5 to 12 μm. On the other hand, sliding angle, receding contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis are found to be dependent on the solid area fraction. Specifically, receding contact angle decreases and sliding angle and hysteresis increase as the solid area fraction increases. This effect can be attributable to the increase in pinning as the solid area fraction increases. Surface Evolver modeling shows that water wets and pins the pillar surface whereas hexadecane wets the pillar surface and then penetrates into the side wall of the pillar with the contact line pinning underneath the re-entrant structure. Due to the penetration of the hexadecane drop into the pillar structure, the effect on the receding contact angle and hysteresis is larger relative to that of water. This interpretation is supported by studying a series of FOTS pillar array surfaces with varying overhang thickness. With the water drop, the contact line is pinned on the pillar surface and very little overhang thickness effect

  3. Unicortical self-drilling external fixator pins reduce thermal effects during pin insertion.

    Greinwald, Markus; Varady, Patrick A; Augat, Peter

    2017-12-14

    External fixation is associated with the risk of pin loosening and pin infection potentially associated to thermal bone necrosis during pin insertion. This study aims to investigate if the use of external fixator systems with unicortical pins reduces the heat production during pin insertion compared to fixators with bicortical pins. Porcine bone specimens were employed to determine bone temperatures during insertion of fixator pins. Two thermographic cameras were used for a simultaneous temperature measurement on the bone surface (top view) and a bone cross-section (front view). Self-drilling unicortical and bicortical pins were inserted at different rotational speeds: (30-600) rpm. Maximum and mean temperatures of the emerging bone debris, bone surface and bone cross-section were analyzed. Maximum temperatures of up to 77 ± 26 °C were measured during pin insertion in the emerging debris and up to 42 ± 2 °C on the bone surface. Temperatures of the emerging debris increased with increasing rotational speeds. Bicortical pin insertion generated significantly higher temperatures at low insertion speed (30 rpm) CONCLUSION: The insertion of external fixator pins can generate a considerable amount of heat around the pins, primarily emerging from bone debris and at higher insertion speeds. Our findings suggest that unicortical, self-drilling fixator pins have a decreased risk for thermal damage, both to the surrounding tissue and to the bone itself.

  4. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode; Amplificador espectroscopico para diodo Pin

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: bebe.luna_s@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  5. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  6. Transient survivability of LMR oxide fuel pins

    Weber, E.T.; Pitner, A.L.; Bard, F.E.; Culley, G.E.; Hunter, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel pin integrity during transient events must be assessed for both the core design and safety analysis phases of a reactor project. A significant increase in the experience related to limits of integrity for oxide fuel pins in transient overpower events has been realized from testing of fuel pins irradiated in FFTF and PFR. Fourteen FFTF irradiated fuel pins were tested in TREAT, representing a range of burnups, overpower ramp rates and maximum overpower conditions. Results of these tests along with similar testing in the PFR/TREAT program, provide a demonstration of significant safety margins for oxide fuel pins. Useful information applied in analytical extrapolation of fuel pin test data have been developed from laboratory transient tests on irradiated fuel cladding (FCTT) and on unirradiated fuel pellet deformation. These refinements in oxide fuel transient performance are being applied in assessment of transient capabilities of long lifetime fuel designs using ferritic cladding

  7. Test module development to detect the flase call probe pins on microeprocessor test equipment

    Tang, L. W.; Ong, N. R.; Mohamad, I. S. B.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Probe pins are useful for electrical testing of microelectronic components, printed circuit board assembly (PCBA), microprocessors and other electronic devices due to it provides the conductivity test based on specific device circuit design. During the repeatable test runs, the load of test modules, contact failures and the current conductivity induces layer wear off all the tip of probe pins contact. Contamination will be build-up on probe pins and increased contact resistivity which results of cost loss and time loss for rectifying programs, rectifying testers and exchanging new probe pins. In this study, a resistivity approach will be developed to provide "Testing of Test Probes". The test module based on "Four-wire Ohm measurement" method with two alternative ways of applying power supply, that are 9V from a single power supply and 5V from Arduino UNO power supply were demonstrated to measure the small resistance value of microprocessor probe pin. A microcontroller with VEE Pro software was used to record the measurement data. The accuracy of both test modules were calibrated under different temperature conditions and result shows that 9V from a single power supply test module has higher measurement accuracy.

  8. Cesium migration in LMFBR fuel pins

    Karnesky, R.A.; Jost, J.W.; Stone, I.Z.

    1978-10-01

    The factors affecting the axial migration of cesium in mixed oxide fuel pins and the effects of cesium migration on fuel pin performance are examined. The development and application of a correlated model which will predict the occurrence of cesium migration in a mixed oxide (75 w/o UO 2 + 25 w/o PuO 2 ) fuel pins over a wide range of fabrication and irradiation conditions are described

  9. FFTF fuel pin design bases and performance

    Cox, C.M.; Hanson, J.E.; Roake, W.E.; Slember, R.J.; Weber, C.E.; Millunzi, A.C.

    1975-04-01

    The FFTF fuel pin was conservatively designed to meet thermal and structural performance requirements in the categories normal operation, upset events, emergency events, and hypothetical, faulted events. The fuel pin operating limits consistent with these requirements were developed from a strong fuel pin irradiation testing program scoped to define the performance capability under relevant steady state and transient conditions. Comparison of the results of the irradiation testing program with design requirements indicates that the FFTF fuel pin can exceed its goal burnup of 80,000 MWd/MTM. (U.S.)

  10. Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    Levinskas, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the pin processor which receives metal alloy pins cast from recycled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel and prepares them for assembly into new IFR fuel elements. Either full length as-cast or precut pins are fed to the machine from a magazine, cut if necessary, and measured for length, weight, diameter and deviation from straightness. Accepted pins are loaded into cladding jackets located in a magazine, while rejects and cutting scraps are separated into trays. The magazines, trays, and the individual modules that perform the different machine functions are assembled and removed using remote manipulators and master-slaves

  11. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Maley, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10 6 -10 7 A/cm 2 at high temperatures (but not very close to T c ) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    Bulaevskii, L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, CUNY Lehman College 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Chudnovsky, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, CUNY Lehman College, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Maley, M. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at high temperatures (but not very close to T{sub c}) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described

  14. Language Contact.

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  15. Fabrication of surfaces with extremely high contact angle hysteresis from polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Wang, Liming; Wei, Jingjing; Su, Zhaohui

    2011-12-20

    High contact angle hysteresis on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) ion-paired with hydrophobic perfluorooctanoate anions is reported. Both the bilayer number of PEMs and the ionic strength of deposition solutions have significant influence on contact angle hysteresis: higher ionic strength and greater bilayer number cause increased contact angle hysteresis values. The hysteresis values of ~100° were observed on smooth PEMs and pinning of the receding contact line on hydrophilic defects is implicated as the cause of hysteresis. Surface roughness can be used to further tune the contact angle hysteresis on the PEMs. A surface with extremely high contact angle hysteresis of 156° was fabricated when a PEM was deposited on a rough substrate coated with submicrometer scale silica spheres. It was demonstrated that this extremely high value of contact angle hysteresis resulted from the penetration of water into the rough asperities on the substrate. The same substrate hydrophobized by chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane exhibits high advancing contact angle and low hysteresis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  17. Reduction of halo pin site morbidity with a new pin care regimen.

    Kazi, Hussain Anthony; de Matas, Marcus; Pillay, Robin

    2013-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of halo device associated morbidity over a 4-year period. To assess the impact of a new pin care regimen on halo pin site related morbidity. Halo orthosis treatment still has a role in cervical spine pathology, despite increasing possibilities of open surgical treatment. Published figures for pin site infection range from 12% to 22% with pin loosening from 7% to 50%. We assessed the outcome of a new pin care regimen on morbidity associated with halo spinal orthoses, using a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2004. In the last two years, our pin care regimen was changed. This involved pin site care using chlorhexidene & regular torque checking as part of a standard protocol. Previously, povidone iodine was used as skin preparation in theatre, followed by regular sterile saline cleansing when pin sites became encrusted with blood. There were 37 patients in the series, the median age was 49 (range, 22-83) and 20 patients were male. The overall infection rate prior to the new pin care protocol was 30% (n=6) and after the introduction, it dropped to 5.9% (n=1). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Pin loosening occurred in one patient in the group prior to the formal pin care protocol (3%) and none thereafter. Reduced morbidity from halo use can be achieved with a modified pin cleansing and tightening regimen.

  18. Phosphorylation of conserved PIN motifs directs Arabidopsis PIN1 polarity and auxin transport

    Huang, F.; Kemel Zago, M.; Abas, L.; van Marion, A.; Galván-Ampudia, C.S.; Offringa, R.

    2010-01-01

    Polar cell-to-cell transport of auxin by plasma membrane-localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers generates auxin gradients that provide positional information for various plant developmental processes. The apical-basal polar localization of the PIN proteins that determines the direction of

  19. Electrical transport and pinning properties of Nb films with washboard-like nanostructures

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V. [Physikalisches Institut Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Physics, Kharkiv National University (Ukraine); Begun, Evgeniya; Huth, Michael [Physikalisches Institut Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Shklovskij, Valerij A. [Department of Physics, Kharkiv National University (Ukraine); Institute for Theoretical Physics NSC-KIPT, Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    A careful analysis of the magneto-transport properties of epitaxial nanostructured Nb thin films in the normal and the mixed state is performed. The nanopatterns were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. They provide a washboard-like pinning potential landscape for vortices in the mixed state and simultaneously cause a resistivity anisotropy in the normal state. Two matching magnetic fields for the vortex lattice with the underlying nanostructures have been observed. By applying these fields, the most likely pinning sites along which the flux lines move through the samples have been selected. By this, either the background isotropic pinning of the pristine film or the enhanced isotropic pinning originating from the nanoprocessing have been probed. Via an Arrhenius analysis of the resistivity data the pinning activation energies for three vortex lattice parameters have been quantified. The changes in the electrical transport and the pinning properties have been correlated with the results of the microstructural and topographical characterization of the FIB-patterned samples. The obtained results provide further insight into the pinning mechanisms at work in FIB-nanopatterned superconductors for fluxonic applications.

  20. Axial gap formation in P.W.R. fuel pins

    Roberts, G.; Jones, K.W.

    1978-07-01

    The potential mechanisms of axial gap formation in PWR fuel pins are examined analytically and also using evidence from post-irradiation examination (p.i.e.) investigation. It is concluded that fuel and cladding cannot remain in contact during densification and so the settling of of the fuel stack, which forms the gaps, must be prevented by such things as asperities in the cladding, fuel chips or tilted pellets. Examples from the p.i.e. examination programme are used to support this conclusion. (author)

  1. Synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control

    Keywords. Complex network; the pinning synchronization; synchronizability. ... The findings reveal the relationship between the decreasing speed of maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal submatrices for coupling matrix and the synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control. We discuss the ...

  2. Breached-pin testing in the US

    Mahagin, D.E.; Lambert, J.D.B.

    1981-04-01

    Experience gained at EBR-II by the late 1970's from a significant number of failures in experimental fuel-pin irradiations forms the basis of a program directed towards the characterization of breached pins. The questions to be answered and the issues raised by further testing are discussed

  3. Fast reactor fuel pin behavior analyses in a LOF type transient event

    Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Kaito, Takeji; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kenya

    2013-06-01

    In order to evaluate integrity limiting parameters of fuel pins during fast reactor core transient events, such as fuel center line temperature and cladding maximum temperature, fuel pin behavior calculations were made using the fast reactor fuel pin performance code CEDAR. The temperature histories of fuel pins during a loss of flow (LOF) type transient events was calculated based on Ross and Stoute type gap conductance model and constant gap conductance model, which is used in a core transient calculation code like HIPRAC. The calculated maximum temperatures of cladding and adjacent coolant channel were lower in the case with Ross and Stoute type model than in the case of constant gap conductance model due to the dynamic change of gap conductance of former case. It is indicated that core transient calculations with constant gap conductance give conservative cladding and coolant temperatures than that with Ross and Stoute type gap conductance model which is thought to be realistic. (author)

  4. TACO: fuel pin performance analysis

    Stoudt, R.H.; Buchanan, D.T.; Buescher, B.J.; Losh, L.L.; Wilson, H.W.; Henningson, P.J.

    1977-08-01

    The thermal performance of fuel in an LWR during its operational lifetime must be described for LOCA analysis as well as for other safety analyses. The determination of stored energy in the LOCA analysis, for example, requires a conservative fuel pin thermal performance model that is capable of calculating fuel and cladding behavior, including the gap conductance between the fuel and cladding, as a function of burnup. The determination of parameters that affect the fuel and cladding performance, such as fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding dimensional changes, fuel relocation, and thermal expansion, should be accounted for in the model. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has submitted a topical report, BAW-10087P, December 1975, which describes their thermal performance model TACO. A summary of the elements that comprise the TACO model and an evaluation are presented

  5. Incommensurate pinning mechanism in KCP

    Apostol, M.; Baldea, I.

    1984-07-01

    A new pinning mechanism (termed incommensurate) is put forward for K 2 Pt(CN) 4 Brsub(0.3)x3.2H 2 O(KCP) based on the Q-quasi-modulated distribution of the bromine anions (Br-bar) along the chain axis (Q/2 being the Fermi momentum reduced to the first Brillouin zone). The different origins of the direct current (d.c.) thermally-activated gap and optical gap are thereby explained. The spectrum of the collective excitations (amplitudons and phasons) and the dielectric function are calculated for the charge density wave (CDW) state. Fair agreement is obtained with the optical and neutron scattering data. (author)

  6. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms

  7. Resistance projection welding small pins in vacuum tube feedthrough assembly

    Kuncz, F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Resistance projection welding of two stainless steel pins to a cup is successfully accomplished by specially designed electrodes and by forming domes on the pin ends. Details of electrode and pin construction are given, as well as welding parameters

  8. Effect of contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on the floatability of spheres at the air-water interface.

    Feng, Dong-Xia; Nguyen, Anh V

    2017-10-01

    The floatability of solid particles on the water surface governs many natural phenomena and industrial processes including film flotation and froth flotation separation of coal and valuable minerals. For many years, the contact angle (CA) has been postulated as the key factor in determining the particle floatability. Indeed, the maximum force (tenacity) supporting the flotation of fine spheres was conjectured to occur when the apical angle of the contact circle is equal to the contact angle. In this paper, the model predictions are reviewed and compared with experimental results. It is shown that CA can be affected by many physical and chemical factors such as surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity and can have a range of values known as the CA hysteresis. This multiple-valued CA invalidates the available theories on the floatability of spheres. Even the intuitive replacement of CA by the advancing (maximum) CA in the classical theories can be wrong. A few new examples are also reviewed and analyzed to demonstrate the significance of CA variation in controlling the particle floatability. They include the pinning of the contact line at the sharp edge, known as the Gibbs inequality condition, and the nearby interaction among floating particles, known as lateral inter-particle interaction. It is concluded that our quantitative understanding of the floatability of real particles being irregular and heterogeneous both morphologically and chemically is still far from being satisfactory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Finite element analysis of a novel pin-sleeve system for external fixation of distal limb fractures in horses.

    Brianza, Stefano; Brighenti, Vittoria; Lansdowne, Jennifer L; Schwieger, Karsten; Bouré, Ludovic

    2011-11-01

    The transfixation pin cast (TPC) is an external skeletal fixation technique used to treat horses with distal limb fractures, but its use is often associated with pin-loosening and an increased risk of treatment failure. To address implant loosening, the pin sleeve cast system (PSC) was recently designed and consists of a pin-sleeve unit inserted into the bone. Each pin runs through a sleeve placed in the bone, making contact at two fixed points only within the sleeve. Each pin is attached to a ring embedded in a resin cast. In this report, the mechanical performance of a traditional TPC pin arrangement was compared with that of the PSC using validated finite element models of bone substitutes previously tested in vitro. The PSC resulted in a marked reduction in peak strain magnitude around the pins and a more even distribution of strain across the bone cortex. The two systems resulted in comparable proximal fragment displacement and had a similar stress concentration around bone defects during implant removal. The findings suggest that the PSC load transfer mechanism is effective even in geometrically complex structures like equine bones. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrical Contacts in Monolayer Arsenene Devices.

    Wang, Yangyang; Ye, Meng; Weng, Mouyi; Li, Jingzhen; Zhang, Xiuying; Zhang, Han; Guo, Ying; Pan, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Junku; Pan, Feng; Lu, Jing

    2017-08-30

    Arsenene, arsenic analogue of graphene, as an emerging member of two-dimensional semiconductors (2DSCs), is quite promising in next-generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. The metal electrical contacts play a vital role in the charge transport and photoresponse processes of nanoscale 2DSC devices and even can mask the intrinsic properties of 2DSCs. Here, we present a first comprehensive study of the electrical contact properties of monolayer (ML) arsenene with different electrodes by using ab initio electronic calculations and quantum transport simulations. Schottky barrier is always formed with bulk metal contacts owing to the Fermi level pinning (pinning factor S = 0.33), with electron Schottky barrier height (SBH) of 0.12, 0.21, 0.25, 0.35, and 0.50 eV for Sc, Ti, Ag, Cu, and Au contacts and hole SBH of 0.75 and 0.78 eV for Pd and Pt contacts, respectively. However, by contact with 2D graphene, the Fermi level pinning effect can be reduced due to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Remarkably, a barrier free hole injection is realized in ML arsenene device with graphene-Pt hybrid electrode, suggestive of a high device performance in such a ML arsenene device. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of favorable electrodes in future ML arsenene devices.

  11. Cesium chemistry in GCFR fuel pins

    Fee, D.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The fuel rod design for the Gas Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor (GCFR) is similar to that employed for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) with the exception of the unique features inherent to the use of helium as the coolant. These unique design features include the use of (1) vented and pressure-equalized fuel rods, and (2) ribbed cladding along 75% of the fuel section. The former design feature enables reduction in cladding thickness and prevention of possible creep collapse of the cladding due to the high coolant pressure (8.5 MPa). The latter design feature brings about improved heat transfer characteristics. Each GCFR fuel rod is vented to a manifold whereby gaseous fission products diffusing out of the fuel pin are retained on charcoal traps. As a result, the internal pressure of a GCFR fuel pin does not increase during irradiation. In addition, the venting system also maintains the pressure within the fuel pin slightly below (0.3 to 0.5 MPa) the coolant pressure outside the fuel pin. Consequently, should a breach occur in the cladding, helium flows into the breached fuel pin thereby minimizing fission product contamination of the coolant. These desirable aspects of a GCFR fuel pin can be maintained only as long as axial gas transport paths are available and operating within the fuel pin

  12. Flux pinning enhancement by Y2BaCuO5 inclusions in melt processed YBaCuO superconductors

    Murakami, M.

    1991-01-01

    While nonsuperconducting particles are known to serve as effective pinning centers in conventional superconductors, their effect in high T c superconductors is still controversial. In this paper, the author gives evidence that nonsuperconducting Y 2 BaCuO 5 (21 1) inclusions can act as pinning centers in melt processed YBaCuO superconductors even when their size is orders of magnitude larger than the coherence length. In such a case, the interface provides pinning. Theoretical estimates based on direct summations agree well with the experimental results. The applications of direct summation for obtaining the bulk pinning force is justified by direct observation of the FLL (flux line lattice), where the FLL has no long range order and the fluxoids are pinned by 211 inclusions

  13. Computer simulation of vortex pinning in type II superconductors. II. Random point pins

    Brandt, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Pinning of vortices in a type II superconductor by randomly positioned identical point pins is simulated using the two-dimensional method described in a previous paper (Part I). The system is characterized by the vortex and pin numbers (N/sub v/, N/sub p/), the vortex and pin interaction ranges (R/sub v/, R/sub p/), and the amplitude of the pin potential A/sub p/. The computation is performed for many cases: dilute or dense, sharp or soft, attractive or repulsive, weak or strong pins, and ideal or amorphous vortex lattice. The total pinning force F as a function of the mean vortex displacment X increases first linearly (over a distance usually much smaller than the vortex spacing and than R/sub p/) and then saturates, fluctuating about its averaging F-bar. We interpret F-bar as the maximum pinning force j/sub c/B of a large specimen. For weak pins the prediction of Larkin and Ovchinnikov for two-dimensional collective pinning is confirmed: F-bar = const. iW/R/sub p/c 66 , where W-bar is the mean square pinning force and c 66 is the shear modulus of the vortex lattice. If the initial vortex lattice is chosen highly defective (''amorphous'') the constant is 1.3--3 times larger than for the ideal triangular lattice. This finding may explain the often observed ''history effect.'' The function F-bar(A/sub p/) exhibits a jump, which for dilute, sharp, attractive pins occurs close to the ''threshold value'' predicted for isolated pins by Labusch. This jump reflects the onset of plastic deformation of the vortex lattice, and in some cases of vortex trapping, but is not a genuine threshold

  14. Flux pinning characteristics of YBCO coated conductor

    Matsushita, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fukumoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Kiss, T.; Watanabe, T.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Muroga, T.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Flux pinning properties of PLD-processed YBCO coated conductors deposited on IBAD substrate are investigated. The thickness of YBCO layer is changed in the range of 0.27-1.0 μm. The thickness dependence of critical current density, n-value and irreversibility field are measured in a wide range of magnetic field. The results are compared with the theoretical flux creep-flow model. It is found that these pinning properties are strongly influenced by the thickness as well as the pinning strength. Optimum condition for high field application of this superconductor is discussed

  15. Pinning and creep in superconductors

    Ovchinnikov, Yu.N.

    1994-01-01

    All superconductors can be separated into two large groups: type I and type II. The behaviour of these two groups in a magnetic field is quite different. The superconductors of type I, in a strong magnetic field, enter the intermediate state. Phenomenological picture of this state was given by Landau. The type II superconductors, in strong magnetic fields, form the mixed state (or Shubnikov phase). The microscopic picture of the mixed state was given by Abrikosov on the basis of Ginzburg-Landau equations. In ideal homogeneous superconductors the free energy is not changed if all the vortex structure is shifted on some distance u. The transport current will be proportional, therefore, to the electric field E. All the real superconductors, however, are inhomogeneous. Inhomogeneities interact with vortex lattice and pin it. In this new state the transport current below some critical value does not lead to the motion of the flux lattice and to the energy dissipation. The value of critical current strongly depends on the type of inhomogeneities, on the value of magnetic field and on temperature. In new layered superconductors, the critical current depends also on the orientation of the magnetic field B with respect to the layer planes. Temperature and quantum fluctuations lead to the transition between different metastable states in superconductors with current. As a result, the vortex lattice slowly moves (creep phenomenon). Below we will briefly discuss all these phenomena. (orig.)

  16. Parasitic nematodes modulate PIN-mediated auxin transport to facilitate infection.

    Wim Grunewald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive plant pathogens that cause significant yield losses. They induce highly specialized feeding sites (NFS in infected plant roots from which they withdraw nutrients. In order to establish these NFS, it is thought that the nematodes manipulate the molecular and physiological pathways of their hosts. Evidence is accumulating that the plant signalling molecule auxin is involved in the initiation and development of the feeding sites of sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. Intercellular transport of auxin is essential for various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we analysed the spatial and temporal expression of PIN auxin transporters during the early events of NFS establishment using promoter-GUS/GFP fusion lines. Additionally, single and double pin mutants were used in infection studies to analyse the role of the different PIN proteins during cyst nematode infection. Based on our results, we postulate a model in which PIN1-mediated auxin transport is needed to deliver auxin to the initial syncytial cell, whereas PIN3 and PIN4 distribute the accumulated auxin laterally and are involved in the radial expansion of the NFS. Our data demonstrate that cyst nematodes are able to hijack the auxin distribution network in order to facilitate the infection process.

  17. Parasitic nematodes modulate PIN-mediated auxin transport to facilitate infection.

    Grunewald, Wim; Cannoot, Bernard; Friml, Jirí; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive plant pathogens that cause significant yield losses. They induce highly specialized feeding sites (NFS) in infected plant roots from which they withdraw nutrients. In order to establish these NFS, it is thought that the nematodes manipulate the molecular and physiological pathways of their hosts. Evidence is accumulating that the plant signalling molecule auxin is involved in the initiation and development of the feeding sites of sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. Intercellular transport of auxin is essential for various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we analysed the spatial and temporal expression of PIN auxin transporters during the early events of NFS establishment using promoter-GUS/GFP fusion lines. Additionally, single and double pin mutants were used in infection studies to analyse the role of the different PIN proteins during cyst nematode infection. Based on our results, we postulate a model in which PIN1-mediated auxin transport is needed to deliver auxin to the initial syncytial cell, whereas PIN3 and PIN4 distribute the accumulated auxin laterally and are involved in the radial expansion of the NFS. Our data demonstrate that cyst nematodes are able to hijack the auxin distribution network in order to facilitate the infection process.

  18. Material composition – Pinning strength correlation in Nb thin films with focused ion beam-milled washboard nanostructures

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V., E-mail: Dobrovolskiy@Physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Physical Department, Kharkiv National University, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Begun, Evgeniya; Huth, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Shklovskij, Valerij A. [Physical Department, Kharkiv National University, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Institute for Theoretical Physics, NSC-KIPT, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We fabricated an array of grooves in Nb films by using focused ion beam milling. •We determined the material composition in different areas of the processed films. •We deduced the pinning activation energies from the magneto-resistivity data. •We obtained the material composition – pinning strength correlation in the processed films. -- Abstract: An analysis of the interrelated changes in the material composition and the pinning strength in nanostructured Nb (1 1 0) thin films is presented. The nanopatterns were prepared by focused ion beam milling of an array of uniaxial grooves. They induce a washboard-like pinning potential landscape for vortices in the mixed state. By applying different magnetic fields, the most likely pinning sites along which the flux lines move through the samples have been selected. By this, either the background isotropic pinning of the pristine film or the enhanced isotropic pinning originating from the nanoprocessing has been probed. The enhanced pinning strength in the processed films has been found to correlate with the content of Ga implanted into the films during the nanopatterning.

  19. Material composition – Pinning strength correlation in Nb thin films with focused ion beam-milled washboard nanostructures

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.; Begun, Evgeniya; Huth, Michael; Shklovskij, Valerij A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We fabricated an array of grooves in Nb films by using focused ion beam milling. •We determined the material composition in different areas of the processed films. •We deduced the pinning activation energies from the magneto-resistivity data. •We obtained the material composition – pinning strength correlation in the processed films. -- Abstract: An analysis of the interrelated changes in the material composition and the pinning strength in nanostructured Nb (1 1 0) thin films is presented. The nanopatterns were prepared by focused ion beam milling of an array of uniaxial grooves. They induce a washboard-like pinning potential landscape for vortices in the mixed state. By applying different magnetic fields, the most likely pinning sites along which the flux lines move through the samples have been selected. By this, either the background isotropic pinning of the pristine film or the enhanced isotropic pinning originating from the nanoprocessing has been probed. The enhanced pinning strength in the processed films has been found to correlate with the content of Ga implanted into the films during the nanopatterning

  20. Vortex pinning by point defect in superconductors

    Liao Hongyin; Zhou Shiping; Du Haochen

    2003-01-01

    We apply the periodic time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model to study vortex distribution in type-II superconductors with a point-like defect and square pinning array. A defect site will pin vortices, and a periodic pinning array with right geometric parameters, which can be any form designed in advance, shapes the vortex pattern as external magnetic field varies. The maximum length over which an attractive interaction between a pinning centre and a vortex extends is estimated to be about 6.0ξ. We also derive spatial distribution expressions for the order parameter, vector potential, magnetic field and supercurrent induced by a point defect. Theoretical results and numerical simulations are compared with each other and they are consistent

  1. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Liming Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  2. Nuclear fuel pin controlled failure device

    Schlenker, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Each fuel pin of a fuel assembly for a water-cooled nuclear reactor is provided with means for rupturing the cladding tube at a predetermined location if an abnormal increase in pressure of the gases present occurs due to a loss-of-coolant accident. Preferably all such rupture means are oriented to minimize the hydraulic resistance to the flow of emergency core coolant such as all rupture means pointing in the same direction. Rupture means may be disposed at different elevations in adjacent fuel pins and, further, fuel pins may be provided with two or more rupture means, one of which is in the upper portion of the fuel pin. Rupture means are mechanical as by providing a locally weakened condition of a controlled nature in the cladding. (U.S.)

  3. Ultrasonic inspections of fuel alignment pins

    Rathgeb, W.; Schmid, R.

    1994-01-01

    As a remedy to the practical problem of defects in fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X750, an inspection technique has been developed which fully meets the requirements of detecting defects. The newly used fuel alignment pins made of austenite are easy to test and therefore satisfy the necessity of further inspections.For the fuel alignment pins of the upper core structure a safe and fast inspection technique was made available. The inspection sensitivity is high and it is possible to give quantitative directions concerning defect orientation and depth. After the required inspections had been concluded in 1989, a total of 18 inspections were carried out in various national and international nuclear power plants in the following years. During this time more than 6000 fuel alignment pines were examined.For the fuel alignment pins the inspection technique provided could increase the understanding of the defect process. This technique contributed to the development of an adaptive and economical repair strategy. ((orig.))

  4. Application of PIN diodes in Physics Research

    Ramirez-Jimenez, F. J.; Mondragon-Contreras, L.; Cruz-Estrada, P.

    2006-01-01

    A review of the application of PIN diodes as radiation detectors in different fields of Physics research is presented. The development and research in semiconductor technology, the use of PIN diodes in particle counting, X-and γ-ray spectroscopy, medical applications and charged particle spectroscopy are considered. Emphasis is made in the activities realized in the different research and development Mexican institutions dealing with this kind of radiation detectors

  5. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  6. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble. PMID:25685035

  7. Anisotropic flux pinning in high Tc superconductors

    Kolesnik, S.; Igalson, J.; Skoskiewicz, T.; Szymczak, R.; Baran, M.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of the results of FC magnetization measurements on several Pb-Sr-(Y,Ca)-Cu-O crystals representing various levels of flux pinning. The pinning centers in our crystals have been set up during the crystal growth process or introduced by neutron irradiation. Some possible explanations of the observed effects, including surface barrier, flux-center distribution and sample-shape effects, are discussed. ((orig.))

  8. Investigation on macroscopic cross section model for BWR pin-by-pin core analysis - 118

    Fujita, T.; Tada, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamane, Y.; Kosaka, S.; Hirano, G.

    2010-01-01

    A cross section model used in the pin-by-pin core analysis for BWR is investigated. In the pin-by-pin core calculation method, pin-cell averaged cross sections are calculated for many combinations of state and history variables that have influences on the cross section and are tabulated prior to the core calculations. Variation of a cross section in a core simulator is classified into two different types, i.e., the instantaneous effect and the history effect. The instantaneous effect is incorporated by the variation of cross section which is caused by the instantaneous change of state variables. For this effect, the exposure, the void fraction, the fuel temperature, the moderator temperature and the control rod are used as indexes. The history effect is the cumulative effect of state variables. We treat this effect with a unified approach using the spectral history. To confirm accuracy of the cross section model, the pin-by-pin fission rate distribution and the k-infinity of fuel assembly which are obtained with the tabulated and the reference cross sections are compared. For the instantaneous effect, the present cross section model well reproduces the reference results for all off-nominal conditions. For the history effect, however, considerable differences both on the pin-by-pin fission rate distribution and the k-infinity are observed at high exposure points. (authors)

  9. A macroscopic cross-section model for BWR pin-by-pin core analysis

    Fujita, Tatsuya; Endo, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Akio

    2014-01-01

    A macroscopic cross-section model used in boiling water reactor (BWR) pin-by-pin core analysis is studied. In the pin-by-pin core calculation method, pin-cell averaged cross sections are calculated for many combinations of core state and depletion history variables and are tabulated prior to core calculations. Variations of cross sections in a core simulator are caused by two different phenomena (i.e. instantaneous and history effects). We treat them through the core state variables and the exposure-averaged core state variables, respectively. Furthermore, the cross-term effect among the core state and the depletion history variables is considered. In order to confirm the calculation accuracy and discuss the treatment of the cross-term effect, the k-infinity and the pin-by-pin fission rate distributions in a single fuel assembly geometry are compared. Some cross-term effects could be negligible since the impacts of them are sufficiently small. However, the cross-term effects among the control rod history (or the void history) and other variables have large impacts; thus, the consideration of them is crucial. The present macroscopic cross-section model, which considers such dominant cross-term effects, well reproduces the reference results and can be a candidate in practical applications for BWR pin-by-pin core analysis on the normal operations. (author)

  10. SAF line powder operations

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  11. Numerical simulation of the thermal hydraulic performance of a plate pin fin heat sink

    Yuan Wuhan; Zhao Jiyun; Tso, C.P.; Wu Tianhua; Liu Wei; Ming Tingzhen

    2012-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamic software FLUENT is used in assessing the electronics cooling potential of a plate pin fin heat sink (PPFHS), including the conjugate effect. The simulation results are validated with reported experimental data. The simulation shows that pin height and air velocity have significant influences on the thermal hydraulic performances of PPFHS while the influences of in-line/staggered array and neighbor pin flow-directional center distance (NPFDCD) of the PPFHS are less notable. In applying the present design to the cooling of a desktop PC CPU at a heat flux of 2.20 W/cm 2 , the temperature can be kept at less than 358 K with an air velocity over 6.5 m/s. - Highlights: ► Pin height and air velocity significantly influence thermal performance of PPFHS. ► Less influence by in-line or staggered array. ► Less influence by neighbor pin flow-directional center distance. ► Design with >6.5 m/s air can cool to 2 flux.

  12. Heterogeneous neutron-leakage model for PWR pin-by-pin calculation

    Li, Yunzhao; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Hongchun; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The derivation of the formula of the leakage model is introduced. This paper evaluates homogeneous and heterogeneous leakage models used in PWR pin-by-pin calculation. •The implements of homogeneous and heterogeneous leakage models used in pin-cell homogenization of the lattice calculation are studied. A consistent method of cooperation between the heterogeneous leakage model and the pin-cell homogenization theory is proposed. •Considering the computational cost, a new buckling search scheme is proposed to reach the convergence faster. The computational cost of the newly proposed neutron balance scheme is much less than the power-method scheme and the linear-interpolation scheme. -- Abstract: When assembly calculation is performed with the reflective boundary condition, a leakage model is usually required in the lattice code. The previous studies show that the homogeneous leakage model works effectively for the assembly homogenization. However, it becomes different and unsettled for the pin-cell homogenization. Thus, this paper evaluates homogeneous and heterogeneous leakage models used in pin-by-pin calculation. The implements of homogeneous and heterogeneous leakage models used in pin-cell homogenization of the lattice calculation are studied. A consistent method of cooperation between the heterogeneous leakage model and the pin-cell homogenization theory is proposed. Considering the computational cost, a new buckling search scheme is proposed to reach the convergence faster. For practical reactor-core applications, the diffusion coefficients determined by the transport cross-section or by the leakage model are compared with each other to determine which one is more accurate for the Pressurized Water Reactor pin-by-pin calculation. Numerical results have demonstrated that the heterogeneous leakage model together with the diffusion coefficient determined by the heterogeneous leakage model would have the higher accuracy. The new buckling search

  13. Time-of-flight measurements of heavy ions using Si PIN diodes

    Strekalovsky, A. O., E-mail: alex.strek@bk.ru; Kamanin, D. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Pyatkov, Yu. V. [National Nuclear Research University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Kondratyev, N. A.; Zhuchko, V. E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ilić, S. [University of Novi Sad (Serbia); Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Jacobs, N. [University of Stellenbosch, Faculty of Military Science, Military Academy (South Africa); Kuznetsova, E. A.; Mishinsky, G. V.; Strekalovsky, O. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new off-line timing method for PIN diode signals is presented which allows the plasma delay effect to be suppressed. Velocities of heavy ions measured by the new method are in good agreement within a wide range of masses and energies with velocities measured by time stamp detectors based on microchannel plates.

  14. Investigation on the variation of channel resistance and contact resistance of SiZnSnO semiconductor depending on Si contents using transmission line method

    Lee, Byeong Hyeon; Han, Sangmin; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2018-01-01

    Amorphous silicon-zinc-tin-oxide (a-SZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated depending on the silicon ratio in channel layers. The a-SZTO TFT exhibited high electrical properties, such as high mobility of 23 cm2 V-1 s-1, subthreshold swing of 0.74 V/decade and ION/OFF of 2.8 × 108, despite of the addition of Si suppressor. The physical mechanism on the change of the sheet resistance and the contact resistance in a-SZTO TFT has been investigated and proposed closely related with the Si ratio. Both resistances were increased as increasing Si ratio, which clearly indicated that the role of Si is a carrier suppressor directly leading to the increase of channel and contact resistances. To explain the role of Si as a carrier suppressor, the conduction band offset mechanism has been also proposed depending on the change of carrier concentration in channel layer and at the interface between electrode and channel layer. 2007.01-2011.12 Senior Researcher at korea institute of science and technology (KOREA). 2008.01-2011.12 Professor at University of Science and Technology (KOREA). 1995.01-2007.12 Professor at Yonsei University (KOREA). 2002.01-2003.12 Inviting Researcher at Los Alamos National Lab (USA). 1993.01-1995.12 Senior Researcher at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (KOREA). 1992.01-1993.01 Research Associate at State University of New York at Buffalo (USA).

  15. Progress on DEMO blanket attachment concept with keys and pins

    Vizvary, Zsolt; Iglesias, Daniel; Cooper, David; Crowe, Robert; Riccardo, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DEMO blanket attachment system with keys and pins (without using bolts). • Blanket segments are preloaded by progressively designed springs. • Blanket back plate flexibility has a major impact on spring design. • Mechanical analysis of other components indicates no unresolvable issues. • Thermal analysis indicates acceptable temperatures for the support system. - Abstract: The blanket attachment has to cope with gravity, thermal and electromagnetic loads, also it has to be installed and serviced by remote handling. Pre-stressed components suffer from stress relaxation in irradiated environments such as DEMO. To circumvent this problem pre-stressed component should be either avoided or shielded, and where possible keys and pins should be used. This strategy has been proposed for the DEMO multi-module segments (MMS). The blanket segments are held by two tapered keys each, designed to allow thermal expansions while providing contact with the vacuum vessel and to resist the poloidal and radial moments the latter being dominant at 9.1 MNm inboard and 15 MNm outboard. On the top of the blanket segment there is a pin which provides vertical support. At the bottom another vertical support has to lock them in position after installation and manage the pre-load on the segments. The pre-load is required to deal with the electromagnetic loads during disruption. This is provided by a set of springs, which require shielding as they are preloaded. These are sized to cope with the force (3 MN inboard, 1.4 MN outboard) due to halo currents and the toroidal moment which can reverse. Calculations show that the flexibility of the blanket segment itself plays a significant role in defining the required support system. The blanket segment acts as a preloaded spring and it has to be part of the attachment design as well.

  16. Whole-Pin Furnace system: An experimental facility for studying irradiated fuel pin behavior under potential reactor accident conditions

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.C.; Donahue, D.A.; Pushis, D.O.; Savoie, F.E.; Holland, J.W.; Wright, A.E.; August, C.; Bailey, J.L.; Patterson, D.R.

    1990-05-01

    The whole-pin furnace system is a new in-cell experimental facility constructed to investigate how irradiated fuel pins may fail under potential reactor accident conditions. Extensive checkouts have demonstrated excellent performance in remote operation, temperature control, pin breach detection, and fission gas handling. The system is currently being used in testing of EBIR-II-irradiated Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel pins; future testing will include EBR-II-irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins. 7 refs., 4 figs

  17. Hydrophobic pinning with copper nanowhiskers leads to bactericidal properties.

    Ajay Vikram Singh

    Full Text Available The considerable morbidity associated with hospitalized patients and clinics in developed countries due to biofilm formation on biomedical implants and surgical instruments is a heavy economic burden. An alternative to chemically treated surfaces for bactericidal activity started emerging from micro/nanoscale topographical cues in the last decade. Here, we demonstrate a putative antibacterial surface using copper nanowhiskers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. Furthermore, the control of biological response is based on hydrophobic pinning of water droplets in the Wenzel regime, causing mechanical injury and cell death. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the details of the surface morphology and non-contact mode laser scanning of the surface revealed the microtopography-associated quantitative parameters. Introducing the bacterial culture over nanowhiskers produces mechanical injury to cells, leading to a reduction in cell density over time due to local pinning of culture medium to whisker surfaces. Extended culture to 72 hours to observe biofilm formation revealed biofilm inhibition with scattered microcolonies and significantly reduced biovolume on nanowhiskers. Therefore, surfaces patterned with copper nanowhiskers can serve as potential antibiofilm surfaces. The topography-based antibacterial surfaces introduce a novel prospect in developing mechanoresponsive nanobiomaterials to reduce the risk of medical device biofilm-associated infections, contrary to chemical leaching of copper as a traditional bactericidal agent.

  18. Flux flow, pinning, and resistive behavior in superconducting networks

    Teitel, S.

    1991-10-01

    We have studied the behavior of fluctuation effects in superconducting systems using numerical simulations of XY and Coulomb gas models. Flux flow resistance in two dimensional Josephson junction arrays has been calculated, and related to correlations in vortex structure. Randomness has been introduced, and its effects on the superconducting transition, and vortex mobility, have been studied. We find that randomness destroys phase coherence, yet the randomness induced pinning reduces flux flow resistance at low temperatures. Vortex line fluctuations in high temperature superconductors have been studied using a three dimensional XY model. We have considered the melting of the vortex line lattice, and the entanglement and cutting of vortex lines in the vortex line liquid phase. Vortex line entangling and cutting appear to occur on the same length scales in the liquid phase. The vortex structure function has been calculated and from it, elastic properties of the vortex line liquid have been inferred. The two dimensional classical Coulomb gas, where charges map onto vortices in the superconducting system, has been simulated. The melting transitions of ordered charge (vortex) lattices have been studied, and we find evidence that these transitions do not have the critical behavior expected from standard symmetry analysis

  19. Setting for technological control of vibropacked uranium-plutonium fuel pins

    Golushko, V.V.; Semenov, A.L.; Chukhlova, O.P.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Korchkov, Yu.N.; Kandrashina, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    Scanning set-up providing for control of fuel pins by quality of fuel distribution in them is described. The gamma absorption method of fuel density measurement and the method of its own radiation registration are applied. Scintillation detection blocks are used in the measuring equipment mainly consisting of standard CAMAC blocks. Automation of measurements is performed on the basis of the computer complex MERA-60. A complex of programs for automation of the procedures under way is developed, when the facility operates within the test production line of vibroracked uranium-plutonium fuel pins. 6 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tabs

  20. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    Dutta, A. [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharya, M., E-mail: mishreyee@vecc.gov.in; Barat, P. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2014-10-14

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  1. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network

    Sun, Wen [School of Information and Mathematics, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China); Lü, Jinhu [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Shihua [College of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Xinghuo [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  2. Radon measurements with a PIN photodiode

    Martin-Martin, A.; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L.; Munoz, J.M.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Adamiec, G.; Iniguez, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon photodiodes are well suited to detect alphas coming from different sources as neutron reactions or radon daughters. In this work a radon in air detecting device, using an 18x18 mm silicon PIN photodiode is studied. The ionized airborne decay products formed during radon diffusion were focused by an accelerating high voltage to the PIN surface. Several conducting rings were disposed inside a cylindrical PVC vessel in such a way that they reproduced the electric field created by a punctual charge located behind PIN position. Alpha spectra coming from the neutral and ionized species deposited on the PIN surface, dominated by 218 Po and 214 Po progeny peaks, were recorded for varying conditions. Those include radon concentration from a Pylon source, high voltage (thousands of volts) and PIN inverse bias voltage. Different parameters such as temperature and humidity were also registered during data acquisition. The increase in the particle collection efficiency with respect to zero electric field was compared with the corresponding to a parallel plates configuration. A discussion is made in terms of the most appropriate voltages for different radon concentrations

  3. The rose petal effect and the role of advancing water contact angles for drop confinement

    Mandsberg, Nikolaj Kofoed; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the role of advancing water contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibited strong pinning effects as known in nature from rose petals. Textured surfaces were engineered in silicon by lithographical techniques. The textures were comprised of hexagonal microstructures...

  4. Development of a fast pin-by-pin transport solver in ARCADIA registered

    Geemert, R. van

    2009-01-01

    For satisfaction of future global customer needs, dedicated efforts are being coordinated internationally and pursued continuously at AREVA NP. The currently ongoing CONVERGENCE project is committed to the development of the ARCADIA registered next generation core simulation software package. ARCADIA registered will be put to global use by all AREVA NP business regions, for the entire spectrum of core design processes, licensing computations and safety studies. As part of the currently ongoing trend towards more sophisticated neutronics methodologies, an SP 3 nodal transport concept (van Geemert 2008) has been developed for ARTEMIS (Hobson 2008) which is the steady-state and transient core simulation part of ARCADIA registered . For enabling a high computational performance, the SP 3 calculations are accelerated by applying multi-level coarse mesh rebalancing (van Geemert 2006). In the current implementation, SP 3 is typically about 1.4 times as expensive computationally as SP 1 (diffusion). The developed SP 3 solution concept is foreseen as the future computational workhorse for many-group 3D pin-by-pin full core computations by ARCADIA registered . With the entire numerical workload being highly parallelizable through domain decomposition techniques, associated CPU-time requirements that adhere to the efficiency needs in the nuclear industry can be expected to become feasible in the near future. The accuracy enhancement obtainable by using SP 3 instead of SP 1 has been verified by a detailed comparison of ARTEMIS 16-group pin-by-pin SP N results with KAERI's DeCart reference results (Kozlowski 2003) for the 2D pin-by-pin Purdue UO 2 /MOX benchmark. Within the associated pin-by-pin grid, large pin-to-pin variations in cross-section values occur due to the explicit modelling of guide tubes, gadolinium pins as well as the heterogeneous distribution of MOX assemblies and UO 2 assemblies featuring significantly different burnups. With a pin-by-pin grid as

  5. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    Seabury, E.H.; Caffrey, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  6. Electrical transport and pinning properties of Nb thin films patterned with focused ion beam-milled washboard nanostructures

    Dobrovolskiy, O V; Begun, E; Huth, M; Shklovskij, V A

    2012-01-01

    A careful analysis of the magneto-transport properties of epitaxial nanostructured Nb thin films in the normal and the mixed state is performed. The nanopatterns were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. They provide a washboard-like pinning potential landscape for vortices in the mixed state and simultaneously cause a resistivity anisotropy in the normal state. Two matching magnetic fields for the vortex lattice with the underlying nanostructures have been observed. By applying these fields, the most likely pinning sites along which the flux lines move through the samples have been selected. By this, either the background isotropic pinning of the pristine film or the enhanced isotropic pinning originating from the nanoprocessing have been probed. Via an Arrhenius analysis of the resistivity data the pinning activation energies for three vortex lattice parameters have been quantified. The changes in the electrical transport and the pinning properties have been correlated with the results of the microstructural and topographical characterization of the FIB-patterned samples. Accordingly, along with the surface processing, FIB milling has been found to alter the material composition and the degree of disorder in as-grown films. The obtained results provide further insight into the pinning mechanisms at work in FIB-nanopatterned superconductors, e.g. for fluxonic applications. (paper)

  7. Gold nanocrystals in high-temperature superconducting films: Creation of pinning patterns of choice

    Katzer, Christian; Michalowski, Peter; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Stahl, Claudia; Treiber, Sebastian; Schuetz, Gisela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Christiani, Georg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Hochschule Aalen, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Many superconducting thin film devices require a spatially resolved current carrying capability due to different boundary conditions. On the one hand, the critical current density and the pinning of flux lines respectively should be high to reduce flux noise in the antenna regions of gradiometers; on the other hand, the critical current density of the Josephson junctions itself must not be too high to ensure a proper functionality. We report that adding gold nanoparticles during the preparation process of epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} thin films offers the possibility of creating spatially varying flux pinning properties, thus allowing to locally enhance the critical current density up to a factor of two. Magneto-optical investigations as well as transport measurements will be presented, indicating that an Au particle induced modification of the YBCO pinning properties allows the engineering of the critical current landscape on the sub-micrometre scale.

  8. Ohmic Contacts to 2D Semiconductors through van der Waals Bonding

    Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.; Brocks, G.

    2016-01-01

    High contact resistances have blocked the progress of devices based on MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) 2D semiconductors. Interface states formed at MX2/metal contacts pin the Fermi level, leading to sizable Schottky barriers for p-type contacts in particular. It is shown that i) one can remove the

  9. Peripheral pin alignment system for fuel assemblies

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    An alignment system is provided for nuclear fuel assemblies in a nuclear core. The core support structure of the nuclear reactor includes upwardly pointing alignment pins arranged in a square grid and engage peripheral depressions formed in the lateral periphery of the lower ends of each of the fuel assemblies of the core. In a preferred embodiment, the depressions are located at the corners of the fuel assemblies so that each depression includes one-quarter of a cylindrical void. Accordingly, each fuel assembly is positioned and aligned by one-quarter of four separate alignment pins which engage the fuel assemblies at their lower exterior corners. (author)

  10. Pinning, flux diodes and ratchets for vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Wang, Y. L.; Argonne National Laboratory; Xiao, Z. L.; Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL

    2016-01-01

    A conformal pinning array can be created by conformally transforming a uniform triangular pinning lattice to produce a new structure in which the six-fold ordering of the original lattice is conserved but where there is a spatial gradient in the density of pinning sites. Here we examine several aspects of vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays and how they can be used to create a flux flow diode effect for driving vortices in different directions across the arrays. Under the application of an ac drive, a pronounced vortex ratchet effect occurs where the vortices flow in the easy direction of the array asymmetry. When the ac drive is applied perpendicular to the asymmetry direction of the array, it is possible to realize a transverse vortex ratchet effect where there is a generation of a dc flow of vortices perpendicular to the ac drive due to the creation of a noise correlation ratchet by the plastic motion of the vortices. We also examine vortex transport in experiments and compare the pinning effectiveness of conformal arrays to uniform triangular pinning arrays. In conclusion, we find that a triangular array generally pins the vortices more effectively at the first matching field and below, while the conformal array is more effective at higher fields where interstitial vortex flow occurs.

  11. Advanced control system for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    Lau, L.D.; Randall, P.F.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized control system has been developed for the remotely-operated fuel pin processor used in the Integral Fast Reactor Program, Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The pin processor remotely shears cast EBR- reactor fuel pins to length, inspects them for diameter, straightness, length, and weight, and then inserts acceptable pins into new sodium-loaded stainless-steel fuel element jackets. Two main components comprise the control system: (1) a programmable logic controller (PLC), together with various input/output modules and associated relay ladder-logic associated computer software. The PLC system controls the remote operation of the machine as directed by the OCS, and also monitors the machine operation to make operational data available to the OCS. The OCS allows operator control of the machine, provides nearly real-time viewing of the operational data, allows on-line changes of machine operational parameters, and records the collected data for each acceptable pin on a central data archiving computer. The two main components of the control system provide the operator with various levels of control ranging from manual operation to completely automatic operation by means of a graphic touch screen interface

  12. Thermoelectric generator performance analysis: Influence of pin tapering on the first and second law efficiencies

    Yilbas, B.S.; Ali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Double tapering of thermoelectric elements improves first and second law efficiency. • Pin geometric feature maximizing device output work does not maximize thermal efficiency. • Pin geometric feature maximizing first law efficiency slight alters for maximum second law efficiency. • External resistance and operating temperature ratios influence design configuration of thermoelectric generator. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generators are the important candidates for clean energy conversion from the waste heat; however, their low efficiency limits the practical applications of the devices. Tailoring the geometric configuration of the device in line with the operating conditions can improve the device performance. Consequently; in the present study, the influence of the pin geometric configuration on the thermoelectric generator performance is investigated. The dimensionless tapering parameter is introduced and its effect on the first and second law efficiencies is examined for various operating conditions including the external load resistance and the temperature ratio. It is found that the first and second law efficiencies are significantly influenced by the pin geometry. The dimensionless tapering parameter (a), increasing tapering of the thermoelectric pins, within the range of 2 ⩽ a ⩽ 4 results in improved first and second law efficiencies. However, the dimensionless tapering parameter maximizing the first and second law efficiencies does not maximize the device output power. This behavior is associated with the external load resistance which has a considerable influence on the device output power such that increasing external load resistance lowers the device output power

  13. Testing of a novel pin array guide for accurate three-dimensional glenoid component positioning.

    Lewis, Gregory S; Stevens, Nicole M; Armstrong, April D

    2015-12-01

    A substantial challenge in total shoulder replacement is accurate positioning and alignment of the glenoid component. This challenge arises from limited intraoperative exposure and complex arthritic-driven deformity. We describe a novel pin array guide and method for patient-specific guiding of the glenoid central drill hole. We also experimentally tested the hypothesis that this method would reduce errors in version and inclination compared with 2 traditional methods. Polymer models of glenoids were created from computed tomography scans from 9 arthritic patients. Each 3-dimensional (3D) printed scapula was shrouded to simulate the operative situation. Three different methods for central drill alignment were tested, all with the target orientation of 5° retroversion and 0° inclination: no assistance, assistance by preoperative 3D imaging, and assistance by the pin array guide. Version and inclination errors of the drill line were compared. Version errors using the pin array guide (3° ± 2°) were significantly lower than version errors associated with no assistance (9° ± 7°) and preoperative 3D imaging (8° ± 6°). Inclination errors were also significantly lower using the pin array guide compared with no assistance. The new pin array guide substantially reduced errors in orientation of the central drill line. The guide method is patient specific but does not require rapid prototyping and instead uses adjustments to an array of pins based on automated software calculations. This method may ultimately provide a cost-effective solution enabling surgeons to obtain accurate orientation of the glenoid. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of a terahertz CW photomixer based on PIN and superlattice PIN devices

    Krozer, Viktor; Eichhorn, Finn

    2006-01-01

    We present the design of a photomixer LO based on standard and superlattice PIN diodes, operating at 1 THz. The design is based on a direct integration of a double slot antenna with the PIN device and a suitable matching circuit. The antenna has been designed together with a dielectric lens using...... Ansoft HFSS EM simulation. The large-signal PIN diode model employed in the work has been improved compared to our previously developed model presented earlier in a 3 THz design. We demonstrate that the antenna characteristic changes drastically with the device in place....

  15. Tapered leaf support pin for operating plant guide tubes

    Land, J.T.; Hopkins, R.J.; Ford, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mounting system for removably mounting the lower flange of a control rod guide tube over an opening in the upper core plate of a nuclear reactor comprising at least one elongated support pin mounted on the guide tube lower flange and resiliently receivable in a bore formed in the upper core plate. It comprises a support pin having a longitudinal axis and comprising a first pin portion mountable on the guide tube lower flange, and a second pin portion receivable within the upper core plate bore, the second pin portion including a solid body section adjacent the first pin portion and having an outer diameter which is accommodated by the bore by a close clearance fit; locking means mounted on the first pin portion of the support pin for retaining the guide tube lower flange between the solid body section of the second pin portion and the locking means; and a washer disposed around the first pin portion between the locking means and the control rod guide tube flange, the washer and the locking means including mutually engaging rounded surfaces for eliminating bending moments and stresses on the support pin during mounting of the locking means on the first pin portion of the support pin

  16. Magnetic studies of current conduction and flux pinning in high-Tc cuprates: Virgin, irradiated, and oxygen deficient materials

    Thompson, J.R.; Civale, L.; Marwick, A.D.; Holtzberg, F.

    1992-09-01

    To increase the current density and pinning of magnetic flux in high temperature superconductors, defects with point-like and line-like geometries were created in controlled numbers using ion irradiation methods. Single crystals of Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 0 8 superconductors were studied using dc magnetic methods. These studies showed greatly increased irreversibility in the vortex state magnetization and enhanced intragrain current density J c following irradiation. Linear defects, created by irradiation with energetic heavy ions, are particularly effective in pinning vortices at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. Further investigations of ''flux creep'' (the time dependence of magnetization) are well described by recent vortex glass and collective pinning theories. Complementary investigations have delineated the role of oxygen deficiency δ on pinning in aligned Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ materials

  17. RANS-based CFD simulations of sodium fast reactor wire-wrapped pin bundles

    Pointer, W. D.; Thomas, J.; Fanning, T.; Fischer, P.; Siegel, A.; Smith, J.; Tokuhiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    In response to recent renewed interest in the development of advanced fast reactors, an effort is underway to develop a high-performance computational multi-physics simulation suite for the design and safety analysis of sodium cooled fast reactors. Within the multi-resolution thermal-hydraulics simulation component of this framework, high-resolution spectral large eddy simulation methods are used to improve turbulence models from coarser resolution Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods, and in turn, that data is used to improve or extend correlations used in traditional sub-channel tools. These ongoing studies provide the foundation for the development of the intermediate RANS-based resolution level. Prior work has focused on the benchmarking of flow field predictions on in 7-pin, 19-pin, and 37-pin fuel assemblies. The present work extends these studies to 217-pin assemblies in support of initial efforts to benchmark heat transfer predictions using the RANS models against conventional sub-channel models. In an effort to reduce the number of computational cells required to describe a 217-pin geometry, the effects of simplification of the geometric description of the contact point between the wire and the pin are investigated. The advantages of using polyhedral-based meshing methods rather than trimmed cell meshing methods have been demonstrated, and the effects of changes in axial mesh resolution in these meshes have been investigated. Results show that the geometric simplification has little impact on predicted flow fields, as does the use of a polyhedral mesh of comparable mesh density in place of the original trimmed cell mesh. While reducing axial mesh density has a notable impact on the velocity field, reducing predicted exchange velocities between adjacent subchannels by as much 25%, the impact on predicted temperature fields is negligible. (authors)

  18. Cladding properties under simulated fuel pin transients

    Hunter, C.W.; Johnson, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the HEDL fuel pin testing program utilizing a recently developed Fuel Cladding Transient Tester (FCTT) to generate the requisite mechanical property information on irradiated and unirradiated fast reactor fuel cladding under temperature ramp conditions. The test procedure is described, and data are presented

  19. Turban pin aspiration: new fashion, new syndrome.

    Ilan, Ophir; Eliashar, Ron; Hirshoren, Nir; Hamdan, Kasem; Gross, Menachem

    2012-04-01

    Turban pin aspiration syndrome is a new clinical entity afflicting young Islamic girls wearing a turban.The goal of this study was to present our experience in diagnosis and treatment of this new entity, define its clinical and epidemiologic features, and shed a new light on the role of fashion in the increased incidence. A retrospective study in a tertiary university hospital. Review of clinical parameters and epidemiologic features of 26 patients diagnosed with turban pin aspiration syndrome admitted to the Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospitals in Jerusalem from 1990 to 2010. All patients were Muslim females with an average age of 16 years. In all cases, the history was positive for accidental aspiration. Most of the pins were located in the trachea (42%). In 20 cases, the pins were extracted by rigid bronchoscopy without major complications. Fluoroscopy-assisted rigid bronchoscopy was used successfully in three cases. In one case, the object was self-ejected by coughing before the bronchoscopy, and two patients were referred to the chest unit for thoracotomy. Clinicians should be aware of this distinct form of foreign body aspiration, its method of diagnosis, and extraction techniques. A cultural investigation showed a difference in the turban-fastening technique of young girls as compared with their mothers. Removal by rigid bronchoscopy is a safe method with a high success rate and should be considered as the preferred extraction method of choice. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Radiographic examination methods for fuel pins

    Smirnov, V.P.; Dvoretskii, V.G.

    1987-11-01

    To study the fast neutron reactor fuel pins structure the NIIAR Institute used x diffraction, neutronic radiography and autoradiographies. The two first methods are used for internal macrostructure studies, the third method for the plutonium and uranium radial distribution. These methods and the main results are indicated in this document [fr

  1. Physicist pins hopes on particle collider

    2007-01-01

    Physicist pins hopes on particle collider By Deseret Morning News Published: Monday, Dec. 31, 27 12:4 a.m. MST FONT Scott Thomas, a 187 State University graduate, is working at the frontiers of science. The theoretical physicist is crafting ways to extract fundamental secrets that seem certain to be uncovered by the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: ppessoa@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  3. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  4. Pinning control of complex networked systems synchronization, consensus and flocking of networked systems via pinning

    Su, Housheng

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization, consensus and flocking are ubiquitous requirements in networked systems. Pinning Control of Complex Networked Systems investigates these requirements by using the pinning control strategy, which aims to control the whole dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes by imposing controllers for only a fraction of the nodes. As the direct control of every node in a dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes might be impossible or unnecessary, it’s then very important to use the pinning control strategy for the synchronization of complex dynamical networks. The research on pinning control strategy in consensus and flocking of multi-agent systems can not only help us to better understand the mechanisms of natural collective phenomena, but also benefit applications in mobile sensor/robot networks. This book offers a valuable resource for researchers and engineers working in the fields of control theory and control engineering.   Housheng Su is an Associate Professor at the Department of Contro...

  5. PROCOPE, Collision Probability in Pin Clusters and Infinite Rod Lattices

    Amyot, L.; Daolio, C.; Benoist, P.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Calculation of directional collision probabilities in pin clusters and infinite rod lattices. 2 - Method of solution: a) Gauss integration of analytical expressions for collision probabilities. b) alternately, an approximate closed expression (not involving integrals) may be used for pin-to-pin interactions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: number of fuel pins must be smaller than 62; maximum number of groups of symmetry is 300

  6. Vortex matter in the presence of an array of pinning centers of variable strength

    Nunes, J.S.; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M.; Lepienski, C.M.; Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G.; Ortiz, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column effective diameter is 1 μm and the array lattice parameter is 10 μm. To probe the interaction of vortex matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with an AC-field, so that flux trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. An order-disorder line was determined for this system, with a kink separating two regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning. To exploit the influence of pinning efficiency on vortex dynamics, we have determined the order-disorder line at different angles between the applied field and the plane of the film. A plot of the field component perpendicular to the film versus temperature, gives a collapsed response near T c , which splits for lower temperatures, as a consequence of pinning weakening due to the component of the applied AC-field perpendicular to the columns. Consistently, the kink tends to progressively disappear as the pinning strength decreases

  7. Vortex matter in the presence of an array of pinning centers of variable strength

    Nunes, J.S.; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, C.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G. [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: wortiz@df.ufscar.br

    2008-04-01

    This contribution reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column effective diameter is 1 {mu}m and the array lattice parameter is 10 {mu}m. To probe the interaction of vortex matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with an AC-field, so that flux trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. An order-disorder line was determined for this system, with a kink separating two regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning. To exploit the influence of pinning efficiency on vortex dynamics, we have determined the order-disorder line at different angles between the applied field and the plane of the film. A plot of the field component perpendicular to the film versus temperature, gives a collapsed response near T{sub c}, which splits for lower temperatures, as a consequence of pinning weakening due to the component of the applied AC-field perpendicular to the columns. Consistently, the kink tends to progressively disappear as the pinning strength decreases.

  8. Use of transfixation pin casts to treat adult horses with comminuted phalangeal fractures: 20 cases (1993-2003).

    Joyce, Jolynn; Baxter, Gary M; Sarrafian, Tiffany L; Stashak, Ted S; Trotter, Gayle; Frisbie, Dave

    2006-09-01

    To determine the clinical applications, short and long-term survival, and complications of using transfixation pin casts for treatment of comminuted phalangeal fractures in adult horses. Retrospective case series. 20 horses. Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, fracture location, treatment methods, complications, and short-term survival (discharge from hospital). Long-term follow-up information was obtained via contact with owners or trainers. 12 fractures were in a hind limb, and 8 were in a forelimb. Fourteen fractures occurred in a middle phalanx, and 6 occurred in a proximal phalanx. Eleven fractures were treated with internal fixation combined with transfixation pin casts, and 9 fractures were treated with transfixation pin casts alone. Transfixation pin casts were maintained for a mean of 52 days (median, 49 days; range, 1 to 131 days). Fourteen (70%) horses were discharged from the hospital, whereas 6 (30%) were euthanized during the treatment period. Reasons for euthanasia included secondary fracture of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone, avascularity of the distal aspect of the limb associated with an open fracture, and displacement of the fracture after transfixation pin cast removal. A significantly greater number of horses was discharged from the hospital when the transfixation pin cast was maintained for > 40 days, compared with those in which the transfixation pin cast was maintained for horses should be maintained in a transfixation pin cast for a minimum of 40 days, as this was associated with an increase in short-term survival without an increased risk of catastrophic failure.

  9. Optimization study on pin tip diameter of an impact-pin nozzle at high pressure ratio

    Kumar, C. Palani; Lee, Kwon Hee [FMTRC, Daejoo Machinery Co. Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Choon; Cha, Bong Jun [Engine Components Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heuy Dong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Wet compression system is typically installed in a gas turbine engine to increase the net power output and efficiency. A crucial component of the wet compression system is the nozzle which generates fine water droplets for injection into the compressor. The main objective of present work is to optimize a kind of nozzle called impact-pin spray nozzle and thereby produce better quality droplets. To achieve this, the dynamics occurring in the water jet impinging on the pin tip, the subsequent formation of water sheet, which finally breaks into water droplets, must be studied. In this manuscript, the progress on the numerical studies on impact-pin nozzle are reported. A small computational domain covering the orifice, pin tip and the region where primary atomization occurs is selected for numerical analysis. The governing equations are selected in three dimensional cartesian form and simulations are performed to predict the dynamics of water jet impinging on the pin. Systematic studies were carried out and the results leading to the choice of turbulence model and the effect of pin tip diameter are reported here. Further studies are proposed to show the future directions of the present research work.

  10. A physico-genetic module for the polarisation of auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Barrio, Rafael A.; Benítez, Mariana; Nakayama, Naomi; Romero-Arias, José Roberto; Villarreal, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    Intracellular polarisation of auxin efflux carriers is crucial for understanding how auxin gradients form in plants. The polarisation dynamics of auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN) depends on both biomechanical forces as well as chemical, molecular and genetic factors. Biomechanical forces have shown to affect the localisation of PIN transporters to the plasma membrane. We propose a physico-genetic module of PIN polarisation that integrates biomechanical, molecular, and cellular processes as well as their non-linear interactions. The module was implemented as a discrete Boolean model and then approximated to a continuous dynamic system, in order to explore the relative contribution of the factors mediating PIN polarisation at the scale of single cell. Our models recovered qualitative behaviours that have been experimentally observed and enable us to predict that, in the context of PIN polarisation, the effects of the mechanical forces can predominate over the activity of molecular factors such as the GTPase ROP6 and the ROP-INTERACTIVE CRIB MOTIF-CONTAINING PROTEIN RIC1.

  11. Primary hip spica with crossed retrograde intramedullary rush pins ...

    Bursitis and penetration of pins at the site of Rush pin insertion is a complication associated with this method of treatment. Conclusion: Closed reduction and internal fixation with crossed Rush pins was a superior treatment method in terms of early weight bearing and restoration of normal anatomy. Keywords: Femoral ...

  12. Some aspects of continuum physics used in fuel pin modeling

    Bard, F.E.

    1975-06-01

    The mathematical formulation used in fuel pin modeling is described. Fuel pin modeling is not a simple extension of the experimental and interpretative methods used in classical mechanics. New concepts are needed to describe materials in a reactor environment. Some aspects of continuum physics used to develop these new constitutive equations for fuel pins are presented. (U.S.)

  13. Post irradiation examination on test fuel pins for PWR

    Fogaca Filho, N.; Ambrozio Filho, F.

    1981-01-01

    Certain aspects of irradiation technology on test fuel pins for PWR, are studied. The results of post irradiation tests, performed on test fuel pins in hot cells, are presented. The results of the tests permit an evaluation of the effects of irradiation on the fuel and cladding of the pin. (Author) [pt

  14. Temperature and pinning strength dependence of the critical current of a superconductor with a square periodic array of pinning sites

    Benkraouda, M.; Obaidat, I.M.; Al Khawaja, U.

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted extensive series of molecular dynamic simulations on driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic square arrays of pinning sites. In solving the over damped equation of vortex motion we took into account the vortex-vortex repulsion interaction, the attractive vortex-pinning interaction, and the driving Lorentz force at several values of temperature. We have studied the effect of varying the driving Lorentz force and varying the pinning strength on the critical current for several pinning densities, and temperature values. We have found that the pinning strength play an important role in enhancing the critical current over the whole temperature range. At low temperatures, the critical current was found to increase linearly with increasing the pinning strengths for all pinning densities. As the temperature increases, the effect of small pinning strengths diminishes and becomes insignificant at high temperatures

  15. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 is highly expressed in Her2-positive breast cancer and regulates erbB2 protein stability

    Lu Kun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Overexpression of HER-2/Neu occurs in about 25–30% of breast cancer patients and is indicative of poor prognosis. While Her2/Neu overexpression is primarily a result of erbB2 amplification, it has recently been recognized that erbB2 levels are also regulated on the protein level. However, factors that regulate Her2/Neu protein stability are less well understood. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 catalyzes the isomerization of specific pSer/Thr-Pro motifs that have been phosphorylated in response to mitogenic signaling. We have previously reported that Pin1-catalyzed post-phosphorylational modification of signal transduction modulates the oncogenic pathways downstream from c-neu. The goal of this study was to examine the expression of prolyl isomerase Pin1 in human Her2+ breast cancer, and to study if Pin1 affects the expression of Her2/Neu itself. Methods Immunohistochemistry for Her2 and Pin1 were performed on two hundred twenty-three human breast cancers, with 59% of the specimen from primary cancers and 41% from metastatic sites. Pin1 inhibition was achieved using siRNA in Her2+ breast cancer cell lines, and its effects were studied using cell viability assays, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Results Sixty-four samples (28.7% stained positive for Her2 (IHC 3+, and 54% (122/223 of all breast cancers stained positive for Pin1. Of the Her2-positive cancers 40 (62.5% were also Pin1-positive, based on strong nuclear or nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. Inhibition of Pin1 via RNAi resulted in significant suppression of Her2-positive tumor cell growth in BT474, SKBR3 and AU565 cells. Pin1 inhibition greatly increased the sensitivity of Her2-positive breast cancer cells to the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin, while it did not increase their sensitivity to Trastuzumab, suggesting that Pin1 might act on Her2 signaling. We found that Pin1 interacted with the protein complex that contains ubiquitinated erbB2 and that Pin1 inhibition accelerated erbB2

  16. Statistical mechanics of flux lines in high-temperature superconductors

    Dasgupta, C.

    1992-01-01

    The shortness of the low temperature coherence lengths of high T c materials leads to new mechanisms of pinning of flux lines. Lattice periodic modulations of the order parameters itself acts to pin vortex lines in regions of the unit cell were the order parameter is small. A presentation of flux creep and flux noise at low temperature and magnetic fields in terms of motion of simple metastable defects on flux lines is made, with a calculation of flux lattice melting. 12 refs

  17. Spin transport in ferromagnetically contacted carbon nanotubes

    Meyer, C.; Morgan, C.; Schneider, C.M. [Peter Gruenberg Institut, PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich and JARA Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We present magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different ferromagnetic leads. A sample with permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) contacts shows the expected tunneling-type MR effect. Measurements on devices with CoPd contacts show a larger change of resistance with magnetic field. However, only minor loops are observed, which is explained with domain wall pinning. This is supported by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements, which reveal a complicated bubble and stripe domain pattern. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. LANL Contacts

    : (505) 665-3664 ethics@lanl.gov Journalist queries Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Media contacts programs and employee resources. General Employee directory Emergency communication Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Ethics & Audits Internal Audit: (505) 665-3104 Ethics Office: (505) 667-7506 Fax

  19. Design, fabrication, and operation of capsules for the irradiation testing of candidate advanced space reactor fuel pins

    Thoms, K.R.

    1975-04-01

    Fuel irradiation experiments were designed, built, and operated to test uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad in tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8 percent W-2 percent Hf) and uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel clad in both tungsten-lined T-111 and tungsten-lined Nb-1 percent Zr. A total of nine fuel pins was irradiated (four containing porous UN, two containing dense, nonporous UN, and three containing dense UO 2 ) at average cladding temperatures ranging from 931 to 1015 0 C. The UN experiments, capsules UN-4 and -5, operated for 10,480 and 10,037 hr, respectively, at an average linear heat generation rate of 10 kW/ft. The UO 2 experiment, capsule UN-6, operated for 8333 hr at an average linear heat generation rate of approximately 5 kW/ft. Following irradiation, the nine fuel pins were removed from their capsules, externally examined, and sent to the NASA Plum Brook Facility for more detailed postirradiation examination. During visual examination, it was discovered that the cladding of the fuel pin containing dense UN in each of capsules UN-4 and -5 had failed, exposing the UN fuel to the NaK in which the pins were submerged and permitting the release of fission gas from the failed pins. A rough analysis of the fission gas seen in samples of the gas in the fuel pin region indicated fission gas release-to-birth rates from these fuel pins in the range of 10 -5 . (U.S.)

  20. Contact Angle Hysteresis on Graphene Surfaces and Hysteresis-free Behavior on Oil-infused Graphite Surfaces

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Li, Yueh-Feng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Woon, Wei-Yen [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Sheng, Yu-Jane, E-mail: yjsheng@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong, E-mail: hktsao@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Contact angle hysteresis(CAH) on four graphitic surfacesisinvestigated. • The hysteresis loopof water drops on the polished graphite sheetshowsparticularly small receding contact angle. • The significant CAH observed on CVD graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is attributed mainly to adhesion hysteresis. • An oil-infused surface of a graphite sheet is produced by imbibition of hexadecane into its porous structure. • The hysteresis-free property for water drops on such a surface is examined and quantitatively explained. - Abstract: Contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on graphitic surfaces, including chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, reduced electrophoretic deposition (EPD) graphene, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and polished graphite sheet, has been investigated. The hysteresis loops of water drops on the first three samples are similar but the receding contact angle is particularly small for the polished graphite sheet.The significant CAH observed on CVD graphene and HOPG associated with atom-scale roughness has to be attributed mainly to adhesion hysteresis (surface relaxation), instead of roughness or defects.The difference of the wetting behavior among those four graphitic samples has been further demonstrated by hexadecane drops. On the surface of HOPG or CVD graphene,the contact line expands continuously with time, indicating total wetting for which the contact angle does not exist and contact line pinning disappears. In contrast, on the surface of reduced EPD graphene, spontaneous spreading is halted by spikes on it and partial wetting with small contact angle (θ≈4°) is obtained. On the surface of polished graphite sheet, the superlipophilicity and porous structure are demonstrated by imbibition and capillary rise of hexadecane. Consequently, an oil-infused graphite surface can be fabricated and the ultralow CAH of water (∆θ≈2°) is achieved.

  1. Pinning impulsive synchronization of stochastic delayed coupled networks

    Tang Yang; Fang Jian-An; Wong W K; Miao Qing-Ying

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the pinning synchronization problem of stochastic delayed complex network (SDCN) is investigated by using a novel hybrid pinning controller. The proposed hybrid pinning controller is composed of adaptive controller and impulsive controller, where the two controllers are both added to a fraction of nodes in the network. Using the Lyapunov stability theory and the novel hybrid pinning controller, some sufficient conditions are derived for the exponential synchronization of such dynamical networks in mean square. Two numerical simulation examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the proposed control scheme has a fast convergence rate compared with the conventional adaptive pinning method. (general)

  2. The pin pixel detector--neutron imaging

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mmx25.4 mm has been fabricated, giving a pixel size of 2.54 mm which matches well to the spatial resolution typically required in a neutron diffractometer. A 2-Dimensional resistive divide readout system has been adapted to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics. The timing properties of the device match well to the requirements of the ISIS-pulsed neutron source.

  3. Elementary pinning force for a superconducting vortex

    Hyun, O.B.; Finnemore, D.K.; Schwartzkopf, L.; Clem, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The elementary pinning force f/sub p/ has been measured for a single vortex trapped in one of the superconducting layers of a cross-strip Josephson junction. At temperatures close to the transition temperature the vortex can be pushed across the junction by a transport current. The vortex is found to move in a small number of discrete steps before it exits the junction. The pinning force for each site is found to be asymmetric and to have a value of about 10/sup -6/ N/m at the reduced temperature, t = T/T/sub c/ = 0.95. As a function of temperature, f/sub p/ is found to vary approximately as (1-t)/sup 3/2/. .AE

  4. Top-nozzle mounted replacement guide pin assemblies

    Gilmore, C.B.; Andrews, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    A replacement guide pin assembly is provided for aligning a nuclear fuel assembly with an upper core plate of a nuclear reactor core. The guide pin assembly includes a guide pin body having a radially expandable base insertable within a hole in the top nozzle, a ferrule insertable within the guide pin base and capable of imparting a radially and outwardly directed force on the expandable base to expand it within the hole of the top nozzle and thereby secure the guide pin body to the top nozzle in response to a predetermined displacement of the ferrule relative to the guide pin body along its longitudinal axis, and a lock screw interfitted with the ferrule and threaded into the guide pin body so as to produce the predetermined displacement of the ferrule. (author)

  5. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J.; Straka, M.

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B ampersand W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B ampersand W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report

  6. Critical current of Josephson contacts with accidental position of vortexes

    Fistul', M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Josephson contact critical current dependence on magnetic field under different concentrations of Abrikosov vortices (AV) in superconducting shores is found. Pinned vortex concentration as well as correlation in the vortex position can be determined by Josephson current dependence on magnetic field

  7. In vivo evaluation of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics coating on Steinman pins.

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Hong, Kug Sun; Baek, Hae-Ri; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Mee; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-07-01

    Surface coating using ceramics improves the bone bonding strength of an implant. We questioned whether a new type of glass-ceramics (BGS-7) coating (CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 -B2 O3 ) would improve the osseointegration of Steinman pins (S-pins) both biomechanically and histomorphometrically. An in vivo study was performed using rabbits by inserting three S-pins into each iliac bone. The pins were 2.2-mm S-pins with a coating of 30-μm-thick BGS-7 and 550-nm-thick hydroxyapatite (HA), as opposed to an S-pin without coating. A tensile strength test and histomorphometrical evaluation was performed. In the 2-week group, the BGS-7 implant showed a significantly higher tensile strength than the S-pin. In the 4- and 8-week groups, the BGS-7 implants had significantly higher tensile strengths than the S-pins and HA implants. The histomorphometrical study revealed that the BGS-7 implant had a significantly higher contact ratio than the S-pin and HA implants in the 4-week group. The biomechanical and histomorphometrical tests showed that the BGS-7 coating had superior bone bonding properties than the groups without the coating from the initial stage of insertion. The BGS-7 coating of an S-pin will enhance the bone bonding strength, and there might also be an advantage in human bone bonding. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Domain-growth kinetics and aspects of pinning: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Castán, T.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1991-01-01

    By means of Monte Carlo computer simulations we study the domain-growth kinetics after a quench across a first-order line to very low and moderate temperatures in a multidegenerate system with nonconserved order parameter. The model is a continuous spin model relevant for martensitic transformati......By means of Monte Carlo computer simulations we study the domain-growth kinetics after a quench across a first-order line to very low and moderate temperatures in a multidegenerate system with nonconserved order parameter. The model is a continuous spin model relevant for martensitic...... to cross over from n = 1/4 at T approximately 0 to n = 1/2 with temperature for models with pinnings of types (a) and (b). For topological pinnings at T approximately 0, n is consistent with n = 1/8, a value conceivable for several levels of hierarchically interrelated domain-wall movement. When...

  9. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F.; Collins, T.; Herring, J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Wilburn, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format having 10 x 64 pixels, each 120 μm square, and the other format having 256 x 256 pixels, each 30 μm square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 μm. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 13 figs

  10. Metal Contacts to Gallium Arsenide.

    Ren, Fan

    1991-07-01

    While various high performance devices fabricated from the gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related materials have generated considerable interest, metallization are fundamental components to all semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. The essential roles of metallization systems are providing the desired electrical paths between the active region of the semiconductor and the external circuits through the metal interconnections and contacts. In this work, in-situ clean of native oxide, high temperature n-type, low temperature n-type and low temperature p-type ohmic metal systems have been studied. Argon ion mill was used to remove the native oxide prior to metal deposition. For high temperature process n-type GaAs ohmic contacts, Tungsten (W) and Tungsten Silicide (WSi) were used with an epitaxial grown graded Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) layer (0.2 eV) on GaAs. In addition, refractory metals, Molybdenum (Mo), was incorporated in the Gold-Germanium (AuGe) based on n-type GaAs ohmic contacts to replace conventional silver as barrier to prevent the reaction between ohmic metal and chlorine based plasma as well as the ohmic metallization intermixing which degrades the device performance. Finally, Indium/Gold-Beryllium (In/Au-Be) alloy has been developed as an ohmic contact for p-type GaAs to reduce the contact resistance. The Fermi-level pinning of GaAs has been dominated by the surface states. The Schottky barrier height of metal contacts are about 0.8 V regardless of the metal systems. By using p-n junction approach, barrier height of pulsed C-doped layers was achieved as high as 1.4 V. Arsenic implantation into GaAs method was also used to enhance the barrier height of 1.6 V.

  11. Pin on flat wear volume prediction of UHMWPE against cp Ti for orthopedic applications

    Handoko, Suyitno, Dharmastiti, Rini; Magetsari, Rahadyan

    2018-04-01

    Tribological assessment of orthopedic biomaterials requires a lot of testing time. Researchers must test the biomaterials in millions of cycles at low frequency (1 Hz) to mimic the in vivo conditions. It is a problem because product designs and developments could not wait longer for wear data to predict the lifetime of their products. The problem can be solved with the use of computation techniques to model the wear phenomena and provide predicted data. The aim of this research is to predict the wear volume of the commonly used ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) in the unidirectional pin on flat tests. The 9 mm diameter UHMWPE pin and cp Ti plate contact mechanics were modeled using Abaqus. Contact pressure was set at 3 MPa. Outputs of the computations (contact pressure and contact area) were used to calculate the wear volume with Archard law. A custom Python script was made to automate the process. The results were then compared with experimental data for validations. The predicted data were in a good trend with numerical errors from 0.3% up to 26%.

  12. Applicability of the diffusion and simplified P3 theories for BWR pin-by-pin core analysis

    Tada, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Akio; Kitamura, Yasunori; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Masato; Noda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The pin-by-pin fine mesh core calculation method is considered as a candidate of next-generation core calculation method for BWR. In this study, the diffusion and the simplified P 3 (SP 3 ) theories are applied to the pin-by-pin core analysis of BWR. Performances of the diffusion and the SP 3 theories for cell-homogeneous pin-by-pin fine mesh BWR core analysis are evaluated through comparison with cell-heterogeneous detailed transport calculation by the method of characteristics (MOC). In this study, two-dimensional, 2x2 multi-assemblies geometry is used to compare the prediction accuracies of the diffusion and the SP 3 theories. The 2x2 multi- assemblies geometry consists of two types of 9x9 UO 2 assembly that have two different enrichment splittings. To mitigate the cell-homogenization error, the SPH method is applied for the pin-by-pin fine mesh calculation. The SPH method is a technique that reproduces a result of heterogeneous calculation by that of homogeneous calculation. The calculation results indicated that diffusion theory shows larger discrepancy than that of SP 3 theory on pin-wise fission rates. Furthermore, the accuracy of the diffusion theory would not be sufficient for the pin-by-pin fine mesh calculation. In contrast to the diffusion theory, the SP 3 theory shows much better accuracy on pin wise fission rates. Therefore, if the SP 3 theory is applied, the accuracy of the pin-by-pin fine mesh BWR core analysis will be higher and will be sufficient for production calculation. (author)

  13. Introduction and pinning of domain walls in 50 nm NiFe constrictions using local and external magnetic fields

    Zahnd, G.; Pham, V.T.; Marty, A.; Jamet, M.; Beigné, C.; Notin, L.; Vergnaud, C.; Rortais, F.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    We study domain wall injection in 100 nm wide NiFe nanowires, followed by domain wall propagation and pinning on 50 nm wide constrictions. The injection is performed using local and external magnetic fields. Using several nucleation pad geometries, we show that at these small dimensions the use of an external field only does not allow obtaining a reproducible injection/pinning process. However, the use of an additional local field, created by an Oersted line, allows to nucleate a reversed domain at zero external applied field. Then, an external field of 5 mT enables the domain wall to propagate far from the Oersted line, and the pinning occurs reproducibly. We also show that notwithstanding the reproducibility of the pinning process, the depinning field is found to be stochastic, following a bimodal distribution. Using micromagnetic simulation we link two different DW configurations, vortex and transverse, to the two typical depinning fields. - Highlights: • Magnetic domain wall introduction and pinning in Permalloy nanowires with 50 nm wide constrictions. • Magnetic domain nucleation at zero external applied field. • Bimodal distribution of the domain wall configuration in the constriction.

  14. Self-designed femoral neck guide pin locator for femoral neck fractures.

    Xia, Shengli; Wang, Ziping; Wang, Minghui; Wu, Zuming; Wang, Xiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Closed reduction and fixation with 3 cannulated screws is a widely accepted surgery for the treatment of femoral neck fractures. However, how to obtain optimal screw placement remains unclear. In the current study, the authors designed a guide pin positioning system for femoral neck fracture cannulated screw fixation and examined its application value by comparing it with freehand guide needle positioning and with general guide pin locator positioning provided by equipment manufacturers. The screw reset rate, screw parallelism, triangle area formed by the link line of the entry point of 3 guide pins, and maximum vertical load bearing of the femoral neck after internal fixation were recorded. As expected, the triangle area was largest in the self-designed positioning group, followed by the general positioning group and the freehand positioning group. The difference among the 3 groups was statistically significant (P.05). The authors’ self-designed guide pin positioning system has the potential to accurately insert cannulated screws in femoral neck fractures and may reduce bone loss and unnecessary radiation.

  15. Is it really possible to increase J{sub c} by reducing the pinning potential?

    Weinstein, Roy; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Gandini, Alberto; Mayes, Bill; Parks, Drew [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, Department of Physics, and Texas Center for Superconductivity at UH, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    We discuss an experiment on large-grain YBCO, the intent of which is to compare the effectiveness of continuous columnar pinning centres (CCPC) to that of discontinuous aligned pinning centres, in their ability to increase J{sub c}. We find that discontinuous pinning is far superior. The motivation and design of the experiment are reviewed. High-energy heavy ions were utilized to produce pinning damage of controlled morphology. The resulting increase in J{sub c} is presented as a function of the variable S{sub e}, which is closely related to the discontinuity and diameter of the damage. The dependence of J{sub c} on magnetic field, temperature, and F{sub i} (the number of ion tracks per cm{sup 2}) is presented and discussed. The dependence of H{sub irr} on S{sub e} and F{sub i}, and the temperature and fluence dependence of a J{sub c} fishtail effect, are presented. The experimental results indicate that multiple-in-line-damage (MILD), despite its discontinuities, is far more effective in increasing J{sub c} than CCPCs are.

  16. HMOX1 and NQO1 genes are upregulated in response to contact sensitizers in dendritic cells and THP-1 cell line: role of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway.

    Ade, Nadège; Leon, Fanny; Pallardy, Marc; Peiffer, Jean-Luc; Kerdine-Romer, Saadia; Tissier, Marie-Hélène; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine; Fabre, Isabelle; Ourlin, Jean-Claude

    2009-02-01

    Electrophilicity is one of the most common features of skin contact sensitizers and is necessary for protein haptenation. The Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)/Nrf2 -signaling pathway is dedicated to the detection of electrophilic stress in cells leading to the upregulation of genes involved in protection or neutralization of chemical reactive species. Signals provided by chemical stress could play an important role in dendritic cell activation and the aim of this work was to test whether contact sensitizers were specific activators of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. CD34-derived dendritic cells (CD34-DC) and the THP-1 myeloid cell line were treated by a panel of sensitizers (Ni, 1-chloro 2,4-dinitrobenzene, cinnamaldehyde, 7-hydroxycitronellal, 1,4-dihydroquinone, alpha-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, 2-4-tert-(butylbenzyl)propionaldehyde or Lilial, and 1,4-phenylenediamine), irritants (sodium dodecyl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride), and a nonsensitizer molecule (chlorobenzene). Three well-known Nrf2 activators (tert-butylhydroquinone, lipoic acid, sulforaphane) were also tested. Expression of hmox1 and nqo1 was measured using real-time PCR and cellular accumulation of Nrf2 was assessed by Western blot. Our results showed an increased expression at early time points of hmox1 and nqo1 mRNAs in response to sensitizers but not to irritants. Accumulation of the Nrf2 protein was also observed only with chemical sensitizers. A significant inhibition of the expression of hmox1 and nqo1 mRNAs and CD86 expression was found in 1-chloro 2,4-dinitrobenzene-treated THP-1 cells preincubated with N-acetyl cysteine, a glutathione precursor. Altogether, these data suggested that the Keap1/Nrf2-signaling pathway was activated by electrophilic molecules including sensitizers in dendritic cells and in the THP-1 cell line. Monitoring of this pathway may provide new biomarkers (e.g., Nrf2, hmox1) for the detection of the sensitization potential of chemicals.

  17. Development of a Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Bundle Deformation Analysis Code - BAMBOO: Development of a Pin Dispersion Model and Verification by the Out-of-Pile Compression Test

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the wire-wrapped fast breeder reactor fuel pin bundle deformation under bundle/duct interaction conditions, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has developed the BAMBOO computer code. This code uses the three-dimensional beam element to calculate fuel pin bowing and cladding oval distortion as the primary deformation mechanisms in a fuel pin bundle. The pin dispersion, which is disarrangement of pins in a bundle and would occur during irradiation, was modeled in this code to evaluate its effect on bundle deformation. By applying the contact analysis method commonly used in the finite element method, this model considers the contact conditions at various axial positions as well as the nodal points and can analyze the irregular arrangement of fuel pins with the deviation of the wire configuration.The dispersion model was introduced in the BAMBOO code and verified by using the results of the out-of-pile compression test of the bundle, where the dispersion was caused by the deviation of the wire position. And the effect of the dispersion on the bundle deformation was evaluated based on the analysis results of the code

  18. On the uniqueness of the receding contact angle: effects of substrate roughness and humidity on evaporation of water drops.

    Pittoni, Paola G; Lin, Chia-Hui; Yu, Teng-Shiang; Lin, Shi-Yow

    2014-08-12

    Could a unique receding contact angle be indicated for describing the wetting properties of a real gas-liquid-solid system? Could a receding contact angle be defined if the triple line of a sessile drop is not moving at all during the whole measurement process? To what extent is the receding contact angle influenced by the intrinsic properties of the system or the measurement procedures? In order to answer these questions, a systematic investigation was conducted in this study on the effects of substrate roughness and relative humidity on the behavior of pure water drops spreading and evaporating on polycarbonate (PC) surfaces characterized by different morphologies. Dynamic, advancing, and receding contact angles were found to be strongly affected by substrate roughness. Specifically, a receding contact angle could not be measured at all for drops evaporating on the more rugged PC surfaces, since the drops were observed strongly pinning to the substrate almost until their complete disappearance. Substrate roughness and system relative humidity were also found responsible for drastic changes in the depinning time (from ∼10 to ∼60 min). Thus, for measurement observations not sufficiently long, no movement of the triple line could be noted, with, again, the failure to find a receding contact angle. Therefore, to keep using concepts such as the receding contact angle as meaningful specifications of a given gas-liquid-solid system, the imperative to carefully investigate and report the inner characteristics of the system (substrate roughness, topography, impurities, defects, chemical properties, etc.) is pointed out in this study. The necessity of establishing methodological standards (drop size, measurement method, system history, observation interval, relative humidity, etc.) is also suggested.

  19. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  20. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  1. Metallographic examinations of the wear-marks on fuel pins of the KNK II/2 fuel assembly NY-308

    Patzer, G.

    1987-12-01

    On the fuel pins and pin spacers of the fuel assembly NY-308 of the second core of KNK II pronounced wear marks had been found in the area of the contact points. In order to determine the exact form of the marks, metallographic investigations were performed on two test pieces of fuel pins in the Hot Cells of the KfK Karlsruhe. It was found that the wear marks did show the already observed stratified structure. Next to the unchanged cladding area there is a peripheral zone with modified grain structure, followed by a layer of moved material and finally there is a flake-like zone of accumulated cladding material at the lower end of the wear marks. Longitudinal cuts do not show grain deformations, which could indicate axial friction forces between pin and spacer. The wear marks are rapidly dropping to their maximum depth at the ends and the depth shows a relatively uniform pattern between both. The findings are confirming the picture, that a stirring movement of the fuel pins took place, which caused adhesive wear [de

  2. [Influence and mechanism of PinX1 gene on the chemotherapy sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in response to Cisplatin].

    Shen, Congxiang; Liu, Yanhui; Wen, Zhong; Yang, Keke; Li, Guanxue; Zhang, Shenhua; Zhang, Xinyu

    2015-06-23

    To explore the influence and mechanism of PinX1 gene on the chemotherapy sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in response to Cisplatin. Transfected nasopharyngeal carcinoma 5-8F cell lines with pCDH-CMV-PinX1-copGFP vector constructed by lentivirus to generate Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cells containing PinX1 gene, using Lenti-Ctrl-5-8F cell (blank vector without PinX1 gene was used to transfect 5-8F cell lines) and 5-8F cell as controls. Expression of PinX1 gene, telomerase activity, the inhibition of cancer cells proliferation, combined anticancer effect with Cisplatin and the expression of lung resistance protein (LRP) and Bcl-2 were detected with fluorescent quantitation polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry, thiazolyl blue (MTT) method, areole test, Western blot and drug sensitivity test, respectively, in four groups (Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell + Cisplatin, Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell, Cisplatin and 5-8F cell) so as to explore the influence and mechanism of PinX1 gene on the chemotherapy sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in response to Cisplatin. The telomerase activity in Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell (0.146 ± 0.004) was lower than those in the other two control cells (Lenti-Ctrl-5-8F cell: 0.967 ± 0.016, 5-8F cell: 1.000 ± 0.034, both P Cisplatin after lower level telomerase activity induced by PinX1 gene. Proliferation index (PI) (%) in Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell + Cisplatin (14.39 ± 3.66) was also less than the other groups (Lenti-PinX1-5-8F cell, Cisplatin and 5-8F cell groups, 32.97 ± 3.00, 31.18 ± 4.24 and 47.19 ± 4.19, all P Cisplatin, which may be mediated by the down-regulation of telomerase activity and the inhibition of LRP and Bcl-2 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

  3. A proposed parameterization of interface discontinuity factors depending on neighborhood for pin-by-pin diffusion computations for LWR

    Herrero, Jose Javier; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Ahnert, Carol

    2011-01-01

    There exists an interest in performing full core pin-by-pin computations for present nuclear reactors. In such type of problems the use of a transport approximation like the diffusion equation requires the introduction of correction parameters. Interface discontinuity factors can improve the diffusion solution to nearly reproduce a transport solution. Nevertheless, calculating accurate pin-by-pin IDF requires the knowledge of the heterogeneous neutron flux distribution, which depends on the boundary conditions of the pin-cell as well as the local variables along the nuclear reactor operation. As a consequence, it is impractical to compute them for each possible configuration. An alternative to generate accurate pin-by-pin interface discontinuity factors is to calculate reference values using zero-net-current boundary conditions and to synthesize afterwards their dependencies on the main neighborhood variables. In such way the factors can be accurately computed during fine-mesh diffusion calculations by correcting the reference values as a function of the actual environment of the pin-cell in the core. In this paper we propose a parameterization of the pin-by-pin interface discontinuity factors allowing the implementation of a cross sections library able to treat the neighborhood effect. First results are presented for typical PWR configurations. (author)

  4. A proposed parameterization of interface discontinuity factors depending on neighborhood for pin-by-pin diffusion computations for LWR

    Herrero, Jose Javier; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Ahnert, Carol, E-mail: herrero@din.upm.es, E-mail: nuria@din.upm.es, E-mail: carol@din.upm.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    There exists an interest in performing full core pin-by-pin computations for present nuclear reactors. In such type of problems the use of a transport approximation like the diffusion equation requires the introduction of correction parameters. Interface discontinuity factors can improve the diffusion solution to nearly reproduce a transport solution. Nevertheless, calculating accurate pin-by-pin IDF requires the knowledge of the heterogeneous neutron flux distribution, which depends on the boundary conditions of the pin-cell as well as the local variables along the nuclear reactor operation. As a consequence, it is impractical to compute them for each possible configuration. An alternative to generate accurate pin-by-pin interface discontinuity factors is to calculate reference values using zero-net-current boundary conditions and to synthesize afterwards their dependencies on the main neighborhood variables. In such way the factors can be accurately computed during fine-mesh diffusion calculations by correcting the reference values as a function of the actual environment of the pin-cell in the core. In this paper we propose a parameterization of the pin-by-pin interface discontinuity factors allowing the implementation of a cross sections library able to treat the neighborhood effect. First results are presented for typical PWR configurations. (author)

  5. Genome-wide identification and evolution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family in Glycine max.

    Liu, Yuan; Wei, Haichao

    2017-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants. Wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, and seed coat development; these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN gene family encodes essential transport proteins in cell-to-cell auxin transport, but little research on soybean PIN genes (GmPIN genes) has been done, especially with respect to the evolution and differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPIN genes from the latest updated G. max genome database; six GmPIN protein sequences were changed compared with the previous database. Based on the Plant Genome Duplication Database, 18 GmPIN genes have been involved in segment duplication. Three pairs of GmPIN genes arose after the second soybean genome duplication, and six occurred after the first genome duplication. The duplicated GmPIN genes retained similar expression patterns. All the duplicated GmPIN genes experienced purifying selection (K a /K s genome sequence of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean varieties. Our research provides useful and comprehensive basic information for understanding GmPIN genes.

  6. How to make sticky surfaces slippery: Contact angle hysteresis in electrowetting with alternating voltage

    Li, F.; Li, F.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2008-01-01

    Contact angle hysteresis caused by random pinning forces is a major obstacle in moving small quantities of liquid on solid surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that the contact angle hysteresis for sessile drops in electrowetting almost disappears with increasing alternating voltage, whereas for direct

  7. Robustness of pinning a general complex dynamical network

    Wang Lei; Sun Youxian

    2010-01-01

    This Letter studies the robustness problem of pinning a general complex dynamical network toward an assigned synchronous evolution. Several synchronization criteria are presented to guarantee the convergence of the pinning process locally and globally by construction of Lyapunov functions. In particular, if a pinning strategy has been designed for synchronization of a given complex dynamical network, then no matter what uncertainties occur among the pinned nodes, synchronization can still be guaranteed through the pinning. The analytical results show that pinning control has a certain robustness against perturbations on network architecture: adding, deleting and changing the weights of edges. Numerical simulations illustrated by scale-free complex networks verify the theoretical results above-acquired.

  8. Is magnetic pinning a dominant mechanism in Nb-Ti

    Cooley, L.D.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors compare the pinning behavior of an artificial pinning center (APC) composite and a nanometer-filament Nb 46.5 wt% Ti composite to that of a conventional Nb 48 wt% Ti composite. The microstructure of the APC composite resembles the conventional composite, where ribbons of normal metal form the pinning centers, whereas the nanometer-filament composite has no internal normal metal but pins instead at the filament surface. The APC composite exhibits much stronger pinning relative to B c 2 than the conventional composite (21.4 GN/m 3 , 7 T vs. 18.9 GN/m 3 , 11 T), which is possibly due to the increased amount of pinning center (50 vol.% vs. 25 vol.%), however the proximity effect reduces the B c 2 unfavorably

  9. Ferromagnetic artificial pinning centers in multifilamentary superconducting wires

    Wang, J.Q.; Rizzo, N.D.; Prober, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors fabricated multifilamentary NbTi wires with ferromagnetic (FM) artificial pinning centers (APCs) to enhance the critical current density (J c ) in magnetic fields. They used a bundle and draw technique to process the APC wires with either Ni or Fe as the pinning centers. Both wires produced higher J c in the high field range (5-9 T) than previous non-magnetic APC wires similarly processed, even though the authors have not yet optimized pin percentage. Using a magnetometer they found that the pins remained ferromagnetic for the wires with maximum J c . However, they did observe a substantial loss of FM material for the wires where the pin diameter approached 3 nm. Thus, they expect further enhancement of J c with better pin quality

  10. Correlation of creep and swelling with fuel pin performance

    Jackson, R.J.; Washburn, D.F.; Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1975-09-01

    The HEDL PNL-11 experiment described was one in a series of fueled subassemblies irradiated in EBR-II to demonstrate the adequacy of the FFTF fuel pin design. The cladding material, dimensions, and fuel density are prototypic of FFTF. Because neutron flux in EBR-II is lower than in FFTF, the uranium enrichment is higher in these experimental fuel pins, irradiated in EBR-II, than the FFTF enrichment for comparable linear heat rates. Some pertinent oprating conditions for the center fuel pin in this experiment are listed. This 37-pin subassembly represents, at 110,000 MWd/MTM, the highest burnup yet attained by a prototypic FFTF subassembly. Similarly, this is the highest fluence presently attained by prototypic fuel pins. A cladding breach occurred in one fuel pin which is presently being examined. Results are presented and discussed

  11. Analysis of three idealized reactor configurations: plate, pin, and homogeneous

    McKnight, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed Monte Carlo calculations have been performed for three distinct configurations of an idealized fast critical assembly. This idealized assembly was based on the LMFBR benchmark critical assembly ZPR-6/7. In the first configuration, the entire core was loaded with the plate unit cell of ZPR-6/7. In the second configuration, the entire core was loaded with the ZPR sodium-filled pin calandria. The actual ZPR pin calandria are loaded with mixed (U,Pu) oxide pins which closely match the composition of the ZPR-6/7 plate unit cell. For the present study, slight adjustments were made in the atom concentrations and the length of the pin calandria in order to make the core boundaries and average composition for the pin-cell configuration identical to those of the plate-cell configuration. In the third configuration, the core was homogeneous, again with identical core boundaries and average composition as the plate and pin configurations

  12. Strong-pinning regimes by spherical inclusions in anisotropic type-II superconductors

    Willa, R.; Koshelev, A. E.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Glatz, A.

    2017-11-27

    The current-carrying capacity of type-II superconductors is decisively determined by how well material defect structures can immobilize vortex lines. In order to gain deeper insights into intrinsic pinning mechanisms, we have explored the case of vortex trapping by randomly distributed spherical inclusions using large-scale simulations of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. We find that for a small density of particles having diameters of two coherence lengths, the vortex lattice preserves its structure and the critical current jc decays with the magnetic field following a power-law B-a with a ~ 0:66, which is consistent with predictions of strong pinning theory. For higher density of particles and/or larger inclusions, the lattice becomes progressively more disordered and the exponent smoothly decreases down to a ~ 0:3. At high magnetic fields, all inclusions capture a vortex and the critical current decays faster than B-1 as would be expected by theory. In the case of larger inclusions with diameter of four coherence length, the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current is strongly affected by the ability of inclusions to capture multiple vortex lines. We found that at small densities, the fraction of inclusions trapping two vortex lines rapidly grows within narrow field range leading to a shallow peak in jc(B)-dependence within this range. With increasing inclusion density, this peak transforms into a plateau, which then smooths out. Using the insights gained from simulations, we determine the limits of applicability of strong pinning theory and provide different routes to describe vortex pinning beyond those bounds.

  13. Analytic models for fuel pin transient performance

    Bard, F.E.; Fox, G.L.; Washburn, D.F.; Hanson, J.E.

    1976-09-01

    HEDL's ability to analyze various mechanisms that operate within a fuel pin has progressed substantially through development of codes such as PECTCLAD, which solves cladding response, and DSTRESS, which solves fuel response. The PECTCLAD results show good correlation with a variety of mechanical tests on cladding material and also demonstrate the significance of cladding strength when applying the life fraction rule. The DSTRESS results have shown that fuel deforms sufficiently during overpower transient tests that available volumes are filled, whether in the form of a central cavity or start-up cracks

  14. Optimum Prestress of Tanks with Pinned Base

    Brøndum-Nielsen, Troels

    1998-01-01

    Amin Ghali and Eleanor Elliott presented in their paper an interesting suggestion for prestressing of circular tanks without sliding joints. For many prestressed tanks the following construction procedure is adopted:In order to ensure compressive hoop forces in the wall near the base, the wall...... is allowed to slide freely in the radial direction during tensioning (free base).After tensioning such displacements are prevented (pinned base). The present paper addresses the problem of prestress of such tanks.Keywords: circular prestressing; creep properties; prestressed concrete; redistribution...

  15. Experiment on the effects of contact between the pressure tube and the fuel assembly

    Watanabe, Y; Fujii, Y [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, K [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works

    1996-12-31

    The Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) is a pressure tube type reactor in which the fuel assembly is located close to the pressure tube. The ATR has a structure which is such that the thermal stretch of the fuel pin is not limited by the spacer if the fuel pin dries out. Accordingly. it is not thought that the fuel pin contacts the pressure tube due to large transformations around the Design Based Event (DBE). Nevertheless, the safety margin must be kept in case the over-DBE. We have confirmed in this experiment that the temperature of the pressure tube does not increase to the critical level when the fuel pin contacts the pressure tube and the functions of the pressure tube are maintained as a pressure boundary. Further, we analyzed the safety margin of the pressure tube using the data from this experiment and from code analysis. (author). 10 tabs., 32 figs.

  16. Characterization of Lateral Structure of the p-i-n Diode for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cell.

    Kiaee, Zohreh; Joo, Seung Ki

    2018-03-01

    The lateral structure of the p-i-n diode was characterized for thin-film silicon solar cell application. The structure can benefit from a wide intrinsic layer, which can improve efficiency without increasing cell thickness. Compared with conventional thin-film p-i-n cells, the p-i-n diode lateral structure exploited direct light irradiation on the absorber layer, one-side contact, and bifacial irradiation. Considering the effect of different carrier lifetimes and recombinations, we calculated efficiency parameters by using a commercially available simulation program as a function of intrinsic layer width, as well as the distance between p/i or n/i junctions to contacts. We then obtained excellent parameter values of 706.52 mV open-circuit voltage, 24.16 mA/Cm2 short-circuit current, 82.66% fill factor, and 14.11% efficiency from a lateral cell (thickness = 3 μm; intrinsic layer width = 53 μm) in monofacial irradiation mode (i.e., only sunlight from the front side was considered). Simulation results of the cell without using rear-side reflector in bifacial irradiation mode showed 11.26% front and 9.72% rear efficiencies. Our findings confirmed that the laterally structured p-i-n cell can be a potentially powerful means for producing highly efficient, thin-film silicon solar cells.

  17. On the obstructions to non-Cliffordian pin structures

    Chamblin, A. (Dept. of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-07-01

    We derive the topological obstructions to the existence of non-Cliffordian pin structures on four-dimensional spacetimes. We apply these obstructions to the study of non-Cliffordian pin-Lorentz cobordism. We note that our method of derivation applies equally well in any dimension and in any signature, and we present a general format for calculating obstructions in these situations. Finally, we interpret the breakdown of pin structure and discuss the relevance of this to aspects of physics. (orig.)

  18. Sodium erosion of boron carbide from breached absorber pins

    Basmajian, J.A.; Baker, D.E.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of the irradiation experiment was to provide an engineering demonstration of the irradiation behavior of breached boron carbide absorber pins. By building defects into the cladding of prototypic absorber pins, and performing the irradiation under typical FFTF operating conditions, a qualitative assessment of the consequences of a breach was achieved. Additionally, a direct comparison of pin behavior with that of the ex-reactor test could be made

  19. Off-design temperature effects on nuclear fuel pins for an advanced space-power-reactor concept

    Bowles, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory out-of-reactor investigation was made of the effects of short-time temperature excursions above the nominal operating temperature of 990 C on the compatibility of advanced nuclear space-power reactor fuel pin materials. This information is required for formulating a reliable reactor safety analysis and designing an emergency core cooling system. Simulated uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins, clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) showed no compatibility problems after heating for 8 hours at 2400 C. At 2520 C and above, reactions occurred in 1 hour or less. Under these conditions free uranium formed, redistributed, and attacked the cladding.

  20. Cell homogenization methods for pin-by-pin core calculations tested in slab geometry

    Yamamoto, Akio; Kitamura, Yasunori; Yamane, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, performances of spatial homogenization methods for fuel or non-fuel cells are compared in slab geometry in order to facilitate pin-by-pin core calculations. Since the spatial homogenization methods were mainly developed for fuel assemblies, systematic study of their performance for the cell-level homogenization has not been carried out. Importance of cell-level homogenization is recently increasing since the pin-by-pin mesh core calculation in actual three-dimensional geometry, which is less approximate approach than current advanced nodal method, is getting feasible. Four homogenization methods were investigated in this paper; the flux-volume weighting, the generalized equivalence theory, the superhomogenization (SPH) method and the nonlinear iteration method. The last one, the nonlinear iteration method, was tested as the homogenization method for the first time. The calculations were carried out in simplified colorset assembly configurations of PWR, which are simulated by slab geometries, and homogenization performances were evaluated through comparison with the reference cell-heterogeneous calculations. The calculation results revealed that the generalized equivalence theory showed best performance. Though the nonlinear iteration method can significantly reduce homogenization error, its performance was not as good as that of the generalized equivalence theory. Through comparison of the results obtained by the generalized equivalence theory and the superhomogenization method, important byproduct was obtained; deficiency of the current superhomogenization method, which could be improved by incorporating the 'cell-level discontinuity factor between assemblies', was clarified

  1. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000 R plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  2. Compact CsI(Tl)-PIN detectors for nuclear physics applications

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Basu, S.K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Chanda, S.; Chowdhury, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Chatterjee, M.B.; Dey, C.C.; Mukherjee, Anjali

    2005-01-01

    Prototype detector elements, based on CsI(Tl) - Si PIN diodes, have been fabricated and optimized for use in a near 4p charged particle multiplicity filter array. The important aspects of fabrication of such compact detector elements along with the off-line and on-line performance test results will be reported. An early implementation of the proposed multiplicity filter array will be described. The planned use of the array in conjunction with the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) as a reaction filter in high spin spectroscopic studies would be stressed. (author)

  3. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of contact angle and its hysteresis in two-phase flow with large viscosity difference.

    Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the

  4. Trending on Pinterest: an examination of pins about skin tanning.

    Banerjee, Smita C; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Greene, Kathryn; Hay, Jennifer L

    2018-04-10

    Rates of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are on the rise in the USA with data revealing disproportionate increase in female young adults. The popularity of intentional skin tanning among U.S. adolescents is attributed to several factors, including prioritization of physical appearance, media images of tanned celebrities, ease of availability of artificial tanning facilities, and more recently, the prevalence and celebration of tanned skin on social media. Pinterest, as the third most popular social media platform, was searched for "pins" about skin tanning. The resultant "pins" were examined to understand the extent and characteristics of skin tanning portrayed on Pinterest. We analyzed pins on Pinterest about skin tanning (n = 501) through a quantitative content analysis. Overall, results indicated an overwhelmingly protanning characteristic of pins about skin tanning on Pinterest, with over 85% of pins promoting tanning behavior. The pins were generally characterized by the portrayal of a female subject (61%) and provided positive reinforcement for tanning (49%). Use of tanning for enhancing appearance was the main positive outcome expectancy portrayed in the pins (35%), and nudity or exposure of skin on arms (32%) and legs (31%) was evident in about a third of pins. With overwhelmingly positive pins promoting tanning, use of female subjects, exhibiting nudity, and appearance enhancement, there seems be to a consistent targeting of female users to accept tanning as a socially acceptable and popular behavior. The findings indicate a need for developing sun protection messages and the leveraging of social media for dissemination of skin cancer prevention and detection messages.

  5. The pin pixel detector--X-ray imaging

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a soft X-ray gas pixel detector, which uses connector pins for the anodes is reported. Based on a commercial 100 pin connector block, a prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mm centre dot 25.4 mm can be economically fabricated. The individual pin anodes all show the expected characteristics of small gas detectors capable of counting rates reaching 1 MHz per pin. A 2-dimensional resistive divide readout system has been developed to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics.

  6. Reconstruction calculation of pin power for ship reactor core

    Li Haofeng; Shang Xueli; Chen Wenzhen; Wang Qiao

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the limitation of the software that pin power distribution for ship reactor core was unavailable, the calculation model and method of the axial and radial pin power distribution were proposed. Reconstruction calculations of pin power along axis and radius was carried out by bicubic and bilinear interpolation and cubic spline interpolation, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained by professional reactor physical soft with fine mesh difference. It is shown that our reconstruction calculation of pin power is simple and reliable as well as accurate, which provides an important theoretic base for the safety analysis and operating administration of the ship nuclear reactor. (authors)

  7. Vortex pinning landscape in MOD-TFA YBCO nanostroctured films

    Gutierrez, J.; Puig, T.; Pomar, A.; Obradors, X.

    2008-03-01

    A methodology of general validity to study vortex pinning in YBCO based on Jc transport measurements is described. It permits to identify, separate and quantify three basic vortex pinning contributions associated to anisotropic-strong, isotropic-strong and isotropic-weak pinning centers. Thereof, the corresponding vortex pinning phase diagrams are built up. This methodology is applied to the new solution-derived YBCO nanostructured films, including controlled interfacial pinning by the growth of nanostructured templates by means of self-assembled processes [1] and YBCO-BaZrO3 nanocomposites prepared by modified solution precursors. The application of the methodology and comparison with a standard solution-derived YBCO film [2], enables us to identify the nature and the effect of the additional pinning centers induced. The nanostructured templates films show c-axis pinning strongly increased, controlling most of the pinning phase diagram. On the other hand, the nanocomposites have achieved so far, the highest pinning properties in HTc-superconductors [3], being the isotropic-strong defects contribution the origin of their unique properties. [1] M. Gibert et al, Adv. Mat. vol 19, p. 3937 (2007) [2] Puig.T et al, SuST EUCAS 2007 (to be published) [3] J. Gutierrez et al, Nat. Mat. vol. 6, p. 367 (2007) * Work supported by HIPERCHEM, NANOARTIS and MAT2005-02047

  8. ITP Hanford Type 40 pin electrical connector failure analysis

    Imrich, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion products observed on the ITP Hanford Type 40 pin electrical connectors would be expected to adversely affect the power and control signals supplied to process equipment in the filter cell by the connectors. Corrosion products were consistent with those found on similar pins in DWPF. The recommendations based on the findings in this investigation are as follows: (1) Replace male and female rhodium plated pins with gold plated pins. (2) Replace the galvanized carbon steel spring on the male connector with a stainless steel spring. (3) Install protective caps over Hanford connectors when jumpers are removed

  9. Fuel-pin cladding transient failure strain criterion

    Bard, F.E.; Duncan, D.R.; Hunter, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion for cladding failure based on accumulated strain was developed for mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pins and used to interpret the calculated strain results from failed transient fuel pin experiments conducted in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility. The new STRAIN criterion replaced a stress-based criterion that depends on the DORN parameter and that incorrectly predicted fuel pin failure for transient tested fuel pins. This paper describes the STRAIN criterion and compares its prediction with those of the stress-based criterion

  10. Dynamic Phases of Vortices in Superconductors with Periodic Pinning

    Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C.; Nori, F.

    1997-01-01

    We present results from extensive simulations of driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic arrays of pinning sites. Changing an applied driving force produces a rich variety of novel dynamical plastic flow phases which are very distinct from those observed in systems with random pinning arrays. Signatures of the transition between these different dynamical phases include sudden jumps in the current-voltage curves as well as marked changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. Several dynamical phase diagrams are obtained as a function of commensurability, pinning strength, and spatial order of the pinning sites. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment

    Frick, T.M.; Wineman, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    A positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment provides an inexpensive means of positively positioning and locking the individual fuel pins which make up the driver fuel assemblies used in nuclear reactors. The device can be adapted for use with a currently used attachment grid assembly design and insures that the pins remain in their proper position throughout the in-reactor life of the assembly. This device also simplifies fuel bundle assembly in that a complete row of fuel pins can be added to the bundle during each step of assembly. 8 claims, 8 drawing figures

  12. Heat transfer in a fuel pin shipping container

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Maximum cladding temperatures occur when the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container is installed in the T-3 Cask. The maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800 0 F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 19-pin basket reaches 400 watts. Since 45% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 19-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 400/.55 = 727 watts. Similarly, the maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800 0 F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 40-pin basket reaches 465 watts. Since 33% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 40-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 465/.66 = 704 watts. The IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container therefore meets its thermal design criteria. IDENT 1578 can handle fuel pins with a decay heat load of 600 watts while maintaining the maximum fuel pin cladding temperature below 800 0 F. The emissivities which were determined from the test results for the basket tubes and container are relatively low and correspond to new, shiny conditions. As the IDENT 1578 container is exposed to high temperatures for extended periods of time during the transportation of fuel pins, the emissivities will probably increase. This will result in reduced temperatures

  13. Nano-engineered pinning centres in YBCO superconducting films

    Crisan, A., E-mail: adrian.crisan@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics Bucharest, 105 bis Atomistilor Str., 077125 Magurele (Romania); School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Dang, V.S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nano and Energy Center, VNU Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Mikheenko, P. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Power applications of YBCO films/coated conductors in technological relevant magnetic fields requires nano-engineered pinning centre. • Three approaches have been proposed: substrate decoration, quasi-multilayers, and targets with secondary phase nano-inclusions. • Combination of all three approaches greatly increased critical current in YBCO films. • Bulk pinning force, pinning potential, and critical current density are estimated and discussed in relation with the type and strength of pinning centres related to the defects evidenced by Transmission Electron Microscopy. - Abstract: For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). Different samples have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. They have been characterized by SQUID Magnetic Properties Measurement System and Physical Properties Measurement System, as well as by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Correlations between pinning architecture, TEM images, and critical currents at various fields and field orientations will be shown for a large number of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films with various types and architectures of artificial pinning centres.

  14. FABRICE process for the refrabrication of experimental pins in a hot cell, from pins pre-irradiated in power reactors

    Vignesoult, N.; Atabek, R.; Ducas, S.

    1982-06-01

    The Fabrice ''hot cell refabrication'' process for small pins from very long irradiated fuel elements was developed at the CEA to allow parametric studies of the irradiation behavior of pins from nuclear power plants. Since this operation required complete assurance of the validity of the process, qualification of the fabrication was performed on test pins, refabricated in the hot cell, as well as irradiation qualification. The latter qualification was intended to demonstrate that, in identical experimental irradiation conditions, the refabricated Fabrice pins behaved in the same way as whole pins with the same initial characteristics. This qualification of the Fabrice process, dealing with more than twenty pins at different burnups, showed that fabrication did not alter: the inherent characteristics of the sampled fuel element and the irradiation behavior of the sampled fuel element [fr

  15. Charge-density depinning at metal contacts of graphene field-effect transistors

    Nouchi, Ryo; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    An anomalous distortion is often observed in the transfer characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors. We fabricate graphene transistors with ferromagnetic metal electrodes, which reproducibly display distorted transfer characteristics, and show that the distortion is caused by metal-graphene contacts with no charge-density pinning effect. The pinning effect, where the gate voltage cannot tune the charge density of graphene at the metal electrodes, has been experimentally observed; h...

  16. The Egyptian Hair Pin: practical, sacred, fatal

    Joann Fletcher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally regarded as little more than a mundane tool employed in daily life, the humble hairpin occasionally played a rather more prominent role in history than has perhaps been appreciated. As the most ancient implements associated with hair styling, simple pins of bone and ivory were commonly employed in Egypt by c.4000 BC as a means of securing long hair in an upswept style (e.g. Petrie and Mace 1901, 21, 34. Although their occasional use by men undermines the assumption that hairpins are 'a relatively certain example of a “gendered” artefact' (Wilfong 1997, 67, the vast majority have been found in female burials. They can be made of bone and ivory, wood, steatite, glass, gold, silver and bronze, and two 12cm long bronze examples were found within the hair of Princess Ahmosi c.1550 BC (Fletcher 1995, 376, 441 while the hair of an anonymous woman at Gurob c.AD 110 had been secured in a bun with pins of bone, tortoiseshell and silver (Walker and Bierbrier 1997, 209.

  17. Method and device for cleaning fuel pins

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Oohigashi, Yoshiaki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove clads or scales deposited on the outer surface of fuel pins in BWR type reactors. Method: A fuel assembly taken out of a reactor core is vertically contained without detaching a channel box in a scrubber tower disposed in a liquid tight manner within a fuel pool. Then, a specifically prepared slurry is caused to flow and uprise from the bottom of the scrubber tower into the channel box and then discharged from the top of the tower. The slurry is prepared by mixing pure water and granules (for example, as activated carbon, ion exchanger resin, iron and molecular sieve) of such a granular size as not causing clogging in the channel box of the fuel assembly and having a larger specific gravity than pure water. The slurry flown into the channel box scrubs the surface of fuel pins to scrape off clads or scales. Then, discharged slurry is sent to a hydraulic cyclone to separate the granules from the clads or scales. (Ikeda, J.)

  18. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  19. Simulation Results: Optimization of Contact Ratio for Interdigitated Back-Contact Solar Cells

    Vinay Budhraja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fabrication of interdigitated back contact (IBC solar cells, it is very important to choose the right size of contact to achieve the maximum efficiency. Line contacts and point contacts are the two possibilities, which are being chosen for IBC structure. It is expected that the point contacts would give better results because of the reduced recombination rate. In this work, we are simulating the effect of contact size on the performance of IBC solar cells. Simulations were done in three dimension using Quokka, which numerically solves the charge carrier transport. Our simulation results show that around 10% of contact ratio is able to achieve optimum cell efficiency.

  20. BARS - a heterogeneous code for 3D pin-by-pin LWR steady-state and transient calculation

    Avvakumov, A.V.; Malofeev, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    A 3D pin-by-pin dynamic model for LWR detailed calculation was developed. The model is based on a coupling of the BARS neutronic code with the RELAP5/MOD3.2 thermal hydraulic code. This model is intended to calculate a fuel cycle, a xenon transient, and a wide range of reactivity initiated accidents in a WWER and a PWR. Galanin-Feinberg heterogeneous method was realized in the BARS code. Some results for a validation of the heterogeneous method are presented for reactivity coefficients, a pin-by-pin power distribution, and a fast pulse transient. (Authors)

  1. Alleviation of fermi-level pinning effect at metal/germanium interface by the insertion of graphene layers

    Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Seo, Yu-Jin; Oh, Joong Gun; Albert Park, Min Gyu; Bong, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Seong Jun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Seo, Minsu; Park, Seung-young; Park, Byong-Guk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the alleviation of the Fermi-level pinning on metal/n-germanium (Ge) contact by the insertion of multiple layers of single-layer graphene (SLG) at the metal/n-Ge interface. A decrease in the Schottky barrier height with an increase in the number of inserted SLG layers was observed, which supports the contention that Fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Ge contact originates from the metal-induced gap states at the metal/n-Ge interface. The modulation of Schottky barrier height by varying the number of inserted SLG layers (m) can bring about the use of Ge as the next-generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor material. Furthermore, the inserted SLG layers can be used as the tunnel barrier for spin injection into Ge substrate for spin-based transistors.

  2. Pinning and irreversibility in superconducting bulk MgB{sub 2} with added nanodiamonds

    Gupta, Anurag [Superconductivity and Cryogenics Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Narlikar, A V, E-mail: anurag@mail.nplindia.ernet.i [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017, MP (India)

    2009-12-15

    Resistance, R(T), and magnetization, M(B), studies on superconducting bulk MgB{sub 2} samples containing nanodiamonds (ND) as additives (wt% of ND: x = 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10%) were recently published in two articles (Vajpayee et al 2007 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 20 S155, Vajpayee et al 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 07C708). The main observations reported were significant improvements in the critical current density J{sub c}(B), irreversibility line B{sub irr}(T) and upper critical field B{sub c2}(T) with ND addition. However, a closer look shows that as regards the potential of this technologically important material at higher magnetic fields and temperatures, there is still a lot of room for improvement. With that in mind we revisit the R(T) and M(B) data and analyze them, in the present work. We show that, despite ND addition, J{sub c} depends strongly on B in the high field region and tends to vanish at irreversibility lines that lie deep, i.e. at around 0.3 B{sub c2}(T), in the B-T phase diagram. The irreversibility lines, determined by R(T){yields}0 in the presence of B, are found to lie at around 0.5 B{sub c2}(T) in the phase diagram. These results for pinning and irreversibility lines are discussed in the light of various models such as those of surface sheath superconductivity, magnetically introduced percolation in polycrystalline MgB{sub 2}, thermally assisted flux motion (TAFM) and a modified flux line shear mechanism. Our analysis hints at TAFM and weak pinning channels with distributed superconducting properties percolating in our samples determining the irreversibility and pinning properties.

  3. Homotopy classification of contact foliations on open contact manifolds

    64

    Let ξt, t ∈ [0, 1] be a continuous family of contact structures defined by the ... here is based on ideas that can be found in [5] and [8] and may be known to experts. ..... the bigger rectangle represents the set U ×Iε1 and the central dotted line.

  4. On-line calculation of 3-D power distribution

    Park, Y. H.; In, W. K.; Park, J. R.; Lee, C. C.; Auh, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    The 3-D power distribution synthesis scheme was implemented in Totally Integrated Core Operation Monitoring System (TICOMS), which is under development as the next generation core monitoring system. The on-line 3-D core power distribution obtained from the measured fixed incore detector readings is used to construct the hot pin power as well as the core average axial power distribution. The core average axial power distribution and the hot pin power of TICOMS were compared with those of the current digital on-line core monitoring system, COLSS, which construct the core average axial power distribution and the pseudo hot pin power. The comparison shows that TICOMS results in the slightly more accurate core average axial power distribution and the less conservative hot pin power. Therefore, these results increased the core operating margins. In addition, the on-line 3-D power distribution is expected to be very useful for the core operation in the future

  5. Inscuteable Regulates the Pins-Mud Spindle Orientation Pathway

    Mauser, Jonathon F.; Prehoda, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    During asymmetric cell division, alignment of the mitotic spindle with the cell polarity axis ensures that the cleavage furrow separates fate determinants into distinct daughter cells. The protein Inscuteable (Insc) is thought to link cell polarity and spindle positioning in diverse systems by binding the polarity protein Bazooka (Baz; aka Par-3) and the spindle orienting protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins; mPins or LGN in mammals). Here we investigate the mechanism of spindle orientation by the Insc-Pins complex. Previously, we defined two Pins spindle orientation pathways: a complex with Mushroom body defect (Mud; NuMA in mammals) is required for full activity, whereas binding to Discs large (Dlg) is sufficient for partial activity. In the current study, we have examined the role of Inscuteable in mediating downstream Pins-mediated spindle orientation pathways. We find that the Insc-Pins complex requires Gαi for partial activity and that the complex specifically recruits Dlg but not Mud. In vitro competition experiments revealed that Insc and Mud compete for binding to the Pins TPR motifs, while Dlg can form a ternary complex with Insc-Pins. Our results suggest that Insc does not passively couple polarity and spindle orientation but preferentially inhibits the Mud pathway, while allowing the Dlg pathway to remain active. Insc-regulated complex assembly may ensure that the spindle is attached to the cortex (via Dlg) before activation of spindle pulling forces by Dynein/Dynactin (via Mud). PMID:22253744

  6. IMp: The customizable LEGO(®) Pinned Insect Manipulator.

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  7. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  8. The lumped parameter model for fuel pins

    Liu, W S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The use of a lumped fuel-pin model in a thermal-hydraulic code is advantageous because of computational simplicity and efficiency. The model uses an averaging approach over the fuel cross section and makes some simplifying assumptions to describe the transient equations for the averaged fuel, fuel centerline and sheath temperatures. It is shown that by introducing a factor in the effective fuel conductivity, the analytical solution of the mean fuel temperature can be modified to simulate the effects of the flux depression in the heat generation rate and the variation in fuel thermal conductivity. The simplified analytical method used in the transient equation is presented. The accuracy of the lumped parameter model has been compared with the results from the finite difference method. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Panoramic irradiator dose mapping with pin photodiodes

    Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Bueno, Carmen Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the possibility of using commercial silicon PIN photodiodes (Siemens, SFH 00206) for dose mapping in the Panoramic Irradiator facility at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The chosen photodiode, that is encased in 1.2 mm thickness polymer layer, displays promising dosimetric characteristics such as small size (sensitive area of 7.00 mm 2 ), high sensitivity and low dark current (≅ 300 pA, at 0 V) together with low-cost and wide availability. The Panoramic facility is an irradiator Type II with absorbed dose certificated by International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) offered by the International Agency Energy Atomic (IAEA). The charge registered by the diode as a function of the absorbed dose was in excellent agreement with that one calibrated by IDAS. Besides this, the easy handling and fast response of the SFH00206 diode compared to Fricke chemical dosimeters encouraged us to perform dose mapping around the source. (author)

  10. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ramirez G, J.

    2009-10-01

    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  11. Effective augmentation of networked systems and enhancing pinning controllability

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-06-01

    Controlling dynamics of networked systems to a reference state, known as pinning control, has many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we introduce a method for effective augmentation of networked systems, while also providing high levels of pinning controllability for the final augmented network. The problem is how to connect a sub-network to an already existing network such that the pinning controllability is maximised. We consider the eigenratio of the augmented Laplacian matrix as a pinning controllability metric, and use graph perturbation theory to approximate the influence of edge addition on the eigenratio. The proposed metric can be effectively used to find the inter-network links connecting the disjoint networks. Also, an efficient link rewiring approach is proposed to further optimise the pinning controllability of the augmented network. We provide numerical simulations on synthetic networks and show that the proposed method is more effective than heuristic ones.

  12. Artificial pinning center technology to enhance vortex pinning in YBCO coated conductors

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Mele, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Crystalline defects on the nano-scale, which are called artificial pinning centers (APCs), were successfully introduced into high-temperature superconductors (HTS) by nanotechnology, in order to strongly pin the quantized vortices. The critical current densities, J c , of the HTS films were dramatically improved by APCs. It is possible to form APCs in high-quality epitaxial films, keeping the desired dimensionality, volume fraction, spatial distribution and so on. The in-field J c of HTS films at 77 K was improved by one order of magnitude compared with previous values using APCs. This technology can be applied to the coated conductor technology in progress, and a high J c has already been reported. A current outline of the research is described in this review.

  13. A pinning puzzle: two similar, non-superconducting chemical deposits in YBCO-one pins, the other does not

    Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Skorpenske, Harley; Parks, Drew, E-mail: Weinstein@uh.ed [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at UH, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The pinning effects of two kinds of U-rich deposits in YBCO (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) are compared. One is a five-element compound, (U{sub 0.6}Pt{sub 0.4})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which is a paramagnetic double perovskite which forms as profuse stable nanosize deposits, and pins very well. The other is a four-element compound, (U{sub 0.4}Y{sub 0.6})BaO{sub 3}, which is a ferromagnetic single perovskite which forms as profuse stable nanosize deposits and pins very weakly or not at all. The pinning comparison is done with nearly equal deposit sizes and number of deposits per unit volume for the two compounds. Evidence for the pinning capability, chemical makeup, x-ray diffraction signature, and magnetic properties of the two compounds is reported.

  14. Optimal pin enrichment distributions in nuclear reactor fuel bundles

    Lim, E.Y.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology has been developed to determine the fuel pin enrichment distribution that yields the best approximation to a prescribed power distribution in nuclear reactor fuel bundles. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem in which the optimal pin enrichments minimize the sum of squared deviations between the actual and prescribed fuel pin powers. A constant average enrichment constraint is imposed to ensure that a suitable value of reactivity is present in the bundle. When constraints are added that limit the fuel pins to a few enrichment types, one must determine not only the optimal values of the enrichment types but also the optimal distribution of the enrichment types amongst the pins. A matrix of boolean variables is used to describe the assignment of enrichment types to the pins. This nonlinear mixed integer programming problem may be rigorously solved with either exhaustive enumeration or branch and bound methods using a modification of the algorithm from the continuous problem as a suboptimization. Unfortunately these methods are extremely cumbersome and computationally overwhelming. Solutions which require only a moderate computational effort are obtained by assuming that the fuel pin enrichments in this problem are ordered as in the solution to the continuous problem. Under this assumption search schemes using either exhaustive enumeration or branch and bound become computationally attractive. An adaptation of the Hooke--Jeeves pattern search technique is shown to be especially efficient

  15. Chemical potential pinning due to equilibrium electron transfer at metal/C60-doped polymer interfaces

    Heller, C. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1997-04-01

    We report electroabsorption measurements of the built-in electrostatic potential in metal/C60-doped polymer/metal structures to investigate chemical potential pinning due to equilibrium electron transfer from a metal contact to the electron acceptor energy level of C60 molecules in the polymer film. The built-in potentials of a series of structures employing thin films of both undoped and C60-doped poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) were measured. For undoped MEH-PPV, which has an energy gap of about 2.4 eV, the maximum built-in potential is about 2.1 eV, whereas for C60-doped MEH-PPV the maximum built-in potential decreases to 1.5 eV. Electron transfer to the C60 molecules close to the metal interface pins the chemical potential of the metal contact near the electron acceptor energy level of C60 and decreases the built-in potential of the structure. From the systematic dependence of the built-in potential on the metal work function we find that the electron acceptor energy level of C60 in MEH-PPV is about 1.7 eV above the hole polaron energy level of MEH-PPV.

  16. Unusual magneto-transport of YBa2Cu3O7−δ films due to the interplay of anisotropy, random disorder and nanoscale periodic pinning

    Trastoy, J; Rouco, V; Bernard, R; Briatico, J; Villegas, J E; Ulysse, C; Faini, G; Palau, A; Puig, T; Lesueur, J

    2013-01-01

    We study the general problem of a manifold of interacting elastic lines whose spatial correlations are strongly affected by the competition between random and ordered pinning. This is done through magneto-transport experiments with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ thin films that contain a periodic vortex pinning array created via masked ion irradiation, in addition to the native random pinning. The strong field-matching effects we observe suggest the prevalence of periodic pinning, and indicate that at the matching field each vortex line is bound to an artificial pinning site. However, the vortex-glass transition dimensionality—quasi-two dimensional instead of the usual three dimensional—evidences reduced vortex-glass correlations along the vortex line. This is also supported by an unusual angular dependence of the magneto-resistance, which greatly differs from that of Bose-glass systems. A quantitative analysis of the angular magneto-resistance allows us to link this behaviour to the enhancement of the system anisotropy, a collateral effect of the ion irradiation. (paper)

  17. Assessment on the methods of measuring the tyre-road contact patch stresses

    Anghelache, G.; Moisescu, A.-R.; Buretea, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper reviews established and modern methods for investigating tri-axial stress distributions in the tyre-road contact patch. The authors used three methods of measuring stress distributions: strain gauge method; force sensing technique; acceleration measurements. Four prototypes of instrumented pins transducers involving mentioned measuring methods were developed. Data acquisitions of the contact patch stresses distributions were performed using each transducer with instrumented pin. The results are analysed and compared, underlining the advantages and drawbacks of each method. The experimental results indicate that the three methods are valuable.

  18. Occupational contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis.

    Doutre, Marie-Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis and eczema are the most prevalent occupational skin diseases. Less common are immediate contact reactions such as contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. Occupational contact urticaria can be subdivided into two categories, immunological and non immunological. However, some agents can induce these two types of reactions. Contact urticaria to natural rubber latex is particularly frequent among health care personnel, but contact urticaria to a wide variety of other substances occurs in many other occupations. Among those at risk are cooks, bakers, butchers, restaurant personnel, veterinarians, hairdressers, florists, gardeners, and forestry workers. Protein contact dermatitis in some of these occupations is caused principally by proteins of animal or plant origin, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis requires careful interrogation, clinical examination and skin tests (open tests and prick tests with immediate lecture) to identify a particular contact allergen.

  19. Fuel pin design algorithm for conceptual design studies

    Uselman, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Two models are available which are currently verified by part of the requirements and which are adaptable as algorithms for the complete range. Fuel thermal performance is described by the HEDL SIEX model. Cladding damage and total deformation are determined by the GE GRO-II structural analysis code. A preliminary fuel pin performance model for analysis of (U, P/sub U/)O 2 pins in the COROPT core conceptual design system has been constructed by combining the key elements of SIEX and GRO-II. This memo describes the resulting pin performance model and its interfacing with COROPT system. Some exemplary results are presented

  20. Study of PIN diode energy traps created by neutrons

    Sopko, V; Dammer, J; Sopko, B; Chren, D

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of radiation defects is still ongoing and finds greater application in the increasing radiation doses on semiconductor detectors in experiments. Studying the changes of silicon PIN diode for high doses of radiation is the fundamental motivation for our measurements. In this article we describe the behavior of the PIN diode and development of the disorder caused by neutrons from a 252Cf and doses up to 8 Gy. The calibration curve for PIN diode shows the effect of disorders as the changes of the voltampere characteristics depending on the dose of neutron irradiation. The measured values for defects are in good agreement with created energy traps.

  1. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic clad fuel pins

    Zirker, L.R.; Bottcher, J.H.; Shikakura, S.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    A resistance butt welding procedure was developed and qualified for joining ferritic fuel pin cladding to end caps. The cladding are INCO MA957 and PNC ODS lots 63DSA and 1DK1, ferritic stainless steels strengthened by oxide dispersion, while the end caps are HT9 a martensitic stainless steel. With adequate parameter control the weld is formed without a residual melt phase and its strength approaches that of the cladding. This welding process required a new design for fuel pin end cap and weld joint. Summaries of the development, characterization, and fabrication processes are given for these fuel pins. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Inverse crystallization if Abrikosov vortex system at periodic pinning

    Zyubin, M V; Kashurnikov, V A

    2002-01-01

    The vortex system in the quasi-two-dimensional HTSC plate is considered in the case of the periodic pinning. The M(H) magnetization curves by various values of the external magnetic field and different temperatures are calculated through the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that in the case of the periodic pinning the crystallization of the vortex system is possible by the temperature increase. A number of peculiarities conditioned by the impact of the pinning centers periodic lattice are identified on the magnetization curves. The pictures of the vortex distribution corresponding to various points on the M(H) curve are obtained

  3. How Helpful is Colour-Cueing of PIN Entry?

    Renaud, Karen; Ramsay, Judith

    2014-01-01

    21st Century citizens are faced with the need to remember numbers of PINs (Personal Identification Numbers) in order to do their daily business, and they often have difficulties due to human memory limitations. One way of helping them could be by providing cues during the PIN entry process. The provision of cues that would only be helpful to the PIN owner is challenging because the cue should only make sense to the legitimate user, and not to a random observer. In this paper we report on an e...

  4. Discovery of novel selenium derivatives as Pin1 inhibitors by high-throughput screening

    Subedi, Amit; Shimizu, Takeshi; Ryo, Akihide; Sanada, Emiko; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerization by Pin1 regulates various oncogenic signals during cancer progression, and its inhibition through multiple approaches has established Pin1 as a therapeutic target. However, lack of simplified screening systems has limited the discovery of potent Pin1 inhibitors. We utilized phosphorylation-dependent binding of Pin1 to its specific substrate to develop a screening system for Pin1 inhibitors. Using this system, we screened a chemical library, and identified a novel selenium derivative as Pin1 inhibitor. Based on structure-activity guided chemical synthesis, we developed more potent Pin1 inhibitors that inhibited cancer cell proliferation. -- Highlights: •Novel screening for Pin1 inhibitors based on Pin1 binding is developed. •A novel selenium compound is discovered as Pin1 inhibitor. •Activity guided chemical synthesis of selenium derivatives resulted potent Pin1 inhibitors.

  5. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  6. The response of an individual vortex to local mechanical contact

    Kremen, Anna; Wissberg, Shai; Shperber, Yishai; Kalisky, Beena

    2016-05-01

    Recently we reported a new way to manipulate vortices in thin superconducting films by local mechanical contact without magnetic field, current or altering the pinning landscape [1]. We use scanning superconducting interference device (SQUID) microscopy to image the vortices, and a piezo element to push the tip of a silicon chip into contact with the sample. As a result of the stress applied at the contact point, vortices in the proximity of the contact point change their location. Here we study the characteristics of this vortex manipulation, by following the response of individual vortices to single contact events. Mechanical manipulation of vortices provides local view of the interaction between strain and nanomagnetic objects, as well as controllable, effective, localized, and reproducible manipulation technique.

  7. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  8. Pinning Control Strategy of Multicommunity Structure Networks

    Chao Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of community structure on synchronization, a pinning control strategy is researched in a class of complex networks with community structure in this paper. A feedback control law is designed based on the network community structure information. The stability condition is given and proved by using Lyapunov stability theory. Our research shows that as to community structure networks, there being a threshold hT≈5, when coupling strength bellows this threshold, the stronger coupling strength corresponds to higher synchronizability; vice versa, the stronger coupling strength brings lower synchronizability. In addition the synchronizability of overlapping and nonoverlapping community structure networks was simulated and analyzed; while the nodes were controlled randomly and intensively, the results show that intensive control strategy is better than the random one. The network will reach synchronization easily when the node with largest betweenness was controlled. Furthermore, four difference networks’ synchronizability, such as Barabási-Albert network, Watts-Strogatz network, Erdös-Rényi network, and community structure network, are simulated; the research shows that the community structure network is more easily synchronized under the same control strength.

  9. Ideal glass transitions by random pinning

    Cammarota, Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of freezing the positions of a fraction c of particles from an equilibrium configuration of a supercooled liquid at a temperature T. We show that within the random first-order transition theory pinning particles leads to an ideal glass transition for a critical fraction c = cK(T) even for moderate supercooling; e.g., close to the Mode-Coupling transition temperature. First we derive the phase diagram in the T - c plane by mean field approximations. Then, by applying a real-space renormalization group method, we obtain the critical properties for |c - cK(T)| → 0, in particular the divergence of length and time scales, which are dominated by two zero-temperature fixed points. We also show that for c = cK(T) the typical distance between frozen particles is related to the static point-to-set length scale of the unconstrained liquid. We discuss what are the main differences when particles are frozen in other geometries and not from an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we explain why the glass transition induced by freezing particles provides a new and very promising avenue of research to probe the glassy state and ascertain, or disprove, the validity of the theories of the glass transition. PMID:22623524

  10. Dynamic behaviour of FBR fuel pin bundles

    Martin, P.H.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Ravenet, A.

    1990-01-01

    A programme of shock tests on a fast neutron reactor subassembly model (SPX1 geometry) including a complete bundle of fuel pins (dummy elements) is being carried out in the BELIER test facility at Cadarache. The purpose of these tests is: to determine the distribution of dynamic forces applied to the fuel rod clads under the impact conditions encountered in a reactor during a earthquake; to reduce as much as possible the conservatism of the methods presently used for the calculation of those forces. The test programme, now being completed, consists of the following steps: impacts on the mock-up in air with an non-compact bundle (situation of the subassembly at beginning of life (BOL) with clearances within the bundle); impacts under the same conditions but with fluid (water) in the subassembly; impacts on the mock-up in air and with a compacted bundle (simulating the conditions of an end-of-life (EOL) bundle with no clearance within the bundle). The accelerations studied in these tests cover the range encountered in design calculations for the subassembly frequencies in beam mode. (author)

  11. Transverse pinning versus intramedullary pinning in fifth metacarpal's neck fractures: A randomized controlled study with patient-reported outcome.

    Galal, Sherif; Safwat, Wael

    2017-01-01

    The 5th metacarpal fractures accounts for 38% of all hand fractures given that the neck is the weakest point in metacarpals, so neck fracture is the most common metacarpal fracture. Surgical fixation is also advocated for such fractures to prevent mal-rotation of the little finger which will lead to fingers overlap in a clenched fist. Various methods are available for fixation of such fractures, like intramedullary & transverse pinning. There are very few reports in the literature comparing both techniques. Authors wanted to compare outcomes and complications of transverse pinning versus intramedullary pinning in fifth metacarpal's neck fractures. A single-center, parallel group, prospective, randomized study was conducted at an academic Level 1 Trauma Center from October 2014 to December 2016. A total of 80 patients with 5th metacarpal's neck fractures were randomized to pinning using either transverse pinning (group A) or intramedullary pinning (group B). Patients were assessed clinically on range of motion, patient-reported outcome using the Quick-DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) questionnaire & radiographically. Two blinded observers assessed outcomes. At final follow up for each patient (12 months) the statistically significant differences were observed in operative time, the transverse pinning group showed shorter operative time, as well as complication rate as complications were observed only in intramedullary pinning group. No differences were found in range of motion or the Quick -DASH score. Both techniques are equally safe and effective treatment option for 5th metacarpal's neck fractures. The only difference was shorter operative time & less incidence of complications in transverse pinning group. Level II, Therapeutic study.

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  14. Pin failure modeling of the A series CABRI tests

    Young, M.F.; Portugal, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The EXPAND pin fialure model, a research tool designed to model pin failure under prompt burst conditions, has been used to predict failure conditions for several of the A series CABRI tests as part of the United States participation in the CABRI Joint Project. The Project is an international program involving France, Germany, England, Japan, and the United States and has the goal of obtaining experimental data relating to the safety of LMFBR's. The A series, designed to simulate high ramp rate TOP conditions, initially utilizes single, fresh UO 2 pins of the PHENIX type in a flowing sodium loop. The pins are preheated at constant power in the CABRI reactor to establish steady state conditions (480 w/cm at the axial peak) and then subjected to a power pulse of 14 ms to 24 ms duration

  15. Progress in fuel pin modelling in the USA

    Stephen, J D; Biancheria, A; Leibnitz, D; O' Reilly, B D; Liu, Y Y; Labar, M P; Gneiting, B C [General Electric Company, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1979-12-01

    In the USA, the focus for theoretical fuel pin modeling is the LIFE system. This system of codes, algorithms, criteria and analysis guidelines is intended to provide a common basis for communication amongst the development groups, a reference set of analysis guidelines for design, and eventually a consensus on the state-of-the-art for licensing. The technical objective is to predict the effect of design options on fuel pin performance limits, which include fuel temperature, pin deformation and cladding breach during normal operation and design basis transients. The mechanistic approach to modeling is taken in LIFE to the extent possible. That is, the approach is to describe the key phenomena in sufficient detail to provide a fundamental understanding of their synergistic effect on the fuel pin performance limits.

  16. The treatment of burnable poison pins in LWRWIMS

    Halsall, M.J.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes an investigation into the modelling approximations normally made when the LWR lattice code LWRWIMS is used for design calculations on assemblies containing burnable poison pins. Parameters investigated include energy group structure, intervals between calculations in MWd/te and spatial subdivision of the poison pins. An estimate is made of the effect of using pin-cell smearing with diffusion theory for the assembly geometry, instead of a more exact heterogeneous transport theory calculation. The influence on reactivity of the minor gadolinium isotopes 152, 154, 156, 158 and 160 in a poison pin dominated by the isotopes 155 and 157 is presented, and finally, recommendations on the use of LWRWIMS for this type of calculation are made. (author)

  17. PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors.

    Jin, Zhiwen; Wang, Jizheng

    2014-06-17

    Organic thin film photoconductors (OTFPs) are expected to have wide applications in the field of optical communications, artificial vision and biomedical sensing due to their great advantages of high flexibility and low-cost large-area fabrication. However, their performances are not satisfactory at present: the value of responsivity (R), the parameter that measures the sensitivity of a photoconductor to light, is below 1 AW(-1). We believe such poor performance is resulted from an intrinsic self-limited effect of present bare blend based device structure. Here we designed a PIN architecture for OTFPs, the PIN device exhibits a significantly improved high R value of 96.5 AW(-1). The PIN architecture and the performance the PIN device shows here should represent an important step in the development of OTFPs.

  18. Investigation of pinning in MgB2 superconductors

    Mohammad, S.; Reissner, M.; Steiner, W.; Bauer, E.; Giovannini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The pinning behaviour of bulk MgB 2 superconductors is peculiar in many respects. Pinning seems to be stronger than in classical high T C materials and there seems to be no weak link problem in these compounds, giving hope to produce bulk samples and wires with current densities appropriate for technical applications. But, although many studies concerning the pinning behaviour in this compound appeared in recent years, the results are still contradictory. In the present work we present results of an investigation of the pinning behaviour by magnetic relaxation measurements of three MgB 2 samples: a pure one, a sample with 8 at% Al substitution and a sample with 10 wt% of SiC admixture. A comparison of different analyses methods is given. (author)

  19. SP-100 Fuel Pin Performance: Results from Irradiation Testing

    Makenas, Bruce J.; Paxton, Dean M.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Marietta, Martin; Hoth, Carl W.

    1994-07-01

    A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pins are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

  20. Behavior of a bundle of fast fuel pins under irradiation

    Marbach, G.; Millet, P.; Robert, J.; Languille, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the French design of fuel elements for fast reactors, great deformation of pins can bring about interaction with the hexagonal tube through the spacer wires. The change in such bundles is described here when the diameter of the cladding increases and the outcome of this reaction (bending and ovalization of pins) is calculated with a simplified model. It is shown that the results achieved agree well with the experimental observations [fr

  1. Cyclic movement pin mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor

    Joly, J.G.; Martin, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns a recurring movement pin mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor by shifting a neutron absorbing assembly, vertically mobile in the nuclear reactor, to adjust the power and for emergency shut-down. This mechanism ensures a continuous movement and accurate shut-down at any level of the travel height of the absorbing assembly in the core. It also prevents the impacts of the pivoting pins in the control rod slots [fr

  2. Theory of activated glassy dynamics in randomly pinned fluids

    Phan, Anh D.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2018-02-01

    We generalize the force-level, microscopic, Nonlinear Langevin Equation (NLE) theory and its elastically collective generalization [elastically collective nonlinear Langevin equation (ECNLE) theory] of activated dynamics in bulk spherical particle liquids to address the influence of random particle pinning on structural relaxation. The simplest neutral confinement model is analyzed for hard spheres where there is no change of the equilibrium pair structure upon particle pinning. As the pinned fraction grows, cage scale dynamical constraints are intensified in a manner that increases with density. This results in the mobile particles becoming more transiently localized, with increases of the jump distance, cage scale barrier, and NLE theory mean hopping time; subtle changes of the dynamic shear modulus are predicted. The results are contrasted with recent simulations. Similarities in relaxation behavior are identified in the dynamic precursor regime, including a roughly exponential, or weakly supra-exponential, growth of the alpha time with pinning fraction and a reduction of dynamic fragility. However, the increase of the alpha time with pinning predicted by the local NLE theory is too small and severely so at very high volume fractions. The strong deviations are argued to be due to the longer range collective elasticity aspect of the problem which is expected to be modified by random pinning in a complex manner. A qualitative physical scenario is offered for how the three distinct aspects that quantify the elastic barrier may change with pinning. ECNLE theory calculations of the alpha time are then presented based on the simplest effective-medium-like treatment for how random pinning modifies the elastic barrier. The results appear to be consistent with most, but not all, trends seen in recent simulations. Key open problems are discussed with regard to both theory and simulation.

  3. Variation of the Pinning Force with Microstructure and with the Ginzburg-Landau Parameter in Type II Superconductors.

    1981-09-01

    quantum number in flux quantization ’n constant of the Hc (T) and the KI(T) temperature dependence n L density of pinning centers per unit length...of fluxoid ns density of Cooper pairs P pressure phase of the order parameter magnetic flux (P 0fluxoid quantum TT(r) order parameter o 0 unperturbed...tainers for controlled fusion reactors. Superconducting computers, power lines, generators, and even the superconducting magnetic- levitation of trains

  4. Incidence and risk factors for pin tract infection in external fixation of ...

    Incidence and risk factors for pin tract infection in external fixation of fractures ... for pin tract infection, there were 93 pins scored grade 1, 32 pins grade 2, 15 ... The incidence increased from 20.5% in closed fractures to 75.9% in open fractures.

  5. Vortex Avalanches with Periodic Arrays of Pinning Sites

    Abbas, J.; Heckel, T.; Kakalios, J.

    2001-03-01

    Numerical simulations by Nori and co-workers of dynamical phase transitions for magnetic vortices in type II superconductors when the defects which act as pinning sites are arranged in a periodic array have found a dramatic non-linear relationship between vortex voltage and driving current.2,4 In order to experimentally test the predictions of these simulations, a macroscopic physical analog of an array of flux vortices in the presense of an ordered lattice of pinning sites has been constructed. This simple table-top experimental system consists of conventional household magnets, arranged in an ordered grid (serving as the lattice of fixed pinning centers). A plexiglass sheet is positioned above these fixed magnets, and another collection of magnets (representing the magnetic flux vortices), oriented so that they are attracted to the fixed magnets are placed on top of the sheet. The entire apparatus is then tilted to a given angle (the analog of the driving voltage) and the velocity of the avalanching magnets is recorded using the induced voltage in a pick-up coil. By varying the ratio of movable magnets to fixed pinning magnets, the filling fraction can be adjusted, as can the pinning strength, by adjusting the separation of the plexiglass sheet between the fixed and movable magnets. The velocity of the avalanching magnets as the filling fraction is varied displays a jamming transition, with a non-trivial dependence on the pinning strength of the lattice of fixed magnets below the sheet.

  6. JMCT Monte Carlo simulation analysis of full core PWR Pin-By-Pin and shielding

    Deng, L.; Li, G.; Zhang, B.; Shangguan, D.; Ma, Y.; Hu, Z.; Fu, Y.; Li, R.; Hu, X.; Cheng, T.; Shi, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the JMCT Monte Carlo code to the simulation of Kord Smith Challenge H-M model, BEAVRS model and Chinese SG-III model. For H-M model, the 6.3624 millions tally regions and the 98.3 billion neutron histories do. The detailed pin flux and energy deposition densities obtain. 95% regions have less 1% standard deviation. For BEAVRS model, firstly, we performed the neutron transport calculation of 398 axial planes in the Hot Zero Power (HZP) status. Almost the same results with MC21 and OpenMC results are achieved. The detailed pin-power density distribution and standard deviation are shown. Then, we performed the calculation of ten depletion steps in 30 axial plane cases. The depletion regions exceed 1.5 million and 12,000 processors uses. Finally, the Chinese SG-III laser model is simulated. The neutron and photon flux distributions are given, respectively. The results show that the JMCT code well suits for extremely large reactor and shielding simulation. (author)

  7. A polygonal nodal SP3 method for whole core Pin-by-Pin neutronics calculation

    Li, Yunzhao; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi, E-mail: xjtulyz@gmail.com, E-mail: hongchun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: caolz@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi (China)

    2011-07-01

    In this polygonal nodal-SP3 method, neutron transport equation is transformed by employing an isotropic SP3 method into two coupled equations that are both in the same mathematic form with the diffusion equation, and then a polygonal nodal method is proposed to solve the two coupled equations. In the polygonal nodal method, adjacent nodes are coupled through partial currents, and a nodal response matrix between incoming and outgoing currents is obtained by expanding detailed nodal flux distribution into a sum of exponential functions. This method avoids the transverse integral technique, which is widely used in regular nodal method and can not be used in triangular geometry because of the mathematical singularity. It is demonstrated by the numerical results of the test problems that the k{sub eff} and power distribution agree well with other codes, the triangular nodal-SP3 method appears faster, and that whole core pin-by-pin transport calculation with fine meshes is feasible after parallelization and acceleration. (author)

  8. Development of modeling tools for pin-by-pin precise reactor simulation

    Ma Yan; Li Shu; Li Gang; Zhang Baoyin; Deng Li; Fu Yuanguang

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop large-scale transport simulation and calculation method (such as simulation of whole reactor core pin-by-pin problem), the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics developed the neutron-photon coupled transport code JMCT and the toolkit JCOGIN. Creating physical calculation model easily and efficiently can essentially reduce problem solving time. Currently, lots of visual modeling programs have been developed based on different CAD systems. In this article, the developing idea of a visual modeling tool based on field oriented development was introduced. Considering the feature of physical modeling, fast and convenient operation modules were developed. In order to solve the storage and conversion problems of large scale models, the data structure and conversional algorithm based on the hierarchical geometry tree were designed. The automatic conversion and generation of physical model input file for JMCT were realized. By using this modeling tool, the Dayawan reactor whole core physical model was created, and the transformed file was delivered to JMCT for transport calculation. The results validate the correctness of the visual modeling tool. (authors)

  9. Repeat biopsy in patients with initial diagnosis of PIN; La biopsia ripetuta nei pazienti con diagnosi iniziale di PIN

    De Matteis, Massimo [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Albertoni; Poggi, Cristina; De Martino, Antonietta; Pavlica, Pietro [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Palagi, Dipartimento area radiologica; Corti, Barbara [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Anatomia ed istologia patologica, Dipartimento oncologico ed ematologico; Barozzi, Libero [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia d' urgenza, Dipartimento emergenze ed accettazione

    2005-09-15

    Purpose. Prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN) is considered a pre-malignant lesion and the main precursor of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. A PIN diagnosis established by prostate needle biopsy poses a difficult clinical management. problem. We retrospectively reviewed our three-year experience in order to identify criteria for referring patients to repeat biopsy. Materials and methods. We reviewed the repeat biopsy records of 72 patients in whom PIN had been detected on initial US-guided needle biopsy of the prostate. All the patients had a minimum of 6 biopsy cores taken, and they all had PSA > 4 ng/ml. Results. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 15 patients out of 50 (30%) with an initial diagnosis of low-grade PIN and in 10 patients out of 22 (45.4%) with high grade PIN, in 7 out of 18 (39%) in whom PSA levels had decreased during the observation interval, in 16 patients out of 46 (35%) in whom the PSA had increased and in 2 patients out of 8 (25%) with stable PSA. Conclusions. Our results seem to confirm that PIN can be considered a precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma or a histological alteration often associated with it. Patients with low-grade PIN and particularly those with high-grade PIN should be regularly subjected to repeat biopsy at short intervals due to the high frequency of the final diagnosis of carcinoma. No agreement has been reached on the time interval between the first and the second biopsy. The PSA changes during the observation period are not a statistically significant parameter to suggest the repetition of prostatic biopsy. [Italian] Scopo. La neoplasia prostatica intraepiteliale (PIN) e considerata una lesione premaligna ed il precursore principale dell'adenocarcinoma prostatico infiltrante. La diagnosi di PIN ottenuta con l'agobiopsia della prostata rappresenta un difficile problema gestionale clinico. In una valutazione retrospettiva della nostra esperienza di 3 anni si e cercato di individuare i criteri che possano

  10. Interplay between collective pinning and artificial defects on domain wall propagation in Co/Pt multilayers

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Montenegro, N; Alameda, J M; Velez, M; Menendez, J L; Ravelosona, D

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between collective pinning on intrinsic structural defects and artificial pinning at a patterned hole is studied in magnetic multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy. The pinning strength of a patterned hole is measured through its efficiency to stop domain wall (DW) propagation into a consecutive unpatterned nanowire section (using antisymmetric magnetoresistance to detect the direction of DW propagation) whereas collective pinning is characterized by the field dependence of DW velocity. Close to room temperature, collective pinning becomes weaker than artificial pinning so that pinning at the hole compensates nucleation-pad geometry, blocking DW propagation across the nanowire.

  11. Fuel pin bowing and related investigation of WWER-440 control rod influence on power release inside of neighbouring fuel pins

    Mikus, J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work consists in investigation of the WWER-440 control rod (CR) influence on space power distribution, especially from viewpoint of the values and gradient occurrence that could result in static and cyclic loads with some consequences, e.g. fuel pin bowing. As known, CR can cause power peaks in periphery fuel pins of adjacent operating assemblies because of the butt joint design of the absorbing adapter to the CR fuel part, that is, presence of the water cavity resulting in a flash up of thermal neutrons. As a consequence, beside well-known peaks in axial power distribution, above power gradients can occur inside of mentioned fuel pins. Because of complicated geometry and material composition of the CR, the detailed calculations concerning both above phenomena are complicated, too. Therefore it is useful to acquire appropriate experimental data to investigate mentioned influence and compare them with calculations. Since detailed power distributions cannot be obtained in the NPP, needed information is provided by means of experiments on research reactors. In case of measurements inside of fuel pins, special (e.g. track) detectors placed between fuel pellets are used. Such works are relatively complicated and time consuming, therefore an evaluation based on mathematical modelling and numerical approximation was proposed by means of that, and using measured power release in some selected fuel pins, information about power release inside of one of these fuel pins, can be obtained. For this purpose, an experiment on light water, zero-power research reactor LR-0 was realized and axial power distribution measurements were performed in a WWER-440 type core near to an authentic CR model. Application of the above evaluation method is demonstrated on one ''investigated'' fuel pin neighbouring CR by means of following results: 1. Axial power distribution inside of investigated fuel pin in two opposite positions on its pellets surface that are situated to

  12. Complications after pinning of supracondylar distal humerus fractures.

    Bashyal, Ravi K; Chu, Jennifer Y; Schoenecker, Perry L; Dobbs, Matthew B; Luhmann, Scott J; Gordon, J Eric

    2009-01-01

    Supracondylar distal humerus fractures are one of the most common skeletal injuries in children. The current treatment of choice in North America is closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation. Often surgeons leave the pins exposed beneath a cast but outside the skin. Great variation exists with respect to preoperative skin preparation, and perioperative antibiotic administration. Few data exist regarding the rate of infection and other complications. The purpose of this study is to review a large series of children to evaluate the rate of infection and other complications. A retrospective review was carried out of all patients treated at our institution over an 11-year period. A total of 622 patients were identified that were followed for a minimum of 2 weeks after pin removal. Seventeen patients had flexion-type fractures, 294 had type II fractures, and 311 had type III fractures. Seventy-four fractures (11.9%) had preoperative nerve deficits with anterior interosseous palsies being the most common (33 fractures, 5.3%). Preoperative antibiotics were given to 163 patients (26.2%). Spray and towel draping were used in 362 patients, paint and towel draping were used in 65 patients, alcohol paint and towel draping were used in 146 patients, and a full preparation and draping were used in 13 patients. The pins were left exposed under the cast in 591 fractures (95%), and buried beneath the skin in 31 fractures (5.0%). A medial pin was placed in 311 fractures with a small incision made to aid placement in 18 of these cases. The most common complication was pin migration necessitating unexpected return to the operating room for pin removal in 11 patients (1.8%). One patient developed a deep infection with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis (0.2%). Five additional patients had superficial skin infections and were treated with oral antibiotics for a total infection rate of 6 of 622 patients (1.0%). One patient ultimately had a malunion and 4 others returned to the

  13. High-performance whole core Pin-by-Pin calculation based on EFEN-SP_3 method

    Yang Wen; Zheng Youqi; Wu Hongchun; Cao Liangzhi; Li Yunzhao

    2014-01-01

    The EFEN code for high-performance PWR whole core pin-by-pin calculation based on the EFEN-SP_3 method can be achieved by employing spatial parallelization based on MPI. To take advantage of the advanced computing and storage power, the entire problem spatial domain can be appropriately decomposed into sub-domains and the assigned to parallel CPUs to balance the computing load and minimize communication cost. Meanwhile, Red-Black Gauss-Seidel nodal sweeping scheme is employed to avoid the within-group iteration deterioration due to spatial parallelization. Numerical results based on whole core pin-by-pin problems designed according to commercial PWRs demonstrate the following conclusions: The EFEN code can provide results with acceptable accuracy; Communication period impacts neither the accuracy nor the parallel efficiency; Domain decomposition methods with smaller surface to volume ratio leads to greater parallel efficiency; A PWR whole core pin-by-pin calculation with a spatial mesh 289 × 289 × 218 and 4 energy groups could be completed about 900 s by using 125 CPUs, and its parallel efficiency is maintained at about 90%. (authors)

  14. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Multilevel parallel strategy on Monte Carlo particle transport for the large-scale full-core pin-by-pin simulations

    Zhang, B.; Li, G.; Wang, W.; Shangguan, D.; Deng, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Strategy of multilevel hybrid parallelism of JCOGIN Infrastructure on Monte Carlo Particle Transport for the large-scale full-core pin-by-pin simulations. The particle parallelism, domain decomposition parallelism and MPI/OpenMP parallelism are designed and implemented. By the testing, JMCT presents the parallel scalability of JCOGIN, which reaches the parallel efficiency 80% on 120,000 cores for the pin-by-pin computation of the BEAVRS benchmark. (author)

  16. Fuel pin response to an overpower transient in an LMFBR

    Grosberg, A.J.; Head, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a method by which the ability of a whole-core code accurately to predict the time and location of the first fuel pin failures may be tested. The method involves the use of a relatively simple whole-core code to 'drive' a sophisticated fuel pin code, which is far too complex to be used within a whole-core code but which is potentially capable of modelling reliably the response of an individual fuel pin. The method cannot follow accurately the subsequent course of the transient because the simple whole-core code does not model the reactivity effects of events which may follow pin failure. The codes used were the simple whole-core code FUTURE and the fuel pin behaviour code FRUMP. The paper describes an application of the method to analyse a hypothetical LMFBR accident in which the control rods were assumed to be driven from the core at maximum speed, with all trip circuits failed. Taking 0.5% clad strain as a clad failure criterion, failure was predicted to occur at the top of the active core at about 10s into the transient. A repeat analysis, using an alternative clad yield criterion which is thought to be more realistic, indicated failure at the same position but 24s into the transient. This is after the onset of sodium boiling. Pin failure at the top of the core are likely to cause negative reactivity changes. In this hypothetical accident, pin failures are likely, therefore, to have a moderating effect on the course of the transient. (orig.)

  17. Orientation-dependent forces between flux lines and crystal lattice in pure niobium

    Holzhauser, W.

    1976-01-01

    Torque measurements were performed with cylindrical niobium crystals, due to the very small pinning of the high-purity material. A torque that tries to align the flux lines along special directions of the crystal lattice was studied

  18. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Full Text Available ... Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us About About the Veterans Crisis Line ... Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us About About the Veterans Crisis Line ...

  19. Switchable field-tuned control of magnetic domain wall pinning along Co microwires by 3D e-beam lithographed structures

    Blanco-Roldán, C., E-mail: c.blanco@cinn.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología CINN (CSIC, Universidad de Oviedo), Avenida de la Vega 4-6, 33940 El Entrego (Spain); Quirós, C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G.; Vélez, M.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología CINN (CSIC, Universidad de Oviedo), Avenida de la Vega 4-6, 33940 El Entrego (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Three-dimensional magnetic circuits composed of Co microwires crossed by elevated Co bridges have been patterned on Si substrate by e-beam lithography and lift-off process. The lithographic procedure includes a double resist procedure that optimizes the shape of the bridge, so that 200 nm air gaps can be routinely achieved in between the wire and bridge elements. Microwire magnetization reversal processes have been analyzed by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy with different remanent bridge configurations. When the Co bridge is magnetized along the in-plane direction parallel to the wire axis, its stray field induces a marked pinning effect on domain wall propagation along the wire below it, even without being in contact. Changing the sign of the remanent state of the bridge, domain wall pinning can be selected to occur in either the ascending or descending branches of the wire hysteresis loop. Thus, these wire-bridge 3D circuits provide a simple system for tunable domain wall pinning controllable through the pre-recorded bridge remanent state. - Highlights: • Electron beam lithography is used to fabricate a tridimensional magnetic circuit. • Proposed circuit is made of a Co bridge overcrossing a non-contacted Co microwire. • Domain wall propagation can be controlled by previous magnetization of the system. • Domain wall pinning in the wire depends on the applied magnetic field sign.

  20. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN; Espectrometro de particulas alfa con fotodiodo PIN

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09869 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail: achruiz@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  1. A thermodynamic model of contact angle hysteresis.

    Makkonen, Lasse

    2017-08-14

    When a three-phase contact line moves along a solid surface, the contact angle no longer corresponds to the static equilibrium angle but is larger when the liquid is advancing and smaller when the liquid is receding. The difference between the advancing and receding contact angles, i.e., the contact angle hysteresis, is of paramount importance in wetting and capillarity. For example, it determines the magnitude of the external force that is required to make a drop slide on a solid surface. Until now, fundamental origin of the contact angle hysteresis has been controversial. Here, this origin is revealed and a quantitative theory is derived. The theory is corroborated by the available experimental data for a large number of solid-liquid combinations. The theory is applied in modelling the contact angle hysteresis on a textured surface, and these results are also in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

  2. MFM observations of domain wall creep and pinning effects in amorphous CoxSi1-x films with diluted arrays of antidots

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Perez-Junquera, A; Velez, M; Anguita, J V; Martin, J I; Rubio, H; Alameda, J M

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) has been used to analyse the behaviour of domain walls in uniaxial amorphous Co x Si 1-x films patterned with diluted arrays of antidots by electron beam lithography. The walls are found to be pinned by the antidot array when the antidot density is high enough along the easy axis. The expansion of reversed nuclei under the influence of the tip stray field has been observed in several consecutive MFM images of the same area, showing how the competition between line tension effects and pinning by the patterned holes governs the creep motion of the 180 0 walls across the array of antidots

  3. Influence of damage and basal friction on the grounding line dynamics

    Brondex, Julien; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Durand, Gael

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of grounding line dynamics is a major issue in the prediction of future sea level rise due to ice released from polar ice sheets into the ocean. This dynamics is complex and significantly affected by several physical processes not always adequately accounted for in current ice flow models. Among those processes, our study focuses on ice damage and evolving basal friction conditions. Softening of the ice due to damaging processes is known to have a strong impact on its rheology by reducing its viscosity and therefore promoting flow acceleration. Damage creates where shear stresses are high enough which is usually the case at shear margins and in the vicinity of pinning points in contact with ice-shelves. Those areas are known to have a buttressing effect on ice shelves contributing to stabilize the grounding line. We aim at evaluating the extent to which this stabilizing effect is hampered by damaging processes. Several friction laws have been proposed by various author to model the contact between grounded-ice and bedrock. Among them, Coulomb-type friction laws enable to account for reduced friction related to low effective pressure (the ice pressure minus the water pressure). Combining such a friction law to a parametrization of the effective pressure accounting for the fact that the area upstream the grounded line is connected to the ocean, is expected to have a significant impact on the grounding line dynamics. Using the finite-element code Elmer/Ice within which both the Coulomb-type friction law, the effective pressure parametrization and the damage model have been implemented, the goal of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the grounding line dynamics to damage and to an evolving basal friction. The relative importance between those two processes on the grounding line dynamics is addressed as well.

  4. Generation of clusters in complex dynamical networks via pinning control

    Li Kezan; Fu Xinchu; Small, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Many real-world networks show community structure, i.e., groups (or clusters) of nodes that have a high density of links within them but with a lower density of links between them. In this paper, by applying feedback injections to a fraction of network nodes, various clusters are synchronized independently according to the community structure generated by the group partition of the network (cluster synchronization). This control is achieved by pinning (i.e. applying linear feedback control) to a subset of the network nodes. Those pinned nodes are selected not randomly but according to the topological structure of communities of a given network. Specifically, for a given group partition of a network, those nodes with direct connections between groups must be pinned in order to achieve cluster synchronization. Both the local stability and global stability of cluster synchronization are investigated. Taking the tree-shaped network and the most modular network as two particular examples, we illustrate in detail how the pinning strategy influences the generation of clusters. The simulations verify the efficiency of the pinning schemes used in this paper

  5. Pin1 and neurodegeneration: a new player for prion disorders?

    Elisa Isopi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that catalyzes the cis/trans conversion of phosphorylated proteins at serine or threonine residues which precede a proline. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerization induces a conformational change of the proteins involved in cell signaling process. Pin1 dysregulation has been associated with some neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Proline-directed phosphorylation is a common regulator of these pathologies and a recent work showed that it is also involved in prion disorders. In fact, prion protein phosphorylation at the Ser-43-Pro motif induces prion protein conversion into a disease-associated form. Furthermore, phosphorylation at Ser-43-Pro has been observed to increase in the cerebral spinal fluid of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease patients. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of prion disorders, suggesting Pin1 as a potential new player in the disease. In this paper, we review the mechanisms underlying Pin1 involvement in the aforementioned neurodegenerative pathologies focusing on the potential role of Pin1 in prion disorders.

  6. Exchange anisotropy pinning of a standing spin-wave mode

    Magaraggia, R.; Kennewell, K.; Kostylev, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Ali, M.; Greig, D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Standing spin waves in a thin film are used as sensitive probes of interface pinning induced by an antiferromagnet through exchange anisotropy. Using coplanar waveguide ferromagnetic resonance, pinning of the lowest energy spin-wave thickness mode in Ni80Fe20/Ir25Mn75 exchange-biased bilayers was studied for a range of Ir25Mn75 thicknesses. We show that pinning of the standing mode can be used to amplify, relative to the fundamental resonance, frequency shifts associated with exchange bias. The shifts provide a unique “fingerprint” of the exchange bias and can be interpreted in terms of an effective ferromagnetic film thickness and ferromagnet-antiferromagnet interface anisotropy. Thermal effects are studied for ultrathin antiferromagnetic Ir25Mn75 thicknesses, and the onset of bias is correlated with changes in the pinning fields. The pinning strength magnitude is found to grow with cooling of the sample, while the effective ferromagnetic film thickness simultaneously decreases. These results suggest that exchange bias involves some deformation of magnetic order in the interface region.

  7. Cluster synchronization for directed community networks via pinning partial schemes

    Hu Cheng; Jiang Haijun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cluster synchronization for directed community networks is proposed by pinning partial schemes. ► Each community is considered as a whole. ► Several novel pinning criteria are derived based on the information of communities. ► A numerical example with simulation is provided. - Abstract: In this paper, we focus on driving a class of directed networks to achieve cluster synchronization by pinning schemes. The desired cluster synchronization states are no longer decoupled orbits but a set of un-decoupled trajectories. Each community is considered as a whole and the synchronization criteria are derived based on the information of communities. Several pinning schemes including feedback control and adaptive strategy are proposed to select controlled communities by analyzing the information of each community such as indegrees and outdegrees. In all, this paper answers several challenging problems in pinning control of directed community networks: (1) What communities should be chosen as controlled candidates? (2) How many communities are needed to be controlled? (3) How large should the control gains be used in a given community network to achieve cluster synchronization? Finally, an example with numerical simulations is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  8. Irradiation of TZM: Uranium dioxide fuel pin at 1700 K

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    A fuel pin clad with TZM and containing solid pellets of uranium dioxide was fission heated in a static helium-cooled capsule at a maximum surface temperature of 1700 K for approximately 1000 hr and to a total burnup of 2.0 percent of the uranium-235. The results of the postirradiation examination indicated: (1) A transverse, intergranular failure of the fuel pin occurred when the fuel pin reached 2.0-percent burnup. This corresponds to 1330 kW-hr/cu cm, where the volume is the sum of the fuel, clad, and void volumes in the fuel region. (2) The maximum swelling of the fuel pin was less than 1.5 percent on the fuel-pin diameter. (3) There was no visible interaction between the TZM clad and the UO2. (4) Irradiation at 1700 K produced a course-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.02 centimeter and with some of the grains extending one-half of the thickness of the clad. (5) Below approximately 1500 K, the irradiation of the clad produced a moderately fine-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.004 centimeter.

  9. Contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small contact to full contact

    Yang, C; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. The numerical calculations mainly focus on the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For a small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For a high load the contact area approaches the nominal contact area (i.e. complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches zero. The numerical results have been compared with analytical theory and experimental results. They are in good agreement with each other. The present findings may be very important for soft solids, e.g. rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderately high loads without plastic deformation of the solids

  10. Characteristic of the flux pinning at intergrain boundaries in bulk Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors

    Wang Yugui; Yang Yu; Xiong Xiaozhong; Yuan Songliu; Wang Shunxi

    1991-02-01

    The magnetization measurement shows that there are two kinds of different intergrain boundaries in the sintered Bi 1.8 Pb 0.34 Sr 1.86 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y superconductors. One has nearly no pinning force for flux line, the other can trap some flux line in the low field range where a pinning current may be sustained. When the applied field is removed, most of the remanent magnetization comes from the intergrain boundaries. The area of hysteresis loop at low field and the remanent magnetization for the cold-pressed bulk samples are significantly increased. Cold pressing results in aligning the grain orientation and raising the packing density, both of which enhanced intergrain coupling. The J c value of 1040 A/cm 2 at H = 0 and 150 A/cm 2 at H = 1 k Oe are obtained. The flux creep along the intergrain boundaries and the pinning potential energy U 0 for the coldpressed samples are also discussed

  11. MODELING OF MANUFACTURING ERRORS FOR PIN-GEAR ELEMENTS OF PLANETARY GEARBOX

    Ivan M. Egorov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical background for calculation of k-h-v type cycloid reducers was developed relatively long ago. However, recently the matters of cycloid reducer design again attracted heightened attention. The reason for that is that such devices are used in many complex engineering systems, particularly, in mechatronic and robotics systems. The development of advanced technological capabilities for manufacturing of such reducers today gives the possibility for implementation of essential features of such devices: high efficiency, high gear ratio, kinematic accuracy and smooth motion. The presence of an adequate mathematical model gives the possibility for adjusting kinematic accuracy of the reducer by rational selection of manufacturing tolerances for its parts. This makes it possible to automate the design process for cycloid reducers with account of various factors including technological ones. A mathematical model and mathematical technique have been developed giving the possibility for modeling the kinematic error of the reducer with account of multiple factors, including manufacturing errors. The errors are considered in the way convenient for prediction of kinematic accuracy early at the manufacturing stage according to the results of reducer parts measurement on coordinate measuring machines. During the modeling, the wheel manufacturing errors are determined by the eccentricity and radius deviation of the pin tooth centers circle, and the deviation between the pin tooth axes positions and the centers circle. The satellite manufacturing errors are determined by the satellite eccentricity deviation and the satellite rim eccentricity. Due to the collinearity, the pin tooth and pin tooth hole diameter errors and the satellite tooth profile errors for a designated contact point are integrated into one deviation. Software implementation of the model makes it possible to estimate the pointed errors influence on satellite rotation angle error and

  12. Reirradiation of mixed-oxide fuel pins at increased temperatures

    Lawrence, L.A.; Weber, E.T.

    1976-05-01

    Mixed-oxide fuel pins from EBR-II irradiations were reirradiated in the General Electric Test Reactor (GETR) at higher temperatures than experienced in EBR-II to study effects of the increased operating temperatures on thermal/mechanical and chemical behavior. The response of a mixed-oxide fuel pin to a power increase after having operated at a lower power for a significant portion of its life-time is an area of performance evaluation where little information currently exists. Results show that the cladding diameter changes resulting from the reirradiation are strongly dependent upon both prior burnup level and the magnitude of the temperature increase. Results provide the initial rough outlines of boundaries within which mixed-oxide fuel pins can or cannot tolerate power increases after substantial prior burnup at lower powers

  13. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  14. Control of Flux Pinning in MOD YBCO Coated Conductor

    Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Huang, Y. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Li, X. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Kodenkandath, Thomas [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Schoop, U. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, D. T. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Thieme, C. L. H. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Siegal, E. E. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Holesinger, T. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Maiorov, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, D. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Maroni, V. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Two different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  15. Control of flux pinning in MOD YBCO coated conductor.

    Zhang, W.; Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Siegal, E.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Li, J.; Martin, P. M.; Specht, E. D.; Goyal, A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; American Superconductor Corp.; LANL; ORNL

    2007-06-01

    NTwo different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  16. Practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks via optimal pinning control

    Li, Kezan; Sun, Weigang; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-07-01

    We consider practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks under linear feedback control designed by optimal control theory. The control goal is to minimize global synchronization error and control strength over a given finite time interval, and synchronization error at terminal time. By utilizing the Pontryagin's minimum principle, and based on a general complex dynamical network, we obtain an optimal system to achieve the control goal. The result is verified by performing some numerical simulations on Star networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Barabási-Albert networks. Moreover, by combining optimal control and traditional pinning control, we propose an optimal pinning control strategy which depends on the network's topological structure. Obtained results show that optimal pinning control is very effective for synchronization control in real applications.

  17. Symmetric Pin Diversion Detection using a Partial Defect Detector (PDET)

    Sitaraman, S.; Ham, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the signature from the Partial Defect Detector (PDET) is principally dependent on the geometric layout of the guide tube locations, the capability of the technique in detecting symmetric diversion of pins needs to be determined. The Monte Carlo simulation study consisted of cases where pins were removed in a symmetric manner and the resulting signatures were examined. In addition to the normalized gamma-to-neutron ratios, the neutron and gamma signatures normalized to their maximum values, were also examined. Examination of the shape of the three curves as well as of the peak-to-valley differences in excess of the maximum expected in intact assemblies, indicated pin diversion. A set of simulations with various symmetric patterns of diversion were examined. The results from these studies indicated that symmetric diversions as low as twelve percent could be detected by this methodology

  18. Flux pinning in La70 Cu30 disordered system

    Esquinazi, P.; Guillet, B.; Dussell, H.

    1983-09-01

    Superconducting critical currents were measured as a function of a perpendicular applied magnetic field in disordered La 70 Cu 30 . It is shown that the pinning force is very sensitive to inhomogeneties already present in the as quenched samples, although these inhomogeneties have no obvious influence on other superconducting and transport properties. A simple series resistance model is used to explain the magnetic field dependence of the pinning force. A large decrease of the pinning force was obtained for the annealed samples. This behaviour is consistent with the phase separation model that explains the evolution of the superconductive penetration depth. In order to obtain a better characterization of the structural evolution with annealing of the La 70 Cu 30 system, behaviour of the electrical resistivity, superconducting critical temperature and differential thermal analysis were measured. (author)

  19. Radiation detectors of PIN type for X-rays

    Ramirez-Jimenez, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this laboratory session, tree experiments are proposed: the measurement of X-ray energy spectra from radioactive sources with a high resolution cooled Si-Li detector, with a room temperature PIN diode and the measurement of the response of a PIN diode to the intensity of X-rays of radio-diagnostic units. The spectra obtained with the Si-Li detector help to understand the energy distribution of X-rays and are used as a reference to compare the results obtained with the PIN diode. Measurements in medical X-ray machines are proposed. Low cost, simple electronic instruments and systems are used as tools to make measurements in X-ray units used in radio-diagnostic

  20. Development of wire wrapping technology for FBR fuel pin

    Nogami, Tetsuya; Seki, Nobuo; Sawayama, Takeo; Ishibashi, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    For the FBR fuel assembly, the spacer wire is adopted to maintain the space between fuel pins. The developments have been carried out to achieve automatically wire wrapping with high precision. Based on the fundamental technology developed through the mock-up test operation, Joyo 'MK-I', fuel pin fabrication was started using partially mechanized wire wrapping machine in 1973. In 1978, an automated wire wrapping machine for Joyo 'MK-II' was developed by the adoption of some improvements for the wire inserting system to end plug hole and the precision of wire pitch. On the bases of these experiences, fully automated wire wrapping machine for 'Monju' fuel pin was installed at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in 1987. (author)

  1. Component Pin Recognition Using Algorithms Based on Machine Learning

    Xiao, Yang; Hu, Hong; Liu, Ze; Xu, Jiangchang

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of machine vision for a plug-in machine is to improve the machine’s stability and accuracy, and recognition of the component pin is an important part of the vision. This paper focuses on component pin recognition using three different techniques. The first technique involves traditional image processing using the core algorithm for binary large object (BLOB) analysis. The second technique uses the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), to experimentally compare the effect of the support vector machine (SVM) and the adaptive boosting machine (AdaBoost) learning meta-algorithm classifiers. The third technique is the use of an in-depth learning method known as convolution neural network (CNN), which involves identifying the pin by comparing a sample to its training. The main purpose of the research presented in this paper is to increase the knowledge of learning methods used in the plug-in machine industry in order to achieve better results.

  2. FFTF/IEM cell fuel pin weighing system

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is used for remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and materials experiments. For those fuel experiments where the FFTF tag-gas detection system has indicated a fuel pin cladding breach, a weighing system is used in identifying that fuel pin with a reduced weight due to the escape of gaseous and volatile fission products. A fuel pin weighing machine, originally purchased for use in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), was the basis for the IEM cell system. Design modifications to the original equipment were centered around adapting the machine to the differences between the two facilities and correcting deficiencies discovered during functional testing in the IEM cell mock-up

  3. Apparatus for atmospheric pressure pin-to-hole spark discharge and uses thereof

    Dobrynin, Danil V.; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Gregory; Friedman, Gennady

    2016-12-06

    Disclosed herein are atmospheric pressure pin-to-hole pulsed spark discharge devices and methods for creating plasma. The devices include a conduit for fluidically communicating a gas, a plasma, or both, therethrough, portion of the conduit capable of being connected to a gas supply, and a second portion of the conduit capable of emitting a plasma; a positive electrode comprising a sharp tip; and a ground plate electrode. Disclosed are methods for treating a skin ulcer using non-thermal plasma include flowing a gas through a cold spark discharge zone simultaneously with the creation of a pulsed spark discharge to give rise to a non-thermal plasma emitted from a conduit, the non-thermal plasma comprising NO; and contacting a skin ulcer with said non-thermal plasma for sufficient time and intensity to give rise to treatment of the skin ulcer.

  4. Noise in a-Si:H p-i-n detector diodes

    Cho, G.; Qureshi, S.; Drewery, J.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.; Mireshghi, A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wildermuth, D.

    1991-10-01

    Noise of a-Si:H p-i-n diodes (5 ∼ 50 μm thick) under reverse bias was investigated. The current dependent 1/f type noise was found to be the main noise component at high bias. At low bias the thermal noise from a series resistance of the p-layer and of the metallic contacts is the dominant noise source which is unrelated to the reverse current through the diode. The noise associated with the p-layer resistance decreased significantly on annealing under reverse bias, reducing the total zero bias noise by a factor 2 approximately. The noise recovered to the original value on subsequent annealing without bias. In addition to the resistive noise there seems to be a shaping time independent noise component at zero biased diodes

  5. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

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  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

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    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  13. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

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    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  18. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  19. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Majhi, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  2. Vortex lattice matching effects in a washboard pinning potential induced by Co nanostripe arrays

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.; Begun, Evgeniya; Huth, Michael; Shklovskij, Valerij A.; Tsindlekht, Menachem I.

    2011-01-01

    We furnish superconducting Nb thin films with linearly-extended uniaxial pinning nanostructures. An array of Co stripes is deposited by focused electron beam-induced deposition. Nanostructures are designed to be commensurate with the vortex lattice at small magnetic fields. We investigate vortex lattice matching effects by magneto-transport measurements. Drops in ρ(B) are observed only when the vortex lattice parameter matches the nanostructure period. No matching effects corresponding to the Co stripe width have been observed. Drops in ρ(B) are more pronounced for the vortex motion perpendicular to the Co stripes. An advanced mask-less nanofabrication technique, focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID), has been employed on epitaxial Nb thin films to prepare ferromagnetic decorations in the form of an array of Co stripes. These substantially modify the non-patterned films' superconducting properties, providing a washboard-like pinning potential landscape for the vortex motion. At small magnetic fields B ≤ 0.1 T, vortex lattice matching effects have been investigated by magneto-transport measurements. Step-like drops in the field dependencies of the films resistivity ρ(B) have been observed in particular for the vortex motion perpendicular to the Co stripes. The field values, corresponding to the middle points of these drops in ρ(B), meet the vortex lattice parameter matching the pinning structure's period. These disagree with the results of Jaque et al. (2002) , who observed matching effects corresponding to the stripe width in Nb films grown on periodically distributed submicrometric lines of Ni.

  3. Pinning synchronization of delayed complex dynamical networks with nonlinear coupling

    Cheng, Ranran; Peng, Mingshu; Yu, Weibin

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we find that complex networks with the Watts-Strogatz or scale-free BA random topological architecture can be synchronized more easily by pin-controlling fewer nodes than regular systems. Theoretical analysis is included by means of Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities (LMI) to make all nodes reach complete synchronization. Numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the importance of our theoretical analysis, which implies that there exists a gap between the theoretical prediction and numerical results about the minimum number of pinning controlled nodes.

  4. Creep relaxation of fuel pin bending and ovalling stresses

    Chan, D.P.; Jackson, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    Analytical methods for calculating fuel pin cladding bending and ovalling stresses due to pin bundle-duct mechanical interaction taking into account nonlinear creep are presented. Calculated results are in close agreement with finite element results by MARC-CDC program. The methods are used to investigate the effect of creep on the FTR fuel cladding bending and ovalling stresses. It is concluded that the cladding of 316 SS 20% CW and reference design has high creep rates in the FTR core region to keep the bending and ovalling stresses to low levels

  5. Nuclear fuel assemblies and fuel pins usable in such assemblies

    Jolly, R.

    1982-01-01

    A novel end cap for a nuclear fuel assembly is described in detail. It consists of a trisection arrangement which is received within a cell of a cellular grid. The cell contains abutment means with which the trisection comes into abutment. The grid also contains an abutment means for preventing the trisections from being inserted into the cell in an incorrect orientation. The present design allows fuel pins to be securely held in a hold-down grid of a sub-assembly. The design also allows easier dis-assembly of the swollen and embrittled fuel pins prior to reprocessing. (U.K.)

  6. 8 Pin RIC Socket for Hearing Aid Applications

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Davids, Søren

    2012-01-01

    process and the other one is fully automated process. This paper presents the entire process chain for both the concepts and makes a comparative analysis based on the experimental investigation and validation. The work presented here can be a source of valuable information for industrial users...... of them. 8 Pin RIC Socket is a functionally versatile product which can combine many different functions and presents many advantages compared with the previous 3 Pin RIC Socket. For the demonstrator production of the new Socket, two different production concepts were chosen- one based on semi-automated...

  7. Fuel pin failure in the PFR/TREAT experiments

    Herbert, R.; Hunter, C.W.; Kramer, J.M.; Wood, M.H.; Wright, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The PFR/TREAT safety testing programme involves the transient testing of fresh and pre-irradiated UK and US fuel pins. This paper summarizes the experimental and calculational results obtained to date on fuel pin failure during transient overpower (resulting from an accidental addition of resolivity) and transient undercooling followed by overpower (arising from an accidental stoppage of the primary sodium circulating pumps) accidents. Companion papers at this conference address: (I) the progress and future plans of the programme, and (II) post-failure material movements

  8. Influence of LMFBR fuel pin temperature profiles on corrosion rate

    Shiels, S.A.; Bagnall, C.; Schrock, S.L.; Orbon, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the sodium corrosion behavior of 20 percent cold worked Type 316 stainless steel fuel pin cladding under a simulated reactor thermal environment. A temperature gradient, typical of a fuel pin, was generated in a 0.9 m long heater section by direct resistance heating. Specimens were located in an isothermal test section immediately downstream of the heater. A comparison of the measured corrosion rates with available data showed an enhancement factor of between 1.5 and 2 which was attributed to the severe axial temperature gradient through the heater. Differences in structure and surface chemistry were also noted

  9. Establishment of the PIN within the Colombian party system

    Vanessa Ortiz López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the legislative elections held in Colombia in 2010 and one of their main results, the establishment of the National Integration Party (PIN. The authors offer an analysis of articles that appeared in printed media, taking into consideration such variables as financing, legal constitution, popular acceptance and settling time. In this way, the authors attempt to demonstrate how the PIN managed to get a place in the political system and what are the consequences of this development, in particular, as the Department of Valle del Cauca is concerned.

  10. Analysis of the porosity distribution of mixed oxide pins

    Lieblich, M.; Lopez, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the frame of the Joint Irradiation Program IVO-FR2-Vg7 between the Centre of Nuclear Research of Karlsruhe (KfK), the irradiation of 30 mixed-oxide fuel rods in the FR2 experimental reactor was carried out. The pins were located in 10 single-walled NaK capsules. The behaviour of the fuel during its burnup was studied, mainly, the rest-porosity and cracking distribution in the pellet, partial densification, etc. In this work 3 pins from the capsule No. 165 were analyzed. The experimental results (pore and cracking profiles) were interpreted by the fuel rod code SATURN. (Author) 20 refs

  11. Tribological Testing of Hemispherical Titanium Pin Lubricated by Novel Palm Oil: Evaluating Anti-Wear and Anti-Friction Properties

    Norzahir Sapawe; Syahrullail Samion; Mohd Izhan Ibrahim; Md Razak Daud; Azli Yahya; Muhammad Farhan Hanafi

    2017-01-01

    In this study,the properties of hip implant material and lubricants were examined using a pin on disc apparatus,to compare the effect of metal-on-metal (MoM) contact with a bio-lubricant derived from palm oil.The behaviour of the lubricants was observed during the experiments,in which a hemispherical pin was loaded against a rotating disc with a groove.A titanium alloy was used to modify the hemispherical pin and disc.Before and after the experiments,the weight and surface roughness were analysed,to detect any degradation.The results were compared according to the different kinematic viscosities.The wear rates and level of friction with each lubricant were also examined.The lubricant with the highest viscosity had the lowest frictional value.Therefore,developing suitable lubricants has the potential to prolong the lifespan of prostheses or implants used in biomedical applications.The experiments collectively show that lubricants derived from palm oil could be used as efficient bio-lubricants in the future.

  12. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice

    Zhigang Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1 and agamous-like 24 (AGL24. Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1, a homolog of Pin1At, from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis-acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis. On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  13. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice.

    Zheng, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoming; Fu, Yaping; Zhu, Longfei; Wei, Hantian; Lin, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At) is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1) and agamous-like 24 (AGL24). Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1 , a homolog of Pin1At , from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae). Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis -acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis . On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  14. Contact Lens Risks

    ... There is a risk of eye infection from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage case every 3 months or as directed by your eye care professional. Other Risks of Contact Lenses Other risks of contact lenses include pink eye ( ...

  15. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  16. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  17. Assessment of pin-by-pin fission rate distribution within MOX/UO{sub 2} fuel assembly using MCNPX code

    Louis, Heba Kareem; Amin, Esmat [Nuclear and Radiological Regulation Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Safety Engineering Dept.

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the calculations of pin-by-pin group integrated fission rates within MOX/UO{sub 2} Fuel assemblies using the Monte Carlo code MCNP2.7c with two sets of the available latest nuclear data libraries used for calculating MOX-fueled systems. The data that are used in this paper are based on the benchmark by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). The k{sub ∞} and absorption/fission reaction rates per isotope, k{sub eff} and pin-by-pin group integrated fission rates on 1/8 fraction of the geometry are determined. To assess the overall pin-by-pin fission rate distribution, the collective per cent error measures were investigated. The results of AVG, MRE and RMS error measures were less than 1 % error. The present results are compared with other participants using other Monte Carlo codes and with CEA results that were taken in the benchmark as reference. The results with ENDF/B-VI.6 are close to the results received by MVP (JENDL3.2) and SCALE 4.2 (JEF2.2). The results with ENDF/BVII.1 give higher values of k{sub ∞} reflecting the changes in the newer evaluations. In almost all results presented here, the MCNP calculated results with ENDF/B VII.1 should be considered more than those obtained by using other Monte Carlo codes and nuclear data libraries. The present calculations may be consider a reference for evaluating the numerical schemes in production code systems, as well as the global performance including cross-section data reduction methods as the calculations used continuous energy and no geometrical approximations.

  18. Effect of load, area of contact, and contact stress on the tribological properties of polyimide bonded graphite fluoride films

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A pin-on-disk type of friction and wear apparatus was used to study the effect of load, contact stress and rider area of contact on the friction and wear properties of polyimide-bonded graphite fluoride films. Different rider area contacts were obtained by initially generating flats (with areas of 0.0035, 0.0071, 0.0145, and 0.0240 cm) on 0.476-cm radius hemispherically-tipped riders. Different projected contact stresses were obtained by applying loads of 2.5-to 58.8-N to the flats. Two film wear mechanisms were observed. The first was found to be a linear function of contact stress and was independent of rider area of contact. The second was found to increase exponentially as the stress increased. The second also appeared to be a function of rider contact area. Wear equations for each mechanism were empirically derived from the experimental data. In general, friction coefficients increased with increasing rider contact area and with sliding duration. This was related to the build-up of thick rider transfer films.

  19. Effect of load, area of contact, and contact stress on the wear mechanisms of a bonded solid lubricant film

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A pin on disk type of friction and wear apparatus was used to study the effect of load, contact stress and rider area of contact on the friction and wear properties of polyimide bonded graphite fluoride films. Different rider area contacts were obtained by initially generating flats (with areas of 0.0035, 0.0071, 0.0145, and 0.0240 cm) on 0.476-cm radius hemispherically tipped riders. Different projected contact stresses were obtained by applying loads of 2.5- to 58.8-N to the flats. Two film wear mechanisms were observed. The first was found to be a linear function of contact stress and was independent of rider area of contact. The second was found to increase exponentially as the stress increased. The second also appeared to be a function of rider contact area. Wear equations for each mechanism were empirically derived from the experimental data. In general, friction coefficients increased with increasing rider contact area and with sliding duration. This was related to the build up of thick rider transfer films.

  20. Cause of defect in the end plug welding of the JOYO fuel pin

    Ouchi, Masaru; Otani, Seiji; Onisi, Koichi; Tateisi, Yoshinori; Ikawa, Yukio.

    1976-01-01

    About twelve thousand fuel pins for the JOYO core fuel were fabricated, and their end plug welding was inspected by X-ray radiography. The defect fractions were 0.2 percent for the lower end plugs and 1.8 percent for the upper, respectively. It had been known that the defect was due to ''line porosity''. In this study, the cause of the ''line porosity defect'' was investigated by the welding experiment performed on some dummy specimens of three different types; open end; closed end; and closed end with dummy pellets and a spring. The position of electrodes was varied for changing the arc gap from 0.3 mm to 1.2 mm. The experimental results are summarized in tables. The results showed that no defect was found in the open end type specimens even with the arc gap of 1.2 mm. Whereas in the other two types of specimens, the defect fraction of 60 to 75 percent was observed with the same arc gap. As for the effect of the arc gap, it was shown that 0.3 mm is the best among 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm. No defect was observed in the third type of specimens with the arc gap of 0.3 mm. In summary, it was found that the line porosity defect did not depend on the shape of the end plugs. It is considered to be dependent on both the structure of dummy fuel pins and the position of electrodes. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Effect of different atmospheres on the electrical contact performance of electronic components under fretting wear

    Liu, Xin-Long; Cai, Zhen-Bing; Cui, Ye; Liu, Shan-Bang; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Min-Hao

    2018-04-01

    The effects of oxide etch on the surface morphology of metals for industrial application is a common cause of electrical contacts failure, and it has becomes a more severe problem with the miniaturization of modern electronic devices. This study investigated the effects of electrical contact resistance on the contactor under three different atmospheres (oxygen, air, and nitrogen) based on 99.9% copper/pogo pins contacts through fretting experiments. The results showed the minimum and stable electrical contact resistance value when shrouded in the nitrogen environment and with high friction coefficient. The rich oxygen environment promotes the formation of cuprous oxide, thereby the electrical contact resistance increases. Scanning electron microscope microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to analyze the morphology and distribution of elements of the wear area, respectively. The surface product between contacts was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis to explain the different electrical contact properties of the three tested samples during fretting.

  2. State and parameter estimation in a nuclear fuel pin using the extended Kalman filter

    Feeley, J.J.

    1979-03-01

    The Kalman filter is a powerful tool for the design and analysis of stochastic systems. The general nature of the method permits such diverse applications as on-line state estimation in optimal control systems, as well as state and parameter estimation applications in data analysis and system identification. However, while there have been a large number of Kalman filter applications in the aerospace industry, there have been relatively few in the nuclear industry. The report describes some initial efforts made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to gain experience with the methods of Kalman filtering and to test their applicability to nuclear engineering problems. Two specific cases were considered: first, a real-time state estimation problem using a hybrid computer where the process was simulated on the analog portion of the computer, and the Kalman filter was programmed on the digital portion; second, a system identification problem where a digital extended Kalman filter program was used to estimate states and parameters in a nuclear fuel pin using data generated both by actual experiments and computer simulations. The report contains a derivation of the Kalman filter equations, a development of the mathematical model of the nuclear fuel pin, a description of the computer programs used in the analysis, and a discussion of the results obtained

  3. Contact lens rehabilitation following repaired corneal perforations

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Sinha, Rajesh; Sharma, Namrata; Sreenivas, V; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2006-01-01

    Background Visual outcome following repair of post-traumatic corneal perforation may not be optimal due to presence of irregular keratometric astigmatism. We performed a study to evaluate and compare rigid gas permeable contact lens and spectacles in visual rehabilitation following perforating corneal injuries. Method Eyes that had undergone repair for corneal perforating injuries with or without lens aspiration were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses. The fitting pattern and the improvement in visual acuity by contact lens over spectacle correction were noted. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients that had undergone surgical repair of posttraumatic corneal perforations were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses for visual rehabilitation. Twenty-four eyes (60%) required aphakic contact lenses. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of ≥ 6/18 in the snellen's acuity chart was seen in 10 (25%) eyes with spectacle correction and 37 (92.5%) eyes with the use of contact lens (p < 0.001). The best-corrected visual acuity with spectacles was 0.20 ± 0.13 while the same with contact lens was 0.58 ± 0.26. All the patients showed an improvement of ≥ 2 lines over spectacles in the snellen's acuity chart with contact lens. Conclusion Rigid gas permeable contact lenses are better means of rehabilitation in eyes that have an irregular cornea due to scars caused by perforating corneal injuries. PMID:16536877

  4. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de; Voet, J. van der; Verhagen, F.C.M.

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs

  5. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Voet, J. van der (Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland NV, Dodewaard (Netherlands)); Verhagen, F.C.M. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Pinning and creep in high-Tc superconductors

    Ovchinnikov, Yu.N.; Ivlev, B.I.

    1992-01-01

    The angular and magnetic field dependence of a critical current parallel to the layers in the layered superconductors is studied. The critical current value is found for a superconductor with strong pinning centers. Quantum flux creep in sufficiently perfect layered high-Tc superconductors is discussed. The cross-over temperature between activated and quantum creep is found. (orig.)

  7. Percutaneous Pin Fixation of Gartland Type I11 Supraconylar ...

    S G Lungu M.Med (Orth). Specialist Orthopaedic Surgeon. Zambian Italian Orthopaedic Hospital, Lusaka. Key words: Percutaneous, pin fixation, Gartland type Ill, supracondylar, fractures, and humerus. This was a prospective study of 40 children with severely displaced (Gartland Type 111) supracondylar fractures of the ...

  8. Modeling the pinning of Au and Ni clusters on graphite

    Smith, R.; Nock, C.; Kenny, S.D.; Belbruno, J.J.; Di Vece, M.; Paloma, S.; Palmer, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    The pinning of size-selected AuN and NiN clusters on graphite, for N=7–100, is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations and the results are compared to experiment and previous work with Ag clusters. Ab initio calculations of the binding of the metal adatom and dimers on a graphite

  9. Flux pinning in MOD YBCO films by chemical doping

    Zhou, Y X; Ghalsasi, S; Rusakova, I; Salama, K

    2007-01-01

    A novel nanomaterial synthesis technique has been developed to introduce 0D (particles), 1D (columnar defects) and 3D (domains) nanoscale pinning centres in MOD Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) coated conductors. We have succeeded in introducing nanoscale Y enriched particles, nanoscale 90 0 rotated Y 1/3 Sm 2/3 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 domains and nanoscale Zr enriched columnar defects into YBCO layers by different chemical doping. The pinning force density in Y 2 O 3 -doped YBCO film is found to be larger than that of pure YBCO film at all fields. Also it was found that YBCO films with Sm substituting for Y have yielded improved critical current density characteristics over a wide range of magnetic fields. Maximum pinning force densities exceeding 7 and 8 GN m -3 are obtained in 5% BZO-doped and Sm substituted YBCO films, respectively. Additionally, TEM studies revealed nanoscale Zr enriched columnar defects distributing in the matrix of the c-oriented YBCO film throughout the whole cross section. This indicates that chemical doping is a promising fabrication technique to create specific pinning landscapes in YBCO coated conductors

  10. Temperature dependent pinning landscapes in REBCO thin films

    Jaroszynski, Jan; Constantinescu, Anca-Monia; Hu, Xinbo Paul

    2015-03-01

    The pinning landscapes of REBCO (RE=rare earth elements) thin films have been a topic of study in recent years due to, among other reasons, their high ability to introduce various phases and defects. Pinning mechanisms studies in high temperature superconductors often require detailed knowledge of critical current density as a function of magnetic field orientation as well as field strength and temperature. Since the films can achieve remarkably high critical current, challenges exist in evaluating these low temperature (down to 4.2 K) properties in high magnetic fields up to 30 T. Therefore both conventional transport, and magnetization measurements in a vibrating coil magnetometer equipped with rotating sample platform were used to complement the study. Our results clearly show an evolution of pinning from strongly correlated effects seen at high temperatures to significant contributions from dense but weak pins that thermal fluctuations render ineffective at high temperatures but which become strong at lower temperatures Support for this work is provided by the NHMFL via NSF DRM 1157490

  11. Flux vortex dynamics and electric fields in matched pinning systems

    Blamire, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The pinning of flux vortices in type II superconductors has been the subject of extensive research. Certain experiments have attempted to investigate this problem by the use of specially prepared pinning structures consisting of regular arrays of pinning centers. In this paper a theory relating to such experiments is described. This theory is based on the existence and properties of defects in an otherwise perfect vortex lattice which is commensurate with a pinning array consisting of a triangular lattice of holes in a superconducting thin film. A quantitative treatment predicts the existence and position of substructure on the critical current versus magnetic field curves in addition to the main peaks previously predicted to occur when the vortex and hole lattices are exactly matched. The theory also qualitatively describes the overall shape of these curves. An analysis of the temperature dependence of this substructure shows broad agreement with existing experimental results. The application of this theory to future experiments should allow a detailed investigation of vortex lattice elasticity and flux flow

  12. Performance of advanced oxide fuel pins in EBR-II

    Lawrence, L.A.; Jensen, S.M.; Hales, J.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Makenas, B.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of design and operating parameters on mixed-oxide fuel pin irradiation performance were established for the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) advanced oxide EBR-II test series. Fourteen fuel pins breached in-reactor with reference 316 SS cladding. Seven of the breaches are attributed to FCMI. Of the remaining seven breached pins, three are attributed to local cladding over-temperatures similar to the breach mechanism for the reference oxide pins irradiated in EBR-II. FCCI was found to be a contributing factor in two high burnup, i.e., 11.7 at. % breaches. The remaining two breaches were attributed to mechanical interaction of UO 2 fuel and fission products accumulated in the lower cladding insulator gap, and a loss of cladding ductility possibly due to liquid metal embrittlement. Fuel smear density appears to have the most significant impact on lifetime. Quantitative evaluations of cladding diameter increases attributed to FCMI, established fuel smear density, burnup, and cladding thickness-to-diameter ratio as the major parameters influencing the extent of cladding strain

  13. Image analysis for remote examination of fuel pins

    Cook, J.H.; Nayak, U.P.

    1982-01-01

    An image analysis system operating in the Wing 9 Hot Cell Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory provides quantitative microstructural analyses of irradiated fuels and materials. With this system, fewer photomicrographs are required during postirradiation microstructural examination and data are available for analysis much faster. The system has been used successfully to examine Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division experimental fuel pins

  14. Flux-Vortex Pinning and Neutron Star Evolution

    M. Ali Alpar

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... M. ALI ALPAR. Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, 34956, Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: ... netic field of the neutron star were B ∼ 109 G. At the ..... across pinning energy barriers by thermal activation.

  15. Pin Tract Infection after Uniplanar External Fixation of Open ...

    ADMIN

    Regionally, a study by Jellis et al in Lusaka, Zambia, compared the rate of severe pin tract infection in HIV negative and positive ... likelihood of infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, liver failure, renal failure, tumours ... Combined Open Tibia-Fibular. And Femur Fractures. 2. 2.7. Totals.

  16. Review of HEDL fuel pin transient analyses analytical programs

    Scott, J.H.; Baars, R.E.

    1975-05-01

    Methods for analysis of transient fuel pin performance are described, as represented by the steady-state SIEX code and the PECT series of codes used for steady-state and transient mechanical analyses. The empirical fuel failure correlation currently in use for analysis of transient overpower accidents is described. (U.S.)

  17. Propagation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles.

    Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Phantu, Metinee; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2015-05-01

    We present an investigation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles with different circumferences in both thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations with the Oregonator model. For circular objects, the area always increases with the circumference. In contrast, we varied the circumference of rectangles with equal areas by adjusting their width w and height h. For both obstacle forms, the propagating parameters (i.e., wavelength, wave period, and velocity of pinned spiral waves) increase with the circumference, regardless of the obstacle area. Despite these common features of the parameters, the forms of pinned spiral waves depend on the obstacle shapes. The structures of spiral waves pinned to circles as well as rectangles with the ratio w/h∼1 are similar to Archimedean spirals. When w/h increases, deformations of the spiral shapes are observed. For extremely thin rectangles with w/h≫1, these shapes can be constructed by employing semicircles with different radii which relate to the obstacle width and the core diameter of free spirals.

  18. Neutron radiography for quality assurance of PHWR fuel pins

    Chandrasekharan, K.N.; Patil, B.P.; Ghosh, J.K.; Ganguly, C.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron radiography was employed for quality assurance (QA) for advanced PHWR experimental fuel pins containing mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide and thorium-plutonium dioxide pellets. Direct, transfer and track-etch techniques were utilised. The thermal neutron beam facility of APSARA research reactor at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre was used. (author). 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Calculation of fuel pin failure timing under LOCA conditions

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Siefken, L.J.; Straka, M.; Katsma, K.R.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) 4-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) availability, and main coolant pump trip on these items. The analysis was performed using a four-code approach, comprised of FRAPCON-2, SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3, TRAC-PF1/MOD1, and FRAP-T6. In addition to the calculation of timing results, this analysis provided a comparison of the capabilities of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 with TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. This paper discusses the methodology employed and the code development efforts required to implement the methodology. The shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure were 11.4 s and 19.1 for the B ampersand W and W plants, respectively. The FRAP-T6 fuel pin failure times calculated using thermal-hydraulic data generated by SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 were more conservative than those calculated using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Investigation on flow and heat transfer characteristics in rectangular channel with drop-shaped pin fins

    Fengming Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics inside a rectangular channel embedded with pin fins were numerically and experimentally investigated. Several differently shaped pin fins (i.e., circular, elliptical, and drop-shaped with the same cross-sectional areas were compared in a staggered arrangement. The Reynolds number based on the obstructed section hydraulic diameter (defined as the ratio of the total wetted surface area to the open duct volume available for flow was varied from 4800 to 8200. The more streamlined drop-shaped pin fins were better at delaying or suppressing separation of the flow passing through them, which decreased the aerodynamic penalty compared to circular pin fins. The heat transfer enhancement of the drop-shaped pin fins was less than that of the circular pin fins. In terms of specific performance parameters, drop-shaped pin fins are a promising alternative configuration to circular pin fins.